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#APeoplesJourney - A Nation's Story

Creator:
National Museum of African American History and Culture  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2017-09-28T13:00:21.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
See more by:
WatchNMAAHC
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
YouTube Channel:
WatchNMAAHC
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_wUuSYpW4ZIo

Allen Balcom Du Mont Collection

Creator:
Du Mont, Allen B. (Allen Balcom), 1901-1965  Search this
Names:
Du Mont Laboratories, Inc.  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Electricity and Modern Physics  Search this
Extent:
46 Cubic feet (150 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Newsletters
Scrapbooks
Notebooks
Motion pictures (visual works)
Photographs
Date:
1884-1965
Summary:
The collection documents the development of television in America, 1931-1960.
Scope and Contents:
While the collection is focused rather specifically on the development of television in America, including technical details, legal proceedings, marketing and advertisement, and manufacturing, it is also a rich source for the history of American advertising, work cultures, sales, and entertainment. There is also information about radio, mostly in periodicals collected by Du Mont. Information about Allen Du Mont is largely limited to his professional development and activities, except for a few travel photographs and information about and logbooks from his boat.

Materials date from 1884 to 1965, but the bulk come from the years 1931 1960; mostly scattered periodicals comprise the earlier years.

The collection includes correspondence, photographs, blueprints, films, videotapes, pamphlets, books, periodicals, newspaper and magazine clippings, annual reports, organization charts, stock records, ticker tape, legal documents, patent documents, bills, accountants' reports, meeting minutes, scrapbooks, technical drawings, advertisements, catalogs, and technical manuals. Processing included revising the previous series order, refoldering and reboxing all items, and completely revising the finding aid. Duplicates were weeded out; two copies were retained of any multiple item. Materials in binders were unbound. An example of each binder with the DuMont logo was retained, and the materials once contained therein refer to the appropriate binder in the container list. Plain office binders were discarded.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into 16 series.

Series 1: Personal Files, 1920s-1965

Series 2: Executive Records, 1938-1964

Series 3: Stock Records, 1937-1962

Series 4: DuMont Laboratories, Inc., Patents and Legal Proceedings, 1884-1960

Series 5: DuMont Laboratories, Inc., Financial Records, 1931-1964

Series 6: DuMont Laboratories, Inc., Operations, 1938-1958

Series 7: Radio Technical Planning Board, 1944-1946

Series 8: Federal Communications Commission, 1940-1959 and undated

Series 9: DuMont Laboratories, Marketing and Sales, 1939-1961 and undated

Series 10: Telecommunications for Venezuela, 1952-1957 and undated

Series 11: Du Mont Network, 1944-1952 and undated

Series 12: Du Mont Publications, 1933-1963 and undated

Series 13: Photographs, 1928-1960 and undated

Series 14: Clippings/Scrapbooks, 1933-1962

Series 15: Non-Du Mont Publications, 1892, 1907-1963 and undated

Series 16: Audiovisual Materials, 1948-1955

Series 17: Addenda, 1933-1959
Biographical / Historical:
Allen Balcom Du Mont was born Jan. 29, 1901, in Brooklyn, NY to S. William Henry Beaman and Lillian Felton Balcom Du Mont. He contracted poliomyelitis when he was eleven and was confined to bed for nearly a year. During his illness, he began to amuse himself with a crystal radio set; by year's end, he had built a receiving and transmitting set. He was licensed as a ship's wireless operator when he was fifteen, and took a job a year later as a radio operator on a passenger vessel that ran between New York and Providence, RI. He worked as a radio operator for the next seven years.

Du Mont graduated in 1924 from the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, NY, with a degree in electrical engineering. He had already begun his first invention for the Sound Operated Circuit Controller, a device that turns a switch on or off when it hears a sharp sound; he used it to turn off his radio during commercials with a hand clap. Du Mont began working for the Westinghouse Lamp Company (later a division of the Westinghouse Electric Corporation), raising their output of radio tubes from 500 a day to 5,000 an hour in four years. For this, he received the Westinghouse Achievement Award in 1927. He left Westinghouse to become chief engineer at the De Forest Radio Company in 1928; his inventions increased output there to 30,000 radio tubes a day, and he was promoted to vice president in charge of production. In 1929, he received his first patent, for a radio tube mounting device.

He also worked with television at De Forest, using mechanical receivers with a spinning "Nipkow disk" that scanned electrical impulses and gave the effect of a motion picture. The De Forest experimental transmitter, W2XCD, in Passaic, NJ, broadcast television programs in 1930. Du Mont quickly concluded that there was no future in scanning discs; they produced a small, dark picture, and were difficult to build correctly. Others had developed television pictures that were produced by an electronic beam scanning rapidly across a florescent screen at the end of a tube. However, those cathode ray tubes were still imported from Germany, were very expensive, and burned out after only twenty five to thirty hours.

Du Mont left his job at De Forest in 1931 and started a cathode ray manufacturing business in a garage laboratory at his home. He developed a tube that lasted a thousand hours and could be manufactured inexpensively. There was almost no market for his tubes; gross sales income the first year was only $70. However, the tubes were an integral part of the cathode ray oscillograph, an instrument widely used in physics laboratories that measures and records changes in electrical current over time. The business, incorporated in 1935 as DuMont Laboratories, Inc., prospered in the oscillograph market. DuMont Labs moved in 1933 into a series of empty stores, then to a plant in Passaic, NJ, in 1937. Du Mont also acted as consultant to manufacturers with cathode ray tube problems and served as an expert witness in patent litigations.

Du Mont used the money he made from oscillographs to develop television. His innovations in making precise, quickly manufactured, inexpensive, long lasting cathode ray tubes made commercial television possible. In 1938, Du Mont sold a half interest in his company to the Paramount Pictures Corporation to raise capital for broadcasting stations. In 1939, the company became the first to market a television receiver for homes, and was part of a major display at the 1939 World's Fair in New York. Television development and sales were cut off by World War II, since DuMont Laboratories converted entirely to wartime production of oscillographs and to radar research. DuMont Laboratories returned to television production in 1946 and was the first company to market a postwar television set. By 1951 the company grossed $75 million a year and had four plants manufacturing television sending and receiving equipment in Passaic, Allwood, East Paterson, and Clifton, NJ. Du Mont had become the television industry's first millionaire. He was chosen in a Forbes magazine poll as one of the twelve foremost business leaders of America that same year, and was once characterized as "one of the very few inventors in the annals of American industry who have made more money from their inventions than anyone else has" (Rice, 36).

Du Mont began an experimental television station, W2XTV, in Passaic, NJ, in 1939. He added WABD (later WNEW TV) in New York City, WTTG in Washington, D.C., and WDTV (later KDKA) in Pittsburgh, PA. He concentrated on technology and business, leaving entertainment to others in the company. However, the DuMont Network "featured such names as Ernie Kovacs, Morey Amsterdam, Ted Mack, Ernest Borgnine, Jan Murray, and Dennis James. Its long running variety hour, Cavalcade of Stars, showcased not only Jackie Gleason but The Honeymooners, which made its debut as a Cavalcade sketch" (Krampner, 98). The 1950s superhero Captain Video became famous on the DuMont network, and Bishop Fulton Sheen's inspirational show, "Life is Worth Livinq," won surprisingly high ratings (Watson, 17). Ultimately, America's fourth network failed: in 1955, DuMont Broadcasting separated from Du Mont Laboratories, Inc., becoming the Metropolitan Broadcasting Company and, with the addition of other properties, Metromedia, Inc.

Du Mont testified frequently before the Federal Communications Commission to set technical standards for American television broadcast between 1945 and 1952. In 1946, Du Mont's company was one of several to oppose the Columbia Broadcasting System's petition to the FCC to establish color television standards; Du Mont preferred to wait for further research to develop all electronic color television, rather than the mechanical method CBS favored. He felt that method produced a picture far less than optimal, and would have required persons who did not own color sets to purchase adapters to receive broadcasts being produced in color. Standards were developed by the National Television Standards Committee in 1951 1953; the Federal Communications Commission accepted them in 1953, and regular transmission of color programs began on the major networks, including the DuMont Network, in 1954.

Sales of television receivers from DuMont Laboratories, Inc. peaked in 1954; by the late 1950s, the company was losing money. The Emerson Radio and Phonograph Company purchased the division that produced television sets, phonographs, and high fidelity and stereo equipment in 1958. In 1960 remaining Du Mont interests merged with the Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation. Du Mont was president of DuMont Laboratories, Inc., until 1956, when he became chairman of the Board of Directors. His title changed to Chairman and General Manager in 1959. In 1961 he became Senior Technical Advisor, Allen B. Du Mont Laboratories, Division of Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation.

Du Mont received many awards for his work, including honorary doctorates from Rennselaer (1944), Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute (1949), Fairleigh Dickinson College (1955), and New York University (1955). He received the Marconi Memorial Medal for Achievement in 1945, and an American Television society award in 1943 for his contributions to the field. In 1949, he received the Horatio Alger Award, "a yearly prize bestowed by the American Schools and Colleges Association on the man whose rise to fortune most nearly parallels the virtuous careers of Ben the Luggage Boy and Tattered Tom" (Rice, 35). He held more than thirty patents for developments in cathode ray tubes and other television devices. His inventions included the "magic eye tube" once commonly seen on radios and the Duovision, a television that could receive two programs simultaneously. Du Mont was also noted for success in predicted log power boat racing; in his television equipped Hurricane III, he became the national champion of the power cruiser division of the American Power Boat Association in 1953 1955 and 1958. Du Mont died November 15, 1965; his obituary appeared on the front page of the New York Times. He was survived by Ethel Martha Steadman, whom he married in 1926, and their two children, Allen Balcom, Jr., and Yvonne.

Sources

Current Biography 1946, pp. 162 164. Krampner, Jon. "The Death of the DuMont [sic] Network: A Real TV Whodunit." Emmy Magazine (July August 1990): 96 103.

Obituary, New York Times, 16 November 1965, 1:3.

Rice, Robert. "The Prudent Pioneer." The New Yorker, 27 Jan. 1951.

Watson, Mary Ann. "And they Said 'Uncle Fultie Didn't Have a Prayer . . . "11 Television Quarterly 26, no. 3(1993): 16 21.

Who's Who in America, 1962.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Edward J. Orth Memorial Archives of the New York World's Fair, 1939-1940

Warshaw Collection, Worlds Expositions, New York World's Fair, 1939 (AC0060)

Larry Zim World's Fair Collection (AC0519)

George H. Clark "Radioana" Collection, ca. 1880-1950 (AC0055)

Division of Work and Industry

Related artifacts consist of cathode ray tubes, oscillographs, television receivers (including a Duoscope), and other instruments. See accession #:EM*315206, EM*315208, EM*315209, EM*327728, EM*327735, EM*327742, EM*327743, EM*327745, EM*327749, EM*327751, EM*327756, EM*327758, EM*327759, EM*327760, EM*327763, EM*327770, EM*328155, EM*328178, EM*328182, EM*328193, EM*328198, EM*328200, EM*328209, EM*328212, EM*328224, EM*328231, EM*328247, EM*328253, EM*328258, EM*328264, EM*328269, EM*328271, EM*328277, EM*328280, EM*328282, EM*328283, EM*328286, EM*328299, EM*328305, EM*328306, EM*328315, EM*328316, EM*328322, EM*328325, EM*328327, EM*328336, EM*328337, EM*328343, EM*328348, EM*328352, EM*328353, EM*328366, EM*328368, ZZ*RSN80323A74, ZZ*RSN80552U05, ZZ*RSN80748U09, ZZ*RSN80748U11, ZZ*RSN80844U09, and ZZ*RSN81576U01.

Library of Congress

Records of the Allen B. DuMont Laboratories, Inc. 1930 1960 (bulk 1945 1960). 56 lin. ft. Consists of nine series: Administrative Files, 1935 1960; General Correspondence, ca. 1930 1960; Interoffice Correspondence, ca. 1935 1960; Financial Records, 1932 1960; Sales and Advertising File, 1936 1960; Production and Engineering File, 1932 1960; Television File, ca. 1935 1960; Hearings File, 1935 1957; and General Miscellany, ca. 1937 1960. National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections number 68 2021; National Inventory of Documentary Sources number 2.1.243.

Wayne State University, Walter P. Reuther Library, Archives of Labor and Urban Affairs

John H. Zieger Papers, 1942 1980. 1 box (type not specified). Correspondence, clippings, leaflets, and memoranda, related to Zieger's union activities with Western Electric Employees Association and Allen B. Du Mont Laboratories. National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections number 91 2872.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view materials in cold storage. Using cold room materials requires a three hour waiting period. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used. Contact the Archives Center for more information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Electricity  Search this
Television broadcasting  Search this
Televisions -- advertising  Search this
Television  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings -- 20th century
Newsletters
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Notebooks
Motion pictures (visual works)
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
Allen Balcom Du Mont Collection, 1929-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0018
See more items in:
Allen Balcom Du Mont Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8bb80f3a9-4b1e-4430-8c1e-48a78cab60d3
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0018
Online Media:

Moccasins

Culture/People:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Collector:
William Wildschut (Willem Wildschut), Non-Indian, 1883-1955  Search this
Object Name:
Moccasins
Media/Materials:
Hide, glass bead/beads, rawhide, sinew
Techniques:
Sewn, overlay beadwork
Dimensions:
23.5 x 8 x 16.6 cm
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Footwear
Native Term:
huupiishbishe
Place:
Montana; USA
Date created:
circa 1890
Catalog Number:
11/8008
Barcode:
118008.000
See related items:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)
Clothing/Garments: Footwear
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6cc30c752-2ab2-428f-b454-383ce5103ac4
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_126060
Online Media:

Woman's leggings

Culture/People:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Collector:
William Wildschut (Willem Wildschut), Non-Indian, 1883-1955  Search this
Object Name:
Woman's leggings
Media/Materials:
Canvas, hide, glass bead/beads, wool cloth, cardboard, sinew, cotton thread
Techniques:
Sewn, overlay beadwork
Dimensions:
53 x 26 cm
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments
Native Term:
baleichkíishbaalu
Place:
Montana; USA
Date created:
circa 1890
Catalog Number:
11/7691
Barcode:
117691.000
See related items:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)
Clothing/Garments
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6d15eba99-1a1f-49c1-8beb-49cdc1a87c0c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_126452
Online Media:

Cradleboard

Culture/People:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Possible collector:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Previous owner:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Seller:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Object Name:
Cradleboard
Media/Materials:
Wood, canvas, hide, cotton cloth, hide thong/babiche, glass bead/beads, thread
Techniques:
Carved, sewn, overlay beadwork, fringed
Dimensions:
141 x 27 cm
Object Type:
Transportation Items: Baby carriers
Native Term:
baakáatiche
Place:
Montana; USA
Date created:
circa 1880
Catalog Number:
14/821
Barcode:
140821.000
See related items:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)
Transportation Items: Baby carriers
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws60c58f96c-5750-41b0-844c-cc1da70f84b8
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_151458
Online Media:

Saddle

Culture/People:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Previous owner:
R. Bruce Cregar (Richard Bruce Cregar), Non-Indian, 1887-1958  Search this
Seller:
R. Bruce Cregar (Richard Bruce Cregar), Non-Indian, 1887-1958  Search this
Object Name:
Saddle
Media/Materials:
Wood, rawhide, canvas, wool cloth, hide, glass bead/beads, commercially tanned leather, hide thong/babiche, cotton thread, sinew
Techniques:
Carved, stitched, overlay beadwork, lazy/lane stitch beadwork, edge beaded, tied
Dimensions:
62.00 x 50.00 x 95.00 cm
Object Type:
Animal Tack and Animal Husbandry
Native Term:
annáahkisee
Place:
Montana; USA
Date created:
circa 1880
Catalog Number:
19/901
Barcode:
190901.001
See related items:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)
Animal Tack and Animal Husbandry
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6c85b87d9-ab2e-4cf1-8910-d9484a41fa49
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_204132
Online Media:

Men On Horseback

Culture/People:
Omaha  Search this
Artist/Maker:
Little Cook, Nakota (Yankton Sioux)  Search this
Possible collector:
De Cost Smith (DeCost Smith), Non-Indian, 1864-1939  Search this
Previous owner:
De Cost Smith (DeCost Smith), Non-Indian, 1864-1939  Search this
Donor:
De Cost Smith (DeCost Smith), Non-Indian, 1864-1939  Search this
Title:
Men On Horseback
Object Name:
Drawing
Media/Materials:
Paper, graphite
Techniques:
Drawn
Dimensions:
31.8 x 24.5 cm
Object Type:
Painting/Drawing/Print
Place:
New York City; New York; USA (inferred)
Date created:
April 14, 1883
Catalog Number:
20/1624
Barcode:
201624.000
See related items:
Omaha
Painting/Drawing/Print
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws60a391653-c714-4d3f-8402-22ab6250b1c6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_215394
Online Media:

Martingale

Culture/People:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Previous owner:
Edward Borein, Non-Indian, 1873-1945  Search this
Seller:
Lucille E. Borein (Mrs. Edward Borein), Non-Indian, 1882-1967  Search this
Object Name:
Martingale
Media/Materials:
Wool cloth, canvas, cotton cloth, glass bead/beads, hide thong/babiche, sinew, thread
Techniques:
Sewn, overlay beadwork, edge beaded
Dimensions:
122.00 x 48.00 x 2.00 cm
Object Type:
Animal Tack and Animal Husbandry
Native Term:
iichíilishihche
Place:
Montana; USA (inferred)
Date created:
circa 1880
Catalog Number:
20/7717
Barcode:
207717.000
See related items:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)
Animal Tack and Animal Husbandry
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws692c5179d-4ad1-4653-a3aa-34bdbec3fb95
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_221987
Online Media:

Bowl

Culture/People:
Dakota (Eastern Sioux)  Search this
Collector:
William C. Orchard, Non-Indian, 1860-1948  Search this
Expedition sponsor:
George Gustav Heye (GGH), Non-Indian, 1874-1957  Search this
University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology (The University Museum)  Search this
Object Name:
Bowl
Media/Materials:
Wood, brass tacks/bosses
Techniques:
Carved, studded
Dimensions:
40.5 x 35.5 x 13 cm
Object Type:
Containers and Vessels
Place:
Crow Creek, Crow Creek Sioux Reservation; Buffalo County; South Dakota; USA
Date created:
circa 1870
Catalog Number:
2/9016
Barcode:
029016.000
See related items:
Dakota (Eastern Sioux)
Containers and Vessels
On View:
NMAI, New York, NY: Infinity of Nations, Plains & Plateau
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6f859a420-a2e1-4e4e-b774-d8a5c7f88662
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_31011
Online Media:

Stereograph: "Champion Spring in Winter"

Publisher:
McDonald and Sterry  Search this
Medium:
Pair of collodion prints
Dimensions:
Print: H: 7.8cm W: 7.7cm
Card: H: 8.8cm W: 17.6cm
Object Name:
Photograph
Type:
Photograph
Made in:
Europe
Date:
1875-1880
Credit Line:
Gift of Eleanor and Sarah Hewitt
Accession Number:
1931-81-507
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kq47100ae95-bd3d-47f0-9c85-d39d99113167
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_1931-81-507

Chang-Yu-Sing, the Chinese Giant

Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 6 1/2 in x 4 1/4 in; 16.51 cm x 10.795 cm
Object Name:
cabinet card
Place made:
United States: New York, New York City
Associated Place:
China
Date made:
ca 1880s
Subject:
Circus  Search this
Asian  Search this
ID Number:
PG.74.25.12
Accession number:
2009.0146
Catalog number:
74.25.12
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Photographic History
Photo History Collection
Circus Collection
Photography
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ac-a7e1-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1351212
Online Media:

Playbill for For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide

Published by:
Playbill, American, founded 1884  Search this
Subject of:
Ntozake Shange, American, 1948 - 2018  Search this
Used by:
Booth Theatre, American, founded 1913  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper, metal
Dimensions:
9 x 5 5/8 x 1/8 in. (22.9 x 14.3 x 0.3 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
playbills
Place used:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
November 1977
Topic:
African American  Search this
Drama (Theatre)  Search this
Feminism  Search this
Gender  Search this
Identity  Search this
Sexuality  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Dow B. Ellis
Object number:
2012.152.1213
Restrictions & Rights:
Playbill used by permission. All rights reserved, Playbill Inc
Permission required for use. Proper usage is the responsibility of the user.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera - Other
Books and Published Materials
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd51ab3730e-e1bf-4147-a63e-74b05c4b3209
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.152.1213
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Online Media:

Portrait of Father Ruifeng

Medium:
Oil pigment on silk
Dimensions:
H x W (painting): 123.4 x 67.8 cm (48 9/16 x 26 11/16 in)
Type:
Painting
Origin:
China
Date:
ca. 1890
Period:
Qing dynasty, Guangxu reign
Topic:
portrait  Search this
Qing dynasty (1644 - 1911)  Search this
man  Search this
Guangxu reign (1875 - 1908)  Search this
carpet  Search this
China  Search this
noble  Search this
Chinese Art  Search this
Pritzlaff collection  Search this
Credit Line:
Purchase — Smithsonian Collections Acquisition Program and partial gift of Richard G. Pritzlaff
Accession Number:
S1991.136
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Related Online Resources:
Google Cultural Institute
See more items in:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Collection
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ye3b6817aec-a486-49a6-996e-7c5b1bc28a25
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fsg_S1991.136

André Emmerich Gallery Records and André Emmerich Papers

Creator:
André Emmerich Gallery  Search this
Names:
Galerie André Emmerich  Search this
Sotheby Parke Bernet & Co.  Search this
Sotheby's (Firm)  Search this
Caro, Anthony, 1924-  Search this
Emmerich, André  Search this
Francis, Sam, 1923-1994  Search this
Frankenthaler, Helen, 1928-2011  Search this
Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994  Search this
Hockney, David  Search this
Hofmann, Hans, 1880-1966  Search this
Louis, Morris, 1912-1962  Search this
Noland, Kenneth, 1924-2010  Search this
Olitski, Jules, 1922-2007  Search this
Pepper, Beverly  Search this
Extent:
311.4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Visitors' books
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Scrapbooks
Etchings
Date:
circa 1929-2009
Summary:
The André Emmerich Gallery records and André Emmerich papers measure 311.4 linear feet and date from 1929 to 2009. The collection documents the business of the André Emmerich Gallery as well as André Emmerich's life and activities related to the business of selling art. Gallery records include correspondence; appointment books; administrative and subject files; exhibition files; artist files and accounts; inventory, sales, purchase, and consignment records; chronological files; financial and legal records; printed materials; original artwork; photographic and audiovisual materials. Also found are personal papers and records relating to André Emmerich. A small addition received in 2014 includes general correspondence, administrative files, exhibition files, artists' files, inventory records, consignment records, printed material, photographic materials, and André Emmerich personal papers and records.
Scope and Content Note:
The André Emmerich Gallery records and André Emmerich papers measure 311.4 linear feet and date from 1929 to 2009. The collection documents the business of the André Emmerich Gallery as well as André Emmerich's life and activities related to the business of selling art. Gallery records include correspondence; appointment books; administrative and subject files; exhibition files; artist files and accounts; inventory, sales, purchase, and consignment records; chronological files; financial and legal records; printed materials; original artwork; photographic and audiovisual materials. Also found are personal papers and records relating to André Emmerich.

The records document the gallery's daily business operations, exhibitions, and relationships with artists, dealers, clients, galleries, and museums. Artists particularly well-represented throughout the collection include Anthony Caro, Sam Francis, Helen Frankenthaler, David Hockney, Hans Hofmann, Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland, Jules Olitski, and Beverly Pepper.

Records pre-dating the gallery's establishment in 1954 are primarily newspaper and magazine clippings related to artists, personal photographs and photographs of artists, an original etching, and some of André Emmerich's personal records including biographical materials, correspondence, writings, and legal and financial records. Records post-dating the gallery's closure in 1998 are primarily residual business records related to the final disposition of artwork, clippings, photographs of André Emmerich and gallery staff, biographical materials, personal correspondence, writings, legal and financial records, and condolences received by Emmerich's wife upon his death in 2007.

Correspondence is primarily with galleries, museums and clients about business matters. Correspondence files also cover topics such as appraisals, authentications, offers of sale, artists seeking representation, image requests, job applications and recommendations. Also included are the New York gallery's copies of correspondence between the New York staff and the Zurich staff.

André Emmerich's appointment books document appointments, notes, and reminders about Emmerich's business and personal activities. Four appointment books relating to the birth of Emmerich's three sons and second marriage were kept by the family. The appointment books are access restricted and require written permission to use.

Administrative files include corporate records establishing the Andre Emmerich gallery's structure, records documenting the gallery's daily operations, advertising and publicity material, and records about the Sotheby's acquisition. There are also materials related to Top Gallant Farm, from its establishment to its closure. Travel records relate to André Emmerich's business trips and vacations along with some files on the travels of a several staff members at the gallery. Files about the operations of the Galerie André Emmerich in Zurich, Switzerland are included in the series as well.

Subject files relate to Emmerich's gallery business as well as personal and political interests, such as antiquities, art fairs and exhibitions, lecture research, art associations, and sculpture parks. There are several files on the art critic Clement Greenberg and former president of Gay Men's Health Crisis, Nathan Kolodner, who was also an art dealer and director of the Andre Emmerich Gallery.

Exhibition files contain numerous exhibition catalogs and printed materials related to exhibitions held or organized by the André Emmerich Gallery in Manhattan and Galerie André Emmerich in Zurich. The files contain materials ranging such as exhibition invitations, posters, printed materials, press releases, and guest books. Photographs of exhibitions can be found in the Photographic Materials series.

Artist files include biographical materials, clippings, correspondence, mailing lists, price lists, printed materials, and occasionally lectures, writings, and audiovisual materials for many of the artists represented or shown by André Emmerich Gallery. The General Correspondence files might contain duplicates or expanded versions of some of the correspondence. Photographs of artists can be found in the Photographic Materials series.

Artist accounts comprise account statements prepared periodically by the gallery documenting each artist's expenses and sales. Ledgers and general accounting files can be found in the Other Financial and Legal Records series.

Inventory records include inventory cards describing artwork entering and leaving the gallery and files containing various gallery inventories. Artist inventory cards, representing artists from both the New York and Zurich galleries, list the artist, title, date, media and measurements of an artwork. The cards also indicate whether the work was ultimately sold, returned to the artist, consigned, etc., and divided into categories accordingly. Inventory files show various gallery inventories.

Sales records document gallery sales and include paid invoices, records relating to Zurich sales, general sales records such as price lists and canceled sales, and Sotheby's Parke-Bernet auction reports. There are gaps in sales invoices in 1961-1964 and 1969-1971.

Purchase records include correspondence and invoices related to purchases and offers; annotated invoices for works of art bought by the gallery; André Emmerich, Inc. related purchase records; "Non-Modern" art related purchase records.

Consignment records include correspondence and consignment agreements documenting consignments to and from the André Emmerich Gallery; consignments from other galleries to André Emmerich, Inc.; and general consignment records.

Chronological files include copies of invoices or cover letters documenting the movement of artwork into and out of the gallery through sales, consignments, loans, and approvals. Records dating January through August 1968, January through March 1969, and September 1969 through July 1971 are missing.

Financial and legal records include client and partner account statements, resale and exempt organization certificates, accounting ledgers, and legal files related to disputes involving or of interest to the gallery.

Printed materials include auction catalogs and reports, books, and clippings describing André Emmerich, the galleries in New York and Zurich, Top Gallant Farm, and the art world. Also included is a large scrapbook created by the gallery containing clippings and gallery announcements dated 1955-1958. Clippings relating to particular artists can be found in the Artists Files series.

There are two pieces of original artwork in the collection. One is a 1974 print of a 1933 composite etching by Esther Dick Gottlieb, Adolphe Gottlieb, Edgar Levy, Lucille Corcos Levy, David Smith, and Dorothy Dehner Smith. The second is a 1998 lithograph by Louise Bourgeoise, called The Face of the Critic. The artist gave the lithograph as a gift in honor of Robert Hughes and the Archives of American Art and is numbered 61 out of a series of 300.

Photographic materials include prints, slides, negatives, and transparencies. Subjects include artists, André Emmerich, gallery installations, Top Gallant Farm, events, artists' studios, gallery staff, gallery space, and artwork. Photographs which show André Emmerich are indicated as such in the finding aid.

Audiovisual materials includes videocassettes and one audiocassette related to the art world. Videocassettes related to specific artists can be found in the Artists Files series. Videocassettes related to André Emmerich can be found in the André Emmerich Personal Papers and Records series. Videocassettes related to Top Gallant Farm and Sotheby's can be found in the Administrative Files series.

Personal papers and records relating to André Emmerich include biographical materials, personal correspondence, writings and lectures, and legal and financial records. The biographical materials include an address book, interviews and identifying documents. Writings include articles, edits, dissertations, lectures, etc. There are also some miscellaneous correspondence which is organized chronologically.

The small addition received in 2014 includes general correspondence, administrative files, exhibition files, artists' files, inventory records, consignment records, printed material, photographic materials, and André Emmerich personal papers and records.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 19 series:

Missing Title

Series 1: General Correspondence Files, 1958-2006 (boxes 1-18, OV 314-315; 18.2 linear feet)

Series 2: André Emmerich Appointment Books, 1954-2007 (boxes 19, 325, 326; 1.7 linear feet)

Series 3: Administrative Files, 1954-2003 (boxes 20-31, 306, OV 314, OV 316-319; 11 linear feet)

Series 4: Subject Files, 1958-1967, 1971-2000 (boxes 31-32, 306, OV 318, OV 320; 2 linear feet)

Series 5: Exhibition Files, circa 1954-1998 (boxes 32-40, 306, 307, OV 318-322; 8.5 linear feet)

Series 6: Artists Files, 1929-1932, 1938-2007 (boxes 40-68, 307, 308, OV 320-323; 28 linear feet)

Series 7: Artist Accounts, 1958-1998 (boxes 68-81; 13.5 linear feet)

Series 8: Inventory Records, circa 1954-2000(boxes 82-128; 46.5 linear feet)

Series 9: Sales Records, 1959-1998 (boxes 128-168; 40 linear feet)

Series 10: Purchase Records, 1961-1966, 1972-1994 (boxes 168-170; 2 linear feet)

Series 11: Consignment Records, 1961-2002 (boxes 170-177; 7.7 linear feet)

Series 12: Chronological File of Incoming and Outgoing Artwork, 1968-1998 (boxes 178-185; 8 linear feet)

Series 13: Other Financial and Legal Records, 1956-1999 (boxes 186-202; 16.5 linear feet)

Series 14: Printed Materials, 1955-1960, 1965-2008 (boxes 202-204, 308, 309; 3 linear feet)

Series 15: Original Artwork, 1933, 1974, 1998 (box 205, 310; 0.7 linear feet (2 folders))

Series 16: Photographic Materials, circa 1930-1935, 1941-1998, circa 2005 (Boxes 205-296, 311-313, OV 324; 92.8 linear feet)

Series 17: General Audio and Video Recordings, 1985, 1990-1995 (Boxes 297-298; 1.3 linear feet)

Series 18: André Emmerich Personal Papers and Records, 1937-1940, 1946-2008 (Boxes 298-305, OV 321, OV 323; 7.7 linear feet)

Series 19: Addition to the The André Emmerich Gallery records and André Emmerich papers, 1956-2009 (Boxes 328-329, OV 330; 2.1 linear feet)
Historical Note:
André Emmerich (1924-2007) was one of America's most noted contemporary art dealers and opened the André Emmerich Gallery in New York in 1954. The gallery showcased contemporary art, particularly Color Field painting and monumental sculpture.

André Emmerich was born on October 11, 1924 in Frankfurt, Germany. From age 7 he was raised in Amsterdam before emigrating with his family to New York City in 1940. He studied at Oberlin College and developed an interest in pre-Columbian art and antiquities. After graduation, he spent ten years in Paris working as a writer and editor before returning to New York. He married Constance Emmerich and the couple had three sons, Adam, Noah, and Toby.

In 1954 Emmerich opened the André Emmerich Gallery at 18 East 77th Street and initially specialized in contemporary American and European art and pre-Columbian antiquities. In 1956, the gallery moved to 17 East 64th Street, and in 1959 to the Fuller Building at 41 East 57th Street. Emmerich wrote two books about pre-Columbian art, Art Before Columbus in 1963 and Sweat of the Sun, Tears of the Moon: Gold and Silver in Pre-Columbian Art in 1965.

In 1961, Emmerich learned that French and Company, a gallery advised by art critic Clement Greenberg, was closing its department of contemporary art. French and Company had represented Color Field painters Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland, and Jules Olitski. Emmerich immediately invited Louis and Noland to be represented by his gallery. In 1966 he extended the invitation to Olitski as well, and Helen Frankenthaler joined soon after. The gallery's reputation as one of the earliest and most important promoters of Color Field painters was launched.

In addition to Color Field painters, the gallery represented, among others, Pierre Alechinsky, Karel Appel, Milton Avery, Herbert Ferber, Sam Francis, John Graham, Al Held, David Hockney, Hans Hofmann, John Hoyland, Judy Pfaff, Miriam Schapiro, and Anne Truitt.

Until January 1983, sales of pre-Columbian art primarily went through an entity called André Emmerich Inc. (AE Inc.), while sales of contemporary went through the André Emmerich Gallery Inc. (AEG). In 1983, the two entities were merged and operated under the name André Emmerich Gallery Inc.

In 1971, Emmerich began operating a downtown gallery at 420 West Broadway, in SoHo, in space shared with Leo Castelli, Virginia Dwan, and Ileana Sonnabend. In 1972, Emmerich opened a branch of his gallery in Zurich. He incorporated the Galerie André Emmerich Gmbh primarily for the purpose of leasing gallery space in Zurich. Until February 1974, sales of Pre-Columbian art in Zurich were made by an entity called André Emmerich Gallery Inc., New York Filiale Zurich. The Galerie André Emmerich Gmbh was officially liquidated in May 1982. The Filiale was formally closed in October 1996. Galerie André Emmerich also enjoyed a short-lived joint venture with Gimpel & Hanover.

André Emmerich served as president of the Art Dealers Association of America from 1972-1974 and again from 1991-1994.

Emmerich opened a private 150 acre sculpture park, Top Gallant Farm, on his estate in Pawling, New York, in 1982, where he stored and exhibited monumental sculptures by artists his gallery represented including Anthony Caro, Beverly Pepper, Alexander Liberman, Alexander Calder, Mark di Suvero, George Rickey, and Keith Haring. David Hockney painted waves onto floor of the property's swimming pool in 1986. Emmerich operated the sculpture park until 1996.

Emmerich sold his gallery to Sotheby's in 1996. He continued to be affiliated with the gallery until Sotheby's closed the gallery in 1998. Emmerich then began work on his memoir, My Life With Art, excerpts of which have been published in Art News, the Wall Street Journal, and The New Criterion.

Andre Emmerich died in New York 2007 and is survived by his second wife, Susanne Emmerich.
Related Material:
Among the holdings of the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with André Emmerich conducted by Mona Hadler on January 18, 1993.
Provenance:
The André Emmerich Gallery records and André Emmerich papers were donated to the Archives of American Art by André Emmerich in eight accretions between 1999 and 2002. Two additional accretions were donated by Emmerich's wife Susanne in 2008 and 2009; and by James Yohe, executive director (1990-1999), in 2009 and 2014.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Access of diaries and appointment books required written permission.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Sculpture, Abstract  Search this
Color-field painting  Search this
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State)
Art galleries, Commercial -- Switzerland
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Visitors' books
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Scrapbooks
Etchings
Citation:
André Emmerich Gallery records and André Emmerich papers, circa 1929-2009. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.andremmg
See more items in:
André Emmerich Gallery Records and André Emmerich Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw995f3b4aa-1b0f-46f4-8b5d-e0bf1191a740
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-andremmg
Online Media:

Department of Anthropology records

Creator:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
330.25 Linear feet (519 boxes)
Note:
Some materials are held off-site; this will be indicated at the series or sub-series level. Advanced notice must be given to view these portions of the collection.
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1840-circa 2015
Summary:
The Department of Anthropology records contain administrative and research materials produced by the department and its members from the time of the Smithsonian Institution's foundation until today.
Scope and Contents:
The Department of Anthropology records contain correspondence, manuscripts, photographs, memoranda, invoices, meeting minutes, fiscal records, annual reports, grant applications, personnel records, receipts, and forms. The topics covered in the materials include collections, exhibits, staff, conservation, acquisitions, loans, storage and office space, administration, operations, research, budgets, security, office procedures, and funding. The materials were created by members of the Section of Ethnology of the Smithsonian Institution, the Division of Anthropology of the United States National Museum, the Office of Anthropology of the National Museum of Natural History, and the Department of Anthropology of the National Museum of Natural History and range in date from before the founding of the Smithsonian Institution to today. The Department of Anthropology records also contain some materials related to the Bureau of American Ethnology, such as documents from the River Basin Surveys.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 28 series: (1) Correspondence, 1902-1908, 1961-1992; (2) Alpha-Subject File, 1828-1963; (3) Alpha-Subject File, 1961-1975; (4) Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Subject Files, 1967-1968; (5) River Basin Survey Files, 1965-1969; (6) Research Statements, Proposals, and Awards, 1961-1977 (bulk 1966-1973); (7) Publication File, 1960-1975; (8) Memoranda and Lists Concerning Condemnations, 1910-1965; (9) Notebook on Special Exhibits, 1951-1952 (10) Section on Animal Industry; (11) Administrative Records, 1891-1974; (12) Administrative Records, 1965-1994 (bulk 1975-1988); (13) Fiscal Records, 1904-1986; (14) Annual Reports, 1920-1983; (15) Chairman's Office Files, 1987-1993; (16) Division of Archaeology, 1828-1965; (17) Division of Ethnology, 1840s, 1860-1972, 1997; (18) Division of Physical Anthropology; (19) Division of Cultural Anthropology, 1920-1968; (20) Records of the Anthropological Laboratory/Anthropology Conservation and Restoration Laboratory, 1939-1973; (21) Collections Management, 1965-1985; (22) Photographs of Specimens and Other Subjects (Processing Laboratory Photographs), 1880s-1950s; (23) Exhibit Labels, Specimen Labels, Catalog Cards, and Miscellaneous Documents, circa 1870-1950; (24) Antiquities Act Permits, 1904-1986; (25) Ancient Technology Program, circa 1966-1981; (26) Urgent Anthropology; (27) Records of the Handbook of North American Indians; (28) Personnel; (29) Repatriation Office, 1991-1994
Administrative History.:
The Smithsonian Institution was founded in 1846. Although there was no department of anthropology until the creation of the Section of Ethnology in 1879, anthropological materials were part of the Smithsonian's collection from its foundation. The Section of Ethnology was created to care for the rapidly growing collection. In 1881, the United States National Museum was established. Soon thereafter, in 1883, it was broken up into divisions, including the Division of Anthropology. In 1904, Physical Anthropology was added to the Division.

The Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) was created in 1879 as a research unit of the Smithsonian, separating research from collections care. However, during the 1950s, research became a higher priority for the Department of Anthropology and, in 1965, the BAE was merged with the Department of Anthropology to create the Office of Anthropology, and the BAE's archives became the National Anthropological Archives (NAA).

In 1967, the United States National Museum was broken up into three separate museums: the Musuem of History and Technology (now the National Museum of American History), the National Museum of American Art, and the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH). The Office of Anthropology was included in NMNH and was renamed the Department of Anthropology in 1968.

New divisions were added to the Department, including the Human Studies Film Archives (HSFA) in 1981, the Research Institute on Immigration and Ethnic Studies (RIIES) in 1982, and the Repatriation Office in 1993. In 1983, the Smithsonian opened the Museum Support Center (MSC) in Suitland, Maryland, as offsite housing for collections with specialized storage facilities and conservation labs.

The Department of Anthropology is currently the largest department within NMNH. It has three curatorial divisions (Ethnology, Archaeology, and Biological Anthropology) and its staff includes curators, research assistants, program staff, collections specialists, archivists, repatriation tribal liaisons, and administrative specialists. It has a number of outreach and research arms, including the Repatriation Office, Recovering Voices, Human Origins, and the Arctic Studies Center.

The Museum is home to one of the world's largest anthropology collections, with over three million specimens in archaeology, ethnology, and human skeletal biology. The NAA is the Smithsonian's oldest archival repository, with materials that reflect over 150 years of anthropological collecting and fieldwork. The HSFA is the only North American archive devoted exclusively to the collection and preservation of anthropological film and video.

Sources Consulted

National Museum of Natural History. "Department of Anthropology: About" Accessed April 13, 2020. https://naturalhistory.si.edu/research/anthropology/about

National Museum of Natural History. "History of Anthropology at the Smithsonian." Accessed April 13, 2020. https://naturalhistory.si.edu/sites/default/files/media/file/history-anthropology-si.pdf

National Museum of Natural History. "History of the Smithsonian Combined Catalog." Accessed April 13, 2020 https://sirismm.si.edu/siris/sihistory.htm

Chronology

1846 -- The Smithsonian Institution is founded

1879 -- George Catlin bequeaths his collection to the Smithsonian The Section of Ethnology is established to oversee ethnological and archaeological collections The Bureau of Ethnology is established by Congress as a research unit of the Smithsonian

1881 -- The U.S. National Museum (USNM) is established as a separate entity within the Smithsonian Institution

1883 -- The staff and collections of the USNM are reorganized into divisions, including a Division of Anthropology

1897 -- The United States National Museum is reorganized into three departments: Anthropology headed by W. H. Holmes; Biology with F. W. True as head; and Geology with G. P. Merrill in charge The Bureau of Ethnology is renamed the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) to emphasize the geographic limit of its interests

1903 -- The Division of Physical Anthropology established

1904 -- The Division of Physical Anthropology is incorporated into the Division of Anthropology

1910 -- The USNM moves into the new Natural History Building

1965 -- The Smithsonian Office of Anthropology is created on February 1 The BAE is eliminated and merged with the Office of Anthropology

1968 -- The Smithsonian Office of Anthropology (SOA) of the National Museum of Natural History is retitled the Department of Anthropology on October 29

1973 -- The Research Institute on Immigration and Ethnic Studies (RIIES) is established at the National Museum of Natural History's (NMNH) Center for the Study of Man (CSM) to study the waves of immigration to the United States and its overseas outposts that began in the 1960's

1975 -- The National Anthropological Film Center is established

1981 -- The National Anthropological Film Center is incorporated into the Department of Anthropology

1982 -- The RIIES, part of the CSM at the NMNH, is transferred to the Department of Anthropology

1991 -- NMNH establishes a Repatriation Office

1993 -- The Repatriation Office is incorporated into the Department of Anthropology

Head Curators / Chairs and Associate Chairs of the Department of Anthropology

1897-1902 -- William Henry Holmes

1902-1903 -- Otis T. Mason (acting)

1904-1908 -- Otis T. Mason

1908-1909 -- Walter Hough (acting)

1910-1920 -- William Henry Holmes

1920-1923 -- Walter Hough (acting)

1923-1935 -- Walter Hough

1935-1960 -- Frank M. Setzler

1960-1962 -- T. Dale Stewart

1963-1965 -- Waldo R. Wedel

1965-1967 -- Richard Woodbury

1967-1970 -- Saul H. Riesenberg

1970-1975 -- Clifford Evans

1975-1980 -- William W. Fitzhugh

1980-1985 -- Douglas H. Ubelaker

1985-1988 -- Adrienne L. Kaeppler

1988-1992 -- Donald J. Ortner, with Mindy Zeder

1992-1999 -- Dennis Stanford, with Carolyn Rose

1999-2002 -- Carolyn L. Rose, with Dan Rogers

2002-2005 -- William W. Fitzhugh, with Laurie Burgess

2005-2010 -- J. Daniel Rogers, with Laurie Burgess

2010-2014 -- Mary Jo Arnoldi, with Laurie Burgess

2014-2018 -- Torbin Rick, with Laurie Burgess

2018-2022 -- Igor Krupnik, with Laurie Burgess

2022-2023 -- Laurie Burgess and Richard Potts, co-chairs

2024- -- Joshua A. Bell
Related Materials:
The NAA holds collections of former head curators and department chairs, including the papers of Otis Tufton Mason, Walter Hough, T. Dale Stewart, Waldo Rudolph and Mildred Mott Wedel, Saul H. Riesenberg, Clifford Evans, and Donald J. Ortner; the photographs of Frank Maryl Setzler; and the Richard B. Woodbury collection of drawings of human and animal figures.

Other related collections at the NAA include the papers of Gordon D. Gibson, Eugene I. Knez, and Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans; and the records of the Bureau of American Ethnology, the Center for the Study of Man, and the River Basin Surveys.
Provenance:
This collection was transferred to the National Anthropological Archives (NAA) by the National Museum of Natural History's Department of Anthropology in multiple accessions.
Restrictions:
Some materials are restricted.

Access to the Department of Anthropology records requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Anthropology  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Citation:
Department of Anthropology Records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.XXXX.0311
See more items in:
Department of Anthropology records
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3da0f5297-c324-47c1-96dd-171f6edd11b6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-xxxx-0311

Inuit drawings collected by Captain John O. Spicer

Collector:
Spicer, John O. (John Orrin)  Search this
Extent:
3 Drawings (visual works) (pencil, laminated)
Container:
Folder 168997
Culture:
Inuit (Canadian Eskimo)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Graphic Materials
Drawings (visual works)
Works of art
Drawings
Place:
Arctic regions
North America
Date:
before 1894
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of three (3) drawings by an unidentied native artist. Two drawings are inscribed or signed "Doctor." The drawings were collected by Captain John O. Spicer near Cumberland Sound, Nunavut, Canada.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Biographical Note:
John O. Spicer was a whaling captain based in Connecticut. He was master of the sailing ships S. B. Howes, Nile, and Era. Several of his voyages were to the Arctic, and he became acquainted with Franz Boas during his fieldwork on Baffin Island in the 1880s.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 168997
Variant Title:
Eskimos hunting, Eskimo family, animals, and white men by Eskimo artist from Cumberland Gulf, (Northwest Territory (?), Canada)
Related Materials:
Related objects collected by Captain Spicer are held in the Department of Anthropology object collections under Accession 28480.
Provenance:
The drawings were received as a gift from Captain John Spicer, Groton, Connecticut through O. T. Mason, USNM, September 11, 1894, along with lamp and fire making apparatus (USNM Accession number 28,480).
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Topic:
Hunting  Search this
Marriage and family  Search this
Genre/Form:
Works of art
Drawings
Citation:
Inuit drawings collected by Captain John O. Spicer (MS 168997), National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS168997
See more items in:
Inuit drawings collected by Captain John O. Spicer
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw38810c220-043b-446b-98c9-4b60a7fedfc3
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms168997
Online Media:

MS 1929-a Drawings of war deeds of Sitting Bull and Jumping Bull

Artist:
Jumping Bull  Search this
Sitting Bull, 1831-1890  Search this
Collector:
Kimball, James P. (James Peleg), 1840-1902  Search this
Extent:
55 Drawings (visual works) (54 leaves, ink and colored pencil)
Container:
Box 1929-a
Culture:
Yanktonnai Nakota (Yankton Sioux)  Search this
Hunkpapa Lakota (Hunkpapa Sioux)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Graphic Materials
Drawings (visual works)
Works of art
Ledger drawings
Pictographs
Place:
North America
Date:
circa 1870
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of fifty-five (55) copies of drawings of war deeds of Sitting Bull and Jumping Bull on 54 leaves: 53 drawings are on blank backs of printed roster sheets for the 31st US Infantry, dated 1868; one leaf has drawings on both sides; one unfinished drawing is on an abstract of an Army order relating to contractor services, Ft. Totten, DT, dated 1868. The collection also includes a 7 page handwritten explanation by Kimball, based on information gained from Native community members, interpreters, and others at Fort Buford, an 1881 letter from the Reverend John Williamson, regarding his interview with Sitting Bull, and typed notes from Matthew Stirling (circa 1930s).

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
The drawings are arranged in the order given by James Kimball, who numbered them. Kimball's numbers appear in the inventory along with NAA's inventory numbers.
Publication Note:
Reproductions of a few of the drawings were published in Harper's Weekly in 1876 together with information from the introductory statement and the index, which the author had examined at the AMM. Most of the drawings were published in a biography of Sitting Bull by Walter Campbell, writing under the pen name Stanley Vestal. He provided speculative identifications of each scene and unsupported identification of the original artist as Four Horns. This information was repeated by Matthew Stirling in his 1938 publication Three Pictorgraphic Autobiographies of Sitting Bull, and entered into the catalog record.

Porte Crayon. "Sitting Bull - Autobiography of the Famous Sioux Chief" Harpers Weekly, July 29, 1876: 625–628.

Stirling, Matthew W. "Three Pictographic Autobiographies of Sitting Bull," Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections Vol 97, No 5. 1938.

Vestal, Stanley. Sitting Bull, Champion of the Sioux: A Biography. Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1932 and Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1957.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Works of art
Ledger drawings
Pictographs
Citation:
MS 1929-a Drawings of war deeds of Sitting Bull and Jumping Bull, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS1929A
See more items in:
MS 1929-a Drawings of war deeds of Sitting Bull and Jumping Bull
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3aac4ff9b-62e3-4ba8-8e15-71cec24a1084
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms1929a
Online Media:

MS 39-d-2 Drawings by Tichkematse and others

Creator:
Tichkematse, 1857-1932  Search this
Extent:
13 Drawings (visual works) (graphite, crayon, watercolor, and ink; laminated)
Culture:
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings (visual works)
Works of art
Ledger drawings
Drawings
Place:
North America
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
The colletion consists of thirteen (13) drawings, primarily scenes of warfare. Most of the drawings were heavily water and mildew damaged; all have been laminated. Several drawings have been attributed to the Cheyenne artist Tichkematse on the basis of style, and two others are inscribed with names that have been identified as Cheyenne. Three are from an unknown Plains tribe. One drawings contains copies of scenes appearing in the Bloody Knife robe pictures in MS 2372. One drawing depicts two Fijian figures drawn in a Western style.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Biographical Note:
Tichkematse (also known as Squint Eyes and Quchkeimus) (1857-1932) was among the men held prisoner at Fort Marion in Saint Augustine, Florida, from 1875-1878. While imprisoned, he learned to speak English and to read and write. Upon release he attended school at the Hampton Institute in Virginia for about a year before coming to work at the Smithsonian, primarily preparing bird and mammal specimens. During his time at the Smithsonian, he also produced drawings illustrating his old life on the Plains. In 1880 he returned to the Cheyenne and Arapaho Reservation in what is now Oklahoma, but he continued his affiliation with the Smithsonian, collecting bird and mammal specimens as well as craft items acquired from Cheyenne friends and relatives, which he shipped to the museum.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 39D-2
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use
Genre/Form:
Works of art
Ledger drawings
Drawings
Citation:
MS 39D-2 Drawings by Tichkematse and others, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS39D2
See more items in:
MS 39-d-2 Drawings by Tichkematse and others
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3ccef9474-330d-42bf-996b-90e3eb2fd108
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms39d2
Online Media:

Anonymous drawings, possibly Lakota, on pages of book made of printed forms for Property Return

Collector:
Brotherton, D. H. (David H.)  Search this
Extent:
9 Drawings (visual works) (graphite and colored pencil, 10 x 9.5 inches)
Container:
Box 384177
Culture:
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Graphic Materials
Drawings (visual works)
Ledger drawings
Works of art
Drawings
Place:
North America
Dakota Territory
Date:
circa 1880-1884
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of nine (9) Plains Indian drawings on the leaves of a book created by stitching together four folded sheets of printed forms, yielding eight leaves. One leaf has drawings on both sides, for a total of nine (9) drawings executed in graphite and colored pencil. The paper is unused forms for ration issue at Fort Peck, Montana, with the printed dated 188_. Some leaves are printed with the names of family heads to receive rations, rendered in both a Native language (not identified) and English.

Drawings are of intertribal warfare, the capture of horses, and a meeting between Brotherton and an Indian leader, identified in an inscription as Wetcohu or Wetcohee.

The authorship of the drawings is unknown. They appear to be by a single hand, whose work also appears in MS384176 and MS28804 "Anonymous Plains Indian Drawings, n.d." . The original identification as "Sioux," subsequently changed to the more specific Lakota, may be in error as the hair and attire of the Native man in the Brotherton image as well as other drawings is inconsistent with that tribe. Other possible tribal origins include Assiniboine, Arikara, and Crow, the latter two groups a source of Army scouts. The drawings can be dated to 1880-1884, the period of Brotherton's western service, based on the depiction of him in one image (384177 002), and the printed date of 188_. While the forms are from Fort Peck, Montana, Brotherton never served there. However, bands from several tribes once at Ft. Peck, including Assiniboine, Yanktonai, and Hunkpapa, subsequently passed through Ft. Buford during Brotherton's service there (Miller et al 2008).

References cited: Miller, David Reed, and Fort Peck Community College, eds. 2008 The History of the Fort Peck Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes, 1800 - 2000. Poplar, Mont. : Helena, Mont: Fort Peck Community College ; Montana Historical Society Press.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Biographical Note:
A chronology of D.H. Brotherton's military career was provided by Major General Edward F. Witsell of the War Department in a letter to John Ewers, SI, dated August 29, 1946:

"Brotherton who was on duty at Ft Snelling, Minn from 4 February 1880 to 13 July 1880, assumed command of Ft Buford, Dakota Territory 20 July 1880, and relinquished command of that post 30 August 1881. He assumed command of Ft Stevenson, D.T. 7 September 1881 and relinquished command of the post 20 October 1881."

War Dept Archives states:

Ft Snelling 12 June 1882 - 16 Jan 1884. Retired 14 April 1884. Died 17 September 1889. D.H. Brotherton accepted the surrender of Sitting Bull at Ft Buford, N. Dakota on July 17, 1881.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 384177
Related Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives holds other drawings which may be by the same artist in MS 384176 and MS 28804.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repostiory for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Works of art
Drawings
Citation:
Anonymous drawings, possibly Lakota, on pages of book made of printed forms for Property Return (MS 384177), National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS384177
See more items in:
Anonymous drawings, possibly Lakota, on pages of book made of printed forms for Property Return
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3456dfa0e-bb1b-420f-9738-20d5c8a221c7
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms384177

George Armstrong Custer's dress uniform frock coat

User:
Custer, George Armstrong  Search this
Physical Description:
wool (overall material)
velvet (overall material)
metal (overall material)
cotton (overall material)
Measurements:
overall (padded): 37 in x 16 in x 2 in; 93.98 cm x 40.64 cm x 5.08 cm
Object Name:
Coat
Other Terms:
Coat; Man; Army; Major General; Officer; Dress
Used date:
1864-02-09
Subject:
Army  Search this
Civil War  Search this
Uniforms, Military  Search this
Related event:
Civil War  Search this
Credit Line:
Elizabeth B. Custer
ID Number:
AF.13042
Catalog number:
13042
Accession number:
54045
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Military
Military
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a2-687a-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_441082
Online Media:

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