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Technology Review

Collection Creator:
Brooks, Arthur Raymond, 1895-1991  Search this
Container:
Box 10, Folder 17
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
November 1961
1961-05
1930-07
Scope and Contents:
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, vol. 32, no. 8, July 1930; vol. 63, no. 7, May 1961; and vol. 64, no. 1, November 1961.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Arthur Raymond Brooks Collection, NASM.1989.0104, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Arthur Raymond Brooks Collection
Arthur Raymond Brooks Collection / Series 1: Professional Materials / 1.8: Magazines
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg288ce95ba-ac2d-47f0-b0ac-10a81731849a
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1989-0104-ref314
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Peggy Bacon papers, 1893-1973, bulk 1900-1936

Creator:
AAA.bacopegg, 1895-1987  Search this
Subject:
Lay, Charles Downing  Search this
Remsen, Ira  Search this
Schmidt, Katherine  Search this
Varian, Dorothy  Search this
Alder, Jules  Search this
Bacon, Charles Roswell  Search this
Brook, Alexander  Search this
Bunner, Rudolph Francis  Search this
Art Students League (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Kraushaar Galleries  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Drawings
Citation:
Peggy Bacon papers, 1893-1973, bulk 1900-1936. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women authors  Search this
Women printmakers  Search this
Theme:
Women  Search this
Lives of artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)5832
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)208672
AAA_collcode_bacopegg
Theme:
Women
Lives of artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_208672
Online Media:

Chamberlain-Comden

Collection Creator:
National Academy of Design (U.S.)  Search this
Container:
Box 63, Folder 25
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1860-1975
Scope and Contents:
Chamberlain, Samuel

Chapin, Cornelia

Chapman, Carlton

Chapman, Charles

Cheffetz, Asa

Chen, Chi

Choate, Nathaniel

Church, Frederic Edwin

Church Frederick Stuart

Ciampaglia, Carlo

Clark, Eliot

Clark, Walter

Clarke, Thomas Shields

Clarkson, Ralph

Clemens, Paul

Clinedinst, B. W.

Comden, Harry Poole
Collection Restrictions:
This bulk of this collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
National Academy of Design records, 1817-2012. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Academy of Design records
National Academy of Design records / Series 18: Artist Files
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9171c537c-57fd-4aaf-859b-ed23cea2a5f3
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-natiacad-ref1114
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Peggy Bacon papers

Creator:
Bacon, Peggy, 1895-1987  Search this
Names:
Art Students League (New York, N.Y.) -- Students  Search this
Kraushaar Galleries  Search this
Alder, Jules  Search this
Bacon, Charles Roswell, 1868-1913  Search this
Brook, Alexander, 1898-1980  Search this
Bunner, Rudolph Francis  Search this
Lay, Charles Downing, 1877-1956  Search this
Remsen, Ira, 1846-1927  Search this
Schmidt, Katherine, 1898-1978  Search this
Varian, Dorothy, 1895-1985  Search this
Extent:
4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Drawings
Date:
1893-1973
bulk 1900-1936
Summary:
The papers of printmaker, illustrator, caricaturist, and writer Peggy Bacon measure 3.6 linear feet and date from 1893 to 1973, with the bulk of materials dating from 1900 to 1936. Much of the collection consists of family correspondence, although writings, photographs, artwork, and personal business records from Bacon's late career are also found.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of printmaker, illustrator, caricaturist, and writer Peggy Bacon measure 3.6 linear feet and date from 1893 to 1973, with the bulk of materials dating from 1900 to 1936. Much of the collection consists of family correspondence, although writings, photographs, artwork, and personal business records from Bacon's late career are also found.

Correspondence is found between Peggy Bacon and her parents, Elizabeth and Charles Roswell Bacon. Letters to her mother describe in detail her life as an art student and artist at the Art Students League; summer schools in Port Jefferson, Long Island and Provincetown, Massachusetts; the Woodstock artists' colony; and her early years in New York City. Letters from her husband, Alexander Brook, to her mother are also present. Letters to Bacon include letters from her early teacher Jonas Lie, and from friends and fellow artists Catherine Wiley, Dorothy Varian, Katherine Schmidt, Anne Rector Duffy, and others. Her parents' extensive correspondence includes letters to her father from the artists Jules Adler, Rudolph Bunner, Ira Remsen, and Charles Downing Lay.

The collection also contains Peggy Bacon's school reports and writing assignments, a marriage certificate, scattered poetry manuscripts and notes by Peggy Bacon, and fiction manuscripts by Charles Roswell Bacon. Personal business records date from the 1960s and 1970s and include publisher's royalty statements, gallery sales statements, and scattered business correspondence with Antoinette Kraushaar and other staff at the Kraushaar Galleries. Photographs depict Bacon and her family, friends, homes, and works of art. Artwork includes several original drawings and sketches by Bacon, as well as artwork by Alexander Brook, Charles Roswell Bacon, and others.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 7 series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1893-1913 (Box 1; 2 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1893-1939, 1969-1972 (Boxes 1-3; 3 linear feet)

Series 3: Personal Business Records, 1897-1934, 1963-1972 (Box 4; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 4: Writings, 1905-1920 (Boxes 4-5; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1905-1935, 1973 (Box 5; 3 folders)

Series 6: Photographs, circa 1900-1963 (Box 5, OV 6; 4 folders)

Series 7: Artwork, undated (Box 5, OVs 6-8; 9 folders)
Biographical Note:
Peggy Bacon was born in 1895 in Ridgefield, Connecticut, and grew up an only child after the death of two younger brothers in infancy. Her parents, Charles Roswell Bacon and Elizabeth Chase Bacon, had met at the Art Students League, where her father had studied with Robert Henri. Her father pursued a career in painting and writing until his suicide in 1913, and her mother painted miniatures.

A child of artists, Bacon began to draw at a very early age, and by age ten she was already earning money for her illustrations, drawings of literary characters made for dinner place cards. She did not attend school until 1909, when her parents sent her to a boarding school in Summit, New Jersey. She began her formal art training shortly after her father's death, enrolling in the School of Applied Arts for Women at the end of 1913. In the summer of 1914, she attended Jonas Lie's landscape class in Port Jefferson, Long Island, and continued private studies with him in New York City. Lie gave Bacon her first solo exhibition in 1915. From 1915 until 1920, she studied at the Art Students League under John Sloan, Kenneth Hayes Miller, George Bellows, Mahroni Young, and others. In the summers, she took classes first in Provincetown, Massachusetts, and then in Woodstock, New York, where she studied with Andrew Dasburg.

Bacon's circle was formed at the Art Students League, and the League's summer school in Woodstock. She met her husband, Alexander Brook, in Woodstock, and they were married in 1920. Both were active in the Woodstock Artists Association. Other artists in their close-knit group included Dorothea Schwarz (Greenbaum), Anne Rector (Duffy), Betty Burroughs (Woodhouse), Katherine Schmidt (Kuniyoshi Shubert), Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Molly Luce, Dorothy Varian, Edmund Duffy, Dick Dyer, David Morrison, and Andrew Dasburg. Many from this group were involved in the short-lived satirical magazine at the League called Bad News, published in 1918 with several of Bacon's earliest satirical drawings. Her first book, The True Philosopher and Other Cat Tales, was published in 1919. Brook and Bacon traveled to England in 1920, where their daughter Belinda was born. A son, Sandy, was born in Woodstock in 1922. In the early 1920s, Brook worked with Juliana Force at the Whitney Studio Club, and they were involved in the cultural life that sprang up around the gallery, which featured up-and-coming artists. For many years, Bacon and her family split their time between New York and Woodstock, and later summered in Cross River, NY. After divorcing Brook in 1940, Bacon spent summers in Ogunquit, Maine.

Though she initially thought of herself as a painter, she built her reputation on her drawings and prints, which often satirized the people around her in their natural habitats - artists in life classes, at dances, and in social situations, or a throng of people in a museum, on a city sidewalk, or a ship's deck. She became sought after for her illustrations and witty, topical verse in magazines such as Dial, Delineator, The New Yorker, New Republic, Fortune, and Vanity Fair. She helped to establish the American Print Makers, an artists' organization based in the Downtown Gallery which sought greater exhibition opportunities for printmakers. Bacon illustrated over sixty books, nineteen of which she also wrote, between 1919 and 1966, including many children's books and a successful mystery novel called The Inward Eye (1952). In 1933 she received a Guggenheim Fellowship and used it to complete a collection of caricatures of art world figures called Off With Their Heads (1934), the success of which prompted a spate of commissions for caricatures. Bacon stopped making caricatures in 1935, but they include some of her best-known work.

Bacon exhibited frequently, in New York and in major museum exhibitions nationally, showing her prints, drawings, pastels, and watercolors. She had over thirty solo exhibitions at such venues as Montross Gallery, Alfred Stieglitz's Intimate Gallery, and the Downtown Gallery, and was represented by Rehn Galleries and later Kraushaar Galleries. Bacon also taught extensively in the 1930s and 1940s, at the Fieldston School, Art Students League, Hunter College, Temple University, the Corcoran Gallery, and other places. In the 1950s, she returned to painting. She made her last prints in 1955. In the early 1970s, Bacon's eyesight failed, and she eventually went to live with her son in Cape Porpoise, Maine. She died in 1987.
Related Material:
Among the other resources relating to Peggy Bacon in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Bacon, May 8, 1973; and letters to Bernice and Harry Lurie from Peggy Bacon, 1969-1977. Additional Peggy Bacon papers are available at Syracuse University.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Peggy Bacon in 1973 and Kraushaar Galleries in 2008.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Printmakers -- New York (State) -- Woodstock  Search this
Illustrators -- New York (State) -- Woodstock  Search this
Caricaturists -- New York (State) -- Woodstock  Search this
Authors -- New York (State) -- Woodstock  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women authors  Search this
Women printmakers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Drawings
Citation:
Peggy Bacon papers, 1893-1972. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.bacopegg
See more items in:
Peggy Bacon papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw90c2a3bfc-4dd1-4ec7-8a53-a42044f90398
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-bacopegg
Online Media:

Fish hook

Culture/People:
Haida  Search this
Previous owner:
Axel Rasmussen, Non-Indian, 1886-1945  Search this
Wrangell Institute, 1932-  Search this
Susan Barrow (Mrs. Henry D. Barrow/Mrs. H. D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1907-1988  Search this
Henry D. Barrow (H.D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1909-1987  Search this
Previous seller:
Wrangell Institute, 1932-  Search this
Seller:
Susan Barrow (Mrs. Henry D. Barrow/Mrs. H. D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1907-1988  Search this
Henry D. Barrow (H.D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1909-1987  Search this
Object Name:
Fish hook
Media/Materials:
Yew, iron point
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare
Place:
Haida Gwaii(Queen Charlotte Islands); North Coast Regional District (Skeena-Queen Charlotte Regional District); British Columbia; Canada
Archipelago:
Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands)
Catalog Number:
21/1702
Barcode:
211702.000
See related items:
Haida
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws60b4239ed-1721-42cb-8fd9-48753c12fbf4
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_226200
Online Media:

Box with cover

Culture/People:
Tsimshian (Ts’msyen)  Search this
Previous owner:
Axel Rasmussen, Non-Indian, 1886-1945  Search this
Wrangell Institute, 1932-  Search this
Susan Barrow (Mrs. Henry D. Barrow/Mrs. H. D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1907-1988  Search this
Henry D. Barrow (H.D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1909-1987  Search this
Previous seller:
Wrangell Institute, 1932-  Search this
Seller:
Susan Barrow (Mrs. Henry D. Barrow/Mrs. H. D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1907-1988  Search this
Henry D. Barrow (H.D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1909-1987  Search this
Object Name:
Box with cover
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Painted
Object Type:
Containers and Vessels
Place:
Alaska; USA
Catalog Number:
21/1703
Barcode:
211703.000
See related items:
Tsimshian (Ts’msyen)
Containers and Vessels
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws673ff088d-e981-4471-8aa9-2bc673fd9d8b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_226201
Online Media:

Bag

Culture/People:
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Collector:
Sarah Emilia Olden (Sarah E. Olden), Non-Indian, 1867-ca. 1955  Search this
Previous owner:
Sarah Emilia Olden (Sarah E. Olden), Non-Indian, 1867-ca. 1955  Search this
Donor:
Sarah Emilia Olden (Sarah E. Olden), Non-Indian, 1867-ca. 1955  Search this
Object Name:
Bag
Media/Materials:
Hide, glass bead/beads
Techniques:
Edge beaded , lazy/lane stitch beadwork
Object Type:
Bags/Pouches (and parts)
Place:
Wakpala, Standing Rock Reservation; Corson County; South Dakota; USA
Catalog Number:
8/3169
Barcode:
083169.000
See related items:
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)
Bags/Pouches (and parts)
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6084c8d45-f8dc-462d-bc7f-6ff130610e4e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_89628
Online Media:

Necklace

Culture/People:
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Collector:
Sarah Emilia Olden (Sarah E. Olden), Non-Indian, 1867-ca. 1955  Search this
Previous owner:
Sarah Emilia Olden (Sarah E. Olden), Non-Indian, 1867-ca. 1955  Search this
Donor:
Sarah Emilia Olden (Sarah E. Olden), Non-Indian, 1867-ca. 1955  Search this
Object Name:
Necklace
Media/Materials:
Glass bead/beads, cordage
Techniques:
Strung
Object Type:
Adornment/Jewelry
Place:
Wakpala, Standing Rock Reservation; Corson County; South Dakota; USA
Catalog Number:
8/3184
Barcode:
083184.000
See related items:
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)
Adornment/Jewelry
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6a9dc4399-763a-4981-bb38-6855fe22b564
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_89643
Online Media:

Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection

Creator:
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Names:
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
United States. Department of the Interior  Search this
Extent:
3,710 Photographic prints (29 photograph albums)
3 Linear feet
1430 Negatives (photographic) (acetate)
325 Lantern slides (colored)
Culture:
Oklahoma Cherokee  Search this
Oklahoma Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Osage  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Sioux [Crow Creek]  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Oklahoma Seminole  Search this
Quapaw  Search this
Miami [Oklahoma]  Search this
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Oto  Search this
Sioux [Crow Creek]  Search this
Chickasaw  Search this
Modoc  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Kaw (Kansa)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Cahuilla  Search this
Chemehuevi  Search this
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Isleta Pueblo  Search this
K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo)  Search this
Kumeyaay (Diegueño)  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Payómkawichum (Luiseño)  Search this
Mescalero Apache  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo)  Search this
Picuris Pueblo  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Puye Pueblo  Search this
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
San Carlos Apache  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Minnesota Chippewa  Search this
Lake Superior Chippewa  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Menominee (Menomini)  Search this
Pechanga Band Luiseño  Search this
Rincon Band Luiseño  Search this
Santa Ysabel (Santa Isabela) Diegueño  Search this
Pala Band Luiseño (Agua Caliente)  Search this
Yuit (Siberian Yup'ik)  Search this
Inupiaq (Alaskan Inupiat Eskimo)  Search this
Bering Strait Inupiaq  Search this
Alutiiq (Pacific Eskimo)  Search this
Tlingit  Search this
Eastern Band of Cherokee  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Wahpetonwan Dakota (Wahpeton Sioux)  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Negatives (photographic)
Lantern slides
Photographs
Photograph albums
Place:
Utah
Alaska
Oklahoma
Washington
Florida
Montana
Arizona
Arkansas
Missouri
North Carolina
Minnesota
New Mexico
California
Date:
1880-1928
bulk 1899-1909
Summary:
The Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection includes photographic negatives, photo albums, lantern slides, journals, scrapbooks and other documents created and compiled by the Churchills over the course of Frank's career as a special agent and Indian Inspector for the Department of the Interior between 1899 and 1909. Initially assigned as a revenue collector to the Cherokee Nation and later as an Indian Inspector reviewing boarding schools, Frank's assignments took him all over the United States including Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), Missouri, Texas, Nebraska, Kansas, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, California, Florida, North Carolina and Alaska. During this time the Churchills visited over 80 different Native communities shooting photographs and taking notes.
Scope and Contents:
The Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection includes 1430 photographic negatives, 29 photo albums containing 3710 photographic prints, 325 lantern slides, and 3 linear feet of journals, scrapbooks, and other documents created and compiled by the Churchills over the course of Frank's career as a special agent and Indian Inspector for the Department of the Interior between 1899 and 1909.

Series 1: Photographs in Indian Territory (Oklahoma): Muskogee, Tahlequah, Sulphur Springs and Other Assignments, 1899-1903, includes 11 photo albums and 357 negatives from Frank Churchill's original assignment as revenue collector to the Cherokee Nation. Locations include Indian Territory (Oklahoma) [bulk], Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, South Dakota, Arkansas, and Missouri. The Native communities visited and photographed in this series include— Oklahoma Cherokee, Oklahoma Muskogee (Creek), Quapaw, Osage, Miami, Wyandotte [Oklahoma], Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne), Winnebago [Nebraska], Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma], Ponca, Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee), Oto, Sioux [Crow Creek], Kaw (Kansa), Chickasaw, Modoc, Kiowa, Choctaw.

Series 2: Photographs in the Southwest and Midwest: Arizona, New Mexico, Califonia, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 1903-1907, includes 9 photo albums and 832 negatives from Frank Churchill's assignment as an Indian Inspector. Because the Churchills visited some of the same locations on multiple occasions, it has been hard to date some of the negatives. For that reason, all the negatives made in the Southwest have been included in this series, though there are two photo albums with Southwest photographs included in Series 4. Locations in this series includes Arizona, New Mexico, California, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The Native Communities visited and photographed in this series include—A:shiwi (Zuni), Diné (Navajo), Acoma Pueblo, Akimel O'odham (Pima), Cahuilla, Chemehuevi, Cochiti Pueblo, Hopi Pueblo, Isleta Pueblo, K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo), Kumeyaay (Diegueño), Laguna Pueblo, Luiseño (Luiseno), Mescalero Apache, Mojave (Mohave), Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo), Picuris Pueblo, Piipaash (Maricopa), Puye Pueblo, Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), San Carlos Apache, Taos Pueblo, Tohono O'odham (Papago).

Series 3: Photographs in Alaska and Oregon, 1905-1910 (bulk 1905), includes four photograph albums and 71 negatives from Frank Churchill's appointment as special agent, by President Roosevelt, to investigate the condition of the school & reindeer service and other affairs in Alaska in the summer and fall of 1905. Two of the albums were not made by the Churchills. The first of these (Box 20) includes photographs by William Hamilton and the second (Box 21) includes photographs by W. T. Lopp. Locations in Alaska include St. Lawrence Island, Nuwukmiut/Point Barrow, Teller, Diomedes Islands, Nome, Kotzebue, Wrangell, Port Clarence Bay, Unalaska Island and Baranof Island. There are a number of photographs aboard the U.S. Cutter "Bear" and aboard the mailboat "Georgia." Native communities photographed include—Yuit (Siberian Yup'ik), Inupiaq (Alaskan Inupiat Eskimo), Bering Strait Inupiaq [Diomedes], Alutiiq (Pacific Eskimo), Tlingit.

Series 4: Photographs in Arizona, Utah, North Carolina, Montana, North Dakota, Florida and Miscellaneous, 1907-1909, includes five photograph albums and 163 negatives from Frank Churchill's assignment at Indian Inspector. Because the Churchills visited some of the same locations in the Southwest (Arizona and Utah) on multiple occasions, it has been hard to date some of the negatives. For that reason, all the negatives made in the Southwest have been included in Series 3. Locations include Arizona, Utah, North Carolina, Montana, North Dakota and Florida. Native communities visited and photographed include-Diné (Navajo), Hopi Pueblo, Kaibab Paiute, Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), Eastern Band of Cherokee, Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan), Wahpetonwan Dakota [Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe], Turtle Mountain Chippewa, Seminole. There is restricted material in Box 23 (Album P23380).

Series 5: Non-Native Photographs: Colorado Vacation, Lebanon, New Hampshire, and other Materials, 1898-1913, includes four photograph albums from vacations and other visits made by the Churchills unrelated to Frank's activities as Indian Inspector.

Series 6: Manuscripts: Journals, Documents and Scrapbooks, 1880-1928 (bulk 1899-1909), includes three linear feet of materials arranged in three subseries. Subseries 6.1, Clara Churchill, includes 16 journals, 12 scrapbooks and various other manuscript materials written and accumulated by Clara Churchill during their travels. Many of the journals include personal writings as well as several photographs that are duplicated in the photograph albums. The journals and scrapbooks encompass the full range of the Churchills' travels and include notes from Indian Territory, Southwest, Midwest, Southeast, Plains and Alaska. Subseries 6.2, Colonel Frank C. Churchill, includes official documents around Churchill's assignments as well as the reports Frank submitted back to the Secretary of the Interior (Box 41 and 42). Subseries 6.3, Churchill Museum and Miscellaneous, includes catalogs and other notes related to the large collection of Native American objects amassed by Frank and Clara. Clara also collected other items such as shells, minerals, and sand.

Series 7: Lantern Slides for Lectures, 1899-1909, includes 325 hand colored glass lantern slides. These were made by the Churchills from existing negatives and used for lectures. Lantern slides #1-#121 include views photographed in Alaska in 1905. Sldes #122-#325 include an assortment of views from Oklahoma (Indian Territory), Nebraska, Montana, Minnesota, California, Arizona and New Mexico photographed between 1900 and 1909.
Arrangement:
The Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection has been arranged in seven series by material type and then chronologically. The first five series are then divided into subseries by "Photo Albums" and "Negatives." These include--Series 1: Photographs in Indian Territory (Oklahoma): Muskogee, Tahlequah, Sulphur Springs and Other Assignments, 1899-1903; Series 2: Photographs in the Southwest and Midwest: Arizona, New Mexico, California, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 1907-1907; Series 3: Photographs in Alaska and Oregon, 1905-1910 (bulk 1905-1905); Series 4: Photographs in Arizona, Utah, North Carolina, Montana, North Dakota, Florida and Miscellaneous, 1907-1909; Series 5: Non-Native Photographs: Colorado Vaction, Lebanon, New Hampshire, and other Materials.

Series 6: Manuscripts: Journals, Documents and Scrapbooks, 1880-1928, is arranged in three subseries. Subseries 6.1: Clara G. Churchill, Subseries 6.2: Frank C. Churchill, and Subseries 6.3: Churchill Museum and Miscellaneous. Series 7: Lantern Slides for Lectures, 1899-1909, is arranged in orginal number order from the Hood Museum at Dartmouth College.
Biographical / Historical:
Frank Carroll Churchill was born August 2, 1850 to Benjamin P. Churchill and Susanna Thompson in West Fairlee, Vermont. Frank was educated at Thetford Academy in Thetford, VT and worked as a clerk for D.C. Churchill & Co. in Lyme, NH between 1869-1870. Between 1870 and 1877, Churchill was employed by H.W. Carter as a wholesale merchant in Lebanon, New Hampshire. During this time, Churchill met Clara Corser Turner and they were married on June 11, 1874.

Clara G. (Turner) Churchill was born December 16, 1851, to Colonel Francis H. Corser and Sarah Hook (Perkins) Corser. Colonel Corser and his wife died young, and Clara was adopted by George and Abby H. Turner of Concord, New Hampshire. In 1877, in association with William S. Carter, Frank Churchill opened the business "Carter & Churchill" which was in this business for 21 years. Churchill held various political offices from 1879-91. He served as chairman of the Republican town committee of Lebanon and of the Republican State committee in 1890 and 1891. He served on the staff of Governor Natt Head in 1879 and 1880, with the rank of Colonel. He was chairman of the New Hampshire delegation at the Republican National Convention which nominated President Harrison and represented the Fourth District in the Executive Council in 1889-1890 during the administration of Governor David. H. Goodell.

In 1899 Frank was appointed revenue inspector for the Cherokee Nation in Indian Territory and was later appointed a special agent for the Interior Department to formulate a system of public schools in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) and across the Southwest. In 1905, he was appointed special agent, by President Roosevelt, to investigate the condition of the school & reindeer service and other affairs in Alaska and was reappointed Indian Inspector between 1905-1909. In 1909, Churchill resigned due to failing health and died November 5, 1912. Clara accompanied Frank on all his travels between 1899 and 1909 (see below chronology for full details) maintaining journals and writing articles for publication in "WHAT." Clara was also a painter, producing watercolors and hand-painting many of the photographs she and Frank made on their travels. Following Frank's death, Clara maintained their collection of Native artifacts and photographs in their home in Lebanon, New Hampshire. Clara died April 16, 1945, bequeathing the full collection to Dartmouth College.
Frank Churchill's assignments as Special agent and Indian Inspector from 1899-1909 took him all over the United States including Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), Missouri, Texas, Nebraska, Kansas, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, California, Florida, North Carolina and Alaska. During this time the Churchills visited over 80 different Native communities. For more details, see the chronology below.

Travels in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) and other assignments, 1899-1903

1899, June 29 -- Churchills arrive in Muskogee, Indian Territory (Oklahoma).

1899, July-October -- Visit to Fort Gibson, Tahlequah, Sallisaw, and Vinita (Indian Territory/Oklahoma). Visit to Noel and South west City, Missouri. Visit to Chelsea and Coffeyville, Kansas. Visit to Fort Smith, Arkansas.

1899, November -- Visit Tahlequah while the Cherokee Nation legislature was in session.

1899, December -- Travel in Colorado.

1900, March -- Return to Muskogee and Fort Gibson.

1900, Sept 17-Oct 5 -- Dawes Commission in Vinita.

1901, Mar-Apr 3 -- Visit to the Quapaw Agency, Wyandotte Reservation and school, Modoc reservation and the town of Miami.

1901, April -- Visit to Denison, Texas. Visit to Checotah, Eufaula, South McAlester (Choctaw nation).

1901, Summer -- Visit to Pawhuska, Osage Nation.

1901, October -- Visit to Tishomingo, seat of government of the Chickasaws.

1902, January -- Trip to the Chickasaw Nation Visit to Anadarko, Indian Agency of the Kiowa, Comanche and Apache, Fort Sill, Wichita Mountains, and Lawton.

1902, May -- Frank is dispatched to Sioux City, Iowa.

1902, May-June -- Visit to Winnebago Agency, Omaha Agency, Santee Agency.

1902, July -- Visit to St. Paul, Minnesota and Eau Claire, Wisconsin, (Chippewa Falls). Frank is sent to Sulphur Springs, Texas, to author a report.

1902, August -- Churchills return to Muskogee, IT.

1902, September-October -- Trip to White Eagle, Ponca Agency for a month. Visit to Otoe school, Pawnee School, Shawnee, Sac and Fox reservations.

1902, November-December -- Visit to Crow Creek Agency.

1903, January -- Return to Sulpher Springs, Texas.

1903, March -- Visit to Pawhuska, Osage Nation.

1903, April -- Visit to Colorado.

1903, May-October -- Visit to 23 towns in Oklahoma (IT) with the Secretary of the Interior.

Travels in New Mexico, Arizona and California, 1903-1905

1903, November -- Frank receives orders to proceed to Zuni Pueblo, New Mexico.

1903, December 9 -- Visit to Zuni, followed by Canyon de Chelly, Hubbell's Ranch, Keams Canyon.

1903, December 21 -- Visit to Hopi Pueblo. Walpi, Polacca Day School, Oraibi, Shumopavi (Shungopavi/Songoopavi), Shipaulovi (Supawlavi) and Mishongnovi (Musungnuvi).

1903, December 28 -- Visit to Fort Defiance.

1904, January -- Travel in New Mexico. Visit to Gallup, Laguna Pueblo, Acomita, Paraje, Acoma, Albuquerque, Isleta Pueblo, Santa Fe, Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo), K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo).

1904, February -- Visit to Sacaton, Akimel O'odham (Pima) Reservation and Casa Grande ruins in Arizona.

1904, March -- Visit to Lehi Day School, Salt River Day School, Phoenix Indian School, Gila River Crossing Day School and Maricopa Day School, Arizona.

1904, March 10-26 -- Visit to Fort Mojave and Chemehuevi.

1904, March 30-April -- Visit to Riverside, California, Sherman Institute and Perris School. Side trip to Yuma, Arizona.

1905, January-February -- Visit to Sulphur, IT.

1905, March -- Visit to Mescalero Apache Agency, San Carlos Apache Agency, Geronimo Settlement, Rice Station School at Talkalai.

1905, April 10-20 -- Return to Sherman Institute in Riverside, California. Visit to San Jacinto, Perris, Saboba, Cahuilla, San Manuella (Band of Mission Indians), Coachella, Torres Reservation, Martinez Reservation Day School, Cabazon Reservation, Protrero Reservation and Day School.

1905, April 22-May -- Visit to Temecula, Pechanga Day School, Pala Mission, Campo Reservation, Mission of San Luis Rey, Rincon Day School, Mesa Grande School, Santa Ysabel (Diegueno), Volcan Mountain Day School.

Travels in Alaska, 1905

1905, June -- Frank receives an assignment in Alaska.

1905, July -- Board the U.S. Revenue Cutter "Bear" in Nome. Visit to Reindeer Station in Teller, Cape Prince of Wales, Kotzebue Sound, Cape Thompson, Point Hope and Point Barrow.

1905, August -- Visit to Wainwright Inlet, return to Nome. Visit to Anvil Creek, Gologin (Golovin) Bay, St. Lawrence Island, Pribilof Islands (Seal Islands), St. George, Dutch Harbor and Unalaska.

1905, September -- Board the "Dora" anchored near Belkofski, Cold Bay, Karluk, Afgonak, and Kodiak. Stop in Homer, Seldovia and Seward. Visit to Sitka.

1905, September 28 -- Board the steamer "Georgia" to Juneau and Skagway via Hoonah.

1905, October -- Return to Lebanon, NH.

Travels in Arizona, New Mexico, Minnesota, Wisconsin, California and Utah, 1906-1907

1906, March-April -- Re-assigned to Southwest and arrive in Tucson, Arizona. Visit to San Xavier Mission, Tohono O'odham (Papago) reservation, Casa Grande, Sacaton, Maricopa, Gila Crossing, Salt River and Phoenix schools.

1906, May -- Return to New Mexico to visit Gallup and Zuni Day School.

1906, June -- Visit to St, Paul, Minnesota and the White Earth (Ojibwe) reservation and Wild Rice River School in Boliere.

1906, July -- Visit to Ashland, Wisconsin, Lac Courte Oreilles, Hayward, and Lac de Flambeau (La Pointe Agency.

1906, July-September -- Return to Lebanon, New Hampshire.

1906, September -- Visit to Fond du Lac (Winnebago Lake), Wabeno, and Carter, Wisconsin.

1906, October -- Visit to Phlox, Wausau, Minocqua, Star Lake, Bark River and Wausaukee, Wisconsin.

1906, November-December -- Visit to Keshena (Green Bay Indian School), Menominee Reservation and Ashland, Wisconsin.

1906, December-January -- Stay in Washington, DC.

1907, February -- Return to Albuquerque, New Mexico.

1907, March -- Visit to Santa Fe and various Pueblos (Cochiti, Tesuque, San Ildefonso, Ohkay Owingeh [San Juan], Toas and Picuris).

1907, April -- Return to Albuquerque, visit to Pueblos (Isleta, Laguna, Mesita, Acomita, Paraje, Acoma, Seama).

1907, April -- Visit to Phoenix, Arizona (Phoenix Indian School), Fort McDowell and Salt River Day School.

1907, May -- Visit to Sacaton, Maricopa, Casa Grande, and Yuma, Arizona.

1907, June -- Visit to Riverside (Sherman Institute), and Pomona, California.

1907, June-July -- Travel to Salt Lake City, Utah. Visit Panguitch, Orton, Kanab, Escalante and Marysvale, Utah.

1907, July-August -- Return to Arizona. Visit Flagstaff, Tuba Indian School, as well as Hopi Pueblo (Walpi, Moencopi, and Oraibi).

1907, September-October -- Return to Lebanon, NH.

Travels in North Carolina, Montana and Florida, 1907-1909

1907, October 22 -- Assigned to Cherokee, North Carolina, to make a new roll of the Eastern Band of Cherokee.

1907, November -- Arrive in Cherokee, North Caolina.

1908, February -- Visit to Robbinsville and Big Cove

1908, April -- Cherokee council meeting regarding Churchill's new roll.

1908, May -- Completes assignment in North Carolina.

1908, June-September -- Return to Washington, DC and Lebanon, New Hampshire.

1908, September-October -- Trip to Montana. Visit to Browning, Blackfeet Reservation, Harlem, Fort Belknap and Fort Peck.

1908, November -- Visit to Spirit Lake (Devil's Lake) and Wahpeton, and Fort Totten, North Dakota.

1908, December -- Visit to Morris, Minnesota.

1909, January -- Trip to Washington, DC for the inauguration of President Taft.

1909, February -- Visit to Carlisle, Pennsylvania.

1909, March-April -- Trip to Florida. Visit to Miami, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Gainesville, and St. Augustine.

1909, May -- Visit to Soco Creek and Cherokee, North Carolina.

1909, July -- Return to Lebanon, New Hampshire.

1909, August -- Resignation as Indian Inspector.
Related Materials:
A large collection of Native American cultural objects and archaeology bequeathed by Clara Churchill can still be found at the Hood Museum at Dartmouth College.
Provenance:
Frederick Dockstader, former director of the Museum of the American Indian (MAI), Heye Foundation, illegally removed the majority of the photographs (photo albums, negatives) and manuscript material (journals, reports) from the Hood Museum of Art at Dartmouth College in 1955, before depositing them at the MAI. Those materials were officially gifted to NMAI in 2018 by the Hood Museum. Additional materials from the Churchill collection that remained at the Hood Museum (lantern slides, photographs, scrapbooks, journals) were donated in 2020. These materials have been noted in the finding aid.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Boarding schools  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Photographic prints
Photograph albums
Negatives (photographic)
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection, NMAI.AC.058, National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.058
See more items in:
Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv45e31a2d8-afd7-4320-96c7-1f596f51c142
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-058
Online Media:

Shan Goshorn collection

Creator:
Goshorn, Shan  Search this
Names:
American Indian Community House (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Native Indian/Inuit Photographers' Association  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Heap of Birds, Edgar  Search this
Extent:
7.2 Linear feet
3,686 Photographic prints
17,806 Negatives (photographic)
456 Contact sheets
734 Slides (photographs)
10 Videocassettes (VHS)
259 Electronic discs (CD)
8 USB flash drive
1 Hard drive
1 Electronic discs (DVD)
Culture:
Eastern Band of Cherokee  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Negatives (photographic)
Contact sheets
Slides (photographs)
Videocassettes (vhs)
Electronic discs (cd)
Usb flash drive
Hard drives
Electronic discs (dvd)
Date:
1976-2018
Summary:
This collection reflects the work of Eastern Band of Cherokee artist and activist, Shan Goshorn and includes photographic prints, negatives, and slides as well as documents, sketches, and audio-visual materials. The bulk of the collection ranges from 1976 to 2018.
Scope and Contents:
The Shan Goshorn collection includes numerous photographic materials such as prints, negatives, and slides, as well as documents, sketches, audio-visual (VHS), and born digital materials. These materials document both Shan's artistic career and her participation in Intertribal activism and Native organizations. Most of the collection spans 1980-2018, though there are some materials and documents from the late 1970s and then later materials following her death up to 2020.

Series 1: Works of art, 1976-2018, is divided into four subseries by media type. Subseries 1.1: Baskets, 2007-2018, includes Shan's full basket catalog, notes, sketches, and photographs of completed baskets, as well as early idea sketches and photographs of Shan weaving. Subseries 1.2: Photography, painting, and mixed media, 1976-2018, includes photographs and notes related to Shan's photography, paintings, and mixed media. This subseries is further divided into "Early works" from 1976-1985, and then "Individual art works" from 1985-2018. This subseries includes images of completed works and works in progress. Subseries 1.3: Commissions, 1992-2015, includes correspondence, design notes, and photographs of commissioned work completed by Shan. Subseries 1.4: Reference materials, 1977-2018, includes photographs taken by Shan and used as reference material across projects. These are divided into subject area: flora, fauna, scenery, portraits, landscapes, and still-lives. Most of the photographs are black and white 35mm negatives. Also included in this series are research documents Shan gathered around topics such as "repatriation" and "stereotypes."

Series 2: Events, 1979-2020, is divided into three subseries by event type. Subseries 2.1: "Indian Events" photographs, 1981-2001, includes thousands of black and white 35mm negatives of Native American events, mostly powwows, as labeled by Shan. Photographs from 1992 were taken specifically for a project with National Indian/Inuit Photographers' Association (NIIPA). A number of these photographs were used in documentary photo exhibits, such as "Reclaiming Cultural Ownership: Challenging Indian Stereotypes (1995)." Subseries 2.2: Gallery shows and exhibitions, 1985-2020, includes correspondence, photographs, and art show pamphlets from galleries and exhibits where Shan's art was included. Subseries 2.3: Art Markets and festivals, 1993-2017, includes clippings, pamphlets, and photographs of art markets and festivals where Shan attended and showed work such as SWAIA, and the Cherokee Art Market.

Series 3: Projects and Organizations, 1979-2018, is divided into two subseries. Subseries 3.1: General projects and organizations, 1979-2018, includes correspondence, notes and photographs related to organization and projects Shan was involved in such as the American Indian Community House, Indian Arts and Crafts Board, NIIPA, Oklahoma Visual Arts Coalition, the Tulsa Indian Actor's Workshop, and Urban Indian 5 collective. Subseries 3.2: Fellowships, 1999-2016, includes correspondence notes and photographs related to Shan's Eiteljorg, Smithsonian, and Native Arts and Cultures fellowships.

Series 4: Subject files, 1960-2020, includes business correspondence, calendars, photo releases, and public relations materials such as resumes, artist statements and headshots. Also included in this series are materials, such as clippings and postcards, Shan gathered about other Native artists like Edgar Heap of Birds and Hulleah J. Tsinhnahjinnie, and non-Native artists like Janas and Scott Watterman.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in four series by subject matter.

Series 1: Works of art, 1976-2018, includes Subseries 1.1: Baskets, Subseries 1.2: Photography, painting, and mixed media, Subseries 1.3: Commissions, and Subseries 1.4: Reference materials. Subseries 1.1, 1.2 and 1.4 are arranged alphabetically. Subseries 1.3 is arranged chronologically.

Series 2: Events, 1979-2020, includes Subseries 2.1: "Indian Events" photographs, Subseries 2.2: Gallery shows and exhibitions, and Subseries 2.3: Art Markets and festivals. Subseries 2.1 and 2.2 are arranged chronologically and Subseries 2.3 is arranged alphabetically.

Series 3: Projects and Organizations, 1979-2018, includes Subseries 3.1: General projects and organizations and Subseries 3.2: Fellowships. These subseries' are arranged alphabetically.

Series 4: Subject files, 1960-2020, is arranged alphabetically.
Biographical / Historical:
Shan Goshorn (Eastern Band of Cherokee) was born on July 3, 1957. As a child she divided her time between Baltimore, Maryland and Cherokee, North Carolina to be close to all her grandparents. During her teenage years, Shan worked for a summer at her tribe's Qualla Arts and Crafts Mutual cooperative where she became familiar with leading Eastern Band Cherokee artists. Shan attended the Cleveland Institute of Art to study silversmithing but later transferred to the Atlanta College of Art where she shifted her focus to painting and photography.

In 1981 she moved to Tulsa, Oklahoma, where she established her artistic career and family life. Immersed in the intertribal environment, she attended pow-wows and Native events and continued her personal photographic record. Much of her work during the 1980s and early 1990s focused on the manipulation of black and white images through darkroom techniques and pigment applied directly to the photographs. She also supported herself by creating large abstract acrylic paintings for commissions. Much of her painting and photography addressed the multiple facets of her Native American heritage, from traditional spirituality to educating audiences about Native cultures. Some of her notable mixed media works included "Coming Into Power (1986)," "Moontime (1987)," "Honest Injun (1992)," "Earth Renewal (1996-1998)," followed by "Earth Renewal, Earth Return (2002-2003)." Shan also produced several documentary photograph exhibitions highlighting members of her tribe, such as "Reclaiming Cultural Ownership: Challenging Indian Stereotypes (1995)" and "Cherokee Voices, Cherokee Faces (2002-2003)."

In 2007, Shan taught herself how to weave in the traditional Cherokee style of the single-weave basket. Shan combined historical documents and photographs with traditional techniques and patterns to create her first basket out of paper splints in 2008 "Pieced Treaties: Spider's Web Treaty Basket." She later taught herself the more challenging double-weave process and her first double-weave basket, "Sealed Fate," was completed in 2010. Her second double-weave basket "Educational Genocide (2011)," won Best of Show at the Red Earth Indian Art show and was the first basket Shan created that touched on Indian Boarding Schools. Between 2008 and 2018, Shan wove over 230 baskets addressing issues impacting Native people, such as tribal sovereignty, gaming, repatriation, treaty violation, misappropriation of images and names, denial of religious freedom and the high rate of substance/alcohol-related suicide. One of her last works, "Resisting the Mission: Filling the Silence (2016-2018)," consisted of 14 baskets discussing the removal of Native children from their homes to attend Carlisle Indian Industrial School. This set of baskets drew from archival photographs Shan researched during her Smithsonian Artist Research Fellowship and was acquired by the National Museum of the American Indian in 2019.

Over the course of her artistic career, Shan participated in numerous solo and group exhibitions all over the United States and internationally. She was a member of the Urban Indian Five, an intertribal art collective which also included Gerald Cournoyer (Oglala Lakota), Brent Greenwood (Chickasaw/Ponca), Thomas Poolaw (Kiowa), and Holly Wilson (Delaware/Cherokee). Shan was the recipient of numerous awards and fellowships including the 2013 Eiteljorg Contemporary Art Fellowship, the 2013 Smithsonian Artist Research Fellowship, 2013 SWAIA Discovery Fellowship, 2014 Native Arts and Cultures Foundation Artist Fellowship and the 2015 United States Artists Fellowship.

In addition to her artwork, Shan was involved in numerous inter-tribal organizations events and served on the board of directors with organizations such as the American Indian Heritage Center (OK), Native Indian/Inuit Photographer's Association (Canada), ATLATL (AZ), Indian Affairs Commission (OK), and Arts Commission of Tulsa. She also served in an advisory position for the Tulsa City/County Library for their American Indian Collection.

Shan died on December 1, 2018, from cancer. Following her passing, the Gilcrease Museum in Tulsa, Oklahoma, featured Shan's art and her influence on contemporary Native women artists in their 2020 exhibit "Weaving History into Art: The Enduring Legacy of Shan Goshorn."
Related Materials:
The National Museum of the American Indian has 23 works by Shan Goshorn in their Modern and Contemporary Art collection. You can view them all here through the Smithsonian Collections Search Center.

See Series 1: Works of Art for a timeline and links to individual works.
Provenance:
Gift of the Shan Goshorn Estate, 2022.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Shan Goshorn collection, NMAI.AC.426; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.426
See more items in:
Shan Goshorn collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4a7f6df47-eb71-4aa0-8982-6b60c0023002
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-426
Online Media:

Romaine Brooks papers

Creator:
Brooks, Romaine  Search this
Names:
Acten, Harold  Search this
Barney, Natalie Clifford  Search this
Bizardel, Yvon  Search this
Breeskin, Adelyn Dohme, 1896-1986  Search this
Brooks, Romaine  Search this
Castelnou, Jean-Pierre  Search this
Dreyfus-Barney, Laura  Search this
Gauthier-Villars, Louis  Search this
Lahovary, Janine  Search this
Mac'Avoy, Edouard, 1905-  Search this
Mariano, Nicky  Search this
McClelland, Donald  Search this
Noailles, Charles, vicomte de  Search this
Strozzi, Uberto  Search this
Van Vechten, Carl, 1880-1964  Search this
Extent:
3.002 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Poems
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Manuscripts
Sound recordings
Diaries
Notes
Interviews
Date:
1910-2020
bulk 1910-1973
Summary:
The papers of painter Romaine Brooks measure 3.002 linear feet and date from 1910 to 1973. Found are biographical sketches, correspondence, seven journals, writings and notes, printed materials, a scrapbook, and photographs. Most of the materials focus on Brooks' later life while living in Paris and Nice, France and Fiesole, Italy and make little reference to her paintings and portraits.

There is a 2 item unprocessed addition to this collection donated in 2024 that includes a January 29, 2020 letter to Meryle Secrest from Melanie Hawthorne regarding Brooks and corresponding photocopy of an article by Hawthorne. Materials date from 2020.
Scope and Contents note:
The papers of painter Romaine Brooks measure 3.002 linear feet and date from 1910 to 1973. Found are biographical sketches, correspondence, seven journals, writings and notes, printed materials, a scrapbook, and photographs. Most of the materials focus on Brooks' later life while living in Paris and Nice, France and Fiesole, Italy and make little reference to her paintings and portraits.

Biographical information includes biographical sketches and a sound recording of an interview of Brooks.

Personal business records consists of one receipt, in French, for an item purchased by Brooks.

Correspondence is scattered and the bulk of it dates from 1950-1969. About half of the correspondence is in French and includes only a few of Romaine's replies. Notable correspondents include Harold Acten, Laura Barney, Yvon Bizardel, Adelyn Breeskin, Jean-Pierre Castelnau, Louis Gauthier-Villars, Janine Lahovary, Edouard MacAvoy, Nicky Mariano, Donald McClelland, Charles de Noailles, David Scott, Alan Searle, and Uberto Strozzi. Letters make little reference to Brooks's paintings, however some discuss her health and relationship with Natalie Barney. Also found is a small amount of Natalie Barney's personal correspondence dating from 1924-1968.

Writings and notes includes seven handwritten journal notebooks which contain Romaine's thoughts, quotes from poetry and literature, references to museums and works of art throughout Europe, and drafts of letters. Also found is a manuscript of No Pleasant Memories, Brooks's autobiography, and A War Interlude, a book she wrote describing her life in Italy during World War II.

Printed material includes a copy of Natalie Barney's poetry, a poem by Brooks, a large-format copy of Gabriele D'Anunzio's poem Sur Une Image de la France Croisse Piente Par Romaine Brooks; magazines and exhibition catalogs concerning Brooks' art; clippings; and a nameplate for Eyre de Lanux, one of Barney's lovers.

There is one scrapbook which includes newsclippings, the majority of which are in French, concerning Brooks and her artwork from 1910 to 1931.

Photographs are of Brooks, of Brooks in her studio surrounded by her art; prints of photos of Brooks's mother and family; photographs of works of art including a photo of Brooks's portrait on John Cocteau hanging in the Louvre. Notable photographers include Carl Van Vecten and Perou.

There is a 2 item unprocessed addition to this collection donated in 2024 that includes a January 29, 2020 letter to Meryle Secrest from Melanie Hawthorne regarding Brooks and corresponding photocopy of an article by Hawthorne. Materials date from 2020.
Arrangement note:
The collection is arranged as 8 series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Information, circa 1967-1968 (Box 1; 2 folders)

Series 2: Personal Business Records, 1967 (Box 1; 1 folder)

Series 3: Correspondence, 1924-1969, bulk 1950-1969 (Boxes 1-3; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 4: Writings and Notes, circa 1930s-1959 (Boxes 3-4; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1910-1973 (Boxes 4-6; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 6: Scrapbook, 1910-1931 (Box 6; 1 folder)

Series 7: Photographs, circa 1910-1970s (Box 5-6, OV 7-8; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 8: Unprocessed Addition, 2020 (Folder 9;.002 linear feet)
Biographical/Historical note:
Romaine Brooks (1874-1970) was a wealthy portrait painter who lived abroad for most of her life in Paris, and Nice, France, and Fiesole, Italy.

Beatrice Romaine Goddard was born in Rome, Italy on May 1, 1874 to Ella Waterman and Major Henry Goddard. Although born into wealth and privilage, Romaine did not have a happy childhood. Her mother was abusive to her, but doted on her mentally ill brother. Brooks' mother arranged for her to live with a poor family in a New York City tenement in exchange for meager payments, which were later stopped, while her brother and sister stayed with their mother. Later, she was sent to boarding school.

Eventually, Brooks left for Europe and took voice lessons and studied art in France and Italy. Her brother died in 1901 and her mother became physically ill. Brooks returned to the United States to tend to her mother who died less than a year after her son's death. Upon her mother's death, Brooks and her sister became heiress' to their grandfather, Issac S. Waterman Jr's substantial fortune. Brooks then began to lead a life of wealth and travel.

In 1903, Brooks married a friend, John Ellingham Brooks who was a homosexual. Brooks was bisexual, although according to her biographer Meryl Secrest she may have just enjoyed the companionship of living with someone. They lived together for a year until she left when he disapproved of her public androgynous style of dress.

Romaine first traveled to London and then returned to Paris, where she lived in the 16th arrondissement. She engaged in an elite social life and painted many of the friends in her circle. Brooks chose to paint portraits in a gray color palette, depicting many women in male dress. The somber nearly colorless palette and cross-dress of the sitter gave the paintings an androgynous look. One of her most notable paintings was her own self-portrait that represented this style. Inspired by James McNeill Whistler, Romaine largely ignored the Cubist and Fauvist movements.

In 1909, she met Gabriele D'Annunzio and engaged in a love affair. Among her other lovers are Ida Rubinstein, the Princess de Polignac, and the American writer, Natalie Barney. Natalie and Romaine were involved for fifty years, despite Barney's various affairs and other lovers. They shared a home with two separate wings, which allowed Brooks to be by herslf while Barney entertained friends.

In the 1930s, Brooks abandoned painting and created line drawings, which were featured in Bizarre magazine. After 1935, however, Brooks largely stopped being an active artist. She wrote her autobiography in the 1930s, No Pleasant Memories, as well as an account of her time spent in Italy.

During World War II, Brooks and Barney fled to Italy, where Brooks remained after the war ended. Her later life was marked with self-imposed isolation, even refusing to see Barney during her visits. Romaine Brooks died in 1970 in Nice, France.

After her death, Adelyn Breeskin curated an exhibit of her works at the National Collection of Fine Arts (1971) in Washington, D.C., and at the Whitney Museum of American Art (1971).
Provenance:
The Romaine Brooks papers were donated by Meryle Secrest, Brooks's biographer, in 1999. Secrest received the letters and notebooks directly from Brooks's estate and compiled the remainder. Additional papers were transfered from the Smithsonian's National Museum of American Art via the Smithsonian Institution Archives in 1986. Two addition items were donated in 2024 by Secrest.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Portrait painters -- France  Search this
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Portrait painting  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women painters  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Poems
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Manuscripts
Sound recordings
Diaries
Notes
Interviews
Citation:
Romaine Brooks papers, 1910-2020. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.brooroma
See more items in:
Romaine Brooks papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw95424da05-2cf3-4604-9e03-a53a5684bf6e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-brooroma
Online Media:

Boarding School Warrior

Culture/People:
Warm Springs Chiricahua Apache (New Mexico)  Search this
Artist/Maker:
Bob Haozous, Warm Springs Chiricahua Apache (New Mexico)/Diné (Navajo), b. 1943  Search this
Previous seller:
Bob Haozous, Warm Springs Chiricahua Apache (New Mexico)/Diné (Navajo), b. 1943  Search this
Previous owner:
Dr. Annemarie Arkless, Non-Indian  Search this
Clay Arkless, Non-Indian  Search this
Seller:
Clay Arkless, Non-Indian  Search this
Title:
Boarding School Warrior
Object Name:
Figure
Media/Materials:
Alabaster
Techniques:
Carved
Dimensions:
55.5 x 30.5 x 21 cm
Object Type:
Sculpture/Carving/Figures
Place:
New Mexico; USA (inferred)
Date created:
circa 1975
Catalog Number:
26/9239
Barcode:
269239.000
See related items:
Warm Springs Chiricahua Apache (New Mexico)
Sculpture/Carving/Figures
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6dd9804f5-ae90-4db4-9fe8-1f0b66ef61be
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_409840
Online Media:

Astrolabe

Medium:
Brass
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 20.1 x 13.1 x 3.1 cm (7 15/16 x 5 3/16 x 1 1/4 in)
Type:
Measuring Device
Origin:
Iran
Date:
late 19th century
Topic:
chasing  Search this
metal  Search this
astronomy  Search this
forgery  Search this
Iran  Search this
Arts of the Islamic World  Search this
Credit Line:
Purchase — Charles Lang Freer Endowment
Accession Number:
F1942.8a-h
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Related Online Resources:
Google Cultural Institute
See more items in:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Collection
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ye3d112bb30-00d1-4977-8f48-31fe800258d9
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fsg_F1942.8a-h
Online Media:

Adze blade

Culture/People:
Tsimshian (Ts’msyen) [Kitkatla]  Search this
Previous owner:
Solomon Brown, Tsimshian (Ts’msyen) [Kitkatla], ca. 1887-1970  Search this
Pat Phillipson (Albert John Phillipson), Non-Indian, 1879-1939  Search this
Axel Rasmussen, Non-Indian, 1886-1945  Search this
Wrangell Institute, 1932-  Search this
Susan Barrow (Mrs. Henry D. Barrow/Mrs. H. D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1907-1988  Search this
Henry D. Barrow (H.D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1909-1987  Search this
Previous seller:
Wrangell Institute, 1932-  Search this
Donor:
Susan Barrow (Mrs. Henry D. Barrow/Mrs. H. D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1907-1988  Search this
Henry D. Barrow (H.D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1909-1987  Search this
Object Name:
Adze blade
Media/Materials:
Stone
Techniques:
Pecked
Object Type:
Woodworking tools
Place:
Kitkatla; North Coast Regional District (Skeena-Queen Charlotte Regional District); British Columbia; Canada
Date created:
1800-1900
Catalog Number:
21/1565
Barcode:
211565.000
See related items:
Tsimshian (Ts’msyen) [Kitkatla]
Woodworking tools
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws64e190a8c-2496-4315-b185-d4180bb16f7a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_225867
Online Media:

Adze

Culture/People:
Tlingit  Search this
Possible collector:
Stephen Sheldon, Non-Indian, 1885-1960  Search this
Previous owner:
Stephen Sheldon, Non-Indian, 1885-1960  Search this
Axel Rasmussen, Non-Indian, 1886-1945  Search this
Wrangell Institute, 1932-  Search this
Susan Barrow (Mrs. Henry D. Barrow/Mrs. H. D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1907-1988  Search this
Henry D. Barrow (H.D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1909-1987  Search this
Previous seller:
Wrangell Institute, 1932-  Search this
Seller:
Susan Barrow (Mrs. Henry D. Barrow/Mrs. H. D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1907-1988  Search this
Henry D. Barrow (H.D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1909-1987  Search this
Object Name:
Adze
Media/Materials:
Wood, iron blade, hide thong/babiche, cotton cloth
Techniques:
Carved, wrapped, tied
Dimensions:
54.5 x 19.0 x 6.0 cm
Object Type:
Woodworking tools
Place:
Alaska; USA
Date created:
1880-1900
Catalog Number:
21/1613
Barcode:
211613.000
See related items:
Tlingit
Woodworking tools
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws641cfaed4-8695-42aa-978e-e48aac0af6b3
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_226109
Online Media:

Dance staff with octopus design

Culture/People:
Tlingit  Search this
Previous owner:
Marie Peterson (Maria Peterson), Non-Indian, ca. 1873-ca. 1945  Search this
Reverend Jackson L. Webster (Jackson Lemuel Webster), Non-Indian, 1892-1974  Search this
Axel Rasmussen, Non-Indian, 1886-1945  Search this
Wrangell Institute, 1932-  Search this
Henry D. Barrow (H.D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1909-1987  Search this
Susan Barrow (Mrs. Henry D. Barrow/Mrs. H. D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1907-1988  Search this
Previous seller:
Wrangell Institute, 1932-  Search this
Seller:
Susan Barrow (Mrs. Henry D. Barrow/Mrs. H. D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1907-1988  Search this
Henry D. Barrow (H.D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1909-1987  Search this
Object Name:
Dance staff with octopus design
Media/Materials:
Wood, paint, abalone/haliotis shell, human hair
Techniques:
Carved, painted, drilled, inlaid
Dimensions:
126 x 6.5 cm
Object Type:
Personal items
Place:
Alaska; USA
Date created:
circa 1915
Catalog Number:
21/1647
Barcode:
211647.000
See related items:
Tlingit
Personal items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws696757576-2426-46fa-a5cf-b115fb5f8403
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_226145
Online Media:

Totem pole model

Culture/People:
Haida  Search this
Previous owner:
Axel Rasmussen, Non-Indian, 1886-1945  Search this
Wrangell Institute, 1932-  Search this
Susan Barrow (Mrs. Henry D. Barrow/Mrs. H. D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1907-1988  Search this
Henry D. Barrow (H.D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1909-1987  Search this
Previous seller:
Wrangell Institute, 1932-  Search this
Seller:
Susan Barrow (Mrs. Henry D. Barrow/Mrs. H. D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1907-1988  Search this
Henry D. Barrow (H.D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1909-1987  Search this
Object Name:
Totem pole model
Media/Materials:
Brass
Techniques:
Incised
Object Type:
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Place:
Haida Gwaii(Queen Charlotte Islands); North Coast Regional District (Skeena-Queen Charlotte Regional District); British Columbia; Canada
Archipelago:
Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands)
Catalog Number:
21/1701
Barcode:
211701.000
See related items:
Haida
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6ad17773e-65cd-4ed1-adaa-dab517d41100
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_226199
Online Media:

Arrow point

Culture/People:
Bering Strait Iñupiaq  Search this
Previous owner:
Winter and Pond Photographers  Search this
Lloyd V. Winter (Lloyd Valentine Winter), Non-Indian, 1866-1945  Search this
Edwin Percy Pond, Non-Indian, 1872-1943  Search this
Axel Rasmussen, Non-Indian, 1886-1945  Search this
Wrangell Institute, 1932-  Search this
Susan Barrow (Mrs. Henry D. Barrow/Mrs. H. D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1907-1988  Search this
Henry D. Barrow (H.D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1909-1987  Search this
Previous seller:
Wrangell Institute, 1932-  Search this
Seller:
Susan Barrow (Mrs. Henry D. Barrow/Mrs. H. D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1907-1988  Search this
Henry D. Barrow (H.D. Barrow), Non-Indian, 1909-1987  Search this
Object Name:
Arrow point
Media/Materials:
Animal Bone
Techniques:
Incised, notched
Object Type:
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare
Place:
Bering Strait; Bering Straits Native Corporation; Alaska; USA
Catalog Number:
21/1719
Barcode:
211719.000
See related items:
Bering Strait Iñupiaq
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6df6a250c-c08f-41e2-ac2e-59902a7fa824
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_226218
Online Media:

Drawing

Culture/People:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Artist/Maker:
E H K, Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Donor:
Bruno Schroeter, Non-Indian, 1885-1968  Search this
Isabel S. Schroeter (Isabel H. Smith/Mrs. Bruno Schroeter), Non-Indian, 1889-1974  Search this
Previous owner:
Isabel S. Schroeter (Isabel H. Smith/Mrs. Bruno Schroeter), Non-Indian, 1889-1974  Search this
Bruno Schroeter, Non-Indian, 1885-1968  Search this
Object Name:
Drawing
Media/Materials:
Paperboard, crayon, chalk
Techniques:
Drawn
Dimensions:
27 x 19.8 cm
Object Type:
Painting/Drawing/Print
Place:
Boarding School; Tuba City, Navajo Reservation; Coconino County; Arizona; USA
Date created:
circa 1945
Catalog Number:
22/4895
Barcode:
224895.000
See related items:
Diné (Navajo)
Painting/Drawing/Print
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6212b3d97-17a2-495b-8ca1-bd7abcd5bc08
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_239759
Online Media:

Drawing

Culture/People:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Donor:
Bruno Schroeter, Non-Indian, 1885-1968  Search this
Isabel S. Schroeter (Isabel H. Smith/Mrs. Bruno Schroeter), Non-Indian, 1889-1974  Search this
Previous owner:
Isabel S. Schroeter (Isabel H. Smith/Mrs. Bruno Schroeter), Non-Indian, 1889-1974  Search this
Bruno Schroeter, Non-Indian, 1885-1968  Search this
Object Name:
Drawing
Media/Materials:
Paper, graphite, crayon
Techniques:
Drawn
Dimensions:
32.3 x 22.7 cm
Object Type:
Painting/Drawing/Print
Place:
Boarding School; Tuba City, Navajo Reservation; Coconino County; Arizona; USA
Date created:
circa 1945
Catalog Number:
22/4902
Barcode:
224902.000
See related items:
Diné (Navajo)
Painting/Drawing/Print
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws659b2f56d-1161-40b6-a74b-16460738e2da
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_239766
Online Media:

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