Potosí (Bolivia : Dept.) -- Description and travel.
Puno (Peru : Dept.)
Andes Region -- Economic integration.
Taquili (Peru) -- Economic conditions
Taquili (Peru) -- Social life and customs
The Elayne Zorn Collection measures 11 linear feet and contains thousands of photographic objects including negatives, slides and prints. The collection material spans the years of Zorn's professional and student activity in the fields of anthropology and Latin American studies from around 1975 until 2010. The material in this collection reflects Zorn's long association with the community in Taquile, Peru which led up to the publication of her book, Weaving a Future, in 2004. Zorn also spent a significant amount of time conducting field research in Andean communities in Bolivia examining the relationships between tourism and textiles. Zorn's additional professional activities included serving as a textile collector and expert advisor for museum collections and exhibitions as well as performing academic duties at the University of Central Florida.
Scope and Contents:
The Elayne Zorn Collection spans the years of Zorn's professional and student activity in the fields of anthropology and Latin American studies from 1975 until 2010. This includes material from Zorn's field research in the Andean Regions of Peru and Bolivia as well as her professional activities as a textile collector and expert advisor for museum collections and exhibitions. This collection is arranged into six series with additional subseries. Series 1, Field Research, includes field notebooks, correspondence, and general research from Taquile, Peru, Sakaka, Bolivia and La Paz, Bolivia. Series 2, Professional Activities, includes presentation and lecture notes, object catalogs for various museum collections and Zorn's academic work conducted at the University of Central Florida. Series 3, Publications and Writings, contains both articles written by Zorn, including her Master's thesis and dissertation, and articles published by colleagues. Series 4, Ephemera and Miscellaneous, contains a variety of materials including posters, postcards, datebooks and calendars as well as material gathered by Zorn's former husband, Juan Cutipa. Series 5, Photographs, includes negatives, slides, prints and digital media that document Zorn's work in the field. The bulk of the photographs capture the daily lives of weavers as well as important community holidays and festivals. Series 6, Audio-Visual Materials, includes a small amount of VHS tapes as well as audio-cassettes on which Zorn recorded traditional Andean music performed at festivals she attended in Peru and Bolivia.
Series 1: Field Research, 1975-2006
Subseries 1.1: Taquile, Peru, 1975-1994 [1977-1981]
Subseries 1.2: Sakaka, Bolivia, 1985-1994
Subseries 1.3: La Paz, Bolivia, 2006
Subseries 1.4: Miscellaneous Field Notes, 1976-2006
Series 2: Professional Activities, 1978-2010
Subseries 2.1: Conferences and Presentations, 1977-2009
Subseries 2.2: Museum Work, 1976-2008
Subseries 2.3: General, 1976-2010
Series 3: Publications and Writings, 1979-2009
Subseries 3.1: Elayne Zorn, 1979-2009
Subseries 3.2: Other Authors, 1979-2005
Series 4: Ephemera and Miscellaneous, 1975-2009
Series 5: Photographs, 1970-2006
Subseries 5.1: Negatives, 1976-1997
Subseries 5.2: Slides, 1970-2002
Subseries 5.3: Prints, 1978-2000
Subseries 5.4: Digital Media, 2002-2006
Series 6: Audio-Visual Materials, 1983-1994
Subseries 6.1: Cassette Tapes, 1983-1991
Subseries 6.2: Videotapes, 1991-1994
Biographical / Historical:
Elayne Leslie Zorn was born on February 3, 1952 in New York City. She attended Hunter College High School and Barnard College. She received her Bachelor's of Fine Arts degree in Textile Arts from the California College of the Arts in 1975. She then began a long association with the community on the Island of Taquile, in the Puno region of Peru, conducting fieldwork on native weaving techniques. She also began a long-term affiliation with the Museo Nacional de Etnografia y Folklore in La Paz, Bolivia and collected textiles in the Macusani region of Peru for an exhibit at the California Academy of Sciences. She received her Master's degree in Latin American Studies from the University of Texas, Austin in 1983, with fieldwork concentrated on economic development and tourism in Taquile, Peru. During her time in Peru in the 1970's and 1980's, Zorn became an accomplished musician, playing the charango and Bolivian mandolin in performances in Andean towns as well as in New York City. Zorn resumed graduate studies in 1985 at Cornell University where she received her Master of Arts degree in anthropology in 1987 followed by her Ph.D. in 1997. At Cornell she worked under the supervision of Professor Billie Jean Isbell and conducted much of her dissertation fieldwork in Sakaka, Bolivia focusing on the global transformation of cloth and identity in highland Andean regions. Zorn worked as a visiting Assistant Professor of Anthropology at Colgate University from 1997 to 1998 and then hired as Professor of Anthropology at the University of Central Florida from 1998 until 2010. While at the University of Central Florida, Zorn received both teaching-related and research-related awards as well as grants to continue her fieldwork in the Andean regions of Peru and Bolivia. She also co-directed the PeruVine/PeruDigital Project, an interactive and immersive website to present field data from Peru's Institute of Ethnomusicology online. In 2004 Zorn published her book, Weaving a Future: Tourism, Cloth and Culture on an Andean Island (University of Iowa Press), an analysis of textile traditions as it relates to global change.
In addition to her academic duties, throughout her career Zorn collaborated with various museums and cultural institutions as a consultant and collector. These included, but are not limited to, The Brooklyn Museum, The Textile Museum, Smithsonian Center for Folklife Programs, UNICEF and the Inter-American Foundation. She was also a member of various professional societies including the American Anthropological Association, the Bolivian Studies Association, the Society for Latin American, Carribean, and Latino Studies as well as the Textile Society of America. Zorn passed away June 15, 2010 and was survived by her mother, Sandra Gordon, and her son, Gavriel Cutipa-Zorn.
http://anthropology.cos.ucf.edu/include/file/people/cv/zorn_elayne.pdf (Accessed May 01, 2012)
http://digitalethnography.dm.ucf.edu/pv/Zorn.html (Accessed May 1, 2012)
This collection was donated by Gavriel Cutipa-Zorn, Elayne Zorn's son in April of 2011.
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to email@example.com.
These papers reflect the professional and personal life of Frederica de Laguna. The collection contains correspondence, field notes, writings, newspaper clippings, writings by others, subject files, sound recordings, photographs, and maps. A significant portion of the collection consists of de Laguna's correspondence with family, friends, colleagues, and students, as well as her informants from the field. Her correspondence covers a wide range of subjects such as family, health, preparations for field work, her publications and projects, the Northwest Coast, her opinions on the state of anthropology, and politics. The field notes in the collection mainly represent de Laguna and her assistants' work in the Northern Tlingit region of Alaska from 1949 to 1954. In addition, the collection contains materials related to her work in the St. Lawrence River Valley in Ontario in 1947 and Catherine McClellan's field journal for her research in Aishihik, Yukon Territory in 1968. Most of the audio reels in the collection are field recordings made by de Laguna, McClellan, and Marie-Françoise Guédon of vocabulary and songs and speeches at potlatches and other ceremonies from 1952 to 1969. Tlingit and several Athabaskan languages including Atna, Tutochone, Upper Tanana, and Tanacross are represented in the recordings. Also in the collection are copies of John R. Swanton's Tlingit recordings and Hiroko Hara Sue's recordings among the Hare Indians. Additional materials related to de Laguna's research on the Northwest Coast include her notes on clans and tribes in Series VI: Subject Files and her notes on Tlingit vocabulary and Yakutat names specimens in Series X: Card Files. Drafts and notes for Voyage to Greenland, Travels Among the Dena, and The Tlingit Indians can be found in the collection as well as her drawings for her dissertation and materials related to her work for the Handbook of North American Indians and other publications. There is little material related to Under Mount Saint Elias except for correspondence, photocopies and negatives of plates, and grant applications for the monograph. Of special interest among de Laguna's writings is a photocopy of her historical fiction novel, The Thousand March. Other materials of special interest are copies of her talks, including her AAA presidential address, and the dissertation of Regna Darnell, a former student of de Laguna's. In addition, materials on the history of anthropology are in the collection, most of which can found with her teaching materials. Although the bulk of the collection documents de Laguna's professional years, the collection also contains newspaper articles and letters regarding her exceptional performance as a student at Bryn Mawr College and her undergraduate and graduate report cards. Only a few photographs of de Laguna can be found in the collection along with photographs of her 1929 and 1979 trips to Greenland.
Scope and Contents:
These papers reflect the professional and personal life of Frederica de Laguna. The collection contains correspondence, field notes, writings, newspaper clippings, writings by others, subject files, sound recordings, photographs, and maps.
A significant portion of the collection consists of de Laguna's correspondence with family, friends, colleagues, and students, as well as her informants from the field. Her correspondence covers a wide range of subjects such as family, health, preparations for field work, her publications and projects, the Northwest Coast, her opinions on the state of anthropology, and politics. Among her notable correspondents are Kaj Birket-Smith, J. Desmond Clark, Henry Collins, George Foster, Viola Garfield, Marie-Françoise Guédon, Diamond Jenness, Michael Krauss, Therkel Mathiassen, Catharine McClellan, and Wallace Olson. She also corresponded with several eminent anthropologists including Franz Boas, William Fitzhugh, J. Louis Giddings, Emil Haury, June Helm, Melville Herskovitz, Alfred Kroeber, Helge Larsen, Alan Lomax, Margaret Mead, Froelich Rainey, Leslie Spier, Ruth Underhill, James VanStone, Annette Weiner, and Leslie White.
The field notes in the collection mainly represent de Laguna and her assistants' work in the Northern Tlingit region of Alaska from 1949 to 1954. In addition, the collection contains materials related to her work in the St. Lawrence River Valley in Ontario in 1947 and Catharine McClellan's field journal for her research in Aishihik, Yukon Territory in 1968. Most of the audio reels in the collection are field recordings made by de Laguna, McClellan, and Marie-Françoise Guédon of vocabulary and songs and speeches at potlatches and other ceremonies from 1952 to 1969. Tlingit and several Athapaskan languages including Atna, Tutochone, Upper Tanana, and Tanacross are represented in the recordings. Also in the collection are copies of John R. Swanton's Tlingit recordings and Hiroko Hara's recordings among the Hare Indians. Additional materials related to de Laguna's research on the Northwest Coast include her notes on clans and tribes in Series VI: Subject Files and her notes on Tlingit vocabulary and Yakutat names specimens in Series 10: Card Files.
Drafts and notes for Voyage to Greenland, Travels Among the Dena, and The Tlingit Indians can be found in the collection as well as her drawings for her dissertation and materials related to her work for the Handbook of North American Indians and other publications. There is little material related to Under Mount Saint Elias except for correspondence, photocopies and negatives of plates, and grant applications for the monograph. Of special interest among de Laguna's writings is a photocopy of her historical fiction novel, The Thousand March.
Other materials of special interest are copies of her talks, including her AAA presidential address, and the dissertation of Regna Darnell, a former student of de Laguna's. In addition, materials on the history of anthropology are in the collection, most of which can found with her teaching materials. The collection also contains copies of photographs from the Harriman Alaska Expedition of 1899. Although the bulk of the collection documents de Laguna's professional years, the collection also contains newspaper articles and letters regarding her exceptional performance as a student at Bryn Mawr College and her undergraduate and graduate report cards. Only a few photographs of de Laguna can be found in the collection along with photographs of her 1929 and 1979 trips to Greenland.
Frederica Annis Lopez de Leo de Laguna was a pioneering archaeologist and ethnographer of northwestern North America. Known as Freddy by her friends, she was one of the last students of Franz Boas. She served as first vice-president of the Society for American Archaeology (SAA) from 1949 to 1950 and as president of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) from 1966-1967. She also founded the anthropology department at Bryn Mawr College where she taught from 1938 to 1972. In 1975, she and Margaret Mead, a former classmate, were the first women to be elected to the National Academy of Sciences.
Born on October 3, 1906 in Ann Arbor, Michigan, de Laguna was the daughter of Theodore Lopez de Leo de Laguna and Grace Mead Andrus, both philosophy professors at Bryn Mawr College. Often sick as a child, de Laguna was home-schooled by her parents until she was 9. She excelled as a student at Bryn Mawr College, graduating summa cum laude with a degree in politics and economics in 1927. She was awarded the college's prestigious European fellowship, which upon the suggestion of her parents, she deferred for a year to study anthropology at Columbia University under Boas. Her parents had recently attended a lecture given by Boas and felt that anthropology would unite her interests in the social sciences and her love for the outdoors.
After a year studying at Columbia with Boas, Gladys Reichard, and Ruth Benedict, de Laguna was still uncertain whether anthropology was the field for her. Nevertheless, she followed Boas's advice to spend her year abroad studying the connection between Eskimo and Paleolithic art, which would later became the topic of her dissertation. In the summer of 1928, she gained fieldwork experience under George Grant MacCurdy visiting prehistoric sites in England, France, and Spain. In Paris, she attended lectures on prehistoric art by Abbe Breuil and received guidance from Paul Rivet and Marcelin Boule. Engaged to an Englishman she had met at Columbia University, de Laguna decided to also enroll at the London School of Economics in case she needed to earn her degree there. She took a seminar with Bronislaw Malinowski, an experience she found unpleasant and disappointing.
It was de Laguna's visit to the National Museum in Copenhagen to examine the archaeological collections from Central Eskimo that became the turning point in her life. During her visit, she met Therkel Mathiassen who invited her to be his assistant on what would be the first scientific archaeological excavation in Greenland. She sailed off with him in June 1929, intending to return early in August. Instead, she decided to stay until October to finish the excavation with Mathiassen, now convinced that her future lay in anthropology. When she returned from Greenland she broke off her engagement with her fiancé, deciding that she would not able to both fully pursue a career in anthropology and be the sort of wife she felt he deserved. Her experiences in Greenland became the subject of her 1977 memoir, Voyage to Greenland: A Personal Initiation into Anthropology.
The following year, Kaj Birket-Smith, whom de Laguna had also met in Copenhagen, agreed to let her accompany him as his research assistant on his summer expedition to Prince William Sound and Cook Inlet. When Birket-Smith fell ill and was unable to go, de Laguna was determined to continue on with the trip. She convinced the University of Pennsylvania Museum to fund her trip to Alaska to survey potential excavation sites and took as her assistant her 20 year old brother, Wallace, who became a geologist. A close family, de Laguna's brother and mother would later accompany her on other research trips.
In 1931, the University of Pennsylvania Museum hired de Laguna to catalogue Eskimo collections. They again financed her work in Cook Inlet that year as well as the following year. In 1933, she earned her PhD from Columbia and led an archaeological and ethnological expedition of the Prince William Sound with Birket-Smith. They coauthored "The Eyak Indians of the Copper River Delta, Alaska," published in 1938. In 1935, de Laguna led an archaeological and geological reconnaissance of middle and lower Yukon Valley, traveling down the Tanana River. Several decades later, the 1935 trip contributed to two of her books: Travels Among the Dena, published in 1994, and Tales From the Dena, published in 1997.
In 1935 and 1936, de Laguna worked briefly as an Associate Soil Conservationist, surveying economic and social conditions on the Pima Indian Reservation in Arizona. She later returned to Arizona during the summers to conduct research and in 1941, led a summer archaeological field school under the sponsorship of Bryn Mawr College and the Museum of Northern Arizona.
By this time, de Laguna had already published several academic articles and was also the author of three fiction books. Published in 1930, The Thousand March: Adventures of an American Boy with the Garibaldi was her historical fiction book for juveniles. She also wrote two detective novels: The Arrow Points to Murder (1937) and Fog on the Mountain (1938). The Arrow Points to Murder is set in a museum based on her experiences at the University of Pennsylvania Museum and the American Museum of National History. Fog on the Mountain is set in Cook Inlet and draws upon de Laguna's experiences in Alaska. Both detective novels helped to finance her research.
De Laguna began her long career at Bryn Mawr College in 1938 when she was hired as a lecturer in the sociology department to teach the first ever anthropology course at the college. By 1950, she was chairman of the joint department of Sociology and Anthropology, and in 1967, the chairman of the newly independent Anthropology Department. She was also a visiting professor at the University of Pennsylvania (1947-1949; 1972-1976) and at the University of California, Berkeley (1959-1960; 1972-1973.)
During World War II, de Laguna took a leave of absence from Bryn Mawr College to serve in the naval reserve from 1942 to 1945. As a member of WAVES (Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service), she taught naval history and codes and ciphers to women midshipmen at Smith College. She took great pride in her naval service and in her later years joined the local chapter of WAVES National, an organization for former and current members of WAVES.
In 1950, de Laguna returned to Alaska to work in the Northern Tlingit region. Her ethnological and archaeological study of the Tlingit Indians brought her back several more times throughout the 1950s and led to the publication of Under Mount Saint Elias in 1972. Her comprehensive three-volume monograph is still considered the authoritative work on the Yakutat Tlingit. In 1954, de Laguna turned her focus to the Atna Indians of Copper River, returning to the area in 1958, 1960, and 1968.
De Laguna retired from Bryn Mawr College in 1972 under the college's mandatory retirement policy. Although she suffered from many ailments in her later years including macular degeneration, she remained professionally active. Five decades after her first visit to Greenland, de Laguna returned to Upernavik in 1979 to conduct ethnographic investigations. In 1985, she finished editing George Thornton Emmons' unpublished manuscript The Tlingit Indians. A project she had begun in 1955, the book was finally published in 1991. In 1986, she served as a volunteer consultant archaeologist and ethnologist for the U. S. Forest Service in Alaska. In 1994, she took part in "More than Words . . ." Laura Bliss Spann's documentary on the last Eyak speaker, Maggie Smith Jones. By 2001, de Laguna was legally blind. Nevertheless, she continued working on several projects and established the Frederica de Laguna Northern Books Press to reprint out-of-print literature and publish new scholarly works on Arctic cultures.
Over her lifetime, de Laguna received several honors including her election into the National Academy Sciences in 1976, the Distinguished Service Award from AAA in 1986, and the Lucy Wharton Drexel Medal from the University of Pennsylvania in 1999. De Laguna's work, however, was respected by not only her colleagues but also by the people she studied. In 1996, the people of Yakutat honored de Laguna with a potlatch. Her return to Yakutat was filmed by Laura Bliss Spann in her documentary Reunion at Mt St. Elias: The Return of Frederica de Laguna to Yakutat.
At the age of 98, Frederica de Laguna passed away on October 6, 2004.
Darnell, Regna. "Frederica de Laguna (1906-2004)." American Anthropologist 107.3 (2005): 554-556.
de Laguna, Frederica. Voyage to Greenland: A Personal Initiation into Anthropology. New York: W.W. Norton Co, 1977.
McClellan, Catharine. "Frederica de Laguna and the Pleasures of Anthropology." American Ethnologist 16.4 (1989): 766-785.
Olson, Wallace M. "Obituary: Frederica de Laguna (1906-2004)." Arctic 58.1 (2005): 89-90.
Although this collection contains a great deal of correspondence associated with her service as president of AAA, most of her presidential records can be found in American Anthropological Association Records 1917-1972. Also at the National Anthropological Archives are her transcripts of songs sung by Yakutat Tlingit recorded in 1952 and 1954 located in MS 7056 and her notes and drawings of Dorset culture materials in the National Museum of Canada located in MS 7265. The Human Studies Film Archive has a video oral history of de Laguna conducted by Norman Markel (SC-89.10.4).
Related collections can also be found in other repositories. The University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania holds materials related to work that de Laguna carried out for the museum from the 1930s to the 1960s. Materials relating to her fieldwork in Angoon and Yakutat can be found in the Rasmuson Library of the University of Alaska, Fairbanks in the papers of Francis A. Riddell, a field assistant to de Laguna in the early 1950s. Original photographs taken in the field in Alaska were deposited in the Alaska State Library, Juneau. Both the Archive of Folk Culture at the Library of Congress and the American Philosophical Library have copies of her field recordings and notes. The American Museum of Natural History has materials related to her work editing George T. Emmons' manuscript. De Laguna's papers can also be found at the Bryn Mawr College Archives.
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Frederica de Laguna.
Some of the original field notes are restricted due to Frederica de Laguna's request to protect the privacy of those accused of witchcraft. The originals are restricted until 2030. Photocopies may be made with the names of the accused redacted.
This collection reflects anthropologist Anne Chapman's studies of the Tolupan (Jicaque) of Honduras. The collection also contains her dissertation and the first two issues of the journal Anthropos.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains the professional papers of Anne Chapman, primarily documenting her ethnographic work among the Tolupan (Jicaque) in Montaña de la Flor, Honduras. Included are field notes with detailed indices; detailed genealogies; sound recordings; transcripts of some of the recordings; a map; photographs; and annotated photocopies of the photographs. The collection also contains her dissertation on the Jicaque, Paya, Sumu, Miskito and Matagalpa; copies of the journal Anthropos, which she helped published; and a computer disk that has not yet been examined.
This collection is arranged into 7 series: 1) Genealogies; 2) Field Notes; 3) PhD Dissertation; 4) Anthropos Journal; 5) Sound Recordings; 6) Photographs; 7) Born Digital Records.
Anne MacKaye Chapman was born in 1922 in Los Angeles, California. She left for Mexico in 1940, enrolling at the Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia (ENAH) in Mexico City. At the ENAH, Chapman studied with Paul Kirchhoff, Wigberto Jiménez Moreno, and Miguel Covarrubias. Inspired by the work of Covarrubias, Chapman and her colleagues published Anthropos, a journal combining art with articles on anthropology and politics. Only two editions were ever published, both in 1947, due to limited resources. Chapman conducted her first ethnographic fieldwork as a student among Mayan communities in Chiapas, Mexico --first, among the Tzeltales under Sol Tax, and later among the Tzoziles under Alfonso Villa Rojas. She eventually earned her Master's degree in Anthropology in 1951 from the ENAH; her Master's thesis, entitled La Guerra de los Aztecas contra los Tepanecas, used Clausewitz's theories on war to analyze the defeat of the Tepanecas by the Aztecs to gain their independence in the early 15th century.
Chapman returned to the U.S. in the 1950s, earning her PhD in Anthropology from Columbia University in New York City in 1958. Her dissertation was entitled An Historical Analysis of the Tropical Forest Tribes on the Southern Border of Mesoamerica. While at Columbia, she studied with Conrad Arensberg and worked as an assistant to Karl Polanyi from 1953-55. Another professor, William Duncan Strong, introduced her to the Tolupan (Jicaque) of Honduras. After being awarded funds by the Fulbright Foundation and the Research Institute for the Study of Man (RISM), Chapman began her fieldwork in 1955 among the Tolupan in Montaña de la Flor, Honduras. She would return for a period of several months every year through 1960 for her research, but maintained her relationship with the community for the rest of her life. During her fieldwork, Chapman primarily worked with Alfonso Martinez. Through him, Chapman was able to make a study of Tolupan oral tradition and social organization, as well as to elaborate detailed genealogies of the community. Her research eventually resulted in a book, Les Enfants de la Mort: Univers Mythique des Indiens Tolupan (Jicaque), published in 1978; a revised English text was published in 1992 under the title Master of Animals: Oral tradition of the Tolupan Indians, Honduras. Alfonso Martinez died of measles in 1969.
Chapman also conducted ethnographic research among the Lenca of Honduras, starting in 1965-66, and continuing through the 1980s. Her work followed up on analysis by Kirchhoff on "cultural areas," particularly Mesoamerica. She sought to address a doubt raised by Kirchhoff about whether the Lenca should be considered a Mesoamerican group, ultimately resolving the question in the affirmative in an article entitled "Los Lencas de Honduras en el siglo XVI," published in 1978. In addition, in 1985-86 she published a two-volume study of Lenca rituals and tradition titled Los Hijos del Copal y la Candela.
In 1964, Chapman was invited to join the team of archaeologist Annette Laming-Emperaire on a project in Tierra del Fuego. Although not an archaeologist by training, Chapman accepted for the opportunity to meet Lola Kiepja, one of the last few living Selk'nam (Ona) of Tierra del Fuego. After finishing the archaeology project, Chapman met with Lola and recorded her speaking and singing in Selk'nam, as well as her memories of life as a Selk'nam. Although Lola passed away in 1966, Chapman was able to continue working with the remaining Selk'nam in Tierra del Fuego. In 1976, she co-produced a film about the Selk'nam along with Ana Montes, The Onas: Life and Death in Tierra del Fuego. In 1985, she expanded her fieldwork to include the remaining Yahgans in Tierra del Fuego, Chile.
In 1961, Chapman became a member of the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, working under Claude Lévi-Strauss until 1969, and eventually retiring from the center in 1987. During her long career as an ethnographer, she was associated with various other research centers in Europe and the Americas, including: the Musée de l'Homme in Paris, France; the Research Institute for the Study of Man in New York City; the Instituto Hondureño de Antropología in Tegucigalpa, Honduras; and the Instituto Nacional de Antropología in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Towards the end of her life, Chapman resided primarily in Buenos Aires, working and writing there. Chapman passed away at age 88 on June 12, 2010 in a Paris hospital.
Chapman, Anne MacKaye. 2005. A Genealogy of my Professors and Informants. Accessed on January 13, 2014 at: http://www.thereedfoundation.org/rism/chapman/articles.htm.
Chapman, Anne MacKaye. [Accession File]. National Anthropological Archive, Smithsonian Institution
Gonzalez Montes, Ana. 2010. La mujer que habló con los últimos onas. Pagina 12, June 17. Accessed on January 13, 2014 at http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/sociedad/3-147733-2010-06-17.html.
Nash, June. 2010. In Memoriam: Anne MacKaye Chapman. Anthropology News 51(7): 41.
1922 -- Born in Los Angeles, California
1947 -- Co-publishes Anthropos journal with other students in Mexico City
1951 -- Earns Master's degree from the Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia (ENAH) in Mexico City
1953-1955 -- Works as an assistant for Karl Polanyi at Columbia University
1955 -- Begins Tolupan (Jicaque) fieldwork in Montaña de la Flor, Honduras
1958 -- Earns PhD from Columbia University
1961 -- Member of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France Associate of the Musée de l'Homme in Paris, France
1964 -- Begins works with the Selk'nam (Ona) of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina
1965 -- Begins fieldwork with the Lenca in Intibuca, Honduras
1967 -- Receives Doctorate from the University of Paris, Sorbonne
1968 -- Fellow, Research Institute for the Study of Man in New York City
1979 -- Associate, Instituto Hondureño de Antropología in Tegucigalpa, Honduras
1981 -- Receives Doctorate from the University of Paris, René-Déscartes
1985 -- Begins fieldwork among the remaining Yahgans of Tierra del Fuego, Chile
1986 -- Associate, Instituto Nacional de Antropología in Buenos Aires, Argentina
1987 -- Retires from the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
2010 -- Passes away on June 12 at the age of 88
Other materials relating to Anne Chapman at the National Anthropological Archives include three photographs of Lola Kiepja, a Selk'nam woman from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, located within Photo Lot 97 Division of Ethnography photo collection. The National Museum of Natural History also has seven pre-Columbian objects in its collection donated by Chapman from Intibuca, Honduras (Accession 284737), including projectile points, a core, a blade/scraper, and a metate-maker. In addition, the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections has two phonograph records of Chapman's Selk'nam (Ona) chants of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina within its Folkways Records Collection, 1948-1986.
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Anne Chapman in 1996 and 1997.
No restrictions on access.
Anne Chapman retained the publishing rights to her Tolupan materials. These rights were passed on to her executor after her death.
This collection consists of Amy Zaharlick's research and sound recordings on Picuris and other Pubeloan languages as well as the field recordings and notes given to Zaharlick by anthropologist and fellow Picuris specialist, George L. Trager.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains sound recordings and notes relating to the Picuris language research of Ann Marie (Amy) Zaharlick and her colleagues George L. and Felicia H. Trager, from 1962-1990. Most of the papers consist of Zaharlick's notes and transcripts from the Kiowa-Tanoan conferences which she organized and chaired, and handouts relating to Zaharlick's bilingual education consultant work. Small portions of the Tragers' field notes on Taos which were copied by Zaharlick, presumably for her own research, are also included. The bulk of the collection consists of 130 sound recordings of songs and stories in Picuris and other Puebloan languages made between 1963-1989. There are few earlier recordings which may be copies of material in Trager's papes at the University of California, Irvine. The titles of the tapes have been transcribed from information on the tape boxes. The content of recordings has not been verified.
This collection is arranged in 2 series: (1) Papers (1965-1990); (2) Sound Recordings (1952-1989).
Biographical / Historical:
Amy Zaharlick received her Ph.D. in linguistic anthropology from the American University in 1977. Prior to joining the staff at Ohio State University in XXX, she served as director of the Native American Teacher Education Program and as Associate Director of the Multicultural Education Program at the University of Albuquerque in New Mexico. Zaharlick was a professor in the Department of Anthropology at Ohio State University until her retirement in 2012.
George Leonard Trager was born on March 22, 1906 in Newark, New Jersey. He earned a bachelor's degree at Rutgers University and did his graduate work in Slavic and Romance Philology at Columbia University. He received his doctorate in 1932 with the dissertation The use of the Latin demonstratives (especially ille and ipse) up to 600 A.D., as the source of the Romance article. Trager's first teaching position was at Adams State College in Alamosa, Colorado, and it was from here that he begin his fieldwork on Tanoan languages. In 1936 Trager took a position at Yale, joining such influential linguists and Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf. From 1956 through 1967 Trager taught at the University of Buffalo (later SUNY-Buffalo). In the late 1960s he left Buffalo for Southern Methodist University and became more involved in Taonoan lanugauge field research. Trager married three times. His second and third wives, Edith Crowell Trager-Johnson and Felicia Harben Trager worked with him in American Indian lingistics and Kiowa-Tanoan Studies. Trager died in 1992.
Felicia Harben Trager graduated from Wayne State University in 1957 and received a Woodrow Wilson Fellowship. She received her M.A. in 1959 from the Department of Anthroplogy and Lingustics at the University of Buffalo where she did graduate work under George Trager. She worked in Washington D.C. as a project associate at the Washington Center for Applied Linguistics and taught English as a foreign language. in 1961 she married George Trager and returned with him to Buffalo where in 1968 she earned a Ph.D. for her dissertation Picuris Pueblo, New Mexico: An Ethnologuistic Salvage Study. In 1967 she moved with George Trager to Dallas where she was a lecturer at Southerm Methodist University's University College. She assisted her husband as a researcher and editor for three of his books, and was the co-author with him in several articles on Tanoan languages. Felicia Trager died in 1972 at the age of 42.
1993 Obituary George L. Trager (1906-1992). Newsletter of the Society for theh Study of Indigenous Languages of the Americas 2-3.
Smith, Henry Lee
1974 Obituary Felicia Harben Trager 1930-1972. American Anthropologist 76(1)78-79.
Correspondence of George L. Trager can be found in the Esther Schiff Goldfrank papers, John P. Harrington papers, and Anthropological Society of Washington records. NAA Manuscript 4540-a-b contains some of Trager's notes and correspondence. The George L. Trager papers can be found at the University of California Irvine Library, Department of Special Collections (MS-M005).
Received from Ann Marie (Amy) Zaharlick in 2012.
The Trager's original sound recordings were given to Zaharlick by George L. Trager in 1974.
The Zaharlick and Trager sound recordings and papers are open for research.
24.25 cu. ft. (48 document boxes) (1 half document box)
1927-1973 (Papers), 1927-1966 (Records)
These papers include both personal and professional correspondence and documents relating to Peters' academic and curatorial careers. Also included are files of the
Division of Reptiles and Amphibians maintained by Peters' predecessor, Doris Mable Cochran (1898-1968). Correspondents include Jorge W. Abalos, M. Acosta-Solis, Kraig Kerr
Adler, Villy Aellen, E. Ross Allen, American Institute of Biological Sciences, American Medical Association, American Museum of Natural History, American Society of Icthyologists
and Herpetologists, Steven C. Anderson, Attilio Arillo, Ralph W. Axtell, James P. Bacon, Jr., Gladys C. Banks, Benjamin Harrison Banta, Avelino Barrio, J. C. Battersby, Nina
Battersby, Pauline Becker, William Beebe, Beitrage Zur Neotropischen Fauna, Ronald E. Beltz, Paul A. Benson, Frederick Henry Berry, Bio Instrumentation Advisory Council, Sherman
Chauncey Bishop, Richard Eliot Blackwelder, Frieda Cobb Blanchard, Ellen Gillespie Block, Charles Mitchell Bogert, James Erwin Bohlke, Werner C. A. Bokermann, Donald D. Brand,
Ronald A. Brandon, Bayard Holmes Brattstrom, British Herpetological Society, Donald G. Broadley, L. D. Brongersma, Garnett Ryland Brooks, Jr., John Langdon Brooks, Bryce Cardigan
Brown, Frederick Martin Brown, Brown University, Walter Creighton Brown, Maria Buchinger, W. Leslie Burger, A. C. J. Burgers, Charles Earle Burt, William Henry Burt, Robert
A. Burton, R. Bruce Bury, Fred Ray Cagle, Canadian Amphibian and Reptile Conservation Society, Luis F. Capurro, Dennis S. Carlson, Nan V. Carson, Center for Tropical Studies,
University of Michigan, Herman Burleigh Chase, The Chicago Herpetological Society, William M. Clay, Doris Mable Cochran, Nathan Wolf Cohen, Roger Conant, John M. Condit, Congreso
Latinamericano de Zoologia, Joseph F. Copp, Robert Copping, Raymond B. Cowles, David Crane, John Davis, Paul E. P. Deraniyagala, Philip H. Derse, Michael W. Dix, James R.
Dixon, Roberto Donoso-Barrios (Ref.), Armando Dugand, Roy Frederick Dulin, Jr., Ann Dunham, Emmet Reid Dunn, Delbert G. Easton, Richard A. Edgren, Jr., Lloyd C. Emmons, Francis
Cope Evans, Lee C. Finneran, Harvey Irvin Fisher, Henry Sheldon Fitch, Alvin Godfrey Flury, William I. Follett, Keith E. Friedel, John W. Funkhouser, Jose M. Gallardo, Sidney
Roland Galler, Carl Gans, Joseph Francis Gennaro, Jr., Howard Kay Gloyd, Coleman Jett Goin, Stanley W. Gorham, Joseph B. Gorman, Chapman Grant, Arthur Merwin Greenhall, Arnold
B. Grobman, Eugene Raymond Hall, Rogers D. Hamilton, William John Hamilton, Jr., Garry P. Harned, Francis Harper, Ernest William Hartung, Norman Edouard Hartweg, Werner George
Heim, Herpetologists' League, William Atwood Hilton, Richard L. Hoffman, Alphonse Richard Hoge, Theodore Huntington Hubbell, Carl Leavitt Hubbs, Richard G. Hubler, Don Hunsaker
II, Victor H. Hutchinson, Robert F. Inger, Instituto Butantan, Instituto Panamericano de Geografia e Historia, International Association For Systematic Zoology, International
Biological Programme, International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, International Congress of Systematic and Evolutionary Biology, International Herpetology Society,
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Hernando de Irmay, David Lee Jameson, Rolf A. Jensen, Junior Herpetological Society, Brahma S. Kaushiva,
Hugh Lawrence Keegan, Laurence Monroe Klauber, Robert Elroy Kuntz, Ernest Albert Lachner, Abdem Ramon Lancini, David A. Langebartel, Carlos M. Larrea, Ronald Lawson, David
S. Lee, Donald L. Lehmann, Roberto Levi-Castillo, Alan E. Leviton, Lizard Ecology Symposium, Long Island Herpetological Society, Richard Biggar Loomis, Francis X. Lueth, Douglas
MacGregor, Thomas J. McIntyre, Rogers McVaugh, Beni Charan Mahendra, M. Maldonado-Koerdell, Guillermo Mann, Romeo John Mansueti, Paul Schultz Martin, Kevin W. Marx, The Maryland
Herpetological Society, Ernst Mayr, Giles W. Mead, John Stephen Mecham, Daniel Merriman, Robert Rush Miller, Eunice Thomas Miner, Francis J. Mitchell, Erna Mohr, John Alexander
Moore, George Sprague Myers, National Geographic Society, Walter Ludwig Necker, Wilfred T. Neill, Morris Graham Netting, New York Herpetological Society, Norman Dennis Newell,
Clifford Raymond Noll, Jr., Kenneth Stafford Norris, The Ohio Herpetological Society, James Arthur Oliver, The Orange County Herpetological Society, Gustavo Orces, Braulio
Orejas-Miranda (Ref.), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (Paris), Organization of American States, Lourdes G. Ortega, Juan Jose Parodiz, Georges Pasteur,
Dennis R. Paulson, Raymond Andrew Paynter, Jr., James A. Peters, Philadelphia Herpetological Society, David Pimentel, Richard A. Pimentel, Ivo Poglayen-Neuwall, Friedrich
Polz, Clifford Hillhouse Pope, Primer Congreso Sudamericano de Zoologia, George B. Rabb, A. Stanley Rand, Neil Dwight Richmond, William J. Riemer, Philip C. Ritterbush, Robert
Maar Roecker, Alfred S. Romer, Douglas Anthon Rossman, Barry Rothman, Norma Rothman, Janis A. Roze, Rodolfo Ruibal, Findlay Ewing Russell, Richard W. Russell, Jay M. Savage,
Scandinavian Herpetological Society, Herbert Schifter, Karl Patterson Schmidt, Waldo Lasalle Schmitt, Albert Schwartz, Frederick A. Shannon, Charles E. Shaw, Hurst Hugh Shoemaker,
R. K. Shrivastava, Charles Gald Sibley, Allan J. Sloan, Paul Slud (Ref.), Hobart Muir Smith, Philip W. Smith, Richard Craine Snyder, Society for the Study of Amphibians and
Reptiles, Society for the Study of Evolution, Society of Systematic Zoology, Paul Soderberg, The Southern California Academy of Sciences, Southwestern Herpetologists Society,
James Juan Spillett, Leonhard Stejneger, Othmar Stemmler, Terry B. Stevenson, William H. Stickel, Laurence Cooper Stuart, Bogdan Sturgen, The Systematics Association, Michael
J. Takos, James R. Tamsitt, Wilmer W. Tanner, Aaron M. Taub, Edward H. Taylor, The Tennessee Herpetological Society, E. Titschack, Enrico Tortonese, Robert G. Tuck, Jr., Frederick
Brown Turner, Michael J. Tyler, Emil K. Urban, Thomas Marshall Uzzell, Jose Valencia, Stefan Vancea, Paulo Emilio Vanzolini, Jaime D. Villa, Virginia Herpetological Society,
John Visser, Zdenek Vogel, Harold K. Voris, Helmuth O. Wagner, David Burton Wake, Charles Frederic Walker, Warren Franklin Walker, Jr., Harlan D. Walley, The Washington Biologists'
Field Club, Inc., Robert G. Webb, William Weber (Ref.), John E. Werler, Heinz Wermuth, Yehudah L. Werner, Dawn Xavier Weston, Jr., Kenneth L. Williams, Richard Willnow, James
Walter Wilson, Larry David Wilson, Gaston-Francois de Witte, Allyn L. Wood, Lindsay W. Wood, Albert Hazen Wright (Ref.), John W. Wright, David Zaid, William Zipperer, The
Zoological Society of London, George R. Zug, Richard George Zweifel.
James A. Peters was born in Durant, Iowa on July 13, 1922. He developed an interest in herpetology as a teenager, which culminated in the acquisition of three academic
degrees from the University of Michigan (B.S., 1948; M.A., 1950; Ph.D., 1952). While at the University of Michigan he served as a research assistant in the Museum of Zoology
(1946-1952) and as a teaching assistant for the Department of Zoology (1952). After receiving his Ph.D., Peters joined the staff of Brown University (1952-1958), advancing
from instructor to assistant professor. During the summer of 1956 he was a research associate at Stanford University. From 1958 to 1959 Peters was a Fulbright Lecturer at
the Universidad Centrale de Ecuador; he was a visiting professor at Southern Illinois University for the summer of 1959 and accepted an associate professorship at San Fernando
Valley State College (SFVSC) in the fall of that year. Peters advanced to full professor at SFVSC, remaining there until February 1964 when he accepted the position of associate
curator in the Division of Reptiles and Amphibians of the United States National Museum. He assumed the title "supervisor and curator" of the Division in FY 1967, a title
he held until FY 1971. He was named curator, Division of Reptiles and Amphibians in FY 1971 and held that position until his death on December 18, 1972.
James A. Peters' professional responsibilities included membership in many scientific societies. He attended his first meeting of the American Society of Icthyologists
and Herpetologists (ASIH) in 1939. He later served on the Board of Governors and various committees. He also served as ASIH secretary (1960-1966); vice-president (1967); and
president (1970). He also held advisory or elected positions with the Society of Systematic Zoology, the Southern California Academy of Sciences, the Society for the Study
of Evolution, and the Biological Society of Washington. Within the Smithsonian Peters continued his professional responsibilities by service on the Zoo Research Advisory Committee
(National Zoological Park), the Planning Committee for Summer Seminar in Systematics, the Steering Committee for the First International Congress of Systematic Zoology, the
International Congress of Systematic and Evolutionary Biology, the Reptile Group of the Survival Service Commission of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature,
the American Alligator Council, and the Rare and Endangered Species Committee of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. In 1965 he inaugurated the Smithsonian Herpetological
Information Services, which distributed informative material deemed useful to herpetologists but unsuitable for publication, e.g., bibliographies, indices, etc.
The herpetology and zoogeography of Latin America became main subjects of interest for Peters after he did field work on the Mexican Plateau in 1949 and in Michoacan in
1950. His concentration on Ecuador was largely due to the wide scope of biogeographical faunal comparisons available in the Andes Mountains. While completing his doctoral
work on the snakes of the subfamily Dipsadinae, he embarked in 1952 upon a long-term research project on the herpetology of Ecuador that resulted in twenty-one published papers.
The culmination of his Latin American work was the two-volume Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata co-authored with Braulio Orjas-Miranda and Roberto Donoso-Barrios
(1970). Over 100 scientific publications are attributed to James A. Peters, including two books, Classic Papers in Genetics (ed., 1959) and Dictionary of Herpetology
(1964). He described seventeen new species or subspecies and had five taxa, four Neotropical amphibians and reptiles, and one snake named for him.
The computer analysis of biogeographic data greatly enhanced Peters' study of the systematics and ecology of reptiles and amphibians. An effective use of this technique
was the gathering of comparative cardiac physiology of Ecuadorian snakes and lizards using data obtained from an electrocardiograph. Identification of specimens was another
field adaptable to the use of computer technology. In this area of interest Peters developed computer programs that facilitated the identification process by searching on
a larger constellation of characters than had previously been employed. Eleven papers were published from 1968 to 1973 on the subject of computer usage. He also founded the
newsletter MUDPIE (Museum and University Data Program and Information Exchange) which contained information about computer programs, references, grants, meetings, and
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers document their research and professional activities from 1946-2012 and primarily deal with their archaeological and anthropological research in South America. Their work at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History and their frequent collaboration with other researchers and professional organizations is also represented. In addition, this collection contains detailed records on South American research conducted by the Smithsonian Institution from the 1950s through the 2010s. The collection consists of research and project files, raw data and analysis, graphs and illustrations, photographs, correspondence, maps and charts, and administrative files.
Scope and Contents:
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans papers document their research and professional activities from 1946-2012 and primarily deal with their archaeological and anthropological research in South America. There is also significant material detailing research conducted in South America by the National Museum of Natural History (particularly the Department of Anthropology). Material documenting their publication and collaboration efforts with researchers and other colleagues is represented as well. There is also limited material related to Meggers and Evans time in graduate school at Columbia University and their brief careers before starting at the Smithsonian Institution in the early 1950s. The collection consists of research and project files, raw data and analysis, graphs and illustrations, photographs, correspondence, maps and charts, and administrative files.
This collection is arranged in 12 series: Series 1. Personal, 1893-2012, undated; Series 2. Writings, 1944-2011, undated; Series 3. Research, 1930-2011, undated; Series 4. Correspondence, 1922-2012; Series 5. Conferences and Seminars, 1949-2010, undated; Series 6. Museum and Institute Subject Files, 1973-2011, undated; Series 7. Smithsonian Institution Amazon Ecosystem Program, 1962-2008, undated. Series 8. National Program of Archeological Research in Brazil, 1961-1989, undated; Series 9. Paleoindian Research: Paleoclimatology and Paleofauna Programs, 1960-1992, undated; Series 10. Latin American Archaeology Fund, 1971-1991, undated; Series 11. Photographs, 1937-2008, undated; Series 12. Maps and Charts, 1957- circa 2009, undated.
Biographical / Historical:
Clifford Evans Chronology
1920 -- Born in Dallas, Texas.
1941 -- Bachelors degree in anthropology from the University of Southern California.
1946 -- Married Betty Meggers.
1948-1949 -- Field research: Lower Amazon archaelogical expedition to Marajo, Mexiana, Caviana, and Territory of Ampa, Brazil. With Betty Meggers.
1950 -- Ph.D., Columbia University.
1950-1951 -- Instructor, Anthropology, University of Virginia.
1951-1962 -- Associate Curator, Smithsonian Department of Anthropology.
1952-1953 -- Field research: Archaelogical and ethnographic investigations in British Guiana. With Betty Meggers.
1954 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Betty Meggers and Emilio Estrada.
1956 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations along the Rio Napo, Eastern Ecuador. With Betty Meggers.
1957 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Betty Meggers and Emilio Estrada.
1958 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Betty Meggers and Emilio Estrada.
1961 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Betty Meggers and Emilio Estrada.
1962-1964 -- Curator of the Division of Archaeology.
1963 -- Field research: Archeological investigations of megalithic structures on Nan Madol, Ponape, Caroline Islands. With Betty Meggers.
1964-1970, 1975-1981 -- Supervising Curator of the Department of Anthropological Research.
1965-1970 -- Co-principal investigator with Betty Meggers of PRONAPA.
1966 -- Field research: Archeological survey on Dominica. With Clifford Evans.
1968-1975 -- Co-principal investigator with Betty Meggers of the Proyecto Andino de Estudios Arqueologicos.
1970-1975 -- Chairman of the Department of Anthropology.
1971 -- Creates the Latin American Archaeology Fund with Betty Meggers.
1972 -- Creates the Paleo-Indian, Paleoecology, and Paleoenvironmental Research Program.
1974 -- Creates the Amazon Ecosystems Research Program.
1975-1980 -- Co-principal investigator with Betty Meggers of PRONAPABA.
1976 -- Field research: Paleoindian and Archaic sites and museum collections in Peru, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil. With Betty Meggers and Dennis Stanford.
1981 -- Dies in Washington, D.C.
Betty Meggers Chronology
1921 -- Born December 5 in Washington, D.C.
1943 -- A.B. in anthropology, University of Pennsylvania
1944 -- M.A., University of Michigan
1948-1949 -- Field research: Lower Amazon archaelogical expedition to Marajo, Mexiana, Caviana, and Territory of Ampa, Brazil. With Clifford Evans.
1950-1951 -- Instructor, Anthropology, American University
1952 -- Ph.D., Columbia University
1952-1953 -- Field research: Archaelogical and ethnographic investigations in British Guiana. With Clifford Evans.
1954 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Clifford Evans and Emilio Estrada.
1954-2012 -- Research Associate, Department of Anthropology, national Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution
1956 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations along the Rio Napo, Eastern Ecuador. With Clifford Evans.
1957 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Clifford Evans and Emilio Estrada.
1958 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Clifford Evans and Emilio Estrada.
1961 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Clifford Evans and Emilio Estrada.
1963 -- Field research: Archeological investigations of megalithic structures on Nan Madol, Ponape, Caroline Islands. With Clifford Evans.
1965-1970 -- Co-principal investigator with Clifford Evans of PRONAPA.
1966 -- Field research: Archeological survey on Dominica. With Clifford Evans.
1968-1975 -- Co-principal investigator with Clifford Evans of the Proyecto Andino de Estudios Arqueologicos.
1975-1980 -- Co-principal investigator with Clifford Evans of PRONAPABA.
1976 -- Field research: Paleoindian and Archaic sites and museum collections in Peru, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil. With Clifford Evans and Dennis Stanford.
1976-1996 -- Committee for Research and Exploration, National Geographic Society
1982-1985 -- Consultant, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem, Brazil
2012 -- Dies in Washington, D.C.
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans were anthropologists specializing in the archeology of lowland South America. Their combined careers at the Smithsonian Department of Anthropology totaled over 100 years. Evans was born in 1920 in Texas. He received his bachelor's degree in anthropology and archaeology from the University of Southern California in 1941. Following his service as a bombardier during World War II, he enrolled in the anthropology doctoral program at Columbia University where he met Meggers, a fellow student in the department. Meggers was born in 1921 in Washington, D.C., and was the daughter of well-known archaeologist William Frederick Meggers. She graduated from the University of Pennsylvania with a bachelors degree in anthropology in 1943 and from the University of Michigan with a masters in anthropology in 1944 before being admitted to Columbia.
Meggers and Evans did their dissertation research together in South America— Meggers worked on the island of Marajo at the mouth of the Amazon River while Evans did archaeological research in the Amapa territory of Brazil. The two were married on September 13, 1946.
After Evans received his Ph.D. in 1950, he was hired by the Smithsonian Institution as an associate curator in the Department of Anthropology in 1951. After graduating in 1952, Meggers worked as an anthropology instructor at American University for one year before being hired as a research associate in the Smithsonian Department of Anthropology in 1954.
Evans was named Curator of the Division of Archaeology in 1962, and Supervising Curator of the newly created Office of Anthropological Research in 1964. Under his leadership, standardized operating procedures were created that centralized accessioning, cataloging, storing, and lending of objects. This freed curators from many complicated and routine activities. In 1970, Evans was appointed the Chairman of Anthropology for a five year term, where he initiated many large-scale research programs with Meggers that continued to operate many years after his chairmanship ended.
The first program that Evans and Meggers created was the "Paleo-Indian, Paleoecology, and Paleoenvironmental Research Program" in 1972, which was designed to study prehistoric peoples in the Western Hemisphere. The second program, implemented in 1974 was the "Amazon Ecosystems Research Program," which organized Brazilian scientists and Smithsonian staff members interested in environmental studies of the Amazon region.
Meggers and Evans conducted much of their field work together, which resulted in hundreds of articles, essays, presentations, and books. The majority of their work was done in the Amazon and Andean regions of South America, particularly Brazil, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Ecuador. Aside from these publications, they were also able to collect many archaeological specimens that are still part of the Smithsonian's holdings.
The conclusions that Meggers and Evans drew from their research and field work, while ground-breaking, were often controversial. In the early 1960s local businessman and amateur archaeologist Emilio Estrada excavated pottery from the Valdivia area in Ecuador and shared his results with Meggers and Evans. After finding significant similarities between Valdivian artifacts and those from Japan's ancient Jomon culture, they theorized that there was transpacific contact between Japan and South America around the beginning of the third millennium B.C. Their theory remains controversial.
Meggers and Evans also argued that despite the rich forests of the Amazon region, the river basin's thin, poor soil could not hold enough nutrients to sustain intensive agriculture. As a result, they argued, large and complex societies could not have existed in the Amazon River basin as other archaeologists and anthropologists have suggested.
After finishing his tenure as chairman of the Department of Anthropology, Clifford Evans died in 1981 of a heart attack at the age of 60. Following his death, Meggers continued in her position as research associate in the Department of Anthropology for another 30 years. Though she did not conduct additional fieldwork after her husband's death, Meggers wrote prolifically and was heavily involved in analyzing field work data and collaborating with colleagues working throughout South America. She made it possible for many researchers to study and conduct research at the National Museum of Natural History, and presented in many conferences and seminars locally and internationally. In addition, Meggers advocated on the behalf of colleagues to the National Geographic Society and other organizations to procure funding for archaeological and anthropological expeditions all over the world. Betty Meggers died in 2012 at the age of 90.
There are about 25 slide cases, each containing about 200 to 300 kodachrome slides, that are currently stored at the Department of Anthropology at the National Museum of Natural History. These were created in the late 1940s and early 1950s and contain images of field work and other trips to South American locations such as Peru, British Guiana, the Peru Highlands, Ecuador, Brazil, Chile, Hondouras, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Mexico. Contact repository for more information.
2 rolls of 16mm film, 22 audio cassettes, and 1 VHS of South and Central American research were transferred to the Human Studies Film Archives in 2015.
The papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by the estate of Betty J. Meggers in 2013.
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans papers are open for research. Personal correspondence, however, is RESTRICTED until 2026.
The Marvin E. Mundel Industrial Engineering Collection contains correspondence, reports, data, notes, publications, books, charts, certificates, awards, writings, photographs, films and videos that document the life and career of Marvin Mundel, a well-known expert in the field of work management and productivity enhancement.
Scope and Contents:
The Marvin E. Mundel Industrial Engineering Collection contains correspondence, reports, data, notes, publications, books, charts, certificates, awards, writings, photographs, films and videos that document the life and career of Marvin Mundel and demonstrate his work practices and teaching techniques.
The collection is organized chronologically into eleven series: Biographical Materials, Writings, Industrial Engineering, Work Methods, Purdue University, Time and Motion Study, Government Work, Japanese Consulting, Asian Productivity Organization, Dupont Case Study, and Films and Videos. While the years in each series may overlap, the separation of series demonstrates the evolution of Mundel's work and teachings. Photographs can be found throughout the collection. Information about the film and video series is located in Appendix A.
Series 1, Biographical Materials, 1953-1996, consists of documentation about Mundel and his career. The series contains bibliographies and curriculum vitae, correspondence, documentation on his memberships in Industrial Engineering groups, photographs, and certificates.
Series 2, Writings, 1937-1994, brings together Mundel's papers, speeches, books, and publications. When possible, the writings are arranged chronologically. The remaining writings are arranged by topic. This series should not be considered a definitive bibliography of Mundel's writings.
Series 3, Industrial Engineering, 1954-1995, combines Mundel's research with correspondence to and from other Industrial Engineers. It also includes Mundel's contributions to the Encyclopedia Britannica on "Industrial Engineering," "Work Measurement," and "Memomotion."
Series 4, Work Methods, undated, contains documents such as forms, office procedure manuals, visual aids, and printed matter about office equipment that offer insight into Mundel's work methods and innovative methods of making his own office more efficient.
Series 5, Purdue University, 1951-1957, documents his teaching career at the Industrial Engineering Department as well correspondence from his trip to England where he taught classes on industrial engineering.
Series 6, Time and Motion Study, 1952-1984, includes notes, data, printed matter, correspondence, charts, and photographs from his consultant work for various companies. This series contains seven subseries: Subseries 1, Consulting Work, 1954-1966; Subseries 2, Correspondence, 1956-1960; Subseries 3, Course work, undated; Subseries 4, Equipment, undated; Subseries 5, Film, 1952-1984; Subseries 6, Memberships, 1970-1977; and Subseries 7, Research, 1957.
Subseries 1, Consulting work, 1954-1966, contains correspondence and data from the corporations that hired Mundel as a consultant. Subseries 2, Correspondence, 1956-1960, the contains letters to and from people with diverse interests in time and motion study. Many people wrote to Mundel asking for advice with projects. Visual aids and handouts make up Subseries 3, Course work. In order to create memomotion, Mundel needed to refine certain electrical and motor parts on the cameras and projectors with which he worked. Subseries 4, Equipment, undated, have brochures on many different kinds of motors and switches. Subseries 5, Film, 1952-1984, contains most of the documentation that relates directly to films and video cassettes in this collection. Mundel was active in many organizations related to industrial engineering that shared his interests in time and motion study. Finally, copies and clippings make up the research subseries, 1957.
Series 7, Government Work, 1952-1971, documents Mundel's work for the government, from his work at Rock Island Arsenal to seminars for NASA. This series contains correspondence, data, reports, course work, visual aids, and photographs. The consulting work is arranged in a chronological manner and, in some instances, alphabetically.
Series 8, Japanese Consulting, 1959-1987, documents Mundel's consulting work for Japanese corporations. The files are arranged alphabetically by company and contain research, data, charts, notes, reports, and correspondence about each manufacturing firm. His notebooks and trip files give insight into his cultural understanding of Japanese firms and his teaching practices. Of special interest are the notebooks that contain photographs and firsthand experiences of adapting to Japanese culture and understanding Japanese work practices.
Series 9, Asian Productivity Organization, 1973-1994, consists of year and country files of Mundel's seminars throughout the Far East. The course work, notes, visual aids, reports, and photographs demonstrate Mundel's shift in emphasis from work measurement to managerial organization. This series also contains books published by the Asian Productivity Organization (APO) that give a context to Mundel's work and writings.
Series 10, Dupont Case Study, 1978-1984, contains correspondence, data, notes, reports, research, and visual aids concerning one of the many American companies where Mundel consulted. Dupont was selected because of its prominence in the American business world.
Series 11, Films and Videos, circa 1939-1973, is comprised of 16mm films and 1⁄2" VHS videocassette tapes. The bulk of the series is 16mm films. The films relate to the documents in Series 6: Time and Motion Studies. There are six subseries: Rating Films, 1939-1973; Memomotion Films, circa 1948-1959; Multi-Image Loops, circa, 1956-1958; Instructional Films, circa 1939-1962; Travel Films, circa 1955-1958 and Papers, undated.
Films are labeled either OF, RF, OV, or RV, for Original Film, Reference Film, Original Video, and Reference Video, respectively. [Example: For "676.24 OF Roll Edge on Sheet Metal Disc, circa 1960 (REF. FILM 676.24 and REF. VIDEO 676.70)," 676 is the collection number; 24 is the item number; OF means original film; "Roll Edge on Sheet Metal Disc" is the title; 1960 is the date followed by any reference copies. In this case there are both a reference film and a reference video. The Archives Center will eventually have reference copies for all of the films. for researchers to view.
Subseries 1, Rating Films, circa 1939-1973, represents Mundel's work with rating or pace films. This technique films a worker doing a repetitive work unit and allows trained motion study analysts to establish time standards. These films show a wide variety of jobs held by both men and women, American workers and Japanese workers. There are three groups of films:
Demonstration Rating Films: These films have the same format as titles with 10 scenes of workers doing a work unit at different paces. The films are arranged according to Mundel's numerical system and retain the original titles. These films should be projected at 1000 frames per minute.
Poultry Rating Films: These are rating films that Mundel did for the USDA and the Consumer Protection Programs.
Miscellaneous Films: These are Mundel's rating films for Tung Sol, ASF, Woods Veterans Hospital, and Montfort. There is also a rating film taken by an English company.
Subseries 2, Memomotion Films, circa 1948-1959, includes memomotion examples that were incorporated into instructional films. Memomotion is a filming technique created by Mundel. Time and motion analysts film a non-repetitive or extended crew activity at one frame per second and then project the film at normal speed. In this manner, the analyst can record a longer work period at a fraction of the cost and be able to analyze the film much more quickly. Memomotion is often used in conjunction with work flow diagrams.
Subseries 3, Multi-Image Loops, circa 1956-1958, combines seven of Mundel's multi-image loops onto one film core. The films display twelve images of rating films at the same time. The worker in each image is working at a different pace (fastest in the top left-hand corner and the slowest in the bottom right-hand corner). Time and motion study analysts could watch the loops for as long as they needed to get an idea of what the range of paces for a certain job could be. The loops were disassembled and spliced together for preservation and viewing purposes.
Subseries 4, Instructional Films, circa 1939-1962, includes Mundel's attempts to educate others about his filming techniques and overall industrial engineering themes. The films teach ways to improve productivity through motion studies, how to make memomotion films, and the College of Technology, Birmingham, England's method of making microscope slides.
Subseries 5, Travel Films, circa 1955-1958, includes films that combine Mundel's love for travel and different cultures with film documentation of Japanese seminars.
Subseries 6, Papers, undated, contains papers directly related to the films. Of importance are the rating sheets which associate different percentages of efficiency to the paces in the film.
This collection is divided into eleven series.
Series 1, Biographical Materials, 1953-1996
Series 2, Writings, 1937-1994
Subseries 1, Books, 1942-1994
Subseries 2, Papers, 1959-1989, undated
Subseries 3, Publications, 1937-1993, undated
Subseries 4, Speeches, undated
Subseries 5, University of Iowa Studies, 1938-1940
Series 9, Asian Productivity Organization, 1973-1994
Subseries 1, Annual Reports, 1973-1994
Subseries 2, Books, 1985-1989
Subseries 3, General, 1976-1995, undated
Subseries 4, Seminars, 1973-1989
Subseries 5, Presentation Album of Jakarta Seminar, 1973
Series 10, DuPont Case Study, 1978-1984
Series 11, Films and Videos, circa 1939-1973
Subseries 1, Rating Films, circa 1939-1973
Subseries 2, Memomotion Films, circa 1948-1959
Subseries 3, Multi-Image Loops, circa 1956-1958
Subseries 4, Instructional Films, circa 1939-1962
Subseries 5, Travel Films, circa 1955-1958
Subseries 6, Papers, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Marvin Everett Mundel, born April 20, 1916, was a major figure in the fields of industrial engineering and time and motion studies. He is known particularly for his consulting work, seminars and teaching, as well as numerous publications based on his expertise in work management and productivity enhancement. He began his engineering career in 1936 with a B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from New York University (1936), followed by an M.S. and Ph.D. in Industrial Engineering earned in 1938 and 1939, respectively, from the State University of Iowa.
In the late 1930s and 1940s, work measurement studies were considered the state-of-the-art method for improving industrial production. Mundel continued and built upon the achievements of pioneers Frank and Lillian Gilbreth during his teaching career at both Bradley and Purdue Universities. He also conducted seminars at Marquette University Management Center and the University of Wisconsin's Extension Center in Milwaukee. In addition to his American teaching career, Mundel was a visiting professor at both the University of Birmingham in England and Keio University in Tokyo, Japan.
In 1952, Mundel started a consulting firm which aided corporations and governments in either work measurement consulting or, later in his career, industrial engineering consulting. His first clients were United States government agencies that wanted to gain control over lost revenue or manpower. His position from 1952 to 1953 at the Rock Island Arsenal in Illinois, as the first Director of the Army Management Engineering Training Program, transformed management techniques in the Army.
After his employment at Rock Island, Mundel began a series of consultant roles with corporations eager to standardize labor practices and make production more efficient. From 1953 to 1963, Mundel conducted time and motion studies at various manufacturing companies and developed techniques to measure work units. His most important contribution to the field of time and motion study was the development of memomotion, a stop-action filming technique used to determine time standards for work tasks.
Following his refinements of time and motion study, Mundel took his expertise to Japan where he offered his consultant services to various Japanese manufacturing firms during the 1960s. His interests evolved from time and motion studies to include work management and overall management organization consulting. During the 1960s and 1970s, Mundel also returned to government consulting in the United States with these new techniques, in offices such as the Bureau of the Budget and United States Department of Agriculture. This period marked an important evolution in Mundel's career, from time and motion study to work measurement and then to industrial consulting. Mundel was among the first consultants to export American management techniques to Japan, and, in his later career, to other Asian countries. He became an integral part of the Asian Productivity Organization, a group that helped developing Asian countries learn how to increase productivity. His seminars sought to provide corporations and governments with efficient management techniques so that Asia would become a strong economic center. Mundel was sensitive to cultural differences as well as varied methods of management and standards of productivity.
Mundel won the Gilbreth Award in 1982. He continued conducting seminars and writing books and articles well into the 1980s, until failing health prevented him from traveling. When Mundel died in 1996, he was well respected in the field of industrial engineering for his many contributions.
This collection was donated to the Archives Center at the National Museum of American History by Marvin Mundel's wife, Takako Mundel, in January, 1999.
The collection is open for research use.
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
The Robert I. Levy papers document his field work, research and professional activities from 1949-2001 and primarily deal with his work studying social organization, culture, and their psychological effects in Tahiti and Nepal. The collection consists of correspondence, field notes, sound recordings of interviews with informants in Tahiti and Nepal, interview transcripts and analyses, language and culture research materials, maps, and color slides. Also included are files about his books, articles, essays, and lectures; course materials from his time as a professor at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD); and conference files.
Scope and Contents:
The Robert I. Levy papers document his field work, research and professional activities from 1949-2001 and primarily deal with his work studying social organization, culture and their psychological effects in Tahiti and Nepal. The collection consists of correspondence, field notes, sound recordings of interviews with informants in Tahiti and Nepal, interview transcripts and analyses, language and culture research materials, maps, and color slides.
The correspondence includes Levy's thoughts on his first field work experience in Tahiti from 1961-1964 along with extensive correspondence with Levy's cousin, anthropologist Roy Rappaport, in the same time period. Interview transcripts from Tahiti are written in Tahitian with Levy's notes in English. Transcripts from Nepal are in Newar (Devanagari script) with English translations. Full transcripts in both languages are not always present. Research materials comprise documents Levy gathered before and after his periods of field work and include extensive analyses of psychological terms in Tahitian and Newar. The color slides depict adults, children, daily activities, rituals, and some landscapes in Tahiti and Nepal.
Also included in this collection are files about his books, articles, essays, and lectures; course materials from his time as a professor at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD); and conference files.
This collection is arranged in 4 series: Series 1. Tahiti, 1959-1964, 1970, undated; Series 2. Nepal, 1959-1990, undated; Series 3. Professional activities, 1949-2001, undated; Series 4. Slides, 1961, 1973-1978, undated.
1924 -- Robert I. Levy was born on June 1st in New York, New York.
1947 -- M.D. Degree, New York University, College of Medicine.
1953-1956 -- Army Medical Corps, Neuropsychiatric and Psychiatric Services, Germany.
1954 -- Specialty certification in psychiatry. American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology.
1956-1962 -- Private psychiatry practice. Associate Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, University of California, School of Medicine. Attending Psychiatrist, Langley Porter Neuropsychiatric Institute, San Francisco, California. Adjunct in psychiatry, Mount Zion Hospital, San Francisco, California.
1961 -- Fellow, American Psychiatric Association.
1961-1964 -- From July-August 1961 and July 1962-June 1964, field work in French Polynesia. Grants from the National Institute for Mental Health and the National Science Foundation.
1964-1966 -- Research Associate, Anthropology, Bishop Museum, Honolulu. Senior Scholar, Institute of Advanced Projects, East-West Center;
1966-1967 -- Visiting Associate Professor of Public Health, University of Hawaii.
1967-1969 -- Research Professor, Social Science Research Institute of Hawaii; Lecturer, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawaii.
1969-1991 -- Professor of Anthropology, University of California, San Diego.
1973-1976 -- Field work in Nepal. National Science Foundation grant.
1990-1991 -- Fellow, National Humanities Center, Research Triangle Park, NC.
1991-2003 -- Research Professor of Anthropology, Duke University. Research Professor of Anthropology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Emeritus Professor of Anthropology, University of California, San Diego;
1996 -- Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
2003 -- Died August 29th in Asolo, Italy.
Robert I. Levy was a professor in the Anthropology Department at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) from 1969 until his retirement in 1991 who was known for his ground breaking work in psychological anthropology. Born in 1924 in New York, New York, he originally trained in medicine and psychiatry (M.D. Degree, New York University, 1947). Levy was lured into anthropology in the early 1960s by Douglas Oliver to work on a field project in Tahiti. Levy spent a total of 26 months from 1961-1964 conducting research in Tahiti focused on aspects of Tahitian culture and psychological organization. The resulting book Tahitians: Mind and Experience in the Society Islands (1973) was selected as a finalist for the National Book Award. Levy went on to complete field work in Nepal in the traditional Hindu city of Bhaktapur, from 1973-1976 conducting research on social organization, culture, and their psychological correlates. The culmination of his research, Mesocosm: Hinduism and the Organization of a Traditional Newar City in Nepal, was published in 1990.
Prior to joining the faculty at UCSD, Levy was a senior scholar at the East-West Center, a research associate at the Bishop Museum, and a professor at the University of Hawaii, all in Honolulu. He was also the associate editor of ETHOS from 1971-1979 and received fellowships at the Center for Advanced Study in Behavioral Sciences in Palo Alto, CA (1985-1986) and the National Humanities Center in Research Triangle Park, NC (1990-1991). After his retirement from UCSD in 1991 Levy was appointed a Research Professor of Anthropology at both the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill and Duke University. He died in 2003 in Asolo, Italy.
Hollan, Douglas 2005 "Mind and Experience in Tahiti, Nepal, and Beyond." ETHOS. Vol. 33, No. 4, Special Section in Honor of Robert I. Levy (Dec., 2005), pp. 430-432.
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Robert Levy's wife,
Nerys Levy, in 2014.
Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
The Robert I. Levy papers are open for research.
Access to the Robert I. Levy papers requires an appointment.
The papers of Owen M. Lynch (1931-2013) contain his research and fieldwork on marginalized castes in India, and in particular highlight his work among the Dalits, or Untouchables, in Agra. The collection consists of field notes, surveys, interviews, maps, drawings, manuscript notes and drafts, language materials, subject files, day planners, correspondence, university papers, conference symposium and panel materials, photographs, sound recordings, video recordings, and electronic records.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Owen M. Lynch document his research and field work in India, and in particular highlight his work among the Dalits in Agra. The collection consists of field notes, surveys, interviews, maps, drawings, manuscript notes and drafts, language materials, subject files, day planners, correspondence, university papers, conference symposium and panel materials, photographs, sound recordings, video recordings, and electronic records. The Munda Languages Project was Lynch's first fieldwork experience in India and focused on the Nihali and Nahali languages. His subsequent research focused on the Dalits in Agra, the Dharavi slums of Mumbai, the Chaube Brahmans in Mathura, and the Radhavallabhi sect in Brindaban. This research is represented well in his field notes, photographs, and sound recordings.
Lynch also kept extensive subject files on numerous Indian issues which contain significant material on the Dalits, Indian economics and politics, and related researchers. There is a small amount of Lynch's university papers from both his time as a student and as a professor. His student material includes reading notes, his student papers, and dissertation proposal. His university papers are chiefly course and lecture notes. The bulk of the photographs are from Lynch's fieldwork, primarily from Agra and Mumbai. Included are photos of slums in Agra and Mumbai, shoemakers in Agra, weddings, ceremonies, conferences, and parades. There are also prints used in his first book The Politics of Untouchability. The presentation slides are thematically arranged sets of photographs, presumably used for course lectures or conference presentations. The majority of the sound recordings are from fieldwork in Agra in 1994-1995, and include lectures, interviews, conference recordings, and songs.
The Owen M. Lynch papers are arranged into 13 series:
2. Research, 1956-2006
3. Subject Files, 1953-2012
4. University, 1951-2010
5. Writings, 1963-2005
6. Writings By Others, circa 1950-2003
7. Correspondence, 1947-2010 and undated
8. Professional Activities, 1977-2004
9. Biographical, 1945-2007
10. Ephemera, circa 1990-circa 2000
11. Photographs, circa 1940s-circa 2009 and undated
12. Sound Recordings, 1962-2006
13. Video Recordings, circa 2000-circa 2011
14. Electronic Records, circa 1980-2011
1931 -- Born on January 4 in Flushing, New York
1956 -- B.A., Fordham University
1962-1964 -- Fieldwork: Munda Languages Project, Madhya Pradesh, India
1964-1964 -- Fieldwork: Dalits in Agra, India
1966 -- Ph.D. in anthropology, Columbia University
1966-1969 -- Assistant Professor, State University of New York at Binghamton
1966-1986 -- Seminar Associate, Columbia University Seminars
1969-1973 -- Associate Professor, State University of New York at Binghamton
1970-1971 -- Fieldwork: Squatters in Mumbai, India
1974-2003 -- Charles F. Noyes Professor Emeritus of Urban Anthropology, New York University
1978-1984 -- Senior Research Associate, Southern Asian Institute, Columbia University
1980-1982 -- Fieldwork: Pilgrimage and Chaube Brahmans in Mathura, India
1988-1989 -- Fieldwork: Radhavallabhi Sect in Brindaban, India
1994-1995 -- Fieldwork: Dalits in Agra, India
2013 -- Died on April 26 in Boston, Massachusetts
Owen M. Lynch was an anthropologist and scholar with New York University who was noted for his pioneering work with the Dalits, or Untouchables, in India. He was born in 1931 in Flushing, New York. He earned his bachelor's degree from Fordham University (1956) and his Ph.D in anthropology from Columbia University (1966). He began his teaching career in 1966 as an assistant professor at the State University of New York at Binghamton. He became the Charles F. Noyes Professor Emeritus of Urban Anthropology at New York University in 1974 where he remained until his retirement in 2003.
His first fieldwork experience was with the Munda Languages Project in Madhya Pradesh, India, in 1962. His involvement with the project centered around work with the Nihali and Nahali languages. In 1963, he began fieldwork among the Dalits in Agra. He worked with the Jatavs, many of whom were shoemakers. This fieldwork would evolve into his dissertation, and form the basis for his first book The Politics of Untouchablility, published in 1969. He continued to study the Dalits and other marginalized peoples in India, including the Dharavi slums in Mumbai, Chaube Brahmans in Mathura, and the Radhavallabhi sect in Brindaban. He wrote extensively about the impact of Dalit leader B.R. Ambedkar, as well as the intersections of Buddhism, politics, and economics within India and the Dalit community.
Lynch was active in numerous anthropological associations. Among other professional appointments, he served on the editorial boards of South Asian Social Scientist (1984-1987), the Association of Asian Studies (1973-1977), and the International Journal of Hindu Studies (1997-2013); he was chair of the South Asia Council of the Association for Asian Studies (1985-1988) and president of the Society for Urban, National and Transnational Anthropology (1996-1998). He was also involved with groups such as the Volunteers in Service to India's Oppressed and Neglected (VISION), and was an active participant on conference panels and symposiums. He retired from teaching in 2003, and died in 2013.
2014 Owen M. Lynch (1931-2013). American Anthropologist. 116(4): 898-900.
The collection was donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Owen Lynch's niece, Maureen Murphy, in 2013.
Some material related to scholarship applications, job applications, and doctoral applications and defenses are restricted and not available for access. Restriction dates are noted in the container listing.
Access to the Owen M. Lynch papers requires an appointment.
Smithsonian Institution. Institute of Social Anthropology Search this
5.25 Linear feet (Six document boxes (including one box of restricted materials), four card file boxes, and one oversize folder)
Ozzie G. Simmons (1919--988) served as field director in Peru for the Bureau of American Ethnology's Institute of Social Anthropology (ISA) from 1949 to 1952 and as Consulting Anthropologist for the Institute of Inter-American Affairs, Chile. The papers in this collection mainly concern his field research on the role of alcohol in the community of Lunahuaná, Peru. The collection also contains draft manuscripts on the activities of the public health service in Lima and Chimbote, Peru, and his study of medical centers in Chile.
Scope and Contents:
The papers in this collection mainly concern Ozzie G. Simmons' field research on the role of alcohol in the community of Lunahuaná, Peru. Materials include field notes, reading notes, survey responses, photographs, drawings, maps, and demographic information. The collection also contains draft manuscripts pertaining to his study of medical centers in Chile, focusing on preventative and educational activities and the relationship of the health centers with local communities. In addition, the collection contains a draft manuscript by Simmons on the activities of the public health service in Lima and Chimbote, Peru.
The collection is organized into two series: Series 1. Peru Research, 1950-1966, 1980; Series 2. Chile Research, 1952-1953.
Ozzie Gordon Simmons (1919--1988) was born in the Canadian city of Winnipeg to American parents. He studied sociology at Northwestern University (BA, 1941) and Harvard University (MA, 1948; PhD, 1952). Simmons' doctoral dissertation, "Anglo Americans and Mexican Americans in South Texas: A study in dominant-subordinate group relations," was based on field research he conducted in Gallup, New Mexico and San Antonio, Texas, under Clyde Kluckhohn and Talcott Parsons. Simmons also served in the Air Force during World War II.
Simmons served as field director in Peru for the Bureau of American Ethnology's Institute of Social Anthropology (ISA) from 1949 to 1952. The ISA was an autonomous unit of the Smithsonian Institution which aimed to train Latin American anthropologists. Field personnel taught and mentored students in the field, while also pursuing their own research interests in the host country. In Simmons' case, he became involved in a study on the use of alcohol in the Peruvian town of Lunahuaná. After the ISA came to an end in 1952, Simmons briefly worked in Chile for the Institute of Inter-American Affairs.
Simmons' later career included appointments at Harvard University, the University of Colorado Boulder, the Ford Foundation, and Fordham University's Hispanic Research Center. In 1962, Simmons received the Hofheimer Prize from the American Psychiatric Association. His research interests included Latin American culture and society, medical anthropology, the use of alcohol, social psychiatry, and population. His last book, Perspectives on Development and Population Growth in the Third World, was published in 1988, shortly before his death.
Ozzie Simmons passed away on November 26, 1988 at age 69 of lung cancer.
American Anthropological Association. 1989. Deaths: Ozzie Gordon Simmons. Anthropology Newsletter 30(1): 4.
Demb, Sarah R. 1999. Simmons, Ozzie Gordon, (1919-1988) Papers, 1947-1948: A Finding Aid. Peabody Museum Archives, Harvard University.
Obituary Editor. 1988. Obituaries: Ozzie G. Simmons, 69, Sociology Researcher. New York Times, November 29.
Simmons, Ozzie G. 1964. [Peru Research: Faculty Fellowship Application]. Ozzie Gordon Simmons Papers. National Anthropological Archives.
1919 -- Born October 9 in Winnipeg, Manitoba
1941 -- Joins the Air Force for four years during World War II Earns BA from Northwestern University
1947-1948 -- Conducts field research in Gallop, New Mexico and San Antonio, Texas under Clyde Kluckhohn and Talcott Parsons at Harvard University
1948 -- Earns MA in Sociology from Harvard University
1949-1952 -- Field Director Peru, Institute of Social Anthropology, Smithsonian Institution Visiting Professor, National University of San Marcos, Lima, Peru
1952 -- Earns PhD in Sociology from Harvard University
1953 -- Consulting Anthropologist, Institute of Inter-American Affairs, Chile
1953-1961 -- Lecturer to Associate Professor of Anthropology, Harvard University Director, Harvard Community Health Project, Harvard University
1961-1968 -- Professor of Sociology, University of Colorado Boulder Director, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado Boulder Senior Faculty Associate in Research, Brandeis University
1962 -- Receives Hofheimer Prize from the American Psychiatric Association
1969 -- Program Advisor for Latin America and the Caribbean, Ford Foundation
1971 -- Program Director for Social Science, Ford Foundation
1981 -- Joins Hispanic Research Center, Fordham University
1988 -- Dies of lung cancer on November 26 in Westwood, New Jersey
Other materials related to Ozzie Gordon Simmons at the National Anthropological Archives include the Institute of Social Anthropology records and Manuscript 4623 Institute of Social Anthropology photographs.
In addition, Simmons' field notes from New Mexico and Texas during the period of 1947 to 1948 are held by Harvard University's Peabody Museum Archives.
Some materials are restricted to protect the identity and privacy of individuals from Lunahuaná, Peru. Series 1. Peru Research contains sensitive information about the medical histories of individuals from Lunahuaná, as well as information about the victims of alleged crimes. Boxes 1 through 5, as well as some materials in Boxes 7 and 8, have been restricted until 2031-2032. One folder from Box 8 has been restricted until 2046.
The bulk of these papers document the professional life of Carol Kramer, a leading figure in ethnoarchaeology, specializing in the Middle East and South Asia. She was also a major advocate for the professional development of women in anthropology and archaeology.
Dating 1943-2002, the collection includes field notes, writings, correspondence, daily planners, teaching files, photographs, sound recordings, maps, computer disks, and botanical specimens. Her ethnoarchaeological research in "Shahabad" (a.k.a. "Aliabad") in Iran and in Rajasthan, India is well-represented in the collection.
Scope and Contents Note:
The bulk of these papers document the professional life of Carol Kramer. The collection contains field notes, writings, correspondence, daily planners, teaching files, photographs, sound recordings, maps, computer disks, and botanical specimens. Also in the collection are her notes and grade transcripts as a college and graduate student.
Her ethnoarchaeological research in "Shahabad" (a.k.a. "Aliabad") in Iran and in Rajasthan, India is well-represented in the collection in the form of her notes, maps, writings, and photographs. In addition, there are plant specimens that Kramer collected in Iran. Also among her research files are photocopies of her field notes from her work in Guatemala. Although her field notes from the Hasanlu Project are absent, the collection does contain a few photographs and some notes and correspondence from her research for her article on the Hasanlu Project's excavations at Dalma Tepe. In addition, the collection contains "A System of Pottery Classification According to Shape," a paper by Robert H. Dyson, Jr. and T. Cuyler Young, Jr. for the Hasanlu Project. Materials relating to the Godin Project consist of correspondence from 1996 and 1997 and a 1973 group photo.
Copies of her monographs are present in the collection along with drafts, figures, and correspondence for her published writings and dissertation. Many of the papers that she presented at professional meetings, seminars, and special lectures can also be found in the collection, including her 1994 AAA Distinguished Lecture, "The Quick and the Dead: Ethnography in and for Archaeology." In addition, there are two cassette tape recordings of Kramer presenting her paper, "Ceramics in Two Indian Cities," and the subsequent group discussion at the 1985 School of American Research Advanced Seminar, "Social and Behavioral Sources of Ceramic Variability." Also of special interest are materials documenting her involvement in the 1981 "Resolution to Implement the 1972 American Anthropological Association Resolution on Fair Practices in Employment of Women."
Kramer's professional correspondence is spread throughout the collection, mixed together with other documents, filed by subject. Much of her later correspondence is in the form of e-mail printouts. Letters of reference she wrote can also be found on her computer disks, which consist of several 3.50" and 5.25" floppy disks. Other files on the disks include materials for her books and articles, research data, her performance evaluations files, notes for courses she taught, and her will.
It should be noted that Kramer was briefly married during the 1960s and 1970s to Christopher Hamlin, who was a fellow graduate student at the University of Pennsylvania. Thus, she is referred to as Carol Hamlin in some of the documents from that period.
1971 -- "The 1971 Excavations at Seh Gabi, Iran," Archaeology, Vol. 26, pp. 224-227.
1974 -- "The Early Second Millennium Ceramic Assemblage of Dinkha Tepe," Ibid. with Louis D. Levine. "The Godin Project: Seh Gabi," Iran XII, pp. 211-213. "Seh Gabi, 1973," Archaeology, Vol. 27, pp. 274-277
1977 -- "Pots and Peoples," Mountains and Lowlands: Essays in the Archaeology of Greater Mesopotamia, edited by L.D. Levine and T.C. Young, Jr. Malibu: Undena Publications
1979 -- editor. Ethnoarchaeology: Implications of Ethnography for Archaeology. New York: Colombia University Press.
1980 -- "Estimating Prehistoric Populations: an Ethnoarchaeological Approach," L'Archéologie de I'Iraq, edited by Marie-Thérèse Barrelet, Paris: Centre National de la Rechere Scientifique.
1982 -- Village Ethnoarchaeology: Rural Iran in Archaeological Perspective. New York: Academic Press.
1988 -- with Miriam Stark. "The Status of Women in Archaeology," Anthropology Newsletter. Vol. 29, No. 9, pp. 11-12.
1991 -- Co-editor with W.A. Longcre. "Ethnoarchaeology," special issue of Expedition "Ceramics in Two Indian Cities," Ceramic Ethnoarchaeology, edited by William Longacre. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
1997 -- Pottery in Rajasthan: Ethnoarchaeology in Two Indian Cities. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
2001 -- with Nicholas David. Ethnoarchaeology in Action. Cambridge (U.K.): Cambridge University Press
1943 -- Born May 3 in New York, New York
1964 -- Earns B.A. from The City University of New York
1967, 1969 -- Site supervisor of archaeological excavations at Godin Tepe, Iran for the Royal Ontario Museum's Godin Project
1968 -- Site supervisor of archaeological excavations at Dinkha Tepe and Se Girdan, Iran for University of Pennsylvania-Metropolitan Museum of Art's Hasanlu Project.
1970 -- Ethnoarchaeological research with an urban potter in Antigua, Guatemala
1971 -- Receives Ph.D. in Anthropology from University of Pennsylvania 1971 Hired as Assistant Professor at City University of New York Assistant director of archaeological excavations at Seh Gabi, Iran for Godin Project
1973 -- Assistant director of archaeological excavations at Seh Gabi, Iran for Godin Project
1975 -- Ethnoarchaeological research in Iranian village
1977 -- Associate Professor, Lehman College and the Graduate Center, CUNY
1980 -- Ethnoarchaeological research in Rajasthan, India
1982-1984 -- Ethnoarchaeological research in Rajasthan, India
1985 -- Visiting Professor at Yale University
1986-1988 -- Visiting Professor at University of Arizona
1990 -- Hired as Professor at University of Arizona
1994 -- Presents distinguished lecture to Archaeology Section of American Anthropological Association
1995 -- Site supervisor of archaeological excavations at Gordion, Turkey
1996 -- Ethnoarchaeological research near Gordion, Turkey
1999 -- Receives "Squeaky Wheel Award" from COSWA/American Anthropological Association
2002 -- Died on December 3 at the age of 59
Carol Kramer was a leading figure in ethnoarchaeology, specializing in the Middle East and South Asia. She was also a major advocate for the professional development of women in anthropology and archaeology.
She was born on May 3, 1943 in New York City to Aaron Kramer, a poet and professor of English at Dowling College, and Katherine Kolodny Kramer, a social worker. She attended the High School of Music and Art and earned her B.A. at the City University of New York in 1964. Kramer initially studied archaeology in the graduate program at the University of Chicago, but transferred to the University of Pennsylvania after a year, where she earned her doctorate in 1971. Her dissertation was entitled "The Habur Ware Ceramic Assemblage of Northern Mesopotamia: An Analysis of its Distribution."
In 1968, she was a site supervisor for University of Pennsylvania and Metropolitan Museum of Art's joint archaeological excavations at Dinkha Tepe and Se Girdan, Iran as part of the Hasanlu Project, directed by Robert H. Dyson, Jr. She also served as site supervisor (1967, 1969) and Assistant Director (1971, 1973) for the Royal Ontario Museum's archaeological excavation at Godin Tepe, known as the Godin Project, which was directed by Louis D. Levine and T. Cuyler Young, Jr. In 1970, she conducted her first ethnoarchaeological fieldwork under Ruben Reina, working with an urban potter in Antigua, Guatemala.
Kramer returned to Iran in 1975 to conduct ethnoarchaeological research in a Kurdish village in the Hamadān Province. Her work there resulted in several papers, including "An Archaeological View of a Contemporary Kurdish Village: Domestic Architecture, Household Size, and Wealth," published in Ethnoarchaeology: Implications of Ethnography for Archaeology (1979), which she edited. She expanded upon her paper in her 1982 book, Village Ethnoarchaeology: Rural Iran in Archaeological Perspective.
For her next project, she intended to study pottery communities in Iran, but the outbreak of the Iranian Revolution forced her to change her plans, and she decided to shift her location to India. In 1980 and 1982-1984, she studied ceramic production and distribution in Rajasthan. Articles produced from her research include "Ceramics in Two Indian Cities" (1991), "Ceramics in Rajasthan: Distribution and Scalar Variation" (1992), "A Tale of Two Cities: Ceramic Ethnoarchaeology in Rajasthan" (1994), and "Social and Locational Contexts of Ceramic Distribution in Rajasthan" (1995). She also authored Pottery in Rajasthan: Ethnoarchaeology in Two Indian Cities, published in 1997.
Kramer returned to the field in 1995, serving as site supervisor for archaeological excavations in Gordion, Turkey. She returned the next year to explore the possibility of conducting research in Yassihöyük and other villages near Gordion as an extension of her village ethnoachaeology research in Iran.
In 2001, Kramer further contributed to the field of ethnoarchaeology with the publication of Ethnoarchaeology in Action, which she co-wrote with Nicholas David. The landmark book is the first comprehensive study of ethnoarchaeology.
In addition to her work in ethnoarchaeology, Kramer was also involved in promoting the professional advancement of women in anthropology. In 1980, Kramer and her colleagues (Roger Sanjek, Rayna Rapp, Carole Vance, and Glenn Peterson) drew up a resolution to implement the 1972 Resolution on Fair Practices in Employment of Women. They campaigned to raised funds and support for the resolution, which called for the American Anthropological Association (AAA) to censure universities that hired or promoted a low percentage of women. Due to their work, the resolution passed and AAA censured five departments in 1981. In 1988, she and Miriam Stark published, "The Status of Women in Archeology," a study of gender equity in archaeology. They looked at gender differences in the number of graduate students, PhD recipients, and funding recipients as well as in faculty composition. Kramer was also a member of the Committee on the Status of Women in Anthropology (COSWA) from 1973 to 1975 and host and discussion leader at the COSWA Roundtable on professional skills and the female archaeologist at the 1998 annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology (SAA).
In 1999, Kramer was awarded the Squeaky Wheel Award by COSWA in recognition of her contributions to equity for women in anthropology. She also delivered the 1994 Distinguished Lecture to the Archaeology Section for the AAA, "The Quick and the Dead: Ethnography in and for Archaeology." In 2003, she was posthumously awarded the SAA's Award for excellence in Archaeological Analysis.
From 1971 to 1990, Kramer taught at Queens College and later Lehman College and the Graduate Center at the City University of New York, during which time she was a visiting professor at Yale University (1985). She also taught at the University of Arizona (1986-1988) as a recipient of a National Science Foundation Visiting Professorship for Women. In 1990, she joined the faculty of the University of Arizona, where she taught until her death.
Kramer passed away at the age of 59 on December 3, 2002.
Rothschild, Nan A. "Carol Kramer (1943-2002)." American Anthropologist 106.1 (2004): 214-220.
Thompson, Raymond H. and Norman Yoffee. "Carol Kramer." Anthropology News 44.3 (2003): 30.
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Carol Kramer's sister, Laura Kramer.
The Carol Kramer papers are open for research.
Materials with student grades and social security numbers have been restricted. The dates that the restricted items will be made available for access range from 2047 to 2064. Access to Kramer's computer disks is also restricted. Please consult an archivist for more information.
This collection contains the professional papers of Conrad M. Arensberg, anthropologist, university professor, and anthropological consultant. Included are correspondence; published and unpublished writings; research materials, including notes, correspondence, diaries, charts, drafts, interviews, research plans, reports, project proposals, and bibliographic cards; speeches; pamphlets; articles from newspapers and periodicals; course materials, including bibliographies, lecture notes, reading lists, assignments, exams, project proposals, and syllabi; curriculum vitae; date books; scholarly papers and publications of other scholars; and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains the professional papers of Conrad M. Arensberg, anthropologist, university professor, and anthropological consultant. Included are correspondence; published and unpublished writings; research materials, including notes, correspondence, diaries, charts, drafts, interviews, research plans, reports, project proposals, and bibliographic cards; speeches; pamphlets; articles from newspapers and periodicals; course materials, including bibliographies, lecture notes, reading lists, assignments, exams, project proposals, and syllabi; curriculum vitae; date books; scholarly papers and publications of other scholars; and photographs.
The materials in this collection document Arensberg's career as a university professor, his relationships with colleagues across a spectrum of disciplines, and his contributions to the field of anthropology. As a respected member of the anthropological community, Arensberg received a voluminous amount of correspondence from his peers, who often included copies of their most recent papers. He kept many of these works, which, along with his annotations, can be found throughout the collection. It appears he used these papers in a variety of ways, including as resources for his classes or as reference materials. Arensberg's own work is reflected in his writings and research files. Arensberg's Ireland research, despite its importance to his career and to the field of anthropology as a whole, has a minimal presence in the collection. Located in Series 3. Research Files, the subseries containing Arensberg's Ireland material primarily consists of photocopies of his correspondence, field notes, and diaries during this time. His role as a professor, rather than as a researcher or writer, is the most well-represented in the collection. Arensberg formed lasting relationships with many of his students, as evidenced by his continued correspondence with many of them long after their years at Columbia.
The collection is organized into 8 series:
Series 1) Correspondence, 1933-1994
Series 2) Writings, 1936-1983
Series 3) Research files, 1931-1984
Series 4) Professional activities, 1933-1990
Series 5) Teaching files, 1938-1983
Series 6) Biographical files, 1946-1997
Series 7) Subject files, 1934-1979
Series 8) Photographs, undated
Conrad M. Arensberg was born on September 12, 1910 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Academically inclined from a young age, he graduated first in his class at Shadyside Academy in Pittsburgh. His early success earned him admittance to Harvard College. Arensberg studied anthropology and graduated summa cum laude in 1931.
As a graduate student at Harvard University, Arensberg was asked to join a project being conducted in Ireland by Harvard's Anthropology Department. Alongside W. Lloyd Warner and Solon T. Kimball, Arensberg spent three years studying rural Irish life in County Clare. This research resulted in his doctoral dissertation, "A Study in Rural Life in Ireland as Determined by the Functions and Morphology of the Family," which was later published as The Irish Countryman in 1937. His work was groundbreaking in the field of anthropology, and his study of County Clare "became a model for other community studies... requiring that researchers study a target culture from the inside, making meticulous notes on everything they saw, heard or experienced." Arensberg reshaped the way that anthropologists approached fieldwork and opened doors for the study of modern industrial societies.
Arensberg had a long teaching career. He first became a university professor in 1938 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and remained a professor for the rest of his life, teaching at MIT, Brooklyn College, Barnard College, Columbia University, the University of Florida, and the University of Virginia. At Columbia, Arensberg worked alongside such notable anthropologists as Margaret Mead, Charles Wagley, and Marvin Harris.
Arensberg officially retired in 1979, but he continued to collaborate with his colleagues, counsel past students, and participate in professional associations until his death. He passed away on February 10, 1997 in Hazlet, New Jersey.
Curriculum Vitae—Amended Posthumously. Series 6. Biographical Files. Conrad M. Arensberg papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Thomas, Robert McG. Jr. 1997. "Conrad Arensberg, 86, Dies; Hands-On Anthropologist." New York Times, February 16: 51.
1910 September 12 -- Born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
1931 -- B.A. from Harvard College
1932-1934 -- Traveled to Ireland to study rural life in County Clare as part of the Harvard Irish Mission
1933-1936 -- Junior Fellow, The Society of Fellows, Harvard University
1933-1994 -- Member and Fellow, American Anthropological Association
1934 -- Ph.D. in Anthropology from Harvard University
1937 -- Published The Irish Countryman, the result of his work in Ireland
1938-1940 -- Occasional consultant, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of American Ethnology
1938-1941 -- Assistant Professor, Department of Social Sciences and Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
1940 -- Founded (with others) the Society for Applied Anthropology
1941-1946 -- Associate Professor and Chairman, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Brooklyn College
1943-1946 -- Captain, Major, AUS, Military Intelligence Service
1946-1952 -- Associate Professor of Sociology, Chairman (until 1949) Department of Sociology, Barnard College, Columbia University
1951-1952 -- Research Director, UNESCO, Institute for the Social Sciences, Cologne, Germany
1951-1952 -- Editor, Point Four Manual, American Anthropological Association
1952-1953 -- Associate Professor of Anthropology, The Graduate Faculty of Political Science, Columbia University
1953-1970 -- Professor of Anthropology, Chairman (1956-1959), Department of Anthropology, Columbia University
1962-1978 -- Co-Director (with Alan Lomax) of Columbia University's Cross-Cultural Surveys of Social Structure and Expressive Behavior
1970-1979 -- Buttenwieser Professor of Human Relations, Columbia University
1979-1997 -- Buttenwieser Professor Emeritus of Human Relations, Columbia University
1980 -- President, American Anthropological Association
1991 -- First recipient, "Conrad M. Arensberg Award" of the Society for the Anthropology of Work
1997 February 10 -- Died in Hazlet, New Jersey
Arensberg is listed as a correspondent in the following collections at the Smithsonian Institution's National Anthropological Archives: John Lawrence Angel papers; Papers of Carleton Stevens Coon; Ethel Cutler Freeman papers; Frederica de Laguna papers; Ruth Landes papers; William Duncan Strong papers.
For oral history interviews with Arensberg, see the following collections:
-The Smithsonian Institution's Human Studies Film Archives "Video Dialogues in Anthropology: Conrad Arensberg and Lambros Comitas, 1989." In this video oral history conducted by anthropologist Lambros Comitas, Arensberg comments on his training in anthropology, the individuals who were influential in his career, and the geographical areas where he conducted his fieldwork.
-The National Anthropological Archives Manuscript (MS) 2009-15. May Mayko Ebihara conducted this oral history interview with Arensberg on March 7, 1984 as part of a larger oral history project with anthropologists.
For more concerning Arensberg's work with interaction theory, see the Frederick L.W. Richardson papers at the National Anthropological Archives. Richardson worked closely with Eliot Chapple and Conrad Arensberg on theories concerning human interaction.
For correspondence and other information related to Arensberg's Ireland research, see:
Solon Toothaker Kimball Papers, Special Collections, Teachers College, Columbia University; and Solon Toothaker Kimball Papers, The Newberry Library, Chicago.
Additional materials concerning Arensberg's research and personal life can be found among the papers of his wife, anthropologist Vivian "Kelly" Garrison. See the Vivian E. Garrison papers at the National Anthropological Archives.
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Vivian E. Garrison Arensberg in 2011.
The Conrad M. Arensberg papers are open for research.
Files containing Arensberg's students' grades have been restricted, as have his students' and colleagues' grant and fellowships applications. For preservation reasons, the computer disk containing digital correspondence files from Joel Halpern is restricted.
Access to the Conrad M. Arensberg papers requires an appointment.
Alan Harwood is a Professor Emeritus at University of Massachusetts, Boston in the Anthropology Department. Trained in social anthropology he has studied illness and healing in Tanzania and communities in New York City and Boston. Harwood was the founding editor of Medical Anthropology Quarterly (new series, 1986-1991) and series editor of Cambridge Studies in Medical Anthropology (1999-2004) The bulk of this collection is composed of Alan Harwood's 1962-1964 ethnographic research among the Safwa in Tanzania (then known as Tanganyika); his research on health beliefs and medical practices of residents in a low-income area of the Bronx, New York (1967-1970); and his research in Boston, Massachusetts on different ethnic groups' conceptions of health (1994-1995). Also among his papers are materials from his involvement in the Centers for Disease Control and American Anthropological Association (AAA) Workgroup on "The Use of Race & Ethnicity as Scientific Categories" at the 1994 AAA meeting.
Scope and Contents:
The bulk of the collection is composed of Alan Harwood's ethnographic research among the Safwa in Tanzania (then known as Tanganyika); his research on health beliefs and medical practices of residents in a low-income area of the Bronx, New York; and his research in Boston, Massachusetts on different ethnic groups' conceptions of health. The few photographs in the collection are aerial views of Isyesye, where he conducted his Safwa research, and images from Utengule taken by White Fathers and dating from the 1940s. The collection also contains Harwood's linguistic recordings of Kimalila and of Kisafwa and Kinyiha spoken in various dialects. In addition, the collection contains sound recordings of Safwa ceremonies and an audio letter from Harold Conklin, Mario Bick, Georgeda Buchbinder Bick, and Michiko Takaki. Also among his papers are his correspondence as the editor of Medical Anthropology Quarterly and of Ethnicity and Medical Care; materials from his involvement in the Centers for Disease Control and American Anthropological Association (AAA) Workgroup on "The Use of Race & Ethnicity as Scientific Categories" at the 1994 AAA meeting; and letters of recommendation (restricted until 2056) that Harwood wrote for students and colleagues. In addition, the collection contains Harwood's course notes as an undergraduate student at Harvard and as a graduate student at University of Michigan and Columbia University. The collection also contains Harwood's research notes on North Luzon as Conklin's student research assistant at Columbia University. Harwood's correspondence is spread throughout the collection and filed by project. Among his notable correspondents are Harold Conklin and Joseph Greenberg. Their letters can be found with the Safwa materials.
Arranged into 8 series: (1) Safwa Research, 1961-1970; (2) Bronx Research, 1957-1986; (3) Boston Research, 1993-1996; (4) Professional Activities, 1975-2001; (5) Student Files, 1953-1962; (6) Microfilm; (7) Photographs, circa 1940s & 1963; (8) Sound Recordings, 1962-1964
Alan Harwood was born on March 20, 1935 in Tarrytown, New York. He earned his undergraduate degree, magna cum laude, in Social Relations from Harvard University in 1957 and attended the London School of Economics on a one year fellowship the following year. When he returned to the United States, he began his graduate studies in anthropology at the University of Michigan, earning his M.A. in 1960. He went on to Columbia University for his doctorate, which he was awarded in 1967.
Under a pre-doctoral fellowship funded by the Social Science Research Council, Harwood conducted ethnographic research on the Safwa of the southwestern region of Tanganyika (now known as Tanzania). From September 1962 to 1964, Harwood carried out his research mainly in the village of Isyesye, near Mbeya, Southern Highlands Region. At the time, witchcraft accusations were common, and it thus became the subject of his dissertation, Witchcraft, Sorcery, and Social Categories among the Safwa, later published in 1970.
In 1967, Harwood was hired by the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Health Center (formerly called the Neighborhood Medical Care Demonstration) in Bronx, New York. From 1967 to 1970, he directed a study on the health, illness, and medical beliefs and practices of residents in a low-income area of the south Bronx. One of the articles produced from this research was Harwood's "The Hot-Cold Theory of Disease: Implications for Treatment of Puerto Rican Patients" (1971). Harwood also looked at spiritism among the Puerto Rican community, which led to his publication, Rx: Spiritist as Needed: A Study of a Puerto Rican Community Mental Health Resource (1977).
From 1994 to 1995, Harwood was the co-principal investigator of a study conducted under the Tufts New England Medical Center on conceptions of health and well-being among 4 ethnic groups in Boston: African Americans, Mandarin-speaking Chinese Americans, Irish Americans, and Puerto Ricans. Harwood led the group studying Irish Americans.
In addition to his research, Harwood was the founding editor of Medical Anthropology Quarterly (new series, 1986-1991) and series editor of Cambridge Studies in Medical Anthropology (1999-2004) and of Studies in Medical Anthropology (2004-2006). He also edited Ethnicity and Medical Care (1981), a book geared towards health professionals.
In 1971, Harwood spent a year in New Zealand as a visiting senior lecturer at the University of Auckland. From 1972 to 2002, he was a professor of Anthropology at the University of Massachusetts, Boston. During his tenure, he also served as adjunct professor in the Department of Psychology (1993-2002) and as associate dean for Undergraduate Education, College of Arts and Sciences (1998-2001). In addition, he was a lecturer in the Department of Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School (1992-present).
In 1982, Harwood was honored with the Wellcome Medal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland for Research in Anthropology as Applied to Medical Problems. He is also a Fellow of the American Anthropological Association and of the Society for Applied Anthropology.
Materials that identify the participants in Harwood's Bronx and Boston studies are restricted until 2056.
Ivan Karp (1943-2011) was a curator of African Ethnology at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) from 1984 to 1993. He was also a professor at Emory University from 1993 to 2011. He conducted fieldwork among the Iteso (Teso) of Kenya and made significant contributions to the areas of African systems of thought, social theory, museum studies, and public scholarship. His collection contains his research on the Iteso of Kenya; his work at Emory University and the Smithsonian Institution; his reviews of manuscripts and books; recommendations that he wrote for his colleagues and students; his published articles and papers presented at conferences; and his project files on various topics including museum studies, African philosophy, public scholarship, agency and personhood, and the history of social anthropology.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains the professional papers of Ivan Karp, documenting his work as an anthropologist, professor, and museum curator. The materials include his research on the Iteso of Kenya; his work at Emory University and the Smithsonian Institution; his reviews of manuscripts and books; recommendations that he wrote for his colleagues and students; his published articles and papers presented at conferences; and his project files on various topics including museum studies, African philosophy, public scholarship, agency and personhood, and the history of social anthropology.
Karp's Iteso research files span from the late 1960s to the 1990s. These materials consist of his field notes, in both paper and digital form; household surveys; photographs; sound recordings; maps; grant proposals; bibliographic research; correspondence; notes and drafts of his dissertation; and his other writings. A great deal of the field materials was collected by his field assistants, particularly Steven Omuse. Some field materials were also collected by Karp's first wife, Patricia.
His Smithsonian files are electronic and contain little documentation regarding his administrative work. There are, however, some materials relating to the planning of exhibits at NMNH and a proposal to establish a program focusing on the African continent and the African Diaspora. There is also a memo with Karp's response to questions from a House Subcommittee regarding the National African American Museum and complaints about the NMNH Africa Hall. Other associated materials include his research and papers on museums and exhibits. While there are no files pertaining to the first two museum conferences he organized, a folder titled "Bellagio" contains documentation for the conference and associated workshops on museums and globalization that he organized while at Emory.
Karp's files from Emory are also in digital form and more substantive than his Smithsonian materials. They document his work on the different committees he chaired and programs he directed and founded, including the Center for the Study of Public Scholarship. His Emory files also include his comments on students' dissertations, papers, and proposals.
The digital files also document Karp's other areas of interests, particularly African philosophy; concepts of identity, personhood, and agency; and the relationships between international development and personhood. His work on African philosophy largely consists of files from a number of collaborative projects with Kenyan philosopher Dismas Masolo, including the 1993 conference in Nairobi they organized and the associated volume they edited, African Philosophy as Cultural Inquiry (2000). There are a few files of research on the Luo people. His research on development and personhood focuses on Africa, particularly on Kenya, and includes his papers, notes, and reference sources, which also exist in paper form. There are also files of obituaries and memorials of Karp from numerous publications and events.
Other materials in Karp's collection include his doctorate diploma, his Master's thesis, family photos, and a wedding album from his first marriage.
This collection is organized into 6 series: 1) Iteso Research; 2) Development Discourse; 3) Personal; 4) Photographs; 5) Sound Recordings; 6) Born Digital Files.
Biographical / Historical:
Ivan Karp (1943-2011) was a curator of African Ethnology at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) from 1984 to 1993. He conducted fieldwork among the Iteso (Teso) of Kenya and made significant contributions to the areas of African systems of thought, museum studies, and public scholarship.
Karp was born on August 27, 1943 in Stamford, Connecticut. He attended the University of Vermont as an undergraduate, majoring in Sociology and Anthropology (1961-1965), and pursued graduate studies in Social Anthroplogy at the University of Rochester (1967-1969). Karp received his M.A. (1969) and Ph.D. (1974) from University of Virginia. As a doctoral student he conducted research among the Iteso from 1969 to 1971. His dissertation, titled Fields of Change Among the Iteso of Kenya, was published in 1978. Karp continued his research on the Iteso into the 1990s and published various papers including "Beer Drinking and Social Experience in African Society" (1980) and "Laughter at Marriage: Subversion in Performance" (1987).
Before his employment at the Smithsonian, Karp held a teaching appointment at Colgate University from 1972 to 1975 and was a professor at Indiana University from 1976 to 1984. At Indiana University, he coedited with Charles S. Bird Explorations in African Systems of Thought (1980), the first of a 34-volume series published under his editorship.
He left Indiana University in 1984 to become the Curator of African Ethnology at the National Museum of Natural History. While at the Smithsonian, he served as Chair of the Ethnology Division and established with William Merrill the Smithsonian Series in Ethnographic Inquiry. It was also during this period that Karp began to critically examine museum practice, concepts of identity and agency, and systems of representation in relation to museum exhibits. He and Steven Lavine organized two major conferences on museums and co-edited the resulting conference proceedings: Exhibiting Cultures: The Poetics and Politics of Museum Display (1991) and Museums and Communities: The Politics of Public Culture (1992).
In 1993, Karp left the Smithsonian to direct the Graduate Institute of Liberal Arts (1993-1996) at Emory University. He also served as director of the university's Institute of African Studies (1996-1999) and the Emory Center for International Studies (1996-1999). In addition, he cofounded and codirected with Corinne Kratz, his second wife, the Center for the Study of Public Scholarship (CSPS) from 1994 to 2009 and the Grant Writing Program from 1992 to 2011. Through the CSPS, he and Kratz also established and codirected the Institutions of Public Culture program, a collaboration with South African colleagues that brought together scholars of public culture from universities, museums, NGOs, political and arts organizations and related institutions (2000-2008). Karp also continued to facilitate discussions on museums, working with Kratz and his colleagues at the Rockefeller Foundation to organize a series of international workshops and a conference in 2002 on museums and globalization. He coedited Museum Frictions: Public Cultures/Global Transformations (2006), a collection of papers presented at the conference.
Karp retired from teaching at Emory University in May 2011 but planned to continue working with the Laney Graduate School's Grant Writing Program until full retirement in August 2013. Not long after finishing his last graduate seminar, Ivan Karp died at the age of 68 on September 17, 2011 in New Mexico.
1943 -- Born on August 27 in Stamford, Connecticut.
1961-1965 -- Undergraduate studies at University of Vermont with major in Sociology and Anthropology.
1965-1967 -- Graduate studies in Social Anthropology at the University of Rochester.
1969 -- Earns M.A. from University of Virginia. Begins conducting fieldwork among the Southern Iteso in Busia District, Kenya.
1972-1975 -- Instructor and Assistant Professor of Anthropology at Colgate University.
1974 -- Earns Ph.D. from University of Virginia.
1976-1984 -- Professor of Anthropology at Indiana University.
1984-1993 -- Curator of African Ethnology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Insitution.
1987 -- Organizes conference on "The Poetics and Politics of Exhibiting Other Cultures."
1988 -- Organizes conference on "Museums and their Communities."
1993-1996 -- Director of Graduate Institute of Liberal Arts, Emory University.
1994-2009 -- Director of Center for the Study of Public Scholarship, Emory University.
1996-1999 -- Director of Emory Center for International Studies, Emory University. Director of Institute of African Studies, Emory University
2000-2008 -- Director of Institutions of Public Culture program through CSPS.
2002 -- Organizes conference on " Museums and Global Public Spheres" held in Italy at Bellagio Conference Center of the Rockefeller Foundation.
2009 -- Moves to Santa Fe, NM where he had bought a home in 2003.
2011 -- Retires from teaching at Emory University. Dies on September 17 at the age of 68.
Artifacts collected by Ivan Karp can be found in the National Museum of Natural History's Department of Anthropology Collections (Accession #390893 and 416181). Indiana University Archives of Traditional Music holds some of Karp's original Iteso sound recordings.
Four DVDs and a videotape were separated from the collection and transferred to the Human Studies Film Archives. One of the recordings is an interview with Karp that Robert Lavenda and Emily Schultz conducted in 1989 to accompany their introductory anthropology textbook, Cultural Anthropology: A Perspective on the Human Condition. The rest of the recordings are of Karp giving presentations.
This collection was donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Corinne Kratz in 2014.
Recommendations that Karp wrote for his colleagues and students are restricted until 2061.
Access to the Ivan Karp papers requires an appointment.
Contains Gordon Hendricks's collection of clippings, correspondence, and research notes, and other professional papers related to his books and articles on motion picture history. Includes files on Edison, William Kennedy Laurie Dickson, and other pioneers in motion picture inventions.
Scope and Contents note:
This large collection contains correspondence, notes, and copies of documents from many repositories, which were used as research materials for Hendricks's publications in this field, as well as black-and-white photographs. Copies of photographs come from the Edison National Historic Site archives, Eastman House, the Smithsonian, and other museums. Gordon Hendricks stored his research material in grey binders, orange manuscript boxes, clay-colored folders, and black binders, hence the grey, orange, clay and black series. It is not certain whether this arrangement represented an identification or coding system related to separate projects or whether it simply reflects the chronology of his work through a succession of filing and boxing systems.
Hendricks's arrangement has been retained generally, and the series arrangement of the collection reflects Hendricks's original groupings. Series 1 consists of Lantern slides, Series 2 of material found in grey binders, Series 3 of material found in orange boxes, Series 4 of material in clay-colored folders, Series 5 of material in black binders and Series 6 is the miscellaneous series. [These groupings have been identified, as David Burgevin conducted an inventory while the collection was in its original containers.]
These papers contain much correspondence and other materials relating to Hendricks's books in the field of motion picture history, such as copies of manuscripts, and galley proofs. Photographs: Graphic materials included in the collection, such as photographs, frequently are not original but are copies of items from repositories in which Hendricks did research. However, there are a few noteworthy original items, such as examples of motion picture flip books (one partly intact, plus loose fragments from this flip book and others).
Hendricks was an art historian who wrote works on painters such as Albert Bierstadt and Thomas Eakins, as well as on early motion picture history, including analyses of inventors of apparatus and technology; in his book THE EDISON MOTION PICTURE MYTH he showed how Edison's assistant, W. K. L. Dickson, and other inventors actually were responsible for the development of cinematic technology for which Edison unfairly took credit. Hendricks apparently was born in 1917 and died in 1980.
Some materials from this collection, primarily photographs of apparatus, are in the National Museum of American HIstory Photographic History collection.
129 black-and-white photographs, many copy prints used as illustrations in Gordon Hendricks books, and other images of early motion picture apparatus are in the Gordon Hendricks Collection in the Photographic History Division. The Collection also includes 240 glass plate negatives, which appear to have been taken in Europe, and a binder of contact prints of the negatives.
Collection donated by Gordon Hendricks, through Guido Castelli, February 13, 1990.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
30.30 cu. ft. (60 document boxes) (2 oversize folders)
1938-1982 and undated
These papers document the professional career and to a lesser extent the personal life of Paul D. Hurd, Jr., between 1938 and 1982. Particularly well represented in
the papers is material concerning his research on the insect order Hymenoptera; his teaching and research career at the University of California, Berkeley; his administrative
duties at the National Science Foundation; his curatorial and administrative activities at the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH); field work and collecting trips;
and his participation in professional organizations.
A large part of the collection consists of correspondence written and received by Hurd between 1942 and 1982. The correspondence illustrates all aspects of his career and
includes letters with domestic and foreign entomologists; colleagues at the University of California, Berkeley, the National Science Foundation, and the National Museum of
Natural History; staff of professional organizations, journals, and publishers; and personal friends.
Papers documenting Hurd's research on the Hymenoptera include correspondence, field notes, research notes, manuscripts, specimen lists, and photographs relating to his
work on the carpenter bees. Similar records illustrate his study of the squash and gourd bees, and his research project on the bee pollinators of the creosote bush. Thoroughly
documented is his work as co-editor and author of the revised Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Also included is a research file primarily concerning
The collection also includes field notes, correspondence, and related materials documenting field work and collecting trips in the western and southwestern United States,
Alaska, and Mexico; desk diaries maintained by Hurd during his tenure as Chairman, Department of Entomology, NMNH; and correspondence, class notes, lecture notes, copies of
examinations, and related materials documenting his student days and teaching career at the University of California, Berkeley.
Paul D. Hurd, Jr. (1921-1982), entomologist, educator, and museum curator, was an authority on the taxonomy and biology of bees. He developed an interest in natural
history, especially birds, after his family moved to the Mojave Desert region of California. His first published paper, a report on a bird census in Newport Upper Bay, California,
appeared in Audubon Magazine in 1941. In 1940, Hurd enrolled at the University of California, Berkeley, to study entomology. His undergraduate work was interrupted
between 1942 and 1945 while he served in the United States Navy as a Chief Pharmacist's Mate. He resumed his studies at Berkeley in 1946 and received the B.S. degree in 1947;
the M.S. degree in 1948; and his Ph.D. degree in 1950.
Hurd remained at Berkeley to begin his professional career, receiving appointment as Senior Museum Entomologist in 1950. As his career advanced Hurd was given teaching,
as well as research responsibilities. By 1965, he had attained the rank of Professor of Entomology and Entomologist in the California Agricultural Experiment Station. Hurd's
duties at Berkeley included responsibility for the California Insect Survey where he directed numerous field trips and contributed to the development of the University's collection
of native insects. During 1967 and 1968 Hurd took leave of absence from the University to join the National Science Foundation as Associate Program Director in the Division
of Biological and Medical Sciences. In 1970, Hurd accepted appointment as Curator in the Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History (NMNH). His service at
NMNH included a term as Chairman of the Department of Entomology from 1971 to 1976. He was appointed Senior Scientist in 1980.
Hurd's research interests were broad, and he published on several of the families of the order Hymenoptera, including Mutillidae, Pompilidae, Anthophoridae, Megachilidae,
and Halictidae. He also published papers on certain families of the orders Coleoptera and Diptera. However, most of his research was devoted to the bees of the superfamily
Apoidea. Hurd published over twenty papers and books on the carpenter bees (Xylocopinae) including A Classification of the Large Carpenter Bees, co-authored with Jesus
S. Moure. Another major research interest was the pollination of plants by insects. He conducted extensive studies on the bee pollinators of the squashes, gourds, and other
plants of the genus Cucurbita. He also studied the pollination of the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata). Hurd's research at the National Museum of Natural History
was highlighted by his duties as co-editor of the revised Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico published in 1979. While most of Hurd's field work was concentrated
in California and the southwestern United States, he also conducted studies in Alaska, Mexico, South America, and Central America.
Hurd was active within the entomological profession, and he served several organizations in an appointed or elected capacity. For several years he was editor of the Pan-Pacific
Entomologist, journal of the Pacific Coast Entomological Society. As a member of the Entomological Society of America, Hurd worked on the Governing Board and served as
Chairman of the Advisory Committee for Systematics Resources in Entomology. He was also President of the Association for Tropical Biology, 1969-1970; Section Editor (Hymenoptera)
for Biological Abstracts; and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the California Academy of Sciences.
For additional biographical information on Hurd see Karl V. Krombein and E. Gorton Linsley, "Paul David Hurd, Jr., 1921-1982," Pan-Pacific Entomologist, October
1982, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 262-277.
1921 -- Born in Chicago, Illinois, April 2
1941 -- Published first paper on California bird census in Audubon Magazine
1942-1945 -- Service in the United States Navy in the South Pacific
1947 -- Bachelor of Science, University of California, Berkeley
1948 -- Master of Science, University of California, Berkeley
1950 -- Ph. D., University of California, Berkeley
1950-1952 -- Senior Museum Entomologist, University of California, Berkeley
1950-1963 -- Editor, Pan-Pacific Entomologist
1952-1953 -- Field work analyzing soil invertebrates at Point Barrow, Alaska
1952-1954 -- Junior Entomologist, University of California, Berkeley
1954-1959 -- Lecturer in Entomology and Assistant Entomologist, University of California, Berkeley
1956 -- Field work investigating fossiliferous amber in Chiapas, Mexico
1959-1960 -- Fulbright Commission/Guggenheim Foundation Research Scholar and Fellow, Universidade da Parana, Curitiba, Brazil
1959-1960 -- Field Work in Central and South America
1959-1965 -- Lecturer in Entomology and Associate Entomologist, University of California, Berkeley
1963 -- Field work in Costa Rica and Panama
1963 -- A Classification of the Large Carpenter Bees (with J. S. Moure). University of California Publication Entomol. : 29
1964 -- Trip to study carpenter bee type specimens in European museums
1965 -- Field work in Venezuela and Colombia
1965-1970 -- Professor of Entomology and Entomologist, University of California, Berkeley
1967 -- Field work in Argentina and Brazil
1967-1968 -- Associate Program Director, Division of Biological and Medical Sciences, National Science Foundation
1969-1970 -- President, Association for Tropical Biology
1970 -- A Classification of the Squash and Gourd Bees Peponapis and Xenoglossa (with E. G. Linsley). University of California Publication Entomol. : 62
1970-1971 -- Curator, Division of Hemiptera and Hymenoptera, Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History (NMNH)
1971-1973 -- International Biological Program/National Science Foundation Larrea Bee Project
1971-1976 -- Chairman, Department of Entomology, NMNH
1972-1975 -- Member of Governing Board, Entomological Society of America (ESA)
1973-1975 -- Chairman, Advisory Committee for Systematics Resources in Entomology (ESA)
1975 -- The Principal Larrea Bees of the Southwestern United States (with E. G. Linsley) Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology : 193
1976-1980 -- Curator, Department of Entomology, NMNH
1979 -- Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico (co-editor and author of Apoidea section) Smithsonian Institution Press
1980 -- Principal Sunflower Bees of North America with emphasis on the Southwestern United States (with W. E. LaBerge and E. G. Linsley) Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology : 310
1980-1982 -- Senior Scientist, Department of Entomology, NMNH
32.72 cu. ft. (31 record storage boxes) (4 12x17 boxes) (1 oversize folder)
For the most part, these papers document Buechner's primary research interest, the ecology of terrestrial vertebrates, with emphasis on relationships to vegetation
and social behavior. Included are Buechner's research on the pronghorn antelope, which contains field notes, journals, photographs, and reports to the Texas Cooperative Wildlife
Unit, which sponsored Buechner's research; a study of elk and deer in relation to livestock and range in the Blue Mountains region of southeastern Washington, 1949-1960; and
research on the bighorn sheep, 1954-1960, which contains correspondence with personnel at the bighorn sheep animal refuges, photographs, field notes, journal, and a manuscript
of Buechner's book, The Bighorn Sheep in the United States, Its Past, Present, and Future, 1959.
From 1956 to 1958, Buechner, as a Fulbright Scholar, conducted research in Uganda, on the elephant census and migration, the relationship of elephants to vegetation at
Murchison Falls National Park, and reproduction of the Uganda kob. These papers include reports on aerial counts of elephants, photographs, field data and notes.
During Buechner's stay in Uganda, he became interested in the unique territorial and mating behavior of the Uganda kob. Buechner made trips to Uganda's Toro Game Reserve
to study the Uganda kob in 1959, 1962-1963, and 1972. Materials documenting these trips include maps, field observation data, transcriptions, audio recordings, photographs,
machine readable data and analytical computations of kob movements by Buechner and H. Daniel Roth, 1965-1972.
In addition, these papers contain photographs documenting Buechner's study of the ibex in Switzerland, taken when Buechner was consultant to the Swiss Foundation for Alpine
Research during the summer of 1961; a report when Buechner was consultant to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization to study the elephants in relation to the
Tana River Irrigation Project in Kenya in 1965; and reports when Buechner was consultant to Troy Meadows, in 1966, and to the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, in 1970,
(both are located in New Jersey) to study the environmental impact of animals in relation to land within the parks.
Additional material documents Buechner's feasibility studies on tracking free-roaming animals, such as elk, with the Interrogation Recording Location System (IRLS) satellite,
1969-1971, and includes incoming correspondence critical of the project, manuscripts, progress reports, and photographs; and a study of Indian rhinoceros mating behavior at
the NZP, 1972, which led to the first successful live birth of this species in the Western Hemisphere, 1974, and includes photographs, tape recordings, and transcripts of
observations made by volunteers and National Zoo staff.
Other materials contained in these papers include general correspondence, mostly with university faculty, conservationists, park wardens, and naturalists, pertaining to
Buechner's research; reading files, 1968-1972; Buechner's school notes and term papers when he was a student, 1939-1947; lecture material when Buechner taught herpetology
at Texas A&M College, 1947; research proposal evaluations Buechner did for the National Science Foundation and the National Geographic Society; handbook written in conjunction
with Lee H. Talbot for the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources; survey on usefulness of night vision devices; Buechner's proposed research
projects at Washington State College (University); materials pertaining to various zoological and conservation organizations; theses by Buechner's former students; articles,
abstracts, and book reviews written or co-authored by Buechner; information on projects in Ceylon, Israel, and Korea when Buechner was the head of the Office of Ecology; diplomas
and certificates; audio recordings on elk immobilization, 1972, Earth Week Symposium, 1969, and a Panel on the Environment and Development, undated; group photographs of professional
scientific organization meetings; Buechner's family photographs; photographs of NZP; and oversize material consisting of blueprints of the new deer area at NZP, 1972, and
charts and graphs.
Helmut Karl Buechner (1918-1975) was born in Scotia, New York. He received his B.S. degree from New York State College of Forestry, Syracuse University in 1941, and
his M.S. degree from Texas A&M College, College Station in 1943. After completing military service, Buechner continued his education at Texas A&M College. For his
Ph.D. thesis, Buechner did research on the range ecology of the pronghorn antelope in the Trans-Pecos region in southwest Texas, 1946-1947. Buechner taught herpetology at
Texas A&M College during the Fall of 1947. In 1948, Buechner transferred to Oklahoma A&M College, Stillwater, where he received his Ph.D. degree in 1949. From 1948-1965,
Buechner taught zoology and botany at Washington State College (now University), Pullman. In 1965, Buechner joined the Smithsonian Institution as the first director of the
Office of Ecology. Buechner was Senior Ecologist for the Office of Environmental Sciences, 1969-1972, and from 1972 to 1975, he was Senior Ecologist for the National Zoological
National Ethnobotanical Herbarium Online (Website)
National Museum of Natural History. Department of Botany Search this
0.22 cu. ft. (0.22 non-standard size boxes)
Oaxaca (Mexico : State)
The accession consists of two field books that document plant collecting conducted as part of the project "Documentation and Revitalization of the Language and Traditional
Ecological Knowledge of the Isthmus Zapotec Community." Collecting occurred in La Ventosa located in the state of Oaxaca in Mexico. The principle investigator was Gabriela
Perez Baez of the Department of Anthropology. Botanical collections and their related documentation were deposited in the Department of Botany and subsequently made available
on the National Ethnobotanical Herbarium Online pilot website.
This accession consists of the research records of zoologist James Francis Lynch
(1942-1998). In 1974, Lynch became the first staff scientist at the Chesapeake Bay Center for
Environmental Studies (CBCES) which was renamed the Smithsonian Environmental Research
Center (SERC) in 1985. Lynch administered or participated in several projects conducted on the
Center's property and the surrounding Chesapeake region to collect and analyze data regarding
insects (especially ants), birds, roadkill, and other terrestrial animals. He also conducted bird, ant,
and amphibian research internationally and his bird netting and banding projects in the Yucatan
(Yucataln), in Australia, and at the Mpala Research Centre in Kenya are particularly well
documented in this collection. In addition, this accession includes documentation of Lynch's
involvement in the Pan American Continental Section of the International Council for Bird
Preservation. Materials include original data, data summaries, data analysis documents, images,
field books, reports, proposals, correspondence, meeting materials, and related materials. Some
materials may have been created while Lynch was a student and a few folders appear to have
been added to his project files after his death.
14.5 cu. ft. (14 record storage boxes) (1 document box)
Digital versatile discs
This accession consists of materials documenting the research and professional activities of conservation biologist Devra G. Kleiman, 1952-2010. Kleiman began her professional
career in 1972 as the first female scientist at the National Zoological Park (NZP) where she was hired to manage the zoo's captive breeding program. In 1982, Kleiman became
Acting Assistant Director for Animal Programs in the Office of Animal Programs, assuming the position permanently the following year. During a series of reorganizations, Kleiman
became the Assistant Director of Zoological Research and Education in 1984; the Assistant Director of Research in 1985; and the Assistant Director of Zoological Research heading
the Dept. of Zoological Research in 1996. In 1997, Kleiman assumed the position of Senior Scientist. After her retirement in 2001, Kleiman served as Senior Scientist Emeritus
at NZP, taught as an adjunct professor at the University of Maryland at College Park, and owned a consulting company, Zoo-Logic, LLC. During her career, Kleiman helped establish
the Associação Mico-Leão-Dourado, a Brazilian non-governmental association for the conservation of golden lion tamarins; served on many international committees, working groups,
and task forces for species conservation; and was affiliated with numerous non-profit conservation organizations. Much of Kleiman's research and activities focused on the
reintroduction of golden lion tamarins to the wild and the captive breeding of giant pandas. Other research projects included Delmarva fox squirrels, beach (oldfield) mice,
island foxes, and, more generally, primates, canids, and other mammals. She also trained other scientists in behavioral observations, vocalization interpretations, and animal
reintroduction preparations. Kleiman wrote approximately 150 manuscripts and two books, Wild Mammals in Captivity: Principles and Techniques (1996) and Lion Tamarins:
Biology and Conservation (2002). Kleiman's research trips to China and Brazil are also well-documented in this accession.
Materials include correspondence, presentations, reports, planning documents, meeting materials, manuscripts, images, fieldbooks, clippings, notes, postcards, brochures,
pamphlets, contracts, surveys, newsletters, videos, and related materials. Some materials are in electronic format.