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Kraushaar Galleries records, 1877-2006

Creator:
Kraushaar Galleries  Search this
Subject:
Wilson, Ralph L.  Search this
Fausett, Dean  Search this
Lasker, Joe  Search this
Murdock, Roland P.  Search this
Phillips, Duncan  Search this
Kuhn, Walt  Search this
Smith, Vernon  Search this
Robinson, Boardman  Search this
Lechay, James  Search this
Laurent, Robert  Search this
Hartell, John  Search this
Cantene, David  Search this
Schnakenberg, H. E. (Henry Ernest)  Search this
Kraushaar, Antoinette M.  Search this
Harrison, Preston  Search this
Heliker, John  Search this
Williams, Esther  Search this
Luks, George Benjamin  Search this
Glackens, Edith  Search this
Navas, Elizabeth S.  Search this
DeLonga, Leonard  Search this
Evett, Kenneth Warnock  Search this
Halberstadt, Ernst  Search this
Prendergast, Maurice Brazil  Search this
Morris, Carl  Search this
Ruellan, Andrée  Search this
Smalley, David  Search this
Flannery, Vaughn  Search this
Cowles, Russell  Search this
Penney, James  Search this
Beal, Gifford  Search this
Bacon, Peggy  Search this
Beal, Reynolds  Search this
Hardy, Thomas  Search this
Glackens, William J.  Search this
Prendergast, Charles  Search this
Demuth, Charles  Search this
Albrizio, Humbert  Search this
Lachaise, Gaston  Search this
Bignou, Etienne  Search this
Kirsch, Frederick D. (Frederick Dwight)  Search this
Sloan, John  Search this
Allard, J.  Search this
Bouché, Louis  Search this
Juley, Peter A.  Search this
Stanley, Alix W.  Search this
Arnest, Bernard  Search this
Brueming, Karen  Search this
Miller, Harriette  Search this
Kraushaar, John F.  Search this
Guillaume, Paul  Search this
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
Toledo Museum of Art  Search this
Cleveland Museum of Art  Search this
Wichita Art Museum  Search this
Whitney Museum of American Art  Search this
New Britain Institute  Search this
Ernest Brown and Co.  Search this
Carnegie Institute  Search this
University of Nebraska--Lincoln  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Sketches
Drawings
Exhibition catalogs
Financial records
Notes
Sketchbooks
Topic:
Works of art  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Artists -- United States  Search this
Depressions -- 1929  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7781
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209946
AAA_collcode_kraugall
Theme:
The Art Market
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209946
Online Media:

Arthur and Helen Torr Dove papers

Creator:
Dove, Arthur Garfield, 1880-1946  Search this
Names:
Phillips, Duncan, 1886-1966  Search this
Stieglitz, Alfred, 1864-1946  Search this
Torr, Helen, 1886-1967  Search this
Extent:
3 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Photographs
Diaries
Sketches
Date:
1905-1975
Summary:
The papers of artists Arthur and Helen Torr Dove measure 3 linear feet and date from 1905 to 1975, with the bulk of material dating from 1920 to 1946. Arthur Dove's life as an artist, and his life with the artist Helen Torr, are documented in biographical narratives, personal documents, an audio recording, correspondence, diaries, essays, poetry, notes, exhibition catalogs, clippings, magazine illustrations, pamphlets, receipts, an accounting ledger, tax records, sketches, and photographs.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of Arthur and Helen Torr Dove measure 3 linear feet and date from 1905 to 1975, with the bulk of material dating from 1920 to 1946. Arthur Dove's life as an artist, and his life with the artist Helen Torr, are documented in biographical narratives, personal documents, an audio recording, correspondence, diaries, essays, poetry, notes, exhibition catalogs, clippings, magazine illustrations, pamphlets, receipts, an accounting ledger, tax records, sketches, and photographs.

Biographical Materials include a last will and testament, biographical narratives, and other official documents, as well as an audio recording of an interview with William Dove made around 1961 by George Wolfer. Correspondence includes letters from friends, clients, other artists, and Dove's patron Duncan Phillips. There is also correspondence with family members Helen Torr and Paul Dove. Drafts of outgoing letters from Dove to various correspondents including Phillips and Alfred Stieglitz are found.

Writings are extensive and include diaries, autobiographical essays, essays about art, artists, and other subjects, and poetry by Arthur Dove; as well as essays, reminiscences, and notes of Helen Torr. Printed Materials include exhibition catalogs for Dove's shows and the shows of other artists in the Stieglitz Circle, examples of Dove's early magazine illustration work, newspaper reviews of Dove's exhibitions, and various pamphlets related to modern art. Personal Business Records include an accounting ledger of the Doves' expenses, sales receipts, tax records, and an undated art inventory. Artwork consists of ten items, mostly sketches in pencil, watercolor, ink, and colored pencil. Photographs are undated and unidentified, but depict mostly family, homes, and coastal scenes.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 7 series:

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1928-1937, circa 1961 (Box 1; 2 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, circa 1920-1974 (Box 1; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, circa 1924-1945 (Boxes 1-3; 1.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Printed Materials, circa 1905-1975 (Box 3; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 5: Personal Business Records, circa 1921-1965 (Box 3; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 6: Artwork, undated (Box 3; 1 folder)

Series 7: Photographs, 1909, undated (Box 3; 4 folders)
Biographical Note:
Arthur Garfield Dove was an early twentieth-century painter, collagist, and illustrator who was one of the first American artists to embrace abstraction in art. He was a part of Alfred Stieglitz's Circle of modern American artists introduced at Stieglitz's 291 Gallery along with John Marin and Georgia O'Keeffe. Dove spent his career developing his own idiosyncratic style of formal abstraction in painting based on his ideas about nature, feeling, and pure form, and characterized by experimentation with color, composition, and materials.

Born in Canandiagua, NY in 1880, Dove grew up in the small, rural town of Geneva, NY. He was first exposed to art by a local farmer and painter named Newton Weatherly, who gave him canvas and paint, and who Dove himself cited as an early influence. Dove went to Cornell University to study law, but soon shifted to art and illustration. He graduated in 1903 and quickly became a success as a magazine illustrator, working for Collier's, McClure's, St. Nicholas, and The Illustrated Sporting News, among other publications. In 1904, he married Florence Dorsey, a Geneva woman, and they lived in New York City. Their son, William Dove, was born in 1910.

In 1908 the couple traveled to Paris to enable Dove to pursue his interest in painting. In Paris, he met Alfred Maurer, Jo Davidson, and other American artists living abroad. The influence of his European and expatriate contemporaries would prove to be a lasting one, exposing him to ideas about abstraction and experimentation that he would develop in his work for the rest of his life.

Soon after Dove's return to the United States, he met Alfred Stieglitz and began a lifelong friendship. Stieglitz ran the Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession, which came to be known as 291, in New York. His daring, avant-garde exhibitions of both European and American modern art at 291 provided a venue and gathering-place for progressive American artists that was unique for its time. Dove's first solo exhibition at 291 was held in 1912, and consisted of ten pastel drawings that have come to be known as the "Ten Commandments." The attention it received established Dove as a prominent abstract painter.

Around 1920, Dove met another Westport artist named Helen S. Torr, also known as Reds. A Philadelphia-born painter who had studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Art, Reds was married at the time to the cartoonist Clive Weed. Torr and Dove eventually left their unhappy marriages and began a life together, moving to a houseboat docked in Manhattan. In 1922, they moved to Halesite, Long Island, New York, where Dove's artwork once again flourished. By the mid-1920s, he was exhibiting regularly, paralleled by the rise of Stieglitz's new Intimate Gallery in 1925. His work continued to explore abstraction and organic forms, and, in addition to paintings, he produced assemblages made of found materials.

Although a building teardown brought the Intimate Gallery to a sudden end in 1929, the financial support of friends enabled Alfred Stieglitz to open An American Place soon thereafter. There Stieglitz would focus on the work of a few American artists, including Dove, John Marin, and Georgia O'Keeffe. Helen Torr was also exhibited at An American Place, in a group show with Arthur in 1933. It was also at this gallery that the art collector Duncan Phillips was introduced to Dove's artwork. Phillips' interest in Dove grew into an ongoing patronage of Dove that would see them through the Depression and periods of serious illness in the 1930s and 1940s. Their arrangement, whereby Phillips had first refusal on all of Dove's new artwork, enabled him to gradually assemble the largest collection of Dove's work held anywhere.

In 1938, while on a trip to New York to attend his exhibition, Dove became suddenly ill. Although he recovered somewhat that year, his health never entirely returned to normal, and he spent long periods during what remained of his life housebound and in a wheelchair. He and Reds bought a home in Centreport, on Long Island, where they would stay the rest of his life. In 1939 he was so ill that neither his family nor Stieglitz thought he would ever paint again. Despite his physical limitations, he continued to work, turning to the less physically strenuous media of drawing and watercolor, and produced new work for five solo exhibitions in the 1940s. His work of this period embraces pure abstraction more fully than ever, and is regarded by some to be a culmination or crystallization of his singular style and approach to abstract painting.

Arthur Dove suffered a stroke in 1946 and died that November, just four months after his lifelong friend and mentor Alfred Stieglitz died of a heart attack. Reds lived until 1967 in their Centreport home. Dove's importance to American art has since been recognized with more than a dozen retrospective exhibitions at major museums and galleries.

This biography relied heavily on the monograph Arthur Dove: Life and Work, with a Catalogue Raisonné (1984) by Ann Lee Morgan.
Separated Material:
The Archives of American Art also holds microfilm of material lent for microfilming. Reel 725 contains Arthur Dove's letters from Alfred Stieglitz (1918-1946) and Georgia O'Keeffe (1921-1948), and two letters from William Einstein (1937). The original letters were later donated to the Beinecke Library at Yale University, which holds the Stieglitz/O'Keeffe Archives. Reel 2803 contains photocopies of Arthur Dove's card catalog of paintings that were discarded after microfilming. This material is not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
The papers of Arthur and Helen Torr Dove were loaned to the Archives of American Art by Arthur Dove's son, William Dove, for microfilming in several increments between 1970 and 1975. The papers were later donated to the Archives by William Dove via the Terry Distenfass Gallery of New York City in multiple accessions between 1982 and 1989, with two major exceptions: 177 letters from Alfred Stieglitz, sixteen letters from Georgia O'Keeffe, and two letters from William Einstein; and Arthur Dove's card catalog of paintings, a photocopy of which had been loaned for microfilming. The papers were digitized in 2006.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Microfilmed and digitized portions must be consulted on microfilm or the Archives website. Use of unmicrofilmed, undigitized portion requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Arthur and Helen Torr Dove papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Women painters -- New York (State)  Search this
Painters -- New York (State)  Search this
Collagists -- New York (State)  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes
Photographs
Diaries
Sketches
Citation:
Arthur and Helen Torr Dove papers, 1905-1975. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.dovearth
See more items in:
Arthur and Helen Torr Dove papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-dovearth
Online Media:

Lockwood de Forest papers

Creator:
De Forest, Lockwood, 1850-1932  Search this
Names:
Heckscher Museum  Search this
Santa Barbara Museum of Art  Search this
Culin, Stewart, 1858-1929  Search this
De Forest, Robert W., 1848-1931 ((Robert Weeks))  Search this
Kemble, Meta  Search this
Korzybski, Alfred, 1879-1950  Search this
Lewis, Anne  Search this
Extent:
3.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sketchbooks
Photographs
Drawings
Diaries
Place:
India -- description and travel
Date:
1858-1980
bulk 1870-1930
Summary:
The papers of New York and California based interior designer, architect, collector and painter Lockwood de Forest measure 3.8 linear feet and date from 1858 to 1980, bulk dates 1870 to 1930. The collection includes correspondence, writings, diaries, journals, exhibition files, personal business records, printed material, sketchbooks, drawings, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of New York and California based interior designer, architect, collector and painter Lockwood de Forest measure 3.8 linear feet and date from 1858 to 1980, bulk dates 1870 to 1930. The collection includes correspondence, writings, diaries, journals, exhibition files, personal business records, printed material, sketchbooks, drawings, and photographs.

Lockwood de Forest's professional correspondence includes letters regarding de Forest's wood carving business in India. Notable correspondents from friends and colleagues include Stewart Culin, Alfred Korzybski, and Purushottam M. Hutheesing & Sons. Also included are two letter books which contain copies of letters written by de Forest. There is a fair amount of correspondence with family members, especially de Forest's parents, his brother Robert, and his wife Meta Kemble. There are also a few folders of Meta Kemble de Forest's correspondence with family.

Writings include drafts of Lockwood de Forest's book Indian Domestic Architecture, along with essays and notes. Essays by de Forest are on assorted topics such as art, education, museums, furniture construction, and psychic research. There is also a draft of a Lockwood de Forest biography by Anne Lewis.

Diaries and journals kept by Lockwood de Forest and his wife Meta focus on travels abroad to Europe, the Middle East, and India.

Exhibition files consist of materials related to a Lockwood de Forest exhibition (1976) at the Heckscher Museum in New York and the Santa Barbara Museum of Art in California. Documentation includes correspondence, exhibition lists, inventories, and loan forms.

Personal business records include a wide range of financial and legal records. Financial records consist of ledgers, account records, receipts, invoices, and shipping records. Legal records include contracts, certificates, and deeds related to assets, properties, and businesses.

Printed material consists of exhibition catalogs, auction catalogs, magazines, books, announcements, event invitations, and clippings. Most of the material is about Lockwood de Forest, but there are some clippings and publications about his brother Robert and other subjects.

There are numerous sketchbooks usually depicting places de Forest visited in Europe and the Middle East. There are also a few loose drawings.

Photographs are of Lockwood de Forest, his wife, family, friends, colleagues, paintings, houses, wood carvings, and art objects.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 8 series.

Series 1: Correspondence, 1858-1931 (0.9 linear feet; Boxes 1, 4)

Series 2: Writings, 1881-1976 (0.8 linear feet; Boxes 1-2, OV 5)

Series 3: Diaries and Journals, 1868-1890 (0.2 linear feet; Box 2)

Series 4: Lockwood de Forest Exhibition Files, 1974-1978 (0.1 linear feet; Box 2)

Series 5: Personal Business Records, 1869-1931 (0.3 linear feet; Box 2, OV 6)

Series 6: Printed Material, 1867-1980 (0.5 linear feet; Boxes 2-3)

Series 7: Sketchbooks and Drawings, 1869-1881 (0.4 linear feet; Box 3)

Series 8: Photographs, circa 1870-circa 1932 (0.2 linear feet; Box 3)
Biographical / Historical:
Lockwood de Forest (1850-1932) was an architect, interior designer, collector, landscape painter, and writer based in New York City and Santa Barbara, California.

Lockwood de Forest was born in New York City in 1850. His parents were Julia Weeks and Henry Grant de Forest. He was one of four children. In 1869, he went to Rome, Italy and began studying art under the tutelage of the American painter Frederic Edwin Church whom he met during his trip. Church continued to be de Forest's mentor after they returned to America. De Forest set up a studio in New York City and first exhibited his work in 1872. From 1875-1878, he went on two more trips abroad to Europe, the Middle East, and Africa.

In 1878, de Forest cofounded Associated Artists in New York along with Louis C. Tiffany, Candace Wheeler, and Samuel Coleman. The design firm closed around 1882 but was tremendously influential. He married Meta Kemble the same year that he began Associated Artists and the couple traveled to India where they stayed for the next two years. During that trip, de Forest met philanthropist Muggunbhai Hutheesing and together they established a woodcarving company and supplied Associated Artists with furniture and architectural objects.

Around 1882, De Forest opened his own business in New York City that managed the design and production of furniture and architectural accents, along with importing similar objects from India. In 1887, he purchased a house on 7 East 10th Street that he elaborately decorated with furnishings from India.

De Forest began spending winters in Santa Barbara, California starting in 1889. He eventually purchased a house and relocated there around 1922. While in California, he resumed painting with fervor and created many landscapes of the West Coast shorelines. De Forest died in Santa Barbara in 1932.
Provenance:
The Lockwood de Forest papers were donated in 1982 by Mrs. Lockwood de Forest III, daughter-in-law of Lockwood de Forest.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Lockwood de Forest papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Occupation:
Architects -- California -- Santa Barbara  Search this
Interior decorators -- California -- Santa Barbara  Search this
Painters -- California -- Santa Barbara  Search this
Topic:
Architects -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Interior decorators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Wood-carving  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- California -- Santa Barbara  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketchbooks
Photographs
Drawings
Diaries
Citation:
Lockwood de Forest papers, 1858-1980. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.defolock
See more items in:
Lockwood de Forest papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-defolock
Online Media:

Roy De Forest papers

Creator:
De Forest, Roy, 1930-2007  Search this
Names:
Dilexi Gallery  Search this
Loujon Press  Search this
Nixon, Bruce  Search this
Strohl, Audrey  Search this
Uccello, Paolo, 1397-1475  Search this
Zack, David, 1938-  Search this
Extent:
11.2 Linear feet
111.86 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Drawings
Interviews
Sketchbooks
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Date:
1916-2015
bulk 1948-2007
Summary:
The papers of artist Roy De Forest measure 11.2 linear feet and 111.86 gigabytes and date from 1916 to 2015, with the bulk of the collection dating from 1948 to 2007. The collection documents De Forest's painting career and involvement in the funk art movement through biographical material, correspondence, writings, professional records, printed material, photographic material, artwork, digital audio and video recordings, and artifacts.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of artist Roy De Forest measure 11.2 linear feet and 111.86 gigabytes and date from 1916 to 2015, with the bulk of the collection dating from 1948 to 2007. The collection includes documents De Forest's painting career and involvement in the funk art movement through biographical material, correspondence, writings, professional records, printed material, photographic material, artwork, digital audio and video recordings, and artifacts.

Biographical material includes early school materials, resumes, a recording of an interview, membership materials, identification documents, certificates and awards, and family history and genealogy material. Also included in this series are obituaries, letters of condolence, and materials, including born-digital photographs and recordings, related to memorial services celebrating De Forest's life and work.

Correspondence includes letters and postcards to and from family, friends, colleagues, and arts institutions. This series also includes a few folders of greeting cards.

The writings series contains essays, lectures, exhibition texts, notes, and other materials written by Roy De Forest, including an essay, The Vision of Paolo Uccello, and his famous "dog lecture." Also included are writings by others, such as a student dissertations on Roy De Forest, essays by Bruce Nixon, and poetry and an essay by David Zack.

Professional records include materials related to a book of memories (never published) organized by Dilexi Gallery and the Loujon Press, exhibition planning documents, an exhibition recording, materials related to the James Talcott Inc. Computer Arts program, and materials related to print documentation.

Financial records contain inventory and stock files; sales and consignment records; receipts and invoices; tax, estate, and insurance paperwork; and account books and ledgers.

Printed material includes exhibition announcements, catalogs, and posters; material related to other projects; blank cards with Roy De Forest art; clippings; press releases; newsletters and journals; books; and source material.

Photographic material includes digital and print photographs, negatives, transparencies, and slides of Roy De Forest and other individuals, as well as travel photos, images of his pets (primarily dogs), and images of his studio and works of art.

Artwork includes drawings by De Forest and others, as well as four sketchbooks.

The artifacts series contains a tote bag, t-shirt, and a puzzle, all featuring Roy De Forest artwork. Also included in the series is a patterned shirt and an "art critic" baseball cap.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in nine series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1930-2008 (Boxes 1-2, OV 12, RD 17, ER01-ER03; 1.7 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, circa 1948-2014 (Boxes 2-3; 1 linear foot)

Series 3: Writings, circa 1952-2005 (Box 3, OV 12, ER04; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 4: Professional Records, 1968-circa 2007, 2014 (Box 3, OV 12; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 5: Financial Records, 1963-circa 2014 (Boxes 3-5; 1.4 linear feet)

Series 6: Printed Material: 1916-1936, 1951-2007 (Boxes 5-7, OV 13-14, ER05-ER07; 2.8 linear feet)

Series 7: Photographic Material: 1926, circa 1943-2007 (Boxes 7-9, OV 15, ER08-ER12; 2 linear feet)

Series 8: Artwork, circa 1947-circa 2007 (Boxes 9-10, OV 16; 0.6 linear feet)

Series 9: Artifacts, circa 2007-circa 2009 (Box 11; 1 linear foot)
Biographical / Historical:
Roy De Forest (1930-2007) was a painter, sculptor, and educator in Port Costa, California. A notable figure in the funk art movement, he coined the term "nut art" to describe art that embraced humor and created a fantasy world.

Born in North Platte, Nebraska, Roy De Forest grew up in Yakima, Washington where he attended Yakima Junior College and graduated in 1950. He went on to study at the California School of Fine Arts (now San Francisco Art Institute) and San Francisco State College (now San Francisco State University). He taught at Yakima Junior College from 1958 to 1960 after graduating from San Francisco State College, and later taught at the University of California, Davis from 1965 until his retirement as professor emeritus in 1992.

De Forest's first solo exhibition was in 1955 at the East & West Gallery in San Francisco. From then until his death in 2007, he exhibited frequently, especially at the Allan Frumkin Gallery in New York and the Hansen Fuller Gallery in San Francisco.
Related Materials:
Also found in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Roy De Forest conducted by Lynn Robert Matteson, April 7-June 30, 2004.
Provenance:
The Roy De Forest papers were donated in several installments from 1974 to 2019. Some materials were loaned for microfilming in 1974 and subsequently donated in 1977 and 1979 by Roy De Forest. Additional materials were donated in 2009, 2016 and 2019 by Gloria Marchant, Roy De Forest's widow.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Use of archival audiovisual recordings and born-digital records with no duplicate copies requires advance notice.
Topic:
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- California  Search this
Educators -- California  Search this
Painters -- California  Search this
Sculptors -- California  Search this
Funk  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Interviews
Sketchbooks
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Citation:
Roy De Forest papers, 1916-2015. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.deforoy
See more items in:
Roy De Forest papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-deforoy
Online Media:

Louis Bouché papers

Creator:
Bouché, Louis, 1896-1969  Search this
Names:
Penguin Club (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Wanamaker Gallery  Search this
Bacon, Peggy, 1895-1987  Search this
Bouché, Ernest  Search this
Bouché, Henri L.  Search this
Bouché, Jane  Search this
Bouché, Marian Wright, 1895-  Search this
Brook, Alexander, 1898-1980  Search this
Davidson, Jo, 1883-1952  Search this
Marsh, Reginald, 1898-1954  Search this
Pène du Bois, William, 1916-1993  Search this
Schmidt, Katherine, 1898-1978  Search this
Extent:
5.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Sketches
Scrapbooks
Travel diaries
Drawings
Date:
1880-2007
Summary:
The papers of painter and muralist Louis Bouché measure 5.9 linear feet and date from 1880 to 2007. Found within the papers are biographical material; personal correspondence, including correspondence from the extended Bouché family; writings; financial records; printed material; four scrapbooks; artwork; and photographs of Bouché, his family and friends, and his work.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of painter and muralist Louis Bouché measure 5.9 linear feet and date from 1880 to 2007. Found within the papers are biographical material; personal correspondence, including correspondence from the extended Bouché family; writings; financial records; printed material; four scrapbooks; artwork; and photographs of Bouché, his family and friends, and his work.

Biographical material consists of family certificates and Bouché's curriculum vitae.

The bulk of the correspondence consists of letters from Bouché 's father to his mother, and of letters addressed to his daughter, Jane. These include letters Louis and Marian wrote to Jane, along with letters from her first husband, William Pène du Bois, during the early days of their courtship and marriage. The handful of letters directly addressed to Louis and Marian include correspondence from Peggy Bacon and Katherine Schmidt.

Writings include drafts of Bouché's autobiography, eight journals kept by Marian Bouché detailing their travels in the United States and abroad, four reminiscences of Bouché written by others, and a poem written by Peggy Bacon.

Personal business records consist of two ledger books, lists, and receipts documenting inventory and records of sales.

Printed material consists of clippings, exhibition announcements and catalogs, and periodicals related to Bouché's work. There are also three books from Bouché's personal library and exhibition announcements and catalogs from Walt Kuhn's Penguin Club and Wanamaker's Gallery.

Two scrapbooks include clippings, photographs, and printed material related to Bouché 's career. One scrapbook includes material related to the extended Bouché family, and one scrapbook consists of reproductions of works of art by modern French artists.

Photographic materials include ten photograph albums. Three are of Louis, Marian, and Jane, three are of Jane and her family, and four are of Louis' parents and sister's family. There are also loose prints and negatives of Bouché, his family and friends, and works of art.

Artwork consists of sketches and drawings by Louis, Jane, Henri, and Ernest Bouché. Additional sketches by Peggy Bacon, Alexander Brook, Jo Davidson, and Reginald Marsh are also included.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 8 series.

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1880-1964 (2 folders, Box 1)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1880-2003 (1.2 linear feet; Boxes 1-2)

Series 3: Writings, 1933-1995 (.9 linear feet, Boxes 2-3)

Series 4: Personal Business Records, 1930-1974 (4 folders, Box 3)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1900-1997 (.5 linear feet; Boxes 3, 6)

Series 6: Scrapbooks, 1880-1969 (.8 linear feet; Boxes 3, 7-8)

Series 7: Photographic Materials, 1890-1994 (2.3 linear feet; Boxes 3-5, 9-10)

Series 8: Artwork, 1870-1965 (10 folders; Boxes 5, 10)
Biographical / Historical:
Louis Bouché (1896-1969) was a painter, muralist, and educator who lived and worked in New York City.

Bouché was born in New York City to Henri and Marie Bouché. His father was an interior designer who worked with Stanford White and for Tiffany, and his grandfather, Ernest Louis Bouché, was a Barbizon school painter. After his father's death in 1909, his mother moved the family to Paris where Bouché attended art school at La Grand Chaumère. When the family moved back to America in 1915, Bouché enrolled at the Art Students League where he met fellow student and lifelong friend Alexander Brook. In 1916, Bouché was invited to become a member of Walt Kuhn's Penguin Club, and in 1918, he joined the stable of Charlie Daniel's Daniel Gallery. At this time, Bouché began exhibiting in shows organized by Julianna Force for the Whitney Studio Club, which later evolved into the Whitney Museum. In 1920, he was introduced to the Woodstock artist community and was a frequent summer resident at the colony.

Bouché met Marian Wright while they were both members of the Penguin Club, and they were married in 1921. Upon returning from their honeymoon, Bouché accepted a position managing exhibitions for Wanamaker's Belmaison Galleries, the first modern art gallery in a department store in New York. Their daughter Jane would later marry William Pène du Bois, son of Guy Pène du Bois, whom the Bouchés had known from their days in the Penguin Club. In 1926, Bouché separated from Wanamaker's and began taking commissions for mural and design work, eventually completing murals for the U.S. Department of the Interior, Radio City Music Hall, and the Pennsylvania Railroad. In addition to murals, Bouché did illustrative advertising work for various publications, including Condé Nast and Town and Country.

In 1936, Bouché joined the stable at Kraushaar Gallery, where he eventually exhibited a series of ten one-man shows. Bouché also held solo exhibitons at the Valentine Gallery, Staten Island Institute, Century Association, and Albany Institute. Beginning in 1943, Bouché taught for many years at the Art Students League and began teaching at the National Academy of Design in 1951. He received a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1936 and was the American Academy in Rome's artist in residence in 1960.

Louis Bouché died in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, on August 7, 1969.
Related Materials:
Also found in the Archives of American Art are two oral history interviews with Louis Bouché, one conducted by John Morse, August 7, 1959, and another by William Woolfenden on March 13, 1963.
Provenance:
A portion of the Louis Bouché papers were loaned for microfilming and subsequently donated by the artist and his wife in 1963 and from 1972 to 1973. Additions were donated by Bouché's daughter, Jane Bouché Strong, in several accretions dating from 1978 to 1988. In 2011, Anne Strong, Jane B. Strong's executor, donated additional materials to the Archives of American Art.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Louis Bouché papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sketches
Scrapbooks
Travel diaries
Drawings
Citation:
Louis Bouché papers, 1880-2007. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.boucloui
See more items in:
Louis Bouché papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-boucloui
Online Media:

[Volume 3 of Charles Francis Hall's Notes on Arctic Explorers]

Author:
Hall, Charles Francis, 1821-1871  Search this
Collection Creator:
Field, Cyrus  Search this
Hall, Charles Francis, 1821-1871  Search this
Franklin, John, 1786-1847  Search this
Royal Geographic Society.  Search this
Everett, Edward, 1794-1865  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper, 17.0" x 11".)
Container:
Box 1, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Diaries
Place:
Arctic regions -- Discovery and exploration
Date:
circa 1860
Scope and Contents:
Third volume of four notebooks on arctic explorers in preparation for Hall's 1st expedition.
Local Numbers:
AC0702-0000025
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Explorers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries -- 19th century
Collection Citation:
Charles Francis Hall Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Charles Francis Hall Collection
Charles Francis Hall Collection / .006-.009, Four notebooks with notes on other arctic explorers, in preparation for Hall's 1st expedition
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0702-ref637
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
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Western Union Telegraph Company Records

Creator:
United Telegraph Workers.  Search this
Western Union Telegraph Company  Search this
Extent:
452 Cubic feet (871 boxes and 23 map folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Patents
Scrapbooks
Contracts
Drawings
Articles
Administrative records
Clippings
Books
Photographs
Newsletters
Photograph albums
Specifications
Technical documents
Date:
circa 1820-1995
Summary:
The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is divided into twenty-six (26) series and consists of approximately 400 cubic feet. The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into twenty-six series.

Series 1: Historical and Background Information, 1851-1994

Series 2: Subsidiaries of Western Union, 1844-1986

Series 3: Executive Records, 1848-1987

Series 4: Presidential Letterbooks and Writings, 1865-1911

Series 5: Correspondence, 1837-1985

Series 6: Cyrus W. Field Papers, 1840-1892

Series 7: Secretary's Files, 1844-1987

Series 8: Financial Records, 1859-1995

Series 9: Legal Records, 1867-1968

Series 10: Railroad Records, 1854-1945

Series 11: Law Department Records, 1868-1979

Series 12: Patent Materials, 1840-1970

Series 13: Operating Records, 1868-1970s

Series 14: Westar VI-S, 1974, 1983-1986

Series 15: Engineering Department Records, 1874-1970

Series 16: Plant Department Records, 1867-1937, 1963

Series 17: Superintendent of Supplies Records, 1888-1948

Series 18: Employee/Personnel Records 1852-1985

Series 19: Public Relations Department Records, 1858-1980

Series 20: Western Union Museum, 1913-1971

Series 21: Maps, 1820-1964

Series 22: Telegrams, 1852-1960s

Series 23: Photographs, circa 1870-1980

Series 24: Scrapbooks, 1835-1956

Series 25: Notebooks, 1880-1942

Series 26: Audio Visual Materials, 1925-1994

Series 27: Materials for Interfile (Series 1; Series 3; Series 13; Series 15-23; Series 25-26)
Biographical / Historical:
In 1832 Samuel F. B. Morse, assisted by Alfred Vail, conceived of the idea for an electromechanical telegraph, which he called the "Recording Telegraph." This commercial application of electricity was made tangible by their construction of a crude working model in 1835-36. This instrument probably was never used outside of Professor Morse's rooms where it was, however, operated in a number of demonstrations. This original telegraph instrument was in the hands of the Western Union Telegraph Company and had been kept carefully over the years in a glass case. It was moved several times in New York as the Western Union headquarters building changed location over the years. The company presented it to the Smithsonian Institution in 1950.

The telegraph was further refined by Morse, Vail, and a colleague, Leonard Gale, into working mechanical form in 1837. In this year Morse filed a caveat for it at the U.S. Patent Office. Electricity, provided by Joseph Henry's 1836 "intensity batteries", was sent over a wire. The flow of electricity through the wire was interrupted for shorter or longer periods by holding down the key of the device. The resulting dots or dashes were recorded on a printer or could be interpreted orally. In 1838 Morse perfected his sending and receiving code and organized a corporation, making Vail and Gale his partners.

In 1843 Morse received funds from Congress to set-up a demonstration line between Washington and Baltimore. Unfortunately, Morse was not an astute businessman and had no practical plan for constructing a line. After an unsuccessful attempt at laying underground cables with Ezra Cornell, the inventor of a trench digger, Morse switched to the erection of telegraph poles and was more successful. On May 24, 1844, Morse, in the U.S. Supreme Court Chambers in Washington, sent by telegraph the oft-quoted message to his colleague Vail in Baltimore, "What hath God wrought!"

In 1845 Morse hired Andrew Jackson's former postmaster general, Amos Kendall, as his agent in locating potential buyers of the telegraph. Kendall realized the value of the device, and had little trouble convincing others of its potential for profit. By the spring he had attracted a small group of investors. They subscribed $15,000 and formed the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Many new telegraph companies were formed as Morse sold licenses wherever he could.

The first commercial telegraph line was completed between Washington, D.C., and New York City in the spring of 1846 by the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Shortly thereafter, F. O. J. Smith, one of the patent owners, built a line between New York City and Boston. Most of these early companies were licensed by owners of Samuel Morse patents. The Morse messages were sent and received in a code of dots and dashes.

At this time other telegraph systems based on rival technologies were being built. Some companies used the printing telegraph, a device invented by a Vermonter, Royal E. House, whose messages were printed on paper or tape in Roman letters. In 1848 a Scotch scientist, Alexander Bain, received his patents on a telegraph. These were but two of many competing and incompatible technologies that had developed. The result was confusion, inefficiency, and a rash of suits and counter suits.

By 1851 there were over fifty separate telegraph companies operating in the United States. This corporate cornucopia developed because the owners of the telegraph patents had been unsuccessful in convincing the United States and other governments of the invention's potential usefulness. In the private sector, the owners had difficulty convincing capitalists of the commercial value of the invention. This led to the owners' willingness to sell licenses to many purchasers who organized separate companies and then built independent telegraph lines in various sections of the country.

Hiram Sibley moved to Rochester, New York, in 1838 to pursue banking and real estate. Later he was elected sheriff of Monroe County. In Rochester he was introduced to Judge Samuel L. Selden who held the House Telegraph patent rights. In 1849 Selden and Sibley organized the New York State Printing Telegraph Company, but they found it hard to compete with the existing New York, Albany, and Buffalo Telegraph Company.

After this experience Selden suggested that instead of creating a new line, the two should try to acquire all the companies west of Buffalo and unite them into a single unified system. Selden secured an agency for the extension throughout the United States of the House system. In an effort to expand this line west, Judge Selden called on friends and the people in Rochester. This led, in April 1851, to the organization of a company and the filing in Albany of the Articles of Association for the "New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company" (NYMVPTC), a company which later evolved into the Western Union Telegraph Company.

In 1854 there were two rival systems of the NYMVPTC in the West. These two systems consisted of thirteen separate companies. All the companies were using Morse patents in the five states north of the Ohio River. This created a struggle between three separate entities, leading to an unreliable and inefficient telegraph service. The owners of these rival companies eventually decided to invest their money elsewhere and arrangements were made for the NYMVPTC to purchase their interests.

Hiram Sibley recapitalized the company in 1854 under the same name and began a program of construction and acquisition. The most important takeover was carried out by Sibley when he negotiated the purchase of the Morse patent rights for the Midwest for $50,000 from Jeptha H. Wade and John J. Speed, without the knowledge of Ezra Cornell, their partner in the Erie and Michigan Telegraph Company (EMTC). With this acquisition Sibley proceeded to switch to the superior Morse system. He also hired Wade, a very capable manager, who became his protege and later his successor. After a bitter struggle Morse and Wade obtained the EMTC from Cornell in 1855, thus assuring dominance by the NYMVPTC in the Midwest. In 1856 the company name was changed to the "Western Union Telegraph Company," indicating the union of the Western lines into one compact system. In December, 1857, the Company paid stockholders their first dividend.

Between 1857 and 1861 similar consolidations of telegraph companies took place in other areas of the country so that most of the telegraph interests of the United States had merged into six systems. These were the American Telegraph Company (covering the Atlantic and some Gulf states), The Western Union Telegraph Company (covering states North of the Ohio River and parts of Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Minnesota), the New York Albany and Buffalo Electro-Magnetic Telegraph Company (covering New York State), the Atlantic and Ohio Telegraph Company (covering Pennsylvania), the Illinois & Mississippi Telegraph Company (covering sections of Missouri, Iowa, and Illinois), and the New Orleans & Ohio Telegraph Company (covering the southern Mississippi Valley and the Southwest). All these companies worked together in a mutually friendly alliance, and other small companies cooperated with the six systems, particularly some on the West Coast.

By the time of the Civil War, there was a strong commercial incentive to construct a telegraph line across the western plains to link the two coasts of America. Many companies, however, believed the line would be impossible to build and maintain.

In 1860 Congress passed, and President James Buchanan signed, the Pacific Telegraph Act, which authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to seek bids for a project to construct a transcontinental line. When two bidders dropped out, Hiram Sibley, representing Western Union, was the only bidder left. By default Sibley won the contract. The Pacific Telegraph Company was organized for the purpose of building the eastern section of the line. Sibley sent Wade to California, where he consolidated the small local companies into the California State Telegraph Company. This entity then organized the Overland Telegraph Company, which handled construction eastward from Carson City, Nevada, joining the existing California lines, to Salt Lake City, Utah. Sibley's Pacific Telegraph Company built westward from Omaha, Nebraska. Sibley put most of his resources into the venture. The line was completed in October, 1861. Both companies were soon merged into Western Union. This accomplishment made Hiram Sibley leader of the telegraph industry.

Further consolidations took place over the next several years. Many companies merged into the American Telegraph Company. With the expiration of the Morse patents, several organizations were combined in 1864 under the name of "The U.S. Telegraph Company." In 1866 the final consolidation took place, with Western Union exchanging stock for the stock of the other two organizations. The general office of Western Union moved at this time from Rochester to 145 Broadway, New York City. In 1875 the main office moved to 195 Broadway, where it remained until 1930 when it relocated to 60 Hudson Street.

In 1873 Western Union purchased a majority of shares in the International Ocean Telegraph Company. This was an important move because it marked Western Union's entry into the foreign telegraph market. Having previously worked with foreign companies, Western Union now began competing for overseas business.

In the late 1870s Western Union, led by William H. Vanderbilt, attempted to wrest control of the major telephone patents, and the new telephone industry, away from the Bell Telephone Company. But due to new Bell leadership and a subsequent hostile takeover attempt of Western Union by Jay Gould, Western Union discontinued its fight and Bell Telephone prevailed.

Despite these corporate calisthenics, Western Union remained in the public eye. The sight of a uniformed Western Union messenger boy was familiar in small towns and big cities all over the country for many years. Some of Western Union's top officials in fact began their careers as messenger boys.

Throughout the remainder of the nineteenth century the telegraph became one of the most important factors in the development of social and commercial life of America. In spite of improvements to the telegraph, however, two new inventions--the telephone (nineteenth century) and the radio (twentieth century)--eventually replaced the telegraph as the leaders of the communication revolution for most Americans.

At the turn of the century, Bell abandoned its struggles to maintain a monopoly through patent suits, and entered into direct competition with the many independent telephone companies. Around this time, the company adopted its new name, the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T).

In 1908 AT&T gained control of Western Union. This proved beneficial to Western Union, because the companies were able to share lines when needed, and it became possible to order telegrams by telephone. However, it was only possible to order Western Union telegrams, and this hurt the business of Western Union's main competitor, the Postal Telegraph Company. In 1913, however, as part of a move to prevent the government from invoking antitrust laws, AT&T completely separated itself from Western Union.

Western Union continued to prosper and it received commendations from the U.S. armed forces for service during both world wars. In 1945 Western Union finally merged with its longtime rival, the Postal Telegraph Company. As part of that merger, Western Union agreed to separate domestic and foreign business. In 1963 Western Union International Incorporated, a private company completely separate from the Western Union Telegraph Company, was formed and an agreement with the Postal Telegraph Company was completed. In 1994, Western Union Financial Services, Inc. was acquired by First Financial Management Corporation. In 1995, First Financial Management Corporation merged with First Data Corporation making Western Union a First Data subsidiary.

Many technological advancements followed the telegraph's development. The following are among the more important:

The first advancement of the telegraph occurred around 1850 when operators realized that the clicks of the recording instrument portrayed a sound pattern, understandable by the operators as dots and dashes. This allowed the operator to hear the message by ear and simultaneously write it down. This ability transformed the telegraph into a versatile and speedy system.

Duplex Telegraphy, 1871-72, was invented by the president of the Franklin Telegraph Company. Unable to sell his invention to his own company, he found a willing buyer in Western Union. Utilizing this invention, two messages were sent over the wire simultaneously, one in each direction.

As business blossomed and demand surged, new devices appeared. Thomas Edison's Quadruplex allowed four messages to be sent over the same wire simultaneously, two in one direction and two in the other.

An English automatic signaling arrangement, Wheatstone's Automatic Telegraph, 1883, allowed larger numbers of words to be transmitted over a wire at once. It could only be used advantageously, however, on circuits where there was a heavy volume of business.

Buckingham's Machine Telegraph was an improvement on the House system. It printed received messages in plain Roman letters quickly and legibly on a message blank, ready for delivery.

Vibroplex, c. 1890, a semi-automatic key sometimes called a "bug key," made the dots automatically. This relieved the operator of much physical strain.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Additional moving image about Western Union Telegraph Company can be found in the Industry on Parade Collection (AC0507). This includes Cable to Cuba! by Bell Laboratory, AT & T, featuring the cable ship, the C.S. Lord Kelvin, and Communications Centennial! by the Western Union Company.

Materials at Other Organizations

Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, Delaware.

Western Union International Records form part of the MCI International, Inc. Records at the First Data Corporation, Greenwood Village, Colorado.

Records of First Data Corporation and its predecessors, including Western Union, First Financial Management Corporation (Atlanta) and First Data Resources (Omaha). Western Union collection supports research of telegraphy and related technologies, and includes company records, annual reports, photographs, print and broadcast advertising, telegraph equipment, and messenger uniforms.

Smithsonian Institution Archives

Western Union Telegraph Expedition, 1865-1867

This collection includes correspondence, mostly to Spencer F. Baird, from members of the Scientific Corps of the Western Union Telegraph Expedition, including Kennicott, Dall, Bannister, and Elliott; copies of reports submitted to divisional chiefs from expedition staff members; newspaper clippings concerning the expedition; copies of notes on natural history taken by Robert Kennicott; and a journal containing meteorological data recorded by Henry M. Bannister from March to August, 1866.
Separated Materials:
Artifacts (apparatus and equipment) were donated to the Division of Information Technology and Society, now known as the Division of Work & Industry, National Museum of American History.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Western Union in September of 1971.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements must be made to view some of the audio visual materials. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Electric engineering  Search this
Electric engineers  Search this
Electrical equipment  Search this
Communication -- International cooperation  Search this
Electrical engineers  Search this
Electrical science and technology  Search this
Communications equipment  Search this
Telegraphers  Search this
Telegraph  Search this
Genre/Form:
Patents
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Contracts
Drawings
Articles
Administrative records
Clippings
Books
Photographs -- 19th century
Newsletters
Photograph albums
Specifications
Photographs -- 20th century
Scrapbooks -- 19th century
Technical documents
Citation:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0205
See more items in:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0205
Online Media:

American Art Association Records

Creator:
American Art Association  Search this
Names:
American Watercolor Society  Search this
Blakeslee Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Carnegie, Andrew, 1835-1919  Search this
Crocker, William H.  Search this
Kirby, Thomas Ellis, 1846-1924  Search this
Millet, Francis Davis, 1846-1912  Search this
Parsons, Alfred, 1847-1920  Search this
Extent:
27.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sales records
Photographs
Drawings
Prints
Sketches
Date:
circa 1853-1929
bulk 1885-1922
Summary:
The American Art Association records measure 27.8 linear feet and date from circa 1853-1929, with the bulk of the material dating from circa 1885-1922. The records include auction and sales files, general financial and legal files, inventory and stock records, client files, printed materials, photographic materials, artwork, and the personal papers of founder Thomas Ellis Kirby.
Scope and Contents:
The American Art Association records measure 27.8 linear feet and date from circa 1853-1929, with the bulk of the material dating from circa 1885-1922. The records include auction and sales files, general financial and legal files, inventory and stock records, client files, printed materials, photographic materials, artwork, and the scattered personal papers of founder Thomas Ellis Kirby.

Auction files contain a wide variety of materials regarding auction schedules, auctions, gallery sales, and estate sales. The files primarily contain correspondence, sales statements and ledgers, estate inventories and appraisals, and photographs. Of interest is a handwritten letter from Andrew Carnegie concerning the Second Prize Fund Exhibition.

Records of sales are documented in named files, sales ledgers, client account books, and Blakeslee Gallery sales ledgers. Files are found for specific art collections and estates. Sales ledgers list sales transactions of the Association by collection, department, genre, or named auction and provide the most detailed sales information, often noting title or subject, size, owner, lot number, date, purchaser, and price, and sometimes an index of artists. Other ledgers document consignment and exhibition sales, as well as sales conducted by other galleries or auction houses, both in the United States and in Europe. Exhibition sales documented include those of Alfred Parsons and Frank Millet in 1903, the American Watercolor Society in 1902, and the American Painters and Illustrators in 1905, and others. Client account books provide itemized costs accrued by individuals or estates over the course of a sale or purchase. Many of the ledgers contain name indexes.

General financial and legal files primarily consist of cash and expense ledgers documenting daily, monthly, and yearly costs and expenses related to the production of auction and sales catalogs, costs associated with leasing spaces and equipment, shipping and crating, employee sales commissions, art department expenses, book department expenses, and other costs. Legal files contain scattered forms and contractual documents, as well as correspondence and documents related to two lawsuits.

Inventory and stock records document the Association's inventory through a series of stock books and inventory cards that include sales and provenance information.

Client files consist of cards divided into clients interested in art and clients interested in books. They also include some information on specific client sales and purchases. Also found are numerous client address books. Printed materials include auction catalogs, clippings, and newspapers.

Photographs depict works of art and materials sold and collected. Of interest is a collection of cabinet photographs of French artists collected when the American Art Association was actively involved in the auction sales of thousands of paintings by French artists. Also found are four photo albums depicting auction items for a 1907 auction, prepared for the American Art Association by William H. Crocker. Several unsigned prints, sketches, and drawings are found in the artwork series.

Thomas Ellis Kirby's scattered personal papers include an address book, scattered family and biographical materials, correspondence with clients and associates, writings and speeches, legal material, auction records, and photographs.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 9 series. Folder titles have been retained from the original records, and occasionally devised for clarity.

Series 1: Auctions, circa 1885-1922 (1.9 linear feet; Boxes 1-2, BV23-24)

Series 2: Sales, circa 1884-1923 (8.1 linear feet; Boxes 2-6, 20-21, BV25-39)

Series 3: General Financial and Legal Files, circa 1883-1923 (9.3 linear feet; Boxes 6-11, BV40-62)

Series 4: Inventory and Stock Records, circa 1887-circa 1922 (0.8 linear feet; Box 11, BV63-65)

Series 5: Client Files, circa 1895-circa 1922 (2.1 linear feet; Boxes 11-13)

Series 6: Printed Materials, circa 1853-1923 (1.1 linear feet; Boxes 13-14, 21)

Series 7: Photographic Material, circa 1885-circa 1922 (0.8 linear feet; Boxes 14-15, 21-22)

Series 8: Artwork, circa 1888-circa 1900 (0.1 linear feet; Boxes 15, 22)

Series 9: Thomas Ellis Kirby Personal Papers, circa 1861-1929 (3.6 linear feet; Boxes 15-19)
Biographical / Historical:
The American Art Association was an art gallery and auction house based in New York City, New York, formed in 1883 by James F. Sutton, R. Austin Robertson, and Thomas E. Kirby. It was the first auction house in the United States.

The Association was founded to promote American art and exhibit the work of American artists in its American Art Galleries in New York City. In its first year of operation, the Association exhibited Thomas B. Clarke's collection of American paintings as a benefit for the National Academy of Design. After the successful management of the public sale of the George I. Seney art collection in 1885, with Thomas E. Kirby as auctioneer, the Association continued conducting auctions and managing estate sales. Austin Robertson died in 1892 and Sutton became a special partner in 1895. In 1912 Kirby's son, Gustavus T. Kirby, joined the Association as a general partner and later also acquired Sutton's interest and became a full partner. The Association was sold in 1923 to Cortlandt Field Bishop, and merged with the Anderson Auction Company to form the American Art Association-Anderson Galleries, Inc, in 1929. The firm was taken over by Parke-Bernet Galleries, Inc., in 1938.
Provenance:
A portion of the American Art Association records were donated in 1968 by Thomas Ellis Kirby's daughter, Mrs. Thomas B. Waller. The remaining records were donated by the American Antiquarian Society in 1978 and 1993.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The American Art Association records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Occupation:
Auctioneers  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- Economic aspects  Search this
Art, French  Search this
Art dealers  Search this
Art auctions  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Auctions  Search this
Artists -- France -- Photographs  Search this
Art -- Societies, etc. -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Artists -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sales records
Photographs
Drawings
Prints
Sketches
Citation:
American Art Association Records, circa 1853-1929, bulk circa 1885-1922. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.amerarta
See more items in:
American Art Association Records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-amerarta
Online Media:

Allan Frumkin Gallery records

Creator:
Allan Frumkin Gallery  Search this
Extent:
25.6 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1880
1944-2016
Summary:
The records of the Allan Frumkin Gallery, a Chicago and New York City gallery, measure 25.6 linear feet and date from 1944-2016 with one letter pertaining to artwork documentation dating from 1880. The collection documents the gallery's activities through administrative files, dealer and client correspondence, artist files, financial records, gallery newsletters, printed material, and photographic material. Artist files represent over one-third of the collection and provide insight into the close relationship between Frumkin and many of the gallery's major artists including Robert Arneson, Luis Cruz Azaceta, Jack Beal, Joan Brown, Colin Lanceley, Maryan, Roberto Matta, Philip Pearlstein, Peter Saul, H.C. Westermann, and William T. Wiley. Also included in the collection are the Frumkin Family papers, consisting of writings by Allan and wife Jean Martin Frumkin, editorial copy of Art Book Review, personal papers, and material relating to the Frumkin personal art collection and estate.
Scope and Contents:
The records of the Allan Frumkin Gallery, a Chicago and New York City gallery, measure 25.6 linear feet and date from 1944-2016 with one letter pertaining to artwork documentation dating from 1880. The collection documents the gallery's activities through administrative files, dealer and client correspondence, artist files, financial records, gallery newsletters, printed material, and photographic material. Also included in the collection are the Frumkin Family papers.

The administrative files reflect the daily operations and business activities of the gallery. Included are address books, appointment books, art fair records, artwork documentation, auction records, gallery logs, maintenance records, leases, loan agreements, shipping receipts, mailing lists, provenance research, and documentation pertaining to the incorporation and administration of several iterations and branches of the gallery, including Frumkin & Struve Gallery, Frumkin/Adams Gallery, and Allan Frumkin Gallery Photographs.

Correspondence is primarily with dealers, clients, and institutions pertaining to sales, purchases, consignments, provenance, and shipping of artworks. The majority of the correspondence dates from the gallery's first decade, 1952-1962.

Artist files represent over one-third of the collection and provide insight into the close relationship between Frumkin and many of the gallery's major artists including Robert Arneson, Luis Cruz Azaceta, Jack Beal, Joan Brown, Colin Lanceley, Maryan, Roberto Matta, Philip Pearlstein, Peter Saul, H.C. Westermann, and William T. Wiley.

Financial records include check balance books, expenses, financial statements, inventories, invoices, price lists, and sales ledgers. Financial transactions are also found amongst the dealer and client correspondence.

Among the newsletters and related files is a full set of the published newsletters, as well as editorial copy and drafts for nearly every issue. Published from 1976-1995, the newsletters detailed gallery activities and highlighted gallery artists in profiles which included interviews and photographs.

Printed material includes articles and clippings, exhibition announcements, catalogs, newsletters, bulletins, press releases, and assortment of other material pertaining to the Allan Frumkin Gallery and others.

While not extensive, the photographic material is rich, depicting Allan Frumkin, gallery director George Adams, gallery artists, studios, exhibition installations, and artworks, in a variety of formats.

Also included in the records are the Frumkin family papers, which include writings by Allan Frumkin and Jean Martin Frumkin, Art Book Review editorial files, personal papers, and detailed material relating to the Frumkin personal art collection and estate. The writings by Allan Frumkin are particularly insightful in the context of the gallery records, and include essays on art dealing and the gallery, a talk on the artist, Matta, memoir drafts, and an interview transcript.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as eight series.

Series 1: Administrative Files, 1880, 1950-2002 (2 linear feet; Boxes 1-2)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1948-2010 (5.4 linear feet; Boxes 3-8)

Series 3: Artist Files, 1944-2015 (9.3 linear feet; Boxes 8-17, OVs 27-28)

Series 4: Financial Records, 1950-2002 (0.9 linear feet; Boxes 17-18)

Series 5: Newsletters, 1970-2000 (1.1 linear feet; Boxes 18-19)

Series 6: Printed Material, 1949-2009 (0.7 linear feet; Boxes 19-20)

Series 7: Photographic Material, 1950-2000 (0.7 linear feet; Box 20)

Series 8: Frumkin Family Papers, 1950-2016 (5.5 linear feet; Boxes 21-26)
Biographical / Historical:
Allan Frumkin Gallery (est. 1952; closed 1995) was a gallery owned and operated by art dealer Allan Frumkin with locations in Chicago (1952-1980; 1979-1980 as Frumkin & Struve) and New York City (1959-1995; 1988-1995 as Frumkin/Adams). Frumkin began his career exhibiting the drawings, paintings, and prints of European artists he met and developed relationships with while traveling abroad, including Roberto Matta, Alberto Burri, Alberto Giacometti, and Esteban Vicente. He soon began representing artists from across the United States, including Chicago artists Leon Golub, Jack Beal, Robert Barnes, June Leaf, and H.C. Westermann; West Coast artists Robert Arneson, Roy de Forest, and Joan Brown; and New York realist painters including Philip Pearlstein, Paul Georges, Alfred Leslie, Luis Cruz Azaceta, and Peter Saul. In the early years, the geography and aesthetic of the artists Frumkin championed--surrealist, realist, figurative, offbeat--contrasted with the prevailing trend toward New York abstraction. Frumkin retired as a gallery director in 1995, and Frumkin/Adams Gallery became the George Adams Gallery. Frumkin continued to work as a private dealer as Allan Frumkin Incorporated until his death in 2002.
Related Materials:
Also found in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Allan Frumkin conducted by Paul Cummings in 1970.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives of American Art in 2017 by Peter Frumkin, Allan Frumkin's son.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center.
Rights:
The Allan Frumkin Gallery records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Citation:
Allan Frumkin Gallery records, 1880, 1944-2016. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.allafrum
See more items in:
Allan Frumkin Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-allafrum
Online Media:

Baldwin Locomotive Works Engine Registers and Order Books

Creator:
Baldwin Locomotive Works.  Search this
Names:
Baldwin, Matthias W. (industrialist)  Search this
Extent:
7 Cubic feet
6 Microfilm (35 mm)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Microfilm
Ledgers (account books)
Place:
Pennsylvania
Date:
1822-1956
Scope and Contents note:
This collection consists of Engine Registers and Engine Order Books. The Engine Registers list all locomotives built by the company from 1833 through 1956. They provide information on the purchasing railroad, date of trial, engine name, construction number, class, track gauge, number of wheels, size of cylinders, number of valves and fuel type. The Order Books, dating from 1854 1900, provide the same sort of information on specifications, as well as prices and delivery. The records in both sets of books are arranged chronologically and the information within each is arranged numerically by construction number.
Biographical/Historical note:
The Baldwin Locomotive Works was the largest and most successful locomotive building firm in the world. It was begun as a machine shop owned and operated by Matthias W. Baldwin in 1831. Baldwin turned out its first locomotive engine from its shop in Philadelphia in 1832; within a few years the company was producing two a month and employed 240 men. By 1852, 500 engines had been produced; by 1861, 1,000; and by 1868, 2,000. At that point, the company employed between 1,600 1,700 men, and was one of the very largest machine works in the nation. In 1906 Baldwin began construction of a large auxiliary plant in the Philadelphia suburb of Eddystone. In 1928 the Broad Street plant was closed and all work transferred to the Eddystone Plant.

Baldwin had been forced by hard financial times to take on a series of partners between 1839 and 1846, and the firm's name changed repeatedly as a result. It was known as Baldwin, Vail & Hufty (1839 1842); Baldwin & Whitney (1842 1845); M. W. Baldwin (1846 1853); and M. W. Baldwin & Company (1854 1866). After Baldwin's death in 1866 the firm was known as M. Baird & Company (1867 1873); Burnham, Parry, Williams & Company (1873 1890); Burnham, Williams & Company (1891 1909); it was finally incorporated as the Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1909.

The company's phenomenal growth ended with in the mid 1920s as the United States railroad industry began its long decline. Despite various mergers and acquisitions and an increased attention to the development of diesel engines a slow but sure decline set in. Baldwin declared bankruptcy in 1935. World War Two brought a temporary respite, but after the war the steam locomotive was obsolete and orders rapidly diminished. The Westinghouse Corporation bought Baldwin in 1948 but was unable to turn the company around. In 1950 the Lima Hamilton Corporation and Baldwin merged but in 1956 the last of some 70,541 locomotives was produced.

Source

History of the Baldwin Locomotive Works, 1831-1902, (1902); A Short History of American Locomotive Builders in theSteam Era, John H. White, (1982).
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Baldwin Locomotive Works Drawings (NMAH.AC.0353)

Consists of builder's drawings of locomotives and tenders, 1870-1890.

The DeGolyer Library of Southern Methodist University

University has a collection of 8,500 original Baldwin engineering drawings; the library has published three guides to their records.
Provenance:
Donated to the Museum's Division of Transportation by the Baldwin Hamilton Corporation in 1976.
Restrictions:
Original volumes are fragile. Researchers should consult the microfilm located in the National Museum of American History library (mfm 720).
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Transportation  Search this
Railroads  Search this
Locomotives -- Registers  Search this
Locomotive industry -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ledgers (account books)
Citation:
Baldwin Locomotive Works Engine Registers and Order Books, 1833-1956, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0157
See more items in:
Baldwin Locomotive Works Engine Registers and Order Books
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0157
Online Media:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
1,150 Cubic feet (approximately. Series 1 contains approximately 1108 cubic feet consisting of approximately 2050 boxes, approximately 326 oversize boxes, and map case material. Additional material in Series 2-4 is unquantified. With also, some digital images of select collection materials.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Posters
Letterheads
Advertisements
Maps
Business ephemera
Calendars
Trade cards
Broadsides
Ephemera
Stationery
Advertising cards
Sheet music
Photomechanical prints
Sales catalogs
Chromolithographs
Place:
business ephemera -- Adirondack Mountains (N.Y.)
Albany (N.Y.)
Date:
circa 1708-1977
Scope and Contents:
The Warshaw Collection consists of approximately 1,150 cubic feet of material currently contained in approximately 2,050 vertical document boxes, approximately 326 flat oversize boxes, 34 map case drawers of oversize materials, 56 volumes of photographic photo prints, 17 boxes of 4 x 5 color transparencies and black and white photonegatives, 11 boxes of stereographs, and a videodisc. It consists of a large body of business ephemera. Ephemera is used to refer to the transient everyday items which are usually printed on paper however in some cases fabric, leather and wood have been used. This material is manufactured for a specific limited use and then meant to be thrown away. The collection also contains samples of ephemera that were meant to be saved for a short period of time and discarded later such as stock certificates. This material dates from the late eighteenth century to about 1977, but the bulk of the material is late from the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

The largest advertising history collection in the Archives Center, the Warshaw Collection is organized into five major categories: I. Business Ephemera -- - Vertical Files, II. Business Ephemera - - Oversize, III. Other Collection Divisions, IV. Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers and V. Photographic Reference Materials. Scope and content notes and a detailed description of the contents for all of these divisions are found in the following sections of the register.

Series 1: Business Ephemera, circa 1724-1977, makes up the largest portion of the collection. It is divided into 538 subject and geographic categories created by Mr. Warshaw and is contained in 2,050 vertical document boxes. Materials include vast numbers of advertising cards, scraps, stock cards, trade catalogs, price lists, menus, pamphlets, labels, lithographs, photographs, business letterheads, bills, receipts, greeting cards, post cards, calendars, printed advertisements, periodicals, newspaper clippings, broadsides, shipping documents, handbills, premiums, promotional items, announcements, business cards, packaging and point of purchase displays.

II. BUSINESS EPHEMERA - - OVERSIZE FILES, ca. 1850-1960, consists of approximatley 326 flat oversize boxes and 34 map case drawers of materials. Materials include posters, newspapers, point of purchase displays, packaging, printed advertisements, periodical illustrations, lithographs, labels, shipping documents, promotional items, trade catalogs, pattern sheets, maps, art reproductions, fashion design drawings, membership certificates and price lists. The material is organized by the same subject and geographical categories as materials in the vertical document boxes.

III. OTHER COLLECTION DIVISIONS, ca. 1790-1957, represents a significant accumulation of one type of material rather than a mix of various types of ephemera. Materials generally relate to one subject. Most of the material is stored in flat oversize boxes. Materials include cinema lobby cards, fire insurance maps, photographs and scrapbooks of liquor and wine labels.

IV. ISADORE WARSHAW PERSONAL PAPERS, ca. 1917-1966, consists of three document boxes of materials relating to how Mr. Warshaw maintained the collection as a business. Most of this material is correspondence sent to him in response to his research inquiries. A smaller portion of the material is printed advertisements and circulars created by Mr. Warshaw to advertise his services and the collection. Magazine articles, letterhead stationery and photographs make up the remainder of the material.

V. PHOTOGRAPHIC REFERENCE MATERIAL, consists of photographs, slides and transparencies of items found in the collection. These materials were created for a number of purposes. Some were created in response to requests by researcher for images to be used in publications, exhibitions, and for other purposes. Others were created as a quick reference source for researchers. Several thousand photographic images from the Warshaw Collection were also transferred to an experimental videodisc by the Institution's Office of Photographic and Printing Services (OPPS). The videodisc is available for viewing on equipment in the Archives Center.

Use of the prints, slides, and videodisc reduces wear and tear on the collection, permits rapid searching through many images, and assures the researcher - - in most cases that a photographic negative of transparency already exists, and that copies can be reproduced relatively quickly and inexpensively. Searching the collection's photographic reproductions is especially appropriate for researchers who want to see general images of subjects such as "women in advertising" or an advertisement from a particular year.

The Warshaw Collection originally contained books, three-dimensional objects and food crate labels. Those books that did not directly relate to the collection were transferred to the Smithsonian Libraries. Remaining publications are stored in the Business Ephemera-Vertical Files document boxes within the appropriate subject category.

Mr. Warshaw collected three-dimensional objects to illustrate packaging, to convey information about product content, shape and size, and to document advertising in three-dimensional forms. Such items included hair product packaging, games, patent medicine containers, cosmetics, tobacco tins, food containers, and liquor bottles. There were also a number of objects, mostly made of glass, tin, and wood, including trays and stained glass signs advertising products such as patent medicine, tobacco, phonographs, refrigerators, stoves, hair products, meat, agricultural tools and implements, whiskey, bakery goods, and beer. Some of these objects were framed. All these objects have been transferred to the appropriate divisions in the Museum. Information on the locations of these items can be obtained in the Archives Center reference room.

Food crate labels were once an important advertising device. Used to develop loyalty to particular growers, these labels were appealing because of the commercial artwork. Some of the labels were mounted on wood. These labels also were transferred to a curatorial unit. The un-mounted labels are in the "foods" section of the Business Ephemera - - Vertical Files.

Research Strengths and Limitations

The strength of the Warshaw Collection lies in its size, its variety, and its extraordinarily rich visual imagery. These images illustrate how Americans perceived themselves or wished to be perceived, how they saw others, their work patterns, their recreation habits, and other aspects of American culture from the late eighteenth to the mid-twentieth centuries. They provide an alternative source to written and printed historical materials, sometimes conveying information about values and practices not otherwise documented. These images stand as a powerful reminder that the origins of modern, visual mass communications go much farther back than the invention of television.

Most of the imagery, of course, is a vision of American life as seen through the eyes of advertising agencies and of the businesses they represented. Researchers working with the collection find it an especially rich source for examining the dynamic relationship between advertising and American culture over the centuries.

There are some problems, however, interpreting American culture through these materials. Most of the advertisements in the collection represent Anglo-American mainstream culture. African Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans and members of other ethnic groups are only occasionally depicted in the advertisements. Much of this imagery is stereotypical and fails to recognize ethnic groups as consumers. Despite these limitations the ethnic imagery offers penetrating insights into American culture and its changing values and tastes. The Archives Center's Ethnic Imagery Project has identified thousands of items within the Warshaw Collection, and in other Center collections, which depict race and ethnicity. The Project also is seeking to expand the range of such imagery within the Center's collections to provide a better rounded view of how Americans see themselves and each other.

There are few indications in the collection of consumer response. The materials mostly consist of end products, what customers received. Testimonials and celebrity endorsements are among the materials but do not constitute a large portion of it, nor do they appear in every subject category. There is also little documentation on the success or failure of advertisements. Evidence about advertisers' decisions to use specific advertisements is extremely rare.

There is no complete history of any one company represented in the collection. For many of the businesses, the material consists of fragments of the advertising materials created to sell their products or services. Biographical information on founders or the early developments of the company may be included on letterhead stationery or bills and receipts but not always. Occasionally one finds company publications that discuss the history of the business. These were usually produced for anniversaries and more often for larger companies that had existed for a long time, such as Proctor & Gamble.

Most of the businesses represented in the Collection were east of the Mississippi River. This is probably due to the collecting possibilities for Mr. Warshaw. It also may be due to the concentration of many industries in this region.

Despite its limitations, the Warshaw Collection is the most heavily used collection in the Archives Center. Researchers in the Collection often find information unavailable elsewhere. Researchers in the Collection have included academic historians, Smithsonian curatorial staff , and outside museum staff interested in the collection for exhibition purposes. Smithsonian Shops buyers and others interested in motifs for licensed products, collectors and hobbyists find the collection a rich source for such research.
Series 1: Business Ephemera:
Dates -- circa 1544-1988

Contents -- Series 1: Business Ephemera1.1: Subject Categories1.2: Geographical Categories
Series 2: Other Collection Divisions:
Dates -- circa 1850-1957

Contents -- Series 2: Other Collection Divisions2.1: Business Records [Obsolete as of 2017]2.2: Cinema Lobby Cards2.3: Fire Insurance Maps2.4: Liquor and Wine Labels and Advertisements2.5: Photographs2.6: Stereographs2.7: Sheet Music2.8: Rewards and Wanted Posters
Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers:
Dates -- circa 1917-1966

Contents -- Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers3.1: Correspondence3.2: Secondary Writings about Warshaw and the Collection3.3: Business Materials3.4: Miscellaneous
Series 4: Photographic Reference Material:
Dates -- undated

Contents -- Series 4: Photographic Reference Material4.1: Photoprints4.2: 35mm color slides4.3: Color transparencies4.4: Videodisc
Arrangement note:
The collection is divided into four series.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Biographical / Historical:
The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana is the result of the foresight and energy of Isadore Warshaw. Warshaw believed that the history of America was closely tied to the history of American business. He observed, however, that the business community often looked to the future rather than the past and tended not to retain historical company records. As a result, a number of businesses had no coherent record of their past. Warshaw realized that these records could be of value one day.

"Sonny" Warshaw, as he was known to family and friends, was born June 12, 1900 and reared in Albany, New York, the second youngest of ten children of Rubin and Ray (Mackler) Warshaw. Although he received little formal education, he started in business as a book scout in 1915 searching for rare publications for dealers and collectors. Later he became a rare book dealer and collector himself. His hobbies included sketching and painting, and several pieces of this self-taught artist's work were exhibited in local banks.

Warshaw's interest in collecting business ephemera began in 1928 when an important event inspired him. In the process of searching for books, he often ran across various pieces of ephemera. In these posters, labels, ledgers, invoices, calendars, business cards, correspondence on letterhead stationery, and advertising cards, he could see the romantic side of big business. One day he ran across an invoice signed by John Forsythe, founder of a New York haberdashery, and sent it to the store. In reponse, he received a thank-you note along with an invitation to select six shirts in appreciation for the item he found. This combination of events encouraged Warshaw to begin a lifelong mission. He opened an office at 61 Columbia Street in Albany, New York, announcing to the business community that he had their history and would make it available.

In 1942, Isadore Warshaw moved from Albany to New York City where he opened an office at 752 West End Avenue. In 1944, he married Augusta Levy, a former buyer for a group of women's ready-to-wear shops in Miami, Florida. They had no children. A portion of their apartment was used as an office where Mrs. Warshaw handled all the correspondence. The Warshaws lived with the fear of a fire destroying the collection because this was their sole source of income. Insurance companies informed them that in order to insure the collection, each piece would have to be counted. As a result, the collection was never insured. A fire did occur once in the building but only a small portion of their vast holdings suffered from smoke damage.

Warshaw spent a great deal of time at the New York Public Library, museums, and historical societies, gathering ideas and information relating to his business pursuits. He never referred to his time spent researching and collecting as a hobby. As his business began to grow, he relied on as many as forty scouts across the country to hunt for material. He acquired material from companies going out of business, buildings about to be demolished, garage sales, auctions, antique shows, stamp dealers and collectors, old safes, small country merchants, and bookstores. He also advertised in catalogues for the book industry throughout the country.

Warshaw's approach at first was to purchase pieces of Americana in hope of finding a buyer. He mailed thousands of advertisements to his five hundred corporate clients. Rejected items went to a brownstone building that he referred to as his warehouse. Warshaw later discovered that there was more profit in renting materials or selling reproduction rights to the very materials he had once carted away. Companies rented objects or entire packaged displays to commemorate anniversaries, for sales conventions, annual reports, trade shows, lectures, and window displays. A few of his major clients included Johnson & Johnson, Kaiser Steel Company, the Riegel Paper Company, the American Can Company, and the Western Electric Company. Reward posters and gold-rush prints were used as props for TV westerns.

Warshaw used the collection to do various kinds of research for a number of businesses. Sometimes he investigated the history of a firm to supply it with founding dates. He found evidence of expansion and product diversification in various documents in the collection. For example, company records showed that Procter and Gamble began as a soap and candle manufacturer before it expanded to a wide variety of products.

Warshaw also had clients outside the business community. Members of the legal profession relied on his collection for various purposes. Lawyers contacted him when they wanted to convert personal property from estates to cash, and he also served as an expert witness, providing evidence in disputes involving trademarks, copyrights, and slogans.

American Heritage, Life, and other publications wishing to illustrate articles found graphics in the collection. Warshaw swapped items with local libraries and historical societies. Joseph N. Kane used the collection to document information for his book, Famous First Facts. Commenting on the many uses of his collection, Warshaw stated:

I have been fortunate. As a collector of things that now document the rapid growth of industry, I have been able to find wide use for my collection. People are beginning to realize that while the romance of war, fashion and science, for instance, is well preserved in swords, wax dolls, and fascinating models...the romance of business in the form of ledgers, sample books, posters, and tin cans tends to perish in debris. Now people come to me to illustrate histories and to get pictures of things as they were.

As Warshaw aged, he began to look for a buyer for the collection. Ralph M. Hower, at one time a professor of business at Harvard, recommended that the collection be purchased and indexed by the Baker Library at Harvard's Business School. He regarded it as a wealth of evidence on such topics specialization, diversification, and integration of business firms and the location of trade and industry.

Discussions about the Warshaw Collection among the staff of the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History (then the Museum of History and Technology) began in 1961. The primary reason for the Museum's interest in purchasing the collection was to prevent the dispersal of a unique resource that could never be assembled again. In the opinions of Smithsonian staff, it provided evidence of things that could be found nowhere else.

Although negotiations for buying the collection and bringing it to the Museum began in 1966, the collection was not actually purchased and transported to the Museum until August 1967. Warshaw had moved his business several times and at the time of the sale, it was located in three rooms on the second floor of 270 West 96th Street in New York. Packing the collection took four days and it was transported to Washington by two tractor trailers.

When the collection arrived at the Museum, it consisted primarily of advertising ephemera. There were also a number of three-dimensional objects, including shoes, clothing, jewelry, furs, ashtrays, coffee and tobacco tins, carpets, patent medicines, cosmetics, hair products, paperweights, whiskey bottles, and food packages. The collection was divided into hundreds of subject headings created by Warshaw. Some of Warshaw's personal papers revealing his business transactions were included, as well as advertisements used by Warshaw to solicit business from manufacturers and retailers. Most of the rest of Warshaw's own papers were destroyed by Mrs. Warshaw when she left New York in 1973.

Following the sale of the collection to the Museum, Warshaw found himself unable to relinquish his life's work. He continued to do research for a number of old clients, relying on such sources as the public library, historical societies, collectors, and dealers in this type of material. In the process he acquired additional material. The volume of this portion of the collection was equal to the size of a station wagon. It was offered to the Museum by Mrs. Warshaw in 1971, and Museum staff went to the New Jersey home of Mrs. Warshaw's brother to pick up the new collection in November 1971.

Curators from the Museum were encouraged to spend time with the collection after its arrival to determine its content in their subject areas. At that time the collection was stored in shirt boxes. Efforts were made to put the materials in vertical document boxes, keeping them in the subject categories created by Warshaw. As time went on, it was clear that the method used by Warshaw was not adequate for research use. Warshaw located materials by hunch rather than by system and there was little cross-referencing in the collection. Not only was it inaccessible to outside researchers, but many of the objects were fragile and required more protection than they had in their original storage containers.

When the Archives Center was established in 1982, it was intended to be a repository for documents and other archival material in the Museum, assuring proper storage and a place where researchers could come to use collections.

The Warshaw Collection was one of the greatest concerns of the Archives Center because of its heavy use. In 1983 the Archives Center and the Division of Conservation worked together to develop a plan to integrate archival principles with conservation methods and techniques, thus taking the first steps in creating a re-housing project.

The first part of the re-housing project began with a survey of the collection to analyze content and condition of the materials. Faith Zieske, a conservator, conducted the survey. She chose a standard statistical analytical method, randomly using 70 vertical document boxes as samples, to analyze the entire collection. Zieske consulted both the Library of Congress Preservation Office and the conservation staff of the Folger Shakespeare Library. A plan was then developed for implementing the survey. After examining the results of the survey, Zieske developed a phased plan for reorganizing and preserving the collection.

Conservation technician Carolyn Long and museum specialist Lorene Mayo began the pilot project in the summer of 1983, testing recommendations made in the survey. During this period Long wrote guidelines for handling the collection. Long and Mayo also developed new storage containers for housing objects of unusual shape.

As the re-housing project developed, finding aids were created for the processed portions of the collection. This was a crucial step that allowed staff and researchers to find items without actually going through the collection. Archives Center staff continue to develop means of making the collection more accessible to researchers who come to the Museum to use the collection, as well as to increase awareness of the existence of the collection in the research community outside the Museum.

List of Sources

"Cashing In On Old Office Records." Business Week, (December 6, 1958).

"A Glimpse at Industrial Advertising of the 80's." Industrial Marketing, (February 1946).

Interview by Vanessa Broussard-Simmons with Mrs. Augusta Levy Warshaw and Correspondence in Control File for Warshaw Collection.

Kahn, Joseph. "Trademark Detective: The Colorful Past of American Business is the 'Beat' of a Sleuth Who has Pioneered a New Kind of History." The Rotarian, ( December 2, 1957) .

Kramer, A. Stanley. "What's Old on Madison?" Madison Avenue. (March 1961).

Menuez, Caroline Bird. "There's Gold in Your Attic." Esquire, (1946).
General:
Several specific companies or proprietors repeatedly appear in various subseries of this collection. These records were dispersed through many subseries and prior arrangement efforts, including those done by the collector as well as post-acquisition staff, which focused on a category or business name of the vendors rather than retaining the record source original provenance and order. As of 2016, there is not a plan to cull through the collection and reconstitute such records, however if such an effort was made, it would likely result in reasonably comprehensive business records for several entities. A few have been noted here but an exhaustive survey of the collection in regards to the this trend of dispersal has not been conducted.

Jacob House (occasionally with variant spellings), which often account for some of the earliest business record within the Warshaw Business Americana Collection, particularly those documents dating in the 1700s and early 1800s.

Luddington, F.L. ... (see Hardware)

Stemmeler...(see Whiskey...)

[Note to be completed, NB 2016-10-18]
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Provenance:
The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060, was purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Sears, Roebuck & Co. catalogs restricted due to fragile condition. Researchers should consult microfilm in NMAH library for 1880-1983 editions, drawer 692.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Insurance, Fire -- Maps  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Fires -- Insurance  Search this
Genre/Form:
Posters
Letterheads
Advertisements
Maps
Business ephemera
Calendars
Trade cards
Broadsides
Ephemera
Stationery
Advertising cards
Sheet music
Photomechanical prints
Sales catalogs
Chromolithographs
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060
Online Media:

Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records

Director:
Daniel, Pete  Search this
Interviewee:
Accardo, Paul  Search this
Aguirre, Gloria Olmos  Search this
Allen, David  Search this
Anderson, Adra  Search this
Anderson, Walter  Search this
Andrews, John William  Search this
Ardoin, Leslie  Search this
Bailey, Charles  Search this
Bailey, Howard Taft  Search this
Baird, George E., Jr.  Search this
Baronet, Joe  Search this
Bell, Walter M.  Search this
Bennett, Novella  Search this
Bennett, W.J.  Search this
Benson, Dick  Search this
Benton, Aubrey  Search this
Benton, Ina Belle  Search this
Blackstock, Tom  Search this
Blackstock, Velva  Search this
Blanchard, J.F.  Search this
Booth, Mrs. N.J.  Search this
Booth, N.J.  Search this
Bosselman, Willie  Search this
Bossleman, Norman  Search this
Bowman, Wilbert A.  Search this
Bradford, Nara N.  Search this
Bradford, Norwood)  Search this
Brantley, L.D.  Search this
Breaux, Jessie Al., Sr.  Search this
Brinkley, Johnnie  Search this
Brinkley, Lucile  Search this
Broussard, Sam  Search this
Brown, Gordon  Search this
Brown, Mamie  Search this
Bunting, Benny  Search this
Bunting, Joe  Search this
Burkett, Ben  Search this
Burkett, Bennie F.  Search this
Bush, Miller  Search this
Byers, Ruby  Search this
Byers, Sanford  Search this
Caesar, Clarence  Search this
Carline, Herman C.  Search this
Carnahan, Cotton  Search this
Carter, Ethel H.  Search this
Castleberry, Guy W.  Search this
Caughron, Kermit  Search this
Caughron, Rex  Search this
Caughron, Roy  Search this
Cazer, Garland  Search this
Ceras, Delfino  Search this
Claffery, Clegg, Sr.  Search this
Clapp, Clyde  Search this
Clark, Fletcher Talmadge  Search this
Clayton, WIlliam P.  Search this
Cockerham, Lester  Search this
Cockerham, Marie  Search this
Cole, Buster  Search this
Coleman, Harold  Search this
Coleman, Mrs. Harold  Search this
Colvin, R.C.  Search this
Comeaux, Lewis  Search this
Connell, Alton  Search this
Cromertie, John L.  Search this
Crosby, Ruth  Search this
Crosby, Victor  Search this
Cummins, Mary Lee  Search this
Cummins, W.R.  Search this
Cunningham, Tom  Search this
Daniel, Florentine  Search this
Davies, W. J. K.  Search this
Davis, Fredda  Search this
Davis, Otto  Search this
Davis, Pauline  Search this
Delasbour, Anna  Search this
Derbigney, Durrell  Search this
Dillard, John T.  Search this
Dorminy, Henry Clayton  Search this
Dove, Dorothy  Search this
Ducrest, Jesse  Search this
Dulaney, T.W.  Search this
Elam, Edward  Search this
Feilke, Mabel  Search this
Felknor, Jessie F.  Search this
Finchum, Amos  Search this
Finchum, Eva  Search this
Fleming, Arthur B.  Search this
Fletcher, Mrs. Merle Ford  Search this
Flores, Roque Olmos  Search this
Foster, Jim  Search this
Foster, Vergie  Search this
Friesen, Viola Liechty  Search this
Gardner, C.E.  Search this
Garrich, Carl  Search this
Gay, Andrew  Search this
George, Leler  Search this
Gosney, Jessie  Search this
Gosney, Kenneth  Search this
Gray, Leonard  Search this
Gray, Wardell  Search this
Green, Alone  Search this
Green, Clarence  Search this
Griffin, A.C.  Search this
Griffin, Grace  Search this
Hahn, E.L.  Search this
Hall, Joe  Search this
Haransky, Charlotte  Search this
Harper, Woodrow, Sr.  Search this
Harrington, A.M.  Search this
Harris, Edna  Search this
Harris, John, Rev.  Search this
Harris, Robert B.  Search this
Hawkins, Charlie  Search this
Hemphill, Elvin  Search this
Hemphill, Mattie  Search this
Hill, Frank  Search this
Jefcoat, Laz  Search this
Jensen, Olga B.  Search this
Johnson, Herbert  Search this
Kilby, T.H.  Search this
Knight, Martin  Search this
Koen, Eulah  Search this
Lamson, Alfred Ellis  Search this
Landry, Steve  Search this
Lane, Clyde D.  Search this
Laney, John B.  Search this
Langley, Nellie  Search this
Latoilas, Donald  Search this
Lawrimore, Rufus B.  Search this
Leary, Mrs. Stillman  Search this
Leary, Stillman  Search this
Legnon, Hilton  Search this
Legnon, Lena Porrier  Search this
Lenius, Jane  Search this
Lewis, Bobby  Search this
Lewis, Dorothy  Search this
Lewis, Ralph  Search this
Littlejohn, Andrew  Search this
Loewer, Arthur  Search this
Long, Welchel  Search this
Lowder, Clayton  Search this
Lowder, Kathy R.  Search this
Mangum, O.L.  Search this
Martin, Lillian  Search this
McBrayer, Loomis  Search this
McCarty, Ben  Search this
McGee, Dean  Search this
Mercer, Midi  Search this
Minchew, Edna  Search this
Mire, John  Search this
Mohamed, Ethel Wright  Search this
Moody, Edgar  Search this
Morris, Edward  Search this
Murphree, Leo  Search this
Murray, Lurline S.  Search this
Nacquin, Leo  Search this
Nix, Agnes  Search this
Nix, Joe  Search this
Parker, Jonah  Search this
Patout, William A.  Search this
Patterson, Vanona  Search this
Pender, Bessie  Search this
Petticrew, Donald  Search this
Player, C.B., Jr.  Search this
Porter, Virginia  Search this
Proffitt, Harry, Jr.  Search this
Purvis, Clyde  Search this
Redmond, Virgie  Search this
Reed, Bunice  Search this
Reed, Howard  Search this
Rice, Frank  Search this
Richardson, Rosetta  Search this
Rivers, Marion  Search this
Roberts, Gerti  Search this
Roberts, James  Search this
Rodriguez, Ignacio  Search this
Rountree, G. Emory  Search this
Rucker, William  Search this
Salas, Maria  Search this
Sarten, Della  Search this
Scoggins, Lillie  Search this
Scroggins, Alma M.  Search this
Seidenschwarz, Rosie  Search this
Seidenstricker, L.F.  Search this
Seidenstricker, Laverne  Search this
Serrano, Adolofo  Search this
Serrano, Edith  Search this
Serrano, Lidia  Search this
Shannon, Jack  Search this
Shepherd, Grady  Search this
Sims, Lavana  Search this
Sizemore, Martiel  Search this
Skinner, Annie  Search this
Skinner, Jarvis  Search this
Smith, Ethel  Search this
Smith, George  Search this
Soileau, Rouseb  Search this
Spicer, J.M.  Search this
Spivey, Wayland  Search this
Starke, Granville  Search this
Steen, Albert  Search this
Stowers, J.W.  Search this
Strange, Fred  Search this
Strohl, Carl  Search this
Strohl, Mary  Search this
Sumner, Ruby C.  Search this
Temple, Effie  Search this
Thomas, Lottie  Search this
Thompson, Mioma  Search this
Thresto, Chuck  Search this
Tomlinson, Clifton  Search this
Turner, Mrs. O.C.  Search this
Van Houten, Rosetta  Search this
Van Houten, Rudy  Search this
Vickers, Lloyd  Search this
Vidrine, Levie A.  Search this
Walton, W.W.  Search this
Watson, Mary  Search this
Welborn, S.L.  Search this
Wells, Arnalee  Search this
Wells, Homer, Dr.  Search this
White, Wallace  Search this
Wigley, Mabry  Search this
Willey, Gretchen  Search this
Willey, John F.  Search this
Winskie, Dent  Search this
Woodard, Henry  Search this
Yohe, Alma M.  Search this
Yohe, Perry  Search this
Young, Walter  Search this
Interviewer:
Jones, Lu Ann  Search this
Extent:
25 Cubic feet (79 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Project files
Questionnaires
Photographs
Place:
Arkansas -- Agriculture
Mississippi -- Agriculture
Georgia -- Agriculture
South Carolina -- Agriculture
Tennessee -- Agriculture
Virginia -- Agriculture
North Carolina -- Agriculture
Louisiana -- Agriculture
Date:
1986-1991
Scope and Contents note:
The collection is divided into four series. Series 1: Oral History Transcripts, 1982-1991 are transcribed versions of the oral interviews. Correspondence and/or notes pertaining to the interviewed individual collected or written by the interviewer are filed in this series following the transcription. The majority of the oral histories were done by Lu Ann Jones between1985-1991. There are a few interviews done by Pete Daniel in the early 1980s and some reference copies of oral histories done elsewhere. This series is divided into eight sub-series: Sub-series 1.1: Arkansas, Sub-series 1.2: Georgia, Sub-series 1.3: Louisiana, Sub-series 1.4: Mississippi, Sub-series 1.5: North Carolina (including transcripts of the Mexican Workers Project in English and Spanish), Sub-series 1.6: South Carolina, Sub-series 1.7: Tennessee, and Sub-series 1.8: Virginia. Files are arranged alphabetically by state and there under by name; within the file materials are arranged chronologically. Interview files may contain transcribed copies of the oral history interviews and subsequent draft copies with corrections by the interviewer or subject. The file also may contain distillations or edited versions of the interview done by the researcher for possible publication. Correspondence and notes files may include Life History Forms, correspondence, newspaper articles, interviewer's notes, business cards, and paper copies of photographs. Signed releases are on file in the registrar's office, NMAH, with copies in the control file of the Archives Center.

Series 2: Project Files and Reference Materials, 1928-2004 contain notes and correspondence kept by Jones in support of the oral history project. This series is divided into four sub-series: Sub-series 2.1: State Files, Sub-series 2.2: Project and Reference Files, 1985-1991, Sub-series 2.3: Reference Publications, Pamphlets and Articles, 1928-2004 and Sub-series 2d: Computer Floppy Disks, 1985 and undated. This series include bills, receipts, photo orders, travel brochures, reference materials, articles, correspondence, fundraising proposals and materials, USDA Extension Service bulletins, product cookbooks, and ephemera. These materials are valuable in documenting the methodology of the oral history project. They are also valuable in detailing the funding and maintenance of the project over its five-year lifespan. There is also a great deal of information on black farmers. This series is arranged alphabetically by state and county or by article/publication title and within the file chronologically.

Series 3: Photographic Prints and Slides, 1987-1991 documenting the individuals interviewed, their homes and businesses, and geographic locations that were studied as part of the oral history project. The series is arranged numerically then chronologically by year. This series is followed by detailed photographic descriptions arranged alphabetically by state then subject. Photograph files contain photographs taken by a Smithsonian photographer or Jones and any copies of photographs supplied by the subject. Most of the photographs are black and white.

Series 4: Original Interview Tapes and Reference Compact Discs (CD), 1986-1991 are the original tapes of the individual interviews conducted by Jones. This series is divided into eight sub-series. Reference numbers for CDs matching the original tapes are noted after the tapes. CDs 495-497 are for the Smithsonian Photographer's Show: Sub-series 4.1: Arkansas, Sub-series 4.2: Georgia, Sub-series 4.3: Louisiana, Sub-series 4.4: Mississippi, Sub-series 4.5: North Carolina (within this sub-series are the transcripts of the Mexican Workers Project there may be an English language transcription as well as one in Spanish), Sub-series 4.6: South Carolina, Sub-series 4.7: Tennessee and Sub-series 4.8: Virginia and Sub-series 4.9: Miscellaneous and Duplicates, within the sub-series tapes are arranged alphabetically by subject.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into four series:

Series 1, Oral History Transcript

Series 2, Project Files

Series 3, Photographic Prints and Slides

Series 4, Original Oral History Interview Tapes and Reference Compact Discs (CDs) are the original interview tapes and the accompanying reference copy cds.
History:
The history of the American South is intricately entwined with the history of agriculture in North America. Until very recently, post 1950, the South was predominately rural and agricultural in both its production and culture. By the 1980s American agriculture, and particularly agriculture in the south, was under attack on various fronts especially cultural, financial, and technological. This assault threatened the very existence of the small and family farm. Many small farming operations went bankrupt and the face of American agriculture was becoming more corporate. It was amidst these troubling times that the Agricultural Division of the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History undertook a massive project to document southern agriculture through oral history.

Through the efforts of NMAH staff, Pete Daniel, curator and project director, LuAnn Jones, researcher, and with countless support from staff photographers and personnel, Jones conducted approximately 159 interviews of individual persons, couples and sometimes small groups, in eight southern states over a five year period, 1986-1991. The project was funded by a series of grants from various sources. Not only were oral histories taken but also substantial documentary photographs and slides of the many interviewees. The interviews ranged from individual farmers to individuals at companies and corporations involved with agriculture. The range of crops discussed included tobacco, cotton and rice. The project interviewed a wide range of subjects: male, female, black, white, and Mexican. The project has contributed to at least two books, Mama Learned Us to Work: Farm Women in the New South by LuAnn Jones and Like a Family: The Making of a Southern Cotton Mill World by Jacquelyn Dowd Hall and others of which Jones was a contributing author.
Related Collections:
#60 Warshaw Collection

#149 Kulp Collection of Account Books, 1755-1904

#475 Robinson and Via Family Papers

#481 William C. Kost Farm Records

#767 Timothy B. Bladen, Southern Maryland Photoprints
Provenance:
A transfer from the Division of History of Technology (Agriculture), NMAH, July 2001
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Farm life -- 20th century  Search this
Farmers -- Arkansas  Search this
Agricultural laborers  Search this
Agriculture -- History  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Farmers -- Georgia  Search this
Farmers -- Louisiana  Search this
Farmers -- Mexico  Search this
Farmers -- Mississippi  Search this
Farmers -- North Carolina  Search this
Farmers -- South Carolina  Search this
Farmers -- Tennessee  Search this
Farmers -- Virginia  Search this
Genre/Form:
Project files
Questionnaires
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records, 1985-1992, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0773
See more items in:
Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0773
Online Media:

N-118: Contains mounted prints of Plates of Corpus (drawings not included). Negative numbers of photographs and Archive numbers of drawings are noted in the printed volumes (Freer Lib. No. 492.717. M2f (3 vols.)). Missing from package are pls.1, 2, 4, ...

Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Names:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Collection Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (loose leaves Folder 1 : 35 loose leaves ; (92 photographic prints), 24 cm. x 31.5 cm.)
2 Items (loose leaves Folder 2 : 45 loose leaves ; (125 photographic prints), 24 cm. x 31.5 cm.)
3 Items (loose leaves Folder 3 : 38 loose leaves ; (102 photographic prints), 24 cm. x 31.5 cm.)
Container:
Volume N-118
Type:
Archival materials
Notebooks
Photographic prints
Place:
Asia
Syria
Aleppo (Syria)
Date:
1904-1946
Scope and Contents:
- Handwritten caption, in red, on front cover reads: "Aleppo A."
- In Finding Aid, Joseph Upton's caption for N-118 reads, ""Contains mounted prints of Plates of Corpus (drawings not included). Negative numbers of photographs and Archive numbers of drawings are noted in the printed volumes (Freer Lib. No. 492.717. M2f (3 vols.)). Missing from package are pls.1, 2, 4, 51, 84, 156, 157 and prints not in Archive file of negatives."
Ernst Herzfeld Papers, Series 3: Notebooks; Ernst Herzfeld's Plates Arrangement for Matériaux pour un Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum (N-118)
Arrangement:
In the original arrangement of the Ernst Herzfeld Archive, Notebooks were included in a larger body of diverse material acknowledged by Ernst Herzfeld as his study collection. In the early 1970s, Joseph Upton, for research purpose, rearranged the collection and created a specific series (Ernst Herzfeld Papers, Series 3: Notebooks, 1904-1946, 1957, n.d.) for 131 notebooks, including four ledgers and eight travel journals. Upton has given this notebook an accession number, N-118, related to the series he created for the notebooks, probably following Herzfeld's original organization.
Local Numbers:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers; N-118

FSA A.06 03.118
General:
- Title is provided by Xavier Courouble, FSg Archives cataloger, based on Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Art of the Islamic World  Search this
Inscriptions  Search this
Inscriptions, Arabic  Search this
Genre/Form:
Notebooks
Photographic prints
Collection Citation:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. Gift of Ernst Herzfeld, 1946
Identifier:
FSA.A.06, File FSA A.06 03.118
See more items in:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers
Ernst Herzfeld Papers / Series 3: Notebooks
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-fsa-a-06-ref8599

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Tobacco Trade and Industry

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
11.35 Cubic feet (consisting of 20 boxes, 8 folder, 30 oversize folders, 17 map case folders, 3 flat boxes (partial), plus digital images of some collection material.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ephemera
Business ephemera
Date:
1750-1965
undated
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Tobacco Trade and Industry forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
This subject category, "Tobacco Trade and Industry," consists of materials related to the tobacco trade and industry. This subject category provides an extensive record of the late nineteenth to mid-twentieth century tobacco industry with materials for consumers, traders, and distributors. It forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Collection Division I: Business Ephemera and Division II: Oversize Materials.

Series 1, Tobacco and Tobacco Related Product Ephemera, 1781-1965, undated, is the largest portion of the tobacco related materials. This series is arranged alphabetically by manufacturer and distributor name. The materials consist of advertising cards, scraps, trade catalogs, price lists, pamphlets, labels, correspondence on letterhead stationery, bills, receipts, illustrations from periodicals, printed advertisements, periodicals, newspaper clippings, broadsides, shipping documents, handbills, premiums, promotional items, announcements, and business cards. The majority of materials are from the late nineteenth to the early twentieth- century and were created primarily for consumers, traders and distributors. Most of the materials are from the East Coast and there is a large amount of undated material. Ethnic imagery and images of women and children are prominently featured in this series. The location of the company is given when known.

Series 2, Patents and Trademarks, 1875-1904, is arranged alphabetically by patent and trademark applicants. With illustrations and descriptions, many patent and trademark documents come from East Coast patent offices during the 1870s. While this series is limited in scope, it provides numerous examples of the patenting of tobacco brand names and other related products. Additionally, it contains many images of minorities, women, and a variety of ethnic imagery.

Series 3, Bills of Lading, 1833-1925, is arranged alphabetically by location with foreign locations comprising one folder. The materials date from the late nineteenth century, and the majority is from the port of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. This series not only tells a great deal about shipping and importing, but it also provides detailed information about the parties, countries, and people involved in the process of shipping tobacco around the world. Although the collection is somewhat varied, the majority of the bills of lading have date stamps, detailed port information, and information about the imported tobacco itself. Other locations include Maryland, New York, Cuba, and foreign locales.

Series 4, Lithographs, undated, is a series of labels for packages and products arranged alphabetically. It is a great resource for the study of early American advertising. Although most of the product labels are undated, they are probably of the late nineteenth to early twentieth- century. The majority of companies were based in New York, New York.

Series 5, Ephemera and Photographs, 1750-1957, undated, is arranged and organized by type of material. This series is comprised of general images, cigar store Indian images, auction lists, packing for tobacco products, and advertising cards, and contains a wealth of documentation of the American tobacco market. One of the best resources of this series is its collection of cigar bands. There are two photographs within this series, one depicting the exterior of a tobacco shop and another photograph of ladies working with shade grown tobacco, most likely in Connecticut. This series contains a copy of the Burr McIntosh photograph, "Leaves of Desire".

Series 6, Publications, 1742-1962, undated, consist of articles, books, pamphlets, magazines, and periodicals. One of the most useful portions of this series is the anti-tobacco related publications. The series contains tobacco-related articles. In addition to a few articles about tobacco companies, there are publications that contemplate the issues behind smoking. This series also contains tobacco related clippings from magazines and periodicals. Directories are also included in this series. The sheer variety of the material is vast, including essays from The Farm Quarterly and United States government documents. Tobacco is the only unifying factor. Researchers may be interested in La Santa Yerba, a late nineteenth-century book containing verses and other reflections on the tobacco plant itself.
Brand Name Index:
The following is a list of brand names for various tobacco products and related names that appear on this list is a compilation of those found on materials in the vertical document boxes. It is not a complete list of all the brand names for tobacco. The list is intended to assist researchers locate desired materials when only the brand name is known.

Brand Name -- Manufacturer/Dealer

Adonis -- Waldorf-Astoria Sugar Company

A. Hussey -- Leaf Tobacco Company

All Red Scrap -- Spaulding & Merrick

Alligator -- Pierre Lorillard

Almighty Dollar -- Roig & Langsdorf, LTD.

American Eagle -- Barker, K.C. & Company

Anglo-Egyptian -- Anderson, John & Company

Ante Fine (Cut) -- Pierre Lorillard

Apollo Egyptian -- Crescent Tobacco Company

Ateshian Bagdad -- Ateshian Company

Bagdad -- Pierre Lorillard

Bag Pipe -- Pierre Lorillard

Banner -- Banner Company

Banner -- American Tobacco Company

Bay State -- Brewer, Clarks & Sons

Bee -- Pierre Lorillard

Beech-Nut -- Pierre Lorillard

Belle of Turkey -- Pierre Lorillard

Between the Acts -- Pierre Lorillard

Between the Acts -- Thomas Hall Company

Bibber Cigarettes -- American Tobacco Company

Bijou -- S. Busnitz & Company

Birdseye -- British-American Company

Birdseye -- Akhbar Shah

B & L -- S. Busnitz & Company

Black Bird -- Baumann-Ashley Company

Black Joe Dark Plug -- American Tobacco Company

Black & Tan -- Pierre Lorillard

Black & Tan -- Annen Tobacco Company

Blended Stock -- American Tobacco Company

Blot -- Pierre Lorillard

Blue Peter -- Blue Peter Company

Bock y Ca -- Benson & Hedges

Boot Jack -- John Finzer

Boss Bite -- Pierre Lorillard

Brand M -- S. Monday & Son

Briar -- Spaulding & Merrick

Bright Sweet Emerald -- Pierre Lorillard

Briggs -- Pierre Lorillard

Brotherhood -- Pierre Lorillard

Buffalo Head -- Bland Tobacco Company

Bull Durham -- American Tobacco Company Smoking Tobacco

Bull's Eye -- Pierre Lorillard

Bull's Eye -- Peerless (Kimball)

Buzz Long -- Pierre Lorillard

Cabana -- Brewer, Clark & Sons

Cabanas -- Benson & Hedges

Cabarga -- Brewer, Clark & Sons

Cameo -- W. Duke & Son

Canada -- American Tobacco Company

Canoe -- Spence

Cap Sheaf -- Pierre Lorillard

Capadura -- R.C. Brown & Company

Capadura De La Reina -- R.C. Brown & Company

Capadura Olivette -- R.C. Brown & Company

Capadura Patience -- R.C. Brown & Company

Capital -- G.W. Gail

Captive -- Pierre Lorillard

Catlin's Twin Sisters -- American Tobacco Company

Cavendish -- Pierre Lorillard

Century -- Peter Lorillard

Challenge -- Pierre Lorillard

Chesterfield -- Ligget & Myers

Circassian Girls -- Pierre Lorillard

Clay, Henry -- Benson & Hedges

Climax -- Peter Lorillard

Clipper -- American Tobacco Company

Coca -- Drummond

Comet -- Pierre Lorillard

Common Sense -- American Tobacco Company

Conchas -- Brewer, Clark & Sons

Consols -- Consolidated Co.

Continental Cubes -- Continental Tobacco Company

Cools -- Brown & Williams Company

Cork (Number 1) -- Benson & Hedges

Cork Tip #2 -- Benson & Hedges

Cornucopia -- American Tobacco Company

Corona -- Brewer, Clark & Sons

Crown -- Benson & Hedges

Cute -- Merchants Cigar Factory

Dainties -- Allen & Ginter

Dainties -- American Tobacco Company

Defiance -- D. Hirsch

Derby -- Felener, F.W. Company

Diamond -- Allen & Ellis

Dixie -- Dixie Allen & Ginter

Dogtail -- Peter Lorillard

Drawing Room -- Pierre Lorillard

Dubec -- Allen & Ginter

Dubec -- American Tobacco Company

Duke of Durham -- American Tobacco Company

Duke's Best -- American Tobacco Company

Duke's Cameo -- American Tobacco Company

Duke's Mixture -- American Tobacco Company

Eagle Principe -- Brewer, Clark & Sons

Egyptian -- Pierre Lorillard

Egyptian Deities -- American Tobacco Company

Egyptian Dreams -- Rappaport

Egyptian Luxury -- American Tobacco Company

Egyptian Temple Lorillard, Peter -- Pierre Lorillard

Egyptian Straights -- American Tobacco Company

El Muezzin #1 -- Benson & Hedges

El Muezzin #2 -- Benson & Hedges

Embassy -- Pierre Lorillard

Emerald -- Pierre Lorillard

Etc., Etc. -- Brewer, Clark & Sons

Eureka -- Peter Lorillard

Excelsior -- American Tobacco Company

Extra Eagle -- B. Leidersdorf & Company

Excelsior #1 -- American Tobacco Company

Extra Mild #3 -- Benson & Hedges

Extra Mild Mild #4 -- Benson & Hedges

Fair Play -- American Tobacco Company

Favorite -- Cameron & Cameron

Felgner's Mohawk -- American Tobacco Company

Fine Brother -- Finzer, John

Flagman -- American Tobacco Company

Fontica -- Brewer, Clark & Sons

Forget-Me-Not -- Pierre Lorillard

Fortunato Bianco -- American Tobacco Company

Fragrant Vanity Fair -- American Tobacco Company

Friends -- Pierre Lorillard

Full Dress -- American Tobacco Company

Gaiety -- Bland Tobacco Co.

Gail & Ax's Navy -- American Tobacco Co.

Genuine Durham -- Blackwell, W.T. & Co.

Globe -- McGraw, Walker

Gold Extra Fine #1 -- Benson & Hedges

Gold #2 -- Benson & Hedges

Gold Rope -- Wilson & McNally

Golden Back -- Pioneer Tobacco Co.

Golden Bell -- Pierre Lorillard

Golden Bright -- Pierre Lorillard

Golden Culprit -- Peter Lorillard

Golden Light -- American Tobacco Co.

Golden Light -- Kimball & Co.

[Golden S?] -- [Unknown]

Golden Thread -- American Tobacco Co.

Good Luck -- Cotterill & Fenner Co.

Good Luck -- Drummond

Good Smoke -- Pierre Lorillard

Gondola -- Pierre Lorillard

Greek Slave -- Commonwealth Tobacco Co.

Green Turtle -- Pierre Lorillard

Greenback -- American Tobacco Co.

Greenback -- Marburg Brothers

Grizzly -- Pierre Lorillard

Gypsy Queen -- Goodwin

Happy Thought -- Pierre Lorillard

Happy Thought -- Wilson McNally

Hard A Port -- Thompson & C. Moors

Hard Plan -- H.M. Ferguson

Hard Tack -- American Tobacco Co.

Havana Consul Penete -- Pierre Lorillard

Havana Mixture -- Allen & Ginter

Havana Segar -- Waldorf-Astoria Segar Co.

Havannah -- Amber & Co.

Hazel Nut -- John J. Bagley

Helma -- Pierre Lorillard

Helmar Turkish -- American Tobacco Company

His Majesty's -- Benson & Hedges

Hoffman House Magnum -- Pierre Lorillard

Honest -- American Tobacco Co.

Honey Dew -- John Anderson & Co.

Horse Shoe -- Cotterill & Fenner

Horse Shoe -- Drummond

Hoyt's Medium -- American Tobacco Co

Hunki-Dori -- Chapin Stuart & Co.

Hunter -- H.M. Ferguson

Ideal -- Pierre Lorillard

Imperial Cavendish -- Allen & Ginter

Imperialette -- S. Monday

Imported -- Benson & Hedges

Improved Shorts -- Pierre Lorillard

India House -- Pierre Lorillard

Indian -- Amber & Company

Ivanhoe -- American Tobacco Co.

I. X.L. -- American Tobacco Co.

Jack & Jill -- American Tobacco Co.

Jack Rose -- Pierre Lorillard

John Dew -- Kaufmann, A.G

Jolly Tar -- Continental Tobacco Co.

Just Suits -- Pierre Lorillard

Kaiser (Gold Tip) -- A.B.C. Importation Co.

Karam -- Aslan Brothers

Kensington -- Brucker & Boghein

Kismen -- Strater Brothers

Kool -- Kool Brown & Williamson Co.

La Corona (Plain) -- A.B.C. Importation Co.

La Corona -- Benson & Hedges

La Flor de Cuba -- Benson & Hedges

La Marquise -- American Tobacco Co.

La Rosa -- Clark Brewer & Sons

Latest English -- American Tobacco & Sons

Leather Stocking -- C. Bickel

Level Head -- Pierre Lorillard

Libertad -- Clark Brewer & Sons

Lime Kiln Club -- Bagley & Company

Little Drummer -- Drummond

Little Joker -- American Tobacco Co.

Little Joker -- G.W. Gail

Little Rhody -- Pierre Lorillard

Little Sparks -- F.W. Felener

London Life -- American Tobacco Co.

Londres -- Clark Brewer & Sons

Long Cut -- W. & Son Duke

Lorillard's Stripped -- Pierre Lorillard

Louisiana Perique -- Allen & Ginter

Lucky Strike -- American Tobacco Co.

Lucky Strike -- R.A. Petterson

Luscious Luxury -- Pierre Lorillard

Luxury -- American Tobacco Co.

Lyceum -- Duke & Son

Mail Pouch -- Block Brothers

Manilla -- Amber & Company

Matinee -- Oliver & Robinson

Match -- Bland Tobacco Co.

Mecca -- American Tobacco Co.

Mechanic's Delight -- Pierre Lorillard

Melachrino -- L. Melachrino

Mellowleaf -- Commonwealth Tobacco Co.

Melrose -- British-American Co.

Melrose -- Marburg Brothers

Mercedes (Gold Tip) -- A.B.C. Importation Co.

Mexican -- Amber & Co.

Mild Number 2 -- Pierre Lorillard

Miner's Stript -- Pierre Lorillard

Mogul Egyptian -- American Tobacco Co.

Moon Spot -- Van Slyke & Horton

Mule Ear -- Wellman & Dwire Co.

Murad -- American Tobacco Co.

Myrtle Navy -- American Tobacco Co.

Napoleons -- Allen & Ginter

Navy -- G.W. Gail

Nebo -- Pierre Lorillard

Neptune -- Adams, J.L.

Neptune -- Buchanan & Lyalls

New Cross Bar -- Drummond

Nigger Head -- American Tobacco Co.

Night Watch -- Banner Co.

Night Watch -- American Tobacco Co.

Number 1 -- Benson & Hedges

Number 1 -- Pierre Lorillard

Old Egypt -- Pierre Lorillard

Old English -- American Tobacco Co.

Old Fashion -- American Tobacco Co.

Old Gold -- American Tobacco Co.

Old Gold -- British American Co.

Old Gold -- Kimball & Co.

Old Gold -- Pierre Lorillard

Old Guebeck -- Benson & Hedges

Old Guebeck Gold -- Benson & Hedges

Old Honesty -- American Tobacco Co.

Old Honesty -- John Finzer

Old Judge -- British-American Co.

Old Judge -- Kimball & Co.

Old Judge -- Goodwin Co.

Old Judge -- Allen & Ginter

Old Nut -- Pierre Lorillard

Old Rip -- British-American Co.

Old Rip -- Allen & Ginter

Old Sledge -- Edel

Old Tom -- Pierre Lorillard

Old Virginia Cheroots -- American Tobacco Co.

Old Virginia Cheroots -- Whitlock Co.

Olympia -- Gail, G.W.

Omar Turkish -- American Tobacco Co.

Omega Kentucky -- Pierre Lorillard

Opera -- Kerbs, Werthim & Schiffer

Opera Puff -- Allen & Ginter

Oronoko -- Pierre Lorillard

Our Country's Pride -- Collins Cigar Co.

Our game -- Alex Cameron

Our Little Beauties -- Allen & Ginter

Our Pet Nave -- Goddard Co.

Owl -- Straitron & Storm

Pall Mall -- American Tobacco Co.

Panetelas -- S. Monday & Son

Parliament -- Benson & Hedges

Parole -- Pierre Lorillard

Pastime -- John Finzer Co.

Pearl -- Pierre Lorillard

Peerless -- Kimball & Co.

Pedro -- American Tobacco Co.

Pedro Murias -- Benson & Hedges

Perfection -- Allen & Ginter

Perfection Mixture -- Pierre Lorillard

Perique Mixture -- Allen & Ginter

Pet -- Allen & Ginter

Peter Schuyler -- Van Slyke & Horton

Pink -- Pierre Lorillard

Pioneer Crown -- Allen & Ellis

Piper Heidsieck -- American Tobacco Co.

Pippin -- Banner Company

Pippins -- H. Traisser & Co.

Plain Light -- Pierre Lorillard

Planet -- Buchannan & Lyalls

Polar Bear -- Pierre Lorillard

Preferred Stock -- American Tobacco Co.

Prince Albert -- R.J. Reynolds

Princess Charlotte -- A.B.C. Importation Co.

Pure Virginia -- Pierre Lorillard

Purity -- Cameron & Cameron

Quality Puffs -- S. Monday & Sons

Queen of the Seas -- Alex Cameron & Co.

Raleigh -- Brown & Williamson Co.

Red Cross -- Pierre Lorillard

Regalia -- Clark Brewer & Sons

Richmond Cavendish -- Allen & Ginter

Richmond Gem Mild -- Allen & Ginter

Richmond Gem Mixture -- Allen & Ginter

Richmond Mixture #1 -- Allen & Ginter

Richmond Mixture #2 -- Allen & Ginter

Richmond Straight -- Allen & Ginter

Richmond Straight #1 -- Allen & Ginter

Right Bower -- Allen & Ginter

Ripple Navy -- Pierre Lorillard

Robert Burns -- Straiton & Storm

Rose Leaf -- Pierre Lorillard

Royal Bengals -- Pierre Lorillard

Royal Bengals -- Pierre Lorillard

Russian #1 -- Benson & Hedges

Russian Gold -- Benson & Hedges

Russian Gold #3 -- Benson & Hedges

Russian Mouthpiece #1 -- Benson & Hedges

Russian Mouthpiece #1 -- Benson & Hedges

Russian Mouthpiece #3 -- Benson & Hedges

Rustic -- George Bell

Sailor's Delight -- Pierre Lorillard

Sailor's Pride -- Bland Tobacco Co.

Satins -- American Tobacco Co.

Seal of North Carolina -- American Tobacco Co.

Seal Skin -- Commonwealth Tobacco

Sensation -- Peter Lorillard

Siesta -- Pierre Lorillard

Silk -- Strasser Co.

Si Peu Que Rein -- Benson & Hedges

Snow Flake -- American Tobacco Co.

Solace -- John Anderson & Co.

Something Good -- James Butler Co.

Sovereign -- Butler & Butler

Spanish Puffs -- American Tobacco Co.

Spear Head -- American Tobacco Co.

Special -- American Tobacco Co.

Special Favours -- American Tobacco Co.

Splendid -- Pierre Lorillard

Sport -- H.M. Lockrow

Sporting Extra -- American Tobacco Co.

Spot Cash -- H.P. Brewster

Stag -- Pierre Lorillard

St. Ledger -- Pierre Lorillard

Straw #1 -- Benson & Hedges

Straw Extra Mild #4 -- Benson & Hedges

Straw Tip #2 -- Pierre Lorillard

Stripped -- Pierre Lorillard

Sub-Rosa -- Pierre Lorillard

Sunny South -- Allen & Ginter

Sunnyside -- American Tobacco Co.

Suwanee River -- Van Slyke & Co.

Sweet Banner -- American Tobacco Co.

Sweet Caporal -- American Tobacco Co.

Sweet Caporal -- Kinny Co.

Sweet Conqueror -- Pierre Lorillard

Sweet Golden Seal -- Buchner & Co.

Sweet Lavender -- American Tobacco Co.

Sweet Maple -- Bland Tobacco Co.

Tareyton -- American Tobacco Co.

Ten Minute -- Marburg Brothers

Three Black Cows -- Pierre Lorillard

Three Kings -- William S. Kimball Co.

Tiger -- Pierre Lorillard

Tin Tag -- Pierre Lorillard

Toko -- Bland Tobacco Co.

Tolstoi -- American Tobacco Co.

Troy -- American Tobacco Co.

Tuberose -- Pierre Lorillard

Turkey Red -- Pierre Lorillard

Turkish Cross Cut -- American Tobacco Co.

Turkish Mixture -- Allen & Ginter

Tuxedo -- American Tobacco Co.

Uncle Sam -- Nall & Williams

Union Leader -- Pierre Lorillard

Upper Cut -- L. Miller & Son

Vafiadis -- Ligget & Myers

Van Bibber -- American Tobacco Co.

Vanity Fair -- Kimballs

Velvet -- Ligget & Myers

Venable's Cockade -- S.W. Venable Tobacco Co.

Veteran -- American Tobacco Co.

Victory -- Buchner & Co.

Victory -- American Tobacco Co.

Villar y Villar -- Benson & Hedges

Virginia Brights -- Allen & Ginter

Virginia Brights -- American Tobacco Co.

Virginia Cheroots -- Pierre Lorillard

Virginia's Choice -- [Unknown]

Virginia Leaf -- John Cornish Co.

Wandering Jew -- Clark Brewer & Sons

Welcome -- Goodwin

West Virginia Mail Pouch -- Block Brothers Co.

Wings -- Brown & Williamson Co.

Winner -- H.M. Ferguson

White Puff -- Pierre Lorillard

Wild Rose Chipped -- Pierre Lorillard

XX Navy Clipping -- Pierre Lorillard

Yacht Club -- Pierre Lorillard

Yasoa -- S. Monday & Son

Yellow Jacket -- Pierre Lorillard

Yellow Kid -- National Tobacco Co.

Zira -- Pierre Lorillard

Zoo Zoo -- Wilson & McNally Co.

Zubelda -- Pierre Lorillard
Materials in the Archives Center:
Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Tobacco Trade and Industry is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Genre/Form:
Ephemera
Business ephemera
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Tobacco Trade and Industry, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Tobacco
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Tobacco Trade and Industry
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-tobacco
Online Media:

Roan Eagle book of drawings

Creator:
Roan Eagle  Search this
Collector:
McGillycuddy, Valentine, 1849-1939  Search this
Extent:
1 Notebook (33 drawings on leaves and inside covers, graphite, colored pencil, ink, and watercolor, 10 x 16 cm.)
Culture:
Lakota  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Notebooks
Ledger drawings
Date:
ca. 1880
Scope and Contents:
Drawings of scenes of individual warriors, courting, hunting, various animals, and a dance.The drawings are in a small bound pocket notebook with pages of ruled paper, covers repaired with cloth tape. Inscription on flyleaf reads: "By our special artist Roan Eagle."
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. V.T. McGillycuddy identified himself in a 1932 letter to the BAE as having served as attending surgeon with the US Army in the field during the Indian campaigns 1876-78, and as Indian Agent in charge of Red Cloud's Sioux from 1879 to 1886. In later years, he was president of the South Dakota Society of California and maintained correspondence with the BAE regarding his Indian experiences.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 387,048
Album Information:
MS 387,048 001
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 387,048, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS387048
See more items in:
Roan Eagle book of drawings
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms387048
Online Media:

Roan Eagle drawing of two horses

Creator:
Roan Eagle  Search this
Collection Creator:
Roan Eagle  Search this
Collection Collector:
McGillycuddy, Valentine, 1849-1939  Search this
Extent:
1 Drawing (graphite and ink, 10 x 16 cm.)
Culture:
Lakota  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
1880
Arrangement:
Item
Local Numbers:
NAA INV 08528101

NAA MS 387048
Local Note:
Graphite pencil and ink on paper.
Album Information:
MS 387,048 002
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 387,048, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Roan Eagle book of drawings
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms387048-ref1

Roan Eagle drawing of warrior on horseback with full feather warbonnet, crooked lance, and shield

Creator:
Roan Eagle  Search this
Collection Creator:
Roan Eagle  Search this
Collection Collector:
McGillycuddy, Valentine, 1849-1939  Search this
Extent:
1 Drawing (colored pencil, ink, and graphite, 10 x 16 cm.)
Culture:
Lakota  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
1880
Local Numbers:
NAA INV 08528114

NAA MS 387048
Album Information:
MS 387,048 013
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 387,048, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Roan Eagle book of drawings
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms387048-ref10

Roan Eagle drawing of warrior on horseback with full feather warbonnet and lance or staff

Creator:
Roan Eagle  Search this
Collection Creator:
Roan Eagle  Search this
Collection Collector:
McGillycuddy, Valentine, 1849-1939  Search this
Extent:
1 Drawing (colored pencil, ink, and graphite, 10 x 16 cm.)
Culture:
Lakota  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
1880
Local Numbers:
NAA INV 08528115

NAA MS 387048
Album Information:
MS 387,048 014
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 387,048, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Roan Eagle book of drawings
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms387048-ref11

Roan Eagle drawing of warrior on horseback with saber and horned feather warbonnet

Creator:
Roan Eagle  Search this
Collection Creator:
Roan Eagle  Search this
Collection Collector:
McGillycuddy, Valentine, 1849-1939  Search this
Extent:
1 Drawing (colored pencil, ink, and graphite, 10 x 16 cm.)
Culture:
Lakota  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
1880
Local Numbers:
NAA INV 08528116

NAA MS 387048
Album Information:
MS 387,048 015
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 387,048, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Roan Eagle book of drawings
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms387048-ref12

Roan Eagle drawing of warrior with full feather warbonnet and crooked lance

Creator:
Roan Eagle  Search this
Collection Creator:
Roan Eagle  Search this
Collection Collector:
McGillycuddy, Valentine, 1849-1939  Search this
Extent:
1 Drawing (colored pencil, ink, and graphite, 10 x 16 cm.)
Culture:
Lakota  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
1880
Local Numbers:
NAA INV 08528117

NAA MS 387048
Local Note:
Colored pencil, ink, and graphite drawing in notebook.
Album Information:
MS 387,048 016
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 387,048, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Roan Eagle book of drawings
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms387048-ref13

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