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N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records

Ayer (N W) Incorporated.  Search this
American Telephone and Telegraph Company -- Advertisements  Search this
Cunningham & Walsh.  Search this
Hixson & Jorgenson  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc. -- Advertisements  Search this
Ayer, Francis Wayland  Search this
De Kooning, Willem, 1904-1997  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia, 1887-1986  Search this
270 Cubic feet (1463 boxes, 33 map-folders, 7 films)
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Oral history
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Collection consists of records documenting one of the oldest advertising agencies created in Philadelphia. The company then moves to New York and expanses to international markets. During its history NW Ayer & Sons acquires a number of other advertising agencies and is eventually purchased. The largest portion of the collection is print advertisements but also includes radio and television. NW Ayer is known for some of the slogans created for major American companies.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of proof sheets of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son, Incorporated for their clients. These materials are in series one through thirteen and consist primarily of print advertisements. There are also billboards, radio and television commercials. The advertisements range from consumer to corporate and industrial products. The majority of the advertisements were created for Ayer's New York, Chicago, Los Angeles and international offices. Printed advertisements created by Cunningham & Walsh, Hixson & Jorgensen and Newell-Emmett are also included among these materials. Researchers who are interested in records created by Ayer in the course of operating an advertising agency will find these materials in Series fourteen-nineteen.

Series fourteen consists of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son to promote their services to potential clients.

Series fifteen are scrapbooks of some of the earliest advertisements created by the company. Series sixteen are publications. Some of the publications were created by Ayer while others were about Ayer or the advertising industry in general. Provides good background materials and puts the company in perspective. Series eighteen are the legal records. Materials relating to employees including photographs, oral histories etc. are found in series nineteen.

Series twenty is one of the smallest amounts of materials and includes information relating to the history of NW Ayer & Son.

The container lists for series one-thirteen are part of a database and are searchable. The list has been printed for the convenience of the researcher and is included in this finding aid. Series fourteen-twenty container lists are also a part of the finding aid but are not in a searchable format.

Series 1, Scrapbooks of Client Advertisements, circa 1870-1920, is arranged into three boxes by chronological date. There are two bound scrapbooks and one box of folders containing loose scrapbook pages. NW Ayer & Son compiled an assortment of their earliest ads and placed them into scrapbooks. Besides the earliest advertisements, the scrapbooks contain requests to run advertisements, reading notices and listings of papers Ayer advertised in. The early advertisements themselves range from medical remedies to jewelry to machines to clothing to education and more. Most of the advertisements in the bound scrapbooks are dated.

Series 2, Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930, NW Ayer was fond of creating scrapbooks containing proofsheets. The series contains proofsheets created between 1892 and 1930, organized into 526 boxes. For convenience of storage, access and arrangement, the scrapbooks were disassembled and the pages placed in original order in flat archival storage boxes. The proofsheets are arranged by book number rather than client name. Usually the boxes contain a listing of the clients and sometimes the dates of the advertisements to be found within the box.

Series 3, Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975, is organized into 532 oversize boxes, and contain proofsheets and tearsheets created between 1920 and 1972. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by company name (occasionally subdivided by brand or product), and thereunder chronologically by date of production. Many major, national advertisers are represented, including American Telephone & Telegraph, Armour Company, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Carrier Corporation, Domino Sugar, Caterpillar tractor company, Ford Motor Company, General Electric, Goodyear, Hills Bros. Coffee, Ladies Home Journal, National Dairy, Plymouth (Chrysler Corporation), Steinway, TV Guide, United Airlines and the United States Army. Also contained in this series are three scrapbooks of client advertisements including Canada Dry, Ford Motor, and Victor Talking Machine.

Series 4, 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001, is organized into ninety three oversized boxes,one folder and contains proofsheets for select Ayer clients, created between 1975 and 2001. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by client name and there under chronologically by date of production. Major national advertisers represented include American Telephone & Telegraph, Avon, the United States Army, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Dupont, TV Guide, Sealtest, Kraft Foods, Gillette, General Motors, Cannon Mills.

Series 5, Billboards, circa 1952-1956, consists of mounted and un-mounted original art/mock-ups. Twenty-two pieces of original art created as mock-ups for Texaco billboards.

Series 6, Film and Video Commercials, 1967-1970,

Series 7, Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated, is arranged into eight boxes and includes radio scripts, television scripts, and story boards for commercials.

Subseries 7.1, Scripts and storyboards for Radio and Television Commercials, dates Scripts for radio and television commercials includes title, date, length of commercial, advertising agency, client information

NW Ayer's radio and television materials mainly focus on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Some of Ayer's materials relate to Bell Telephone Hours.

Storyboards are used in television and film to assist the director in working with crew to tell the story. To show the viewer through the use of figures, visual effects and camera angles. When directors first start thinking about their storyboard they create a story in their mind. They think of all the camera angles, visual effects and how the figures will interact in their mind. They try to create an extraordinary story in their head to attract the viewer (YOU) In order for the storyboard to be entirely effective it can't be a passive document. When done properly, a storyboard serves as a central design, meeting the needs of many team members including graphics artists, video personnel and programmers.

Another function of a storyboard is to help the team communicate during the training development process. This communication is very important in working with a large team as in the movie King, produced in 1996. Figures help the director explain to the crew how they are going to record the film and how to present it to the audience. Sometimes the director wants special effects to be added to the film, but his budget might not be that big so the director will have to change the story to fit their budget.

The Visual Effects are an important part in the storyboards it adds a special touch of creativity to your film. Camera angles are an important expects in your film because the camera angles determine where the viewing audience will look. If you want your audience to look at a certain object you must turn their attention to it by focusing on that object and maybe you might try blocking something out. Then you will have your audience's attention and you may do whatever else you have to, it could be scaring them are just surprising them or whatever you do.

Also included is talent information and log sheets relating to the storage of the commercials.

Bell Telephone Hour Program, 1942-[19??], The Bell Telephone Hour, also known as The Telephone Hour, was a five minute musical program which began April 29, 1940 on National Broadcasting Company Radio and was heard on NBC until June 30, 1958. Sponsored by Bell Telephone showcased the best in classical and Broadway music, reaching eight to nine million listeners each week. It continued on television from 1959 to 1968.

Earlier shows featured James Melton and Francia White as soloists. Producer Wallace Magill restructured the format on April 27, 1942 into the "Great Artists Series" of concert and opera performers, beginning with Jascha Heifetz. Records indicate that the list of talents on the program included Marian Anderson, Helen Traubel, Oscar Levant, Lily Pons, Nelson Eddy, Bing Crosby, Margaret Daum, Benny Goodman, José Iturbi, Gladys Swarthout and .The series returned to radio in 1968-1969 as Bell Telephone Hour Encores, also known as Encores from the Bell Telephone Hour, featuring highlights and interviews from the original series.

National Broadcasting television specials sponsored by the Bell System, 1957-1987includes information relating to Science series, Bell system Theshold Series, Bell telephone hour and commercial and public sponsored programs

Series 8, Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989, is arranged alphabetically by the name of the client in ninety boxes and six oversize folders. Clients include Illinois Bell Telephone (1955-1989), Microswitch (1969-1989), Teletype (1975-1984), John Deere (1974-1989) and Caterpillar (1966-1972) are particularly well represented. Other clients of interest include Dr. Scholl's shoes (circa 1968-1972), the Girl Scouts (1976-1980), Sunbeam Personal Products Company (1973-1981), Bell and Howell (1974-1983) and Alberto Culver shampoos (1967-1971), Honeywell, Incorporated, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Associations, Kraft, Incorporated, Sears, Roebuck and Company, and YMCA.

Series 9, Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987, include printed advertisements created by this office and information relating to the employees.

Subseries 9.1, Print Advertisements, 1977-1987, printed advertisements arranged in one box alphabetically by client. There is a sparse sampling of clients from this particular Ayer branch office. The majority of the advertisements contained within this series are from Pizza Hut (1986-1987). Also included are Computer Automation (1977-1978), State of the Art, Incorporated (1982) and Toshiba (1986).

Subseries 9.2, Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s, includes cards of employees who worked in the Los Angeles office. Information on the cards includes name, address, telephone number, birthday, date hired, departure date and why (retired, terminated, resigned, etc) and position. Not all cards have all information. There is also a photograph of the employees on the cards.

Series 10, Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated, NW Ayer maintained partnerships with international companies such as Sloanas Ayer in Argentina, Connaghan & May Paton Ayer in Australia, Moussault Ayer in Belgium, NW Ayer, LTD. in Canada, GMC Ayer in France, Co-Partner Ayer in Germany, Wong Lam Wang in Hong Kong, MacHarman Ayer in New Zealand, Grupo de Diseno Ayer in Spain, Nedeby Ayer in Sweden, and Ayer Barker in United Kingdom. This group of material is a small sampling of advertisements created from these International offices. It is arranged alphabetically by client. There are quite a few automobile advertisements (i.e. Audi, Fiat, General Motors, Mercedes-Benz, and Volkswagen). In addition there are numerous advertisements for various personal items from MacLean's toothpaste to Quick athletic shoes to Labello lip balm, etc. Most of the advertisements have the creator's name printed on the advertisements.

Series 11, Cunningham & Walsh, Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated contains 98 boxes 11 folders materials from the New York advertising agency acquired by NW Ayer in the 1960s. The company began with Newel-Emmett, an agency of nine men which broke up in 1949. Two of the men Fred Walsh and Jack Cunningham formed this agency in bearing their names in 1950. The agency created "let your fingers for the walking campaign for American Telephone & Telegraph, Mother Nature for Chiffon, and Mrs. Olson for Folgers's coffee and let the good times roll for Kawasaki motorcycle. In 1986, NW Ayer Incorporated purchased Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated.

Subseries 11.1, Print Advertisements, 1915-1987, are contained in ninety eight boxes of primarily print advertisements arranged alphabetically by client name. Clients that are particularly well represented are Graybar (electrical implements, circa1926-1937), Johns-Manulle (circa1915-1971), Smith and Corono typewriters (circa 1934-1960), Sunshine Biscuit Company (circa 1925-1961), Texaco Company (circa 1936-1961), Western Electric (circa 1920- 1971) and Yellow Pages (circa 1936-1971). Cunningham and Walsh also represented several travel and tourism industry clients, including Cook Travel Services (circa 1951-1962), Italian Line (circa 1953-1961), Narragansett and Croft (circa 1956-1960) and Northwest Airlines (circa 1946-1955). There are photographs of Texaco advertisements dating from 1913-1962. There is also a scrapbook of advertisements from the Western Electric Company dating from 1920-1922.

Subseries 11.2, Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967, consist of materials created for Western Electric. Materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 11.3, Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated include client lists, information relating to NW Ayer purchase and annual report 1962.

Series 12, Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, a Los Angeles advertising company, merged with Ayer in 1969. This series is housed in one box. Within the box are four scrapbooks and folders with a hodgepodge of materials relating to advertising. Of most interest are the scrapbooks. Two scrapbooks deal with Hixson and Jorgensen's self promotion ad campaign "the right appeal gets action" (1953-1957). The other two scrapbooks contain news clippings about the company and its activities (1959-1971).

Series 13, Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957, founded in 1919 and governed in the 1940s by a partnership of nine men. The partnership broke up in 1949 when the men went their separate ways. The materials consist of print advertisements for one of client, Permutit Company, a water conditioning company. The materials are arranged in one box in chronological order.

Series 14, House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991, 16 boxes consists of advertisements or self-promotion advertisements to campaign for new clients. The series is arranged chronologically by date into fifteen boxes. Within the series are two scrapbooks containing self promotion ads from 1888-1919 and 1892-1895. Numerous house ads relate to Ayer's "Human Contact" campaign. In addition to the self promotion ads, Ayer ran advertisements expounding about particular concepts or themes for example, one month the concept would "understand" while another month would be "teamwork" and yet another would be on "imagination". Some of the self promotion ads target specific groups like Philadelphia businessmen. Other advertisements incorporate the fine arts.

Series 15, Scrapbooks, 1872-1959, relates to company events, records and news clippings about Ayer's history. The six boxes are arranged by chronological date. Two of the boxes focus solely on the death of founder F.W. Ayer (1923). Another box houses a scrapbook that showcases Ayer's annual Typography Exhibition (1931-1959). One box contains a scrapbook that specifically deals with correspondences relating to Ayer's advertising. Yet another box's contents are folders of loose pages from scrapbooks that have newspaper clippings, order forms, correspondences and other company records. In one box, a bound scrapbook houses a variety of materials relating to Ayer and advertising (i.e. newspaper clippings, competitor's advertisements, NW Ayer's advertisements, correspondences for advertisements, clippings regarding the "theory of advertising."

Series 16, Publications, 1849-2006, are housed in thirty four boxes and are arranged into three main categories.

Subseries 16.1, House Publications, 1876-1994, covers diverse topics; some proscriptive works about the Ayer method in advertising, some commemorating people, anniversaries or events in the life of the agency. Materials consist of scattered issues of the employee newsletter The Next Step 1920-1921. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date of publication. Ayer in the News, The Show Windows of an Advertising Agency, 1915, book form of advertisements published on the cover of Printer's Ink, highlighting Ayer's relations with advertisers. The Story of the States, 1916, Reprint in book form of a series of articles published in Printer's Ink for the purpose of adding some pertinent fact, progressive thought and prophetic vision to the Nationalism of Advertising highlights major businesses, manufacturer, natural resources and other qualities or attractions of each state. The Book of the Golden Celebration, 1919, includes welcome address and closing remarks by founder F. Wayland Ayer, The Next Step, 1920 employee newsletter with photographs, employee profiles, in-house jokes, etc., Advertising Advertising: A Series of Fifty-two Advertisements scheduled one time a week. Twenty-seven, thirty and forty inches, a day of the week optional with publisher, 1924

Subseries 16.2, Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-2006, includes a book first published in 1939. Includes articles, documenting events and is arranged chronologically by date of publication.

Subseries 16.3, General Publications about Advertising, 1922-1974, are arranged chronologically by date of publication and relate primarily to the history of advertising.

Subseries 16.4, Publications about Other Subjects, 1948-1964, include four books about the tobacco industry primarily the history of the American Tobacco Company and Lorillard Company from the Cunningham and Walsh library.

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1, Contracts, 1885-1908, undated, are arranged alphabetically and span from 1885-1908. The majority of the contracts are with newspaper and magazine publishers from around the country.

Subseries 17.2, General client information, 1911-1999, undated, including active and cancelled lists with dates, client gains, historical client list, (should move this to series 20) Ayer Plan User Guide Strategic Planning for Human Contact, undated

Subseries 17.3, Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated, contain information used by Ayer to create advertisements for some of its clients. American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate Case History, American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate advertisement memo, commissioned artists for DeBeers advertisements, DeBeers information relating to the creative process and photography credits, a case history for DeBeers Consolidated Mines, Ltd., The Diamond Engagement Ring, Managing Communication at all levels, DuPont publications, JC Penny Marketing Communication Plan Recommendation, Leaf, Incorporated, Saturn presentation, and USAREC oral presentation.

Subseries 17.4, Potential Clients, 1993, includes grouping has a questionnaire sent to Ayer by a potential client. Questionnaire response for Prudential Securities, 1993 Prudential Securities advertising account review, 1993.

Subseries 17.5, Financial Records, 1929-1938, includes balance sheet, 1929 May 1 Balance sheet and adjustments Consolidated statement of assets and liabilities, Expenses 191936-37 Business review and expenses, 1937 and 1938 Business review and expenses comparative statement, 1937 and 1938.

Series 18, Legal Records, circa 1911-1982, Ayer's legal records are arranged by twelve subject groupings within four boxes. The twelve groupings are advertising service agreements (circa 1918-1982), bylaws, copyright claims, correspondences, international correspondences, dissolution of trusts, stock information, agreements between partners, incorporation materials, reduction of capital, property information and miscellaneous materials. The bulk of the materials are the advertising service agreements. These agreements are between Ayer and their clients and state the services Ayer will offer and at what cost. The bylaws are Ayer's company bylaws from 1969 and 1972. The copyright claims are certificates stating Ayer's ownership over certain published materials (i.e. "Policy", Media Equalizer Model, and Don Newman's Washington Square Experiment). The correspondences relate to either the voting trust and receipts for agreement or the New York Corporation. The international correspondences are from either Ayer's Canadian office or London office. The dissolutions of trusts contains materials about the dividend trust of Wilfred F. Fry, the investment trust of Winfred W. Fry, the voting trust, and the New York corporation. The stock information has stock certificates and capital stock information. The agreements between partners (1911-1916) specify the terms between F.W. Ayer and his partners. The incorporation materials (circa 1929-1977) deal with Ayer advertising agency becoming incorporated in the state of Delaware. The reduction of capital grouping is a notification that shares of stock have been retired. The property information grouping contains property deeds and insurance policy (circa 1921-1939), a property appraisal (1934), and a bill of sale (1948). The miscellaneous grouping contains a house memo regarding a set of board meeting minutes and a registry of foreign companies in Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1929-1954).

Subseries 18.1, Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2, Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4, Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5, International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6, Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7, Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8, Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9, Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10, Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11, Property Information, 1921-1948

Subseries 18.12, Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19, Personnel Records, circa 1889-2001, are arranged into eight groupings within eight boxes. The groupings are employee card files, photographs, Ayer alumni, biographies, speeches, recollections, oral histories, and miscellaneous. Typed manuscript of book A Copy Writer Speaks by George Cecil, NW Ayer, Incorporated copy head 1920s-1950s

Subseries 19.1, Employee card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963, consists of index cards with the name, age, job title, date and wage increases, date of hire/fire, as well as remarks about the employee's service and/or reasons for seeking or leaving the job. Materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the employee within three boxes.

Subseries 19.2, Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated, are housed in two boxes. The photographs grouped together by subjects i.e. personnel, company events, Ayer buildings, and miscellaneous. This grouping primarily consists of personnel photographs. Includes a glass plate negative dated 1924 of NW Ayer.

Subseries 19.3, Ayer Alumni, circa 1989-98, include employees who have left Ayer. There is a listing of Ayer "graduates" and their current job. Emeritus, Ayer's alumni newsletter 1989-1996, makes up the majority of materials in this grouping. The newsletter keeps the alumni up to date with the happenings of Ayer and what has become of former Ayer employees. Emeritus is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the activities, thoughts and feelings of Ayer alumni a body of people who consists of retirees and former employees.

Subseries 19.4, Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994, undated, prominent members of Ayer's operations had biographical sketches completed of them. This was true for the bio sketches of Robert Ervin, Louis T. Hagopian, and George A. Rink. There is a substantial file on Dorothy Dignam ("Mis Dig"), a leading woman in the advertising world from the 1930s to the 1950s. Also of interest is a video ("The Siano Man") compiled by Ayer employees to commemorate Jerry Siano's retirement from Ayer in 1994. The series is arranged alphabetically by last name.

Subseries 19.5, Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975, contains speeches made by Wilfred W. Fry and Neal W. O'Connor. Wilfred W. Fry had various speaking engagements connected with Ayer. Contained in this group is a sampling of his speeches from 1919 to 1931. Neal O'Connor's speech "Advertising: Who Says It's a Young People's Business" was given at the Central Region Convention for the American Association of Advertising Agencies in Chicago on November 6, 1975. The speeches are arranged alphabetically by the speaker's last name.

Subseries 19.6, Recollections, 1954-1984, undated, are arranged alphabetically by last name. These are recollections from Ayer employees about the company and its advertisements. Some recollections are specifically about certain types of advertisements, like farm equipment while others reflect on F. W. Ayer and the company.

Subseries 19.7, Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991, include interviews with key NW Ayer personnel, conducted by Ayer alumnae Howard Davis, Brad Lynch and Don Sholl (Vice President creative) for the Oral History Program. The materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.8, Oral History Interview Audio Tapes, 1985-1990, include interviews on audiotape the materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.9, Internal Communications, 1993-1999, includes information sent to employees relating to retirements, management changes, awards won by the company, promotions, potential new accounts, free items, grand opening of Ayer Café, donation events, sponsorship programs, holiday schedules, discounts for employees from clients, Ayer joins MacManus Group.

Subseries 19.10, General Materials, 1940; 1970, includes agency directory entry including a list of the employees, 1970s, annual banquet program for the Curfew Club May 22, 1940 a group formed by the Philadelphia employee in 1938. It sponsored numerous sports, social and educational activities. Groups were formed in public speaking, music appreciation and a series of talks on Monday evenings title the modern woman. The front page was a series of talks for general interest. A list of officers, 1991, Twenty five year club membership, 1973 December 1, List of NW Ayer graduates, 1970, List of Officers, 1991 May 31, Obituary for Leo Lionni, 1999 October 17, List of photographers of advertisements, 2001

Series 20, Background and History Information, 1817-1999, undated includes a chronology, 1817-1990, quick reference timeline, 1848-1923, loose pages from a scrapbook containing examples of correspondence, envelopes, advertisements dating from 1875-1878; slogans coined by NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1899-1990, history of management, 1909-1923, articles and photographs about the building and art galleries, 1926-1976, publications about the Philadelphia building, 1929, pamphlet relating to memories of NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1930s-1950s, television history, 1940-1948, Article about the history of the company, 1950 January, pocket guide, 1982, AdWeek reports about standings for advertising agencies, information relating to Human Contact which is NW Ayer's Information relating to Human Contact, undated which is their philosophy on advertising.

Series 21, Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated, consists of print advertisements collected by Ayer from other major advertising companies. The companies include Doyle Dane Bernback, Incorporated, Leo Burnett Company, Grey Advertising Agency, D'Arcy Ad Agency, Scali, McCabe, Sloves, Incorporated and Erwin Wasey Company. The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by client and include products from Ralston Purina and Van Camp (Chicken of the Sea), Kellogg, American Export Lines and No Nonsense Fashions.

Series 22, 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1999, undated, includes material given to the Archives Center in 2010. It is organized into seventy one oversized boxes and contains proofsheets of print advertisements for select Ayer clients. These are arranged alphabetically by client name and include substantial quantities of materials from American Telephone &Telegraph (1945-1996), Bahamas Ministry of Tourism (1967-1987), Carrier (1971-1981), Citibank (1973-1991), DeBeers (1940s-1960s and1990s), Electric Companies Advertising Program [ECAP] (1942-1970s), General Motors (1989-1998), J.C. Penney (1983-1986), Newsweek (1966-1975), and Proctor and Gamble (1980s-1890s). There are also numerous other clients represented by smaller quantities of materials.

Subseries 22.1, Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2, Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated, include Cannon towels, Cheny Brothers silks, Cornish & Company organs and pianos, Enterprise Manufacturing Company, 1879 sad iron, an ad from Harper's Weekly 1881 for ladies clothing, Ostermoor & Company mattresses, Pear's soap, Porter's cough balsam, Steinway pianos.

Series 23, Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985, consists of three boxes of printed advertisements for the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. Some of the same advertisements might also be found in series two, three and four.
The collection is arranged into twenty-three series.

Series 1: Scrapbooks of Client Print Advertisements, circa 1870-1920

Series 2: Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930

Series 3: Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975

Series 4: 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001

Series 5: Billboards, circa 1952-1956

Series 6: Audiovisual Materials

Series 7: Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated

Series 8: Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989

Series 9: Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987

Subseries 9.1: Printed Advertisements, 1977-1987

Subseries 9.2: Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s

Series 10: Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated

Series 11: Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated

Subseries 11.1: Printed Advertisements, 1915-1987

Subseries 11.2: Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967

Subseries 11.3: Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated

Series 12: Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, undated

Series 13: Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957

Series 14: House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991

Series 15: Scrapbooks, 1872-1959

Series 16: Publications, 1849-2006

Subseries 16.1: House Publications, 1876-1994

Subseries 16.2: Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-1995

Subseries 16.3: General Publications about Advertising, 1922-2006

Subseries 16.4: Publications about other Subjects, 1948-1964

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1: Contracts, 1885-1908, undated

Subseries 17.2: General Client Information, 1911-1999, undated

Subseries 17.3: Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated

Subseries 17.4: Potential Clients, 1993

Subseries 17.5: Financial Records, 1929-1938

Series 18: Legal Records, circa 1911-1984

Subseries 18.1: Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2: Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4: Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5: International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6: Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7: Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8: Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9: Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10: Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11: Property Information

Subseries 18.12: Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19: Employee Materials, circa 1889-2001

Subseries 19.1: Employee Card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963

Subseries 19.2: Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated

Subseries 19.3: Alumni Publications, circa 1989-1998

Subseries 19.4: Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994

Subseries 19.5: Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975

Subseries 19.6: Recollections, 1954-1984, undated

Subseries 19.7: Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991

Subseries 19.8: Oral History Audiotapes, 1985-1990

Subseries 19.9: Internal Communications, 1993-1999

Subseries 19.1: General Materials, 1940-2001

Series 20: History and Background Information about the Company, 1817-1999, undated

Series 21: Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated

Series 22: 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1990s, undated

Subseries 22.1: Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2: Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated

Series 23: Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985
Biographical / Historical:
Founded in Philadelphia in 1869, NW Ayer & Son is one of the oldest and largest advertising agencies in America. For most of its history, it was the undisputed leader and innovator in the field of advertising. In 1876, NW Ayer & Son pioneered the "open contract", a revolutionary change in the method of billing for advertising which became the industry standard for the next hundred years. NW Ayer pioneered the use of fine art in advertising and established the industry's first art department. It was the first agency to use a full-time copywriter and the first to institute a copy department. The agency relocated to New York City in 1974. During its long history, the agency's clients included many "blue-chip" clients, including American Telephone & Telegraph, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Ford Motor Company, Nabisco, R. J. Reynolds and United Airlines. However, in later years, the Ayer's inherent conservatism left the agency vulnerable to the creative revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, the advertising industry restructuring of the 1980s and the economic recession of the early 1990s. The agency was bought out by a Korean investor in 1993. In 1996, NW Ayer merged with another struggling top twenty United States advertising agency, Darcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, under the umbrella of the McManus Group. Ayer continues to operate as a separate, full-service agency.

Through a series of buyouts and mergers, Ayer traces its lineage to the first advertising agency founded in the United States, a Philadelphia agency begun by Volney Palmer in 1841. Palmer began his career in advertising as a newspaper agent, acting as middleman between newspaper publishers and advertisers across the country. By 1849, Palmer had founded his own newspaper, V. B. Palmer's Register and Spirit of the Press, and had developed a complete system of advertising which included securing advertising space and placing ads in scores of commercial, political, religious, scientific and agricultural journals across the country. Palmer went one step further than the "space jobbers" of the day when he began offering "advertisements carefully drawn for those who have not the time to prepare an original copy." Always an enthusiastic promoter of advertising as an incentive to trade and American economic growth, Palmer promised advertisers that "every dollar paid for advertising in country newspapers will pay back twenty-fold" and encouraged skeptical consumers that "he who wishes to buy cheap should buy of those who advertise." When Palmer died in 1863, the agency was bought by his bookkeeper, John Joy, who joined with another Philadelphia advertising agency to form Joy, Coe & Sharpe. That agency was bought out again in 1868 and renamed Coe, Wetherill & Company. In 1877, Coe, Wetherill and Company was bought out by the newly formed NW Ayer & Son.

Francis Wayland Ayer was an ambitious young schoolteacher with an entrepreneurial streak. Having worked for a year soliciting advertisements on a commission basis for the publisher of the National Baptist weekly, Francis Ayer saw the potential to turn a profit as an advertising agent. In 1869, Ayer persuaded his father, Nathan Wheeler Ayer, to join him in business, and with an initial investment of only $250.00, NW Ayer & Son was born. Notwithstanding a smallpox epidemic in Philadelphia in 1871 and the general economic depression of the early 1870s, the agency flourished. The senior Ayer died in 1873, leaving his interest in the agency to his wife, but Francis W. Ayer bought her out, consolidating his interest in the company's management. In 1877, with Coe, Wetherill & Company (the successor to Palmer's 1841 agency) on the verge of bankruptcy and heavily indebted to Ayer for advertising it had placed in Ayer publications, Ayer assumed ownership of that agency. Thus did NW Ayer lay claim to being the oldest advertising agency in the country.

Both Nathan Wheeler and Francis Wayland Ayer began their careers as schoolteachers, and one of their legacies was a commitment to the cause of education: correspondence schools and institutions of higher learning were historically well-represented among Ayer clients. Just after World War I, the agency was heralded as "co-founder of more schools than any citizen of this country" for its conspicuous efforts to advertise private schools. Well into the 1960s, an "Education Department" at Ayer prepared advertisements for over three hundred private schools, camps and colleges, representing almost half the regional and national advertising done for such institutions. In fact, to its clients Ayer presented advertising itself as being akin to a system of education. In 1886, Ayer began promoting the virtues of the Ayer way advertising with the slogan, "Keeping Everlastingly at It Brings Success."

The agency's goals were simple: "to make advertising pay the advertiser, to spend the advertiser's money as though it were our own, to develop, magnify and dignify advertising as a business." Initially, Ayer's fortunes were tied to newspapers, and the agency began to make a name for itself as compiler and publisher of a widely used American Newspaper Annual. During the first years, Ayer's singular goal was "to get business, place it [in newspapers] and get money for it"; after several years as an independent space broker, however, Francis Ayer resolved "not to be an order taker any longer." This decision led NW Ayer and Son to a change in its mode of conducting business which would revolutionize the advertising industry: in 1876, Ayer pioneered the "open contract" with Diggee & Conard, Philadelphia raised growers and agricultural suppliers. Prior to the open contract, NW Ayer & Sons and most agencies operated as "space-jobbers," independent wholesalers of advertising space, in which the opportunities for graft and corrupt practices were virtually unlimited. In contrast, the open contract, wherein the advertiser paid a fixed commission based on the volume of advertising placed, aligned the advertising agent firmly on the side of the advertiser and gave advertisers access to the actual rates charged by newspapers and religious journals. The open contract with a fixed commission has been hailed by advertising pioneer Albert Lasker as one of the "three great landmarks in advertising history." (The other two were Lasker's own development of "reason-why" advertising copy and J. Walter Thompson's pioneering of sex appeal in an advertisement for Woodbury's soap.) Although the transition to the open contract did not happen overnight, by 1884, nearly three-quarters of Ayer's advertising billings were on an open contract basis. Since Ayer was, by the 1890s, the largest agency in America, the switch to direct payment by advertisers had a significant impact on the advertising industry, as other agencies were forced to respond to Ayer's higher standard. Just as important, the open contract helped to establish N W Ayer's long-standing reputation for "clean ethics and fair dealing" -- a reputation the agency has guarded jealously for over a century. The open contract also helped to establish Ayer as a full service advertising agency and to regularize the production of advertising in-house. From that point forward, Ayer routinely offered advice and service beyond the mere placement of advertisements. Ayer set another milestone for the industry in 1888, when Jarvis Wood was hired as the industry's first full-time copywriter. Wood was joined by a second full time copywriter four years later, and the Copy Department was formally established in 1900. The industry's first Art Department grew out of the Copy Department when Ayer hired its first commercial artist to assist with copy preparation in 1898; twelve years later Ayer became the first agency to offer the services of a full time art director, whose sole responsibility was the design and illustration of ads.

Ayer's leadership in the use of fine art in advertising has roots in this period, but achieved its highest expression under the guidance of legendary art director Charles Coiner. Coiner joined Ayer in 1924, after graduating from the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. Despite early resistance from some clients, Coiner was adamant that "the use of outstanding palette and original art forms bring a greater return in readership, in impact and prestige for the advertiser." To this end, Coiner marshaled the talents of notable painters, illustrators and photographers, including N.C. Wyeth and Rockwell Kent (Steinway), Georgia O'Keefe (Dole), Leo Lionni (DuPont), Edward Steichen (Steinway, Cannon Mills), Charles Sheeler (Ford), and Irving Penn (DeBeers). Coiner believed that there was a practical side to the use of fine art in advertising, and his success (and Ayer's) lay in the marriage of research and copywriting with fine art, an arrangement Coiner termed "art for business sake." Coiner's efforts won both awards and attention for a series completed in the 1950s for the Container Corporation of America. Titled "Great Ideas of Western Man" the campaign featured abstract and modern paintings and sculpture by leading U.S. and foreign artists, linked with Western philosophical writings in an early example of advertising designed primarily to bolster corporate image. In 1994, Charles Coiner was posthumously named to the American Advertising Federation's Hall of Fame, the first full time art director ever chosen for that honor.

Coiner and fellow art director Paul Darrow also created legendary advertising with the "A Diamond Is Forever" campaign for DeBeers; ads featured the work of Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dali and other modernist painters. The "A Diamond is Forever" tagline was written in 1949 by Frances Gerety, a woman copywriter at Ayer from 1943 to 1970. In 1999, Ad Age magazine cited "A Diamond is Forever" as the most memorable advertising slogan of the twentieth century.

Coiner also earned respect for his volunteer government service during World War II; he designed the armbands for civil defense volunteers and logos for the National Recovery Administration and Community Chest. As a founding member of the Advertising Council in 1945, Ayer has had a long-standing commitment to public service advertising. In the mid-1980s, Ayer became a leading force in the Reagan-era "War on Drugs". Lou Hagopian, Ayer's sixth CEO, brokered the establishment of the Partnership for a Drug-Free America, a media coalition which generated as much as a million dollars a day in donated advertising space and time to prevent the use and abuse of illegal drugs. Famous names appear among NW Ayer's clientele from the very earliest days of the agency. Retailer John Wanamaker, Jay Cooke and Company, and Montgomery Ward's mail-order business were among the first Ayer clients. The agency has represented at least twenty automobile manufacturers, including Cadillac, Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Plymouth, and Rolls-Royce. Other major, long-term clients through the years have included American Telephone & Telegraph, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Kellogg's, R. J. Reynolds, Steinway and Sons, United Airlines, and the United States Army. By the time of Ayer's hundredth anniversary in 1969, some of these companies had been Ayer clients for decades if not generations, and the longevity of those relationships was for many years a source of Ayer's strength.

But the advertising industry began to change in the late 1960s and 1970s, due in part to a "creative revolution." Small advertising agencies won attention with provocative copywriting and art direction that more closely resembled art than advertising. Advances in market research allowed clients to more narrowly tailor their advertising messages to distinct groups of consumers, and this led to a rise in targeted marketing which could more readily be doled out to specialized small agencies than to larger, established firms like NW Ayer & Son. The civil rights and anti-war movements also contributed to increasing public skepticism with the values of corporate America, and by extension, with some national advertising campaigns. Older, more conservative firms like Ayer were hard pressed to meet these new challenges.

About 1970, in an effort to meet these challenges and to establish a foothold on the West Coast, Ayer bought out two smaller agencies--Hixson & Jorgenson (Los Angeles) and Frederick E. Baker (Seattle). The agency relocated from Philadelphia to New York City in 1974 in an attempt both to consolidate operations (Ayer had operated a New York office since the 1920s) and to be closer to the historic center of the advertising industry. Riding the wave of mergers that characterized the advertising industry in the late 1980s and 1990s, Ayer continued to grow through the acquisition of Cunningham & Walsh in 1986 and Rink Wells in 19xx.

During this transitional period, Ayer received widespread acclaim for its work for the United States Army, which included the widely recognized slogan "Be All You Can Be". Ayer first acquired the Army recruitment account in 1967 and with help from its direct marketing arm, the agency was widely credited with helping the Army reach its recruitment goals despite an unpopular war and plummeting enlistments after the elimination of the draft in 1973. Ayer held the account for two decades, from the Vietnam War through the Cold War, but lost the account in 1986 amid government charges that an Ayer employee assigned to the account accepted kickbacks from a New York film production house. Despite Ayer's position as the country's 18th largest agency (with billings of $880 million in 1985), the loss of the agency's second largest account hit hard.

NW Ayer made up for the loss of the $100 million dollar a year Army account and made headlines for being on the winning end of the largest account switch in advertising history to date, when fast food giant Burger King moved its $200 million dollar advertising account from arch-rival J. Walter Thompson in 1987. Burger King must have had drive-thru service in mind, however, and Ayer made headlines again when it lost the account just eighteen months later in another record-breaking account switch. Another devastating blow to the agency was the loss of its lead position on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Ayer pioneered telecommunications advertising in 1908, when the agency was selected to craft advertising for the Bell System's universal telephone service. Despite valiant efforts to keep an account the agency had held for most of the twentieth century, and for which they had written such memorable corporate slogans as American Telephone &Telegraph "The Voice with a Smile" and "Reach Out and Touch Someone", the agency lost the account in 1996.

After a wave of mergers and acquisitions in the late 1980s, the economic recession of the early 1990s hit Madison Avenue hard, and Ayer was particularly vulnerable. Despite the agency's long history and roster of "blue-chip" clients, Ayer was not known for cutting-edge creative work. Moreover, though the agency had offices overseas, Ayer had never built a strong multinational presence, and many of the smaller international offices were sold during the financial turmoil of the 1980s. This left a real void in the new climate of global marketplace consolidation. By about 1990, earnings were declining (although Ayer was still among the top twenty United States agencies in billings), and the agency was suffering from client defections, high management turnover, expensive real estate commitments and deferred executive compensation deals, all fallout of the high-flying 1980s. This was the atmosphere in 1993, when W.Y. Choi, a Korean investor who had already assembled a media and marketing empire in his homeland, began looking for an American partner to form an international advertising network. Jerry Siano, the former creative director who had recently been named Ayer's seventh CEO, was in no position to refuse Choi's offer of $35 million to buy the now floundering agency. The infusion of cash was no magic bullet, however. Choi took a wait-and-see approach, allowing his partner Richard Humphreys to make key decisions about Ayer's future, including the purging of senior executives and the installation of two new CEOs in as many years.

The agency's downward trend continued with the loss of another longtime client, the DeBeers diamond cartel in 1995. Adweek reported that Ayer's billings fell from $892 million in 1990 to less than $850 million in 1995. Several top executives defected abruptly, and the agency failed to attract major new accounts. Ayer was facing the loss not merely of revenue and personnel, but the loss of much of the respect it once commanded. Ayer remained among the twenty largest U.S. agencies, but an aura of uncertainty hung over the agency like a cloud. A new CEO was appointed, and Mary Lou Quinlan became the agency's first woman CEO in 1995. A year later, Ayer and another struggling top twenty agency, D'arcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, combined as part of the McManus Group of companies. In 1998, the McManus Group had worldwide billings of more than $6.5 billion.

Under the McManus Group, Ayer was able to expand its international operations and begin to rebuild a stronger global presence. Several important new clients were won in 1997 and 1998, including Avon, General Motors, Kitchenaid, several Procter & Gamble brands and, most notably, Continental Airlines worldwide accounts. Born in the nineteenth century, Ayer may be one of a very few advertising agencies to successfully weather the economic and cultural transitions of both the twentieth and twentieth first centuries. Ayer was eventually acquired by the Publicis Groupe based in Paris, France which closed down the N.W. Ayer offices in 2002.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

Hills Bros. Coffee Incorporated Records (AC0395)
The collection was donated by N W Ayer ABH International, April 15, 1975 and by Ayer & Partners, October 30, 1996.
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must use microfilm copy. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audiovisual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Technical Access: Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire; listening to audio discs requires special arrangement. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Publication and production quality duplication is restricted due to complex copyright, publicity rights, and right to privacy issues. Potential users must receive written permission from appropriate rights holders prior to obtaining high quality copies. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Advertising agencies  Search this
advertising  Search this
Business records -- 1840-2000
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Oral history -- 1980-1990
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks -- 1840-1990
Trade literature
Tear sheets
NW Ayer & Sons, incorporated Advertising Agency Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
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N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records
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Archives Center, National Museum of American History
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Collection Creator:
National Academy of Design (U.S.)  Search this
Box 63, Folder 25
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
Chamberlain, Samuel

Chapin, Cornelia

Chapman, Carlton

Chapman, Charles

Cheffetz, Asa

Chen, Chi

Choate, Nathaniel

Church, Frederic Edwin

Church Frederick Stuart

Ciampaglia, Carlo

Clark, Eliot

Clark, Walter

Clarke, Thomas Shields

Clarkson, Ralph

Clemens, Paul

Clinedinst, B. W.

Comden, Harry Poole
Collection Restrictions:
This bulk of this collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
National Academy of Design records, 1817-2012. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
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National Academy of Design records
National Academy of Design records / Series 18: Artist Files
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
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Forman H. Craton Papers

Craton, Forman H., 1902-1983  Search this
General Electric Company  Search this
4.15 Cubic feet (13 boxes)
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Letters (correspondence)
Personal papers
Diaries and memoirs, profusely illustrated with photographs and other mementos, which describe Craton's life, education and work experience as an engineer at General Electric in minute detail, and include his comments on the culture, current events and politics of the times; and correspondence, mostly letters from Craton to his wife and to his mother.
Scope and Contents:
This memoir is the autobiography of a man whose entire career from college graduation to retirement was spent working in one of the giants of American industry, the General Electric Company. His life spanned more than three quarters of the twentieth century and the detail in which it has been recorded provides much scattered historical, cultural, social and economic information about the period.

It is part contemporaneous diary written on a daily or weekly basis, part a record of chronological periods of Mr. Craton's life reconstructed from notes, scattered diary entries, sketches, photographs and memory and part a record of specific experiences, for example the family's boating years, Mr. Craton's time at the War Production Board, his religious life. Mr. Craton referred to it as "my 40-volume autobiography-----a continuous story of my life since birth. I estimate there are at least three million words in this record-----" in a two page autobiographical account written November 28, 1978 for Milton Wise, a former classmate.

References to Mr. Craton's work at G.E. appear in the daily and weekly diary entries but are in separate sections in the record of Mr. Craton's life that was written after his retirement. The story of those years is divided into two sections, one relating to home, family and friends and another to his career at G.E. These sections on his work contain a significant amount of information on the company's transportation interests and the manufacture and merchandising of locomotives and locomotives parts as well as descriptions of Mr. Craton's colleagues.

The year 1942 spent in Washington as a dollar-a-year man at the War Production Board and his account of his trips to Washington immediately before and immediately afterwards paint an interesting picture of war-time Washington, its hotels, restaurants, and cocktail lounges and the social life of which they were a part. They also give some indication of a Federal government rapidly expanding to meet war-time needs at home and abroad.

Major current events occurring during Mr. Craton's lifetime are also noted. They begin with the arrival of the Graf Zeppelin in New York In October 1928; the election of Herbert Hoover as president in that year as well as subsequent presidential elections were recorded as were the depression of the thirties and its effect on family life, and World War II. Developments in the space program and the landing of the astronauts on the moon were watched on television and noted in the memoirs.

The record is replete with Mr. Craton's disapproval of labor unions and their activities and his bias about Jews and Blacks, and reference to social classes that he considered his inferiors. Entries throughout the years from childhood on describe friends, acquaintances and fellow workers in minute detail. They also describe every woman with a pretty face or good figure noticed on the street, in a store, restaurant or hotel and document the drinking that was one aspect of recreational life at the time among some groups.

Looking back on the period from 1949 to 1963 from the vantage point of 1977 Mr. Craton divided it into 3 periods. In the one he entitled "Emancipation" there is a lengthy description of their friendship with the Brightmans, biographical details of the members of the Dinner Club, a detailed account of Bab's wedding and the birth of the first grandchild. This record of friends, family and activities is heavily illustrated with photographs and clippings.

Numerous references to the family's daily living and travel expenses show the changes that occurred in the price level over the years and caused Mr. Craton major concern about inflation.

The memoirs are profusely illustrated with photographs of family, friends and places visited as well as with magazine pictures, menus, programs, and other mementos.

Much of the collection is typed on 8-1/2 by 5 inch notebook sheets. Much is handwritten in a small, neat script. Photographs are labeled.

The Container List indicates by folder whether the contents are diary or memoirs written after the fact.
The collection is divided into two series.

Series 1: Memoirs, 1902-1983

Series 2: Correspondence, 1923-1982
Biographical / Historical:
Childhood and Youth

Forman Craton, an only child, was born on June 23, 1902 in Syracuse, New York. His mother, Annie Fairbanks Hutchison was the granddaughter of General Orrin Hutchison, a man of some prominence in Onondaga County, New York. His father, Dr. Samuel Boyce Craton, was the great grandson of Joshua Forman, the founder of Syracuse, New York. Dr. Forman earned his medical degree at Syracuse University and became an eye, ear, nose and throat specialist. Somewhat later he confined his practice to diseases of the eye.

Mr. Craton's memoirs recount several unpleasant memories of a dark, gloomy house on McClennan Ave. in Syracuse where he spent his earliest years. Among them were the death of a brother who was a "blue" baby, a series of colds, coughs, sore throats and other respiratory complaints, getting sick on street cars, fear of dogs, and fear of being banished from home for misbehavior.

About April 1, 1908 the family moved to 326 Highland Ave., a socially better neighborhood where they spent the next 7 years which are described by Mr. Craton as among the happiest in his life. The long winters offered a multitude of winter activities for children. They built snowmen, snow forts, snow houses. There were few cars so the streets were not cleared and youngsters went sledding and tobogganing on nearby hills. The tennis court at the Sedgwick Farm Club was flooded for skating and hockey. Indoors the children played "house" with appropriate rearrangement of the furniture or hide-and-seek in houses with large attics. In good weather, hopscotch, baseball and football took over along with climbing trees and riding bicycles.

Burten Holmes' travel pictures, special movies such as "Birth of a Nation" and later Jack London's "The Sea Wolf" as well as books and records were part of the cultural scene. Magazines too, "St. Nicholas", "Boys' Life" and "American Boy" were available. At his mother's instigation young Craton began a stamp collection.

Most of the neighborhood families, including his, belonged to the Sedgwick Farm Club, two and a half blocks from his house. It had large rooms, bowling alleys, a squash court, tennis courts, a children's playground. Dancing school which he attended was held at the club once a week. He also attended Sunday School regularly.

After one term at a private school young Craton transferred to Lincoln, the neighborhood public school, where he finished the 8 grades in 6 years. In summarizing his early years Mr. Craton remarked on the varied backgrounds of his school friends and the fact that rich and poor children mixed well and played together. He mentioned being conscious of class distinctions as early as 1912 and this awareness reappears throughout his life.

The comfortable life of young Forman's early years changed abruptly with the untimely death of his father, Dr. Craton, on February 26, 1915. The family income dropped from $10,000 to $12,000 annually, a very good one for that period, to about $1,500 a year from his father's estate. Shortly after his father's death the boy and his mother moved to 410 Douglas St. It was a "nice flat" but the lad was aware that the neighborhood was not as good as Highland St. Forman gradually lost touch with his old playmates (his mother resigned from the Sedgwick Farm Club to save money) and the boy soon became part of the Douglas St. crowd.

The young Forman began his high school days at North High School. Two of the city's characteristics were important to him during this period. The NY Central R.R. ran through downtown Syracuse and watching the trains was a fascinating pastime. The Erie Canal on which boats were hauled by horse through the city competed with the NY Central for by his attention. Although too slight for competitive sports he was an enthusiastic fan of the football and baseball teams at school. His lone outside activity at school was dramatics.

Work experience during his high school years included several one or two day-at-a-time jobs shoveling snow for the NY Central, laboring work at a steel company, tips for errands at the State Fair, and Christmas clerking at a men's store. His first full time job was as gardener for the Calthop sisters during the summer of 1919, at 20¢ an hour. In the fall of 1919 he got a job working after school and on Saturdays at Bardeen's, a book publishing company. The summer before university he was a machinist's helper at Solrag Process Co. That summer he and his mother moved to a flat at 205 Waverly Ave, a block from Syracuse University where he enrolled in the fall.

To his bitter disappointment the young man was not asked to join Phi Delta Theta, his father's fraternity and this caused great unhappiness in his early days at the university. Because of the necessity to be practical about earning a living for himself and his mother he put aside his interest in writing and cartooning, and majored in mechanical engineering. He excelled in his college work, and was invited to join several honorary fraternities in engineering and mathematics. He made a number of friends both male and female and in spite of his early bitterness over his rejection by his father's fraternity had a satisfying college career. After intercession by a friend of his father's about which Forman later wrote that he was ashamed, he received and accepted a bid from Phi Delta Theta in the middle of his college years.

In August 1923 the Cratons vacationed at Star Island, in the Isles of Shoals, New Hampshire, where young Forman quickly became friends with Willette Flitschner, from Louisville, KY. whom he would marry in a few years.

Young Manhood

During his final year at college an interview with Mr. George Pfeiff who was recruiting for a new course in Factory Management at the General Electric Co. led to a job offer in Schenectady, NY. After some soul searching about leaving his mother in Syracuse he left for the job at General Electric in Schenectady. His career at General Electric lasted 38 years.

Homesickness was a serious problem as Forman Craton began his career with the company. With the exception of vacations he had spent all of his young life, including his college years, in Syracuse. He went directly from a vacation at Star Island where Willette was also vacationing to a plant employing 22,000 people in a city in which he was a stranger. His proclivity for introspection, always strong, and his sensitivity to people and his surroundings are clearly evident in his letters to his mother and to Willie in August and September, and recur frequently throughout the years. He turned to poetry at this time for solace, particularly Sara Teasdale. The year 1924 ends with two letters to Willie declaring his love.

Because the young man had been recruited for the Factory Management Course he was moved from spot to spot in the plant, some assignments lasting a week, others several weeks. In 1925 Forman enrolled in an accounting course at G.E. that involved home work. That and almost daily letters to his mother and Willie left him little free time. Still troubled by home-sickness and unhappy in his work, after much agonizing he asked for a transfer to "test" which in effect meant starting again.

He had become convinced that his interests lay in engineering rather than in manufacturing and the test course pointed its members toward design, application engineering and technical sales.

A young Mr. Craton left for the General Electric facility in Erie, a plant with 5000 employees, on January 10, 1926 and never looked back. The transfer brought him immediate satisfaction and pleasure in his work and began a lifetime career. He found Erie and its people interesting, began attending the Unitarian Church where he met and enjoyed knowing a number of young people. His early months there were spent in rented rooms but late in the year he rented an apartment at 1308 W 9th Street in preparation for his marriage to Willie.

Family Life

Forman Craton and Willie Flitschner were married January 27, 1927. He made his first trip for the company, the first of an endless number, in 1927. The year 1928 was a banner year for the young couple. A daughter named Barbara and always called Bab was born on August 28 at Hamot Hospital. His salary having been increased to $42.00 a week in February, they bought a secondhand, dearly beloved Dodge for $225. In late June Forman wrote the first paragraph of his first short story, in an endeavor to follow through on his interest in writing. The year 1928 was also the year that the Graf Zeppelin which had left Germany in October 13 arrived in New York on October 15. In November the Cratons voted for Herbert Hoover who won the presidency by a large electoral majority. His Democratic opponent was Al Smith.

On May 24, 1932 a new baby, Roger Phelps Craton, was born. As the depression hit bottom Mr. Craton's salary was cut to $1900 a year, his work week to 4 days and he felt lucky to still have a job.

The death of Willie's mother made 1935 a sad year for the family. Increasing responsibilities at GE as business improved kept Mr. Craton busy at the plant and frequently out of town. As his responsibilities increased the necessary and expected business entertaining increased keeping him away from home often during the evenings in Erie. He was out of town more frequently also and business entertaining often involved drinking and late nights.

The war years meant greater responsibility at the plant and long working hours for Mr. Craton and the restrictions felt by all families as rationing affected family eating habits and recreation, especially the use of automobiles.

For several years after the children were born Mr. Craton's mother either lived with the family or visited for long periods of time. His mother had become harassed by worry, fears and discontent

and no effort by Mr. Craton seemed to assuage these. This situation continued through out the thirties. On November 19, 1939 Mr. Craton wrote "all of this makes life at home unnatural, strained, unpleasant and nerve wracking."

Mr. Craton's frequent and long business trips made the responsibility for his mother especially difficult for his wife. It was January 1944 before the elder Mrs. Craton left the Craton house to reside at St. Margaret's Home with many misgivings on her part and Mr. Craton's.

His mother's death occurred on September 28, 1947 and an inheritance of about $20,000 from her made building a longed for new home possible in 1948.

Another crisis in their family life was the suicide of Willette Craton's father, "the Colonel", on April 10, 1946. Long widowed he had remarried at age 70, apparently not very successfully. He was also driven by financial worries. What estate there was went to the second wife with only the proceeds of a $1,000 insurance policy to Willette Craton, causing some feeling of resentment.

Graduation from university were important family occasions as were the children's marriages.

Thanksgiving was generally spent with Bab and Tom Moore and their family, Christmas with Roger and Joan and theirs.

Children and Grandchildren

A daughter named Barbara and always called Bab or Babbie was born on August 28, 1928 at Hamont Hospital. Her brother, Roger Phelps Craton was born on May 24, 1932.

Both children did well in school, received good grades, and were a source of pride and satisfaction with their behavior, appearance, and accomplishments. Bab wanted a year at Southern Seminary in Buena Vista, Virginia before entering college. Despite their concern about the expense the Cratons agreed because they feared she could not get all the necessary credits in the Erie public school. Her graduation from Southern Seminary was an important family occasion which involved visiting the Robeys and other relatives living in the area.

Bab left Erie in late September 1946 for her first year at Syracuse University. By 1949 she was a senior at Syracuse University and Roger was a senior at Strong Vincent High School and well-thought of as a young sailor at the Erie Yacht Club.

Bab graduated from college in June, 1950 and she and Tom Moore, an architectural student, were married in August. Since he had one more year for his degree in architecture she went to work in an office in Syracuse. Roger graduated from high school that year and entered the University of Pennsylvania in the fall of 1975.

The first grandchild, Elizabeth Forman Moore, was born on September 15, 1952. Her father Tom joined an architectural firm in Berea, Ohio where they lived for a time before moving to Brecksville, Ohio. A second grandchild, Peter Moore born in 1955 was followed by another girl, Margaret Joanna Moore, born October 2, 1957 and called Peggy.

Another Moore grandchild, Charles Andrew, born July 3, 1965 shortly became a cause of much

family concern and anxiety because of his failure to thrive and respond developmentally. By April 1970 he was placed in the Sunnyhaven Home in Columbus, Ohio. He was transferred to a state hospital in Breckville in the spring of 1973. Sunnyhaven felt he could no longer be helped there and he had become more difficult to manage. Mr. Craton never became reconciled to Charles' retardation or the fact that he was born to his adored daughter.

Peg Moore the youngest child was thinking about college during the annual Thanksgiving visit in 1974-she was interested in one with a strong art curriculum. Peter Moore was an increasingly excellent football player in high school, winning several awards. He planned to enter Wooster College in the fall, having graduated from high school in 1975 the same year Elizabeth graduated from Bowling Green University. She was attending classes at the Univ. of Georgia, working in the Admissions Office and living at 2511 Planthersville Road in Decatur.

Roger Craton at the University of Pennsylvania joined the fraternity to which his father and grandfather belonged. He was active in Masks and Wigs and also played lacrosse. He graduated with high honors in 1954 and married Joan Gibson the following November.

Roger and Joan Craton moved to Detroit, he to work in a bank and finish his M.A. degree at night.

By 1960 Roger was working for the Ford Motor Company. His first child, a boy named Lincoln after Joan's father, was born May 30, 1960. Cynthia, his second child was born on August 1, 1962. Both of these children attended private schools and lived in London for the several years during which Roger Craton worked for Ford in London.

By 1971 Roger had returned to Ford in Detroit, and had bought a large home in Bloomfield Village, Birmingham, Michigan. He had been appointed comptroller of Ford's North American Automotive Operations, a 30 million dollar a year business.

On July 5, 1980 Roger phoned his parents that he was leaving Ford to become chief finance officer with a seat on the board of directors of Chesebrough-Pond Corporation effective August 1, 1980. His new annual compensation was to be $300,000. Thus meant that the Roger Craton family would move to Greenwich, Connecticut in June 1981 when Cynthia Craton would graduate from high school.

A Thirty Eight Year Career At The General Electric Co.

The following account of Mr. Craton's career was written by him in November 1978 at the request of Milton Wise of the class of 1924 of Syracuse University, who was compiling a book on the surviving members of their class at the College of Applied Science.

"On July 7, 1924 I reported in Schenectady for General Electric's new Factory Management Course and thus began a rewarding GE career that was to span the next 38 years. However, a year on this course convinced me I was slanted more toward engineering than manufacturing. So I transferred to the "test" course, which pointed its members toward both design and application engineering as well as technical sales. It proved to be a good move.

Long fascinated by trains and discovering GE's deep involvement in rail transportation apparatus, I soon transferred to the Erie, Pa. plant where I finally headed traction motor test nights and later took locomotive test. The latter was an impossible dream come true, involving electric locomotive riding and operation on the 4-mile test track. In November 1926 I moved into railway control engineering at Erie to design circuitry for gasoline-electric cars and various types of electric-drive locomotives. Also I had an indoctrination course on traction motor design and application.

In 1930 the Lackawanna suburban electrification out of Hoboken was inaugurated. It included two 3,000-volt trolley-battery-diesel locomotives for transfer freight service between the Jersey City and Secaucus yards. I'd done the control engineering on these locomotives and helped put them into service, This included the thrill of operating the locomotive pulling a 105-car freight train up grade out of Jersey City, through the Bergen Hill tunnel and on to Secaucus, to me an incredible experience. This assignment was my first intimate exposure to railroading and years later I wrote an article about it which appeared in TRAINS Magazine.

In 1931 I moved from design into locomotive application engineering and commercial work, the two functions being combined at Erie. However we were fast sinking into the abyss of the Depression. By 1932 the only active job we had was apparatus for the Pennsylvania Railroad electrification; if you weren't fortunate enough to be working on that, and I wasn't, it was touch and go whether you'd be short-timed or dismissed. I got down to four days a week and 157 per month with a wife and two children to support but I hung onto my job. That was the bottom. In 1933 things began to improve slowly, I was assigned the New Haven Railroad commercial work at Erie. The New Haven was progressive and interested in dieselization as well as possibly extending their electrification to Boston. We made extensive diesel-switcher studies culminated by an initial order for ten units. This was followed in 1937 by an order for six 3,600-hp 216-ton 11,000/600-volt AC/DC passenger locomotives for operation into Grand Central. On September 21, 1938 while running freight tests on these, we found ourselves in the middle of the hurricane of that date, another experience I wrote about for TRAINS.

In the late 1930s GE and American Locomotive Co. were partners in the diesel business; they built 100 tons and up using our equipment and we anything below 100. I was assigned promotion of our diesels with the New England railroads. This meant extensive traveling involving memorable episodes. My experiences on the Boston & Maine, where we had a demonstrator, were particularly noteworthy and were covered by a TRAINS article entitled "Joy & Pain on the Boston & Maine."

In 1940 I became manager of Industrial Haulage at Erie which had responsibility for the GE mining and industrial locomotive business, about to come on strong with World War II in the immediate offing. This was my first managerial job. I became active in the Mining & Industrial Electric Locomotive Section of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association and was chairman of the section. Also I spent much of 1942 in Washington as a dollar-a-year man on the War Production Board and was responsible for scheduling the manufacture of all locomotives in the U.S. below 100-tons; these included both diesel and steam as well as the military requirements. I made a 2-month trip to Hawaii in early 1945 to appraise the postwar market for diesels in the sugar industry.

In 1945 I became assistant general sales manager and in 1947 general sales manager of GE's locomotive and transportation equipment business. The product line included electric-drive locomotives of all types and sizes, electrical propulsion equipments sold to other builders for locomotives, subway and rapid-transit cars, trolley cars and coaches, off-highway vehicles, and a large parts business. After the war we had a period of inflation and labor trouble including a 9-week strike which made pricing and shipping promises difficult. Also as 1950 approached we struggled to get our business up to $100,000,000 annually, which would keep about 5,000 employees busy at Erie. So it was a challenging and interesting time.

In the early 1950s due to rapid growth the Company was reorganizing, decentralizing and establishing new measurements. In 1953 a study team was formed to recommend how the Company's foreign operations could be blended smoothly into all this. On the team were four from international operations, four from domestic, and the chairman, an international man. On this team I represented the Company's heavy apparatus business. The nine of us holed up in a New York hotel for over a year on this when we weren't traveling around on interviews including a 3-week trip to Central and South America. It was one of the most fascinating of my business experiences.

After this I returned to my marketing job at Erie, the position having been upgraded slightly from "sales" to "marketing" in the reorganization. In 1956 I spent three months taking the Company's Advanced Management Course. Back in Erie again, I headed a team to study the reorganization of our own business. we spent four months on this and presented our report in May 1957. We recommended the business be split up into three decentralized sections: 1) Locomotives; 2) Equipments; 3) Parts sales. Our recommendations were adopted and the department reorganized. I became general manager of the equipment business, a position I held until my retirement o July 1, 1962 at age 60.

Equipment doesn't sound as glamorous as locomotives but actually is more so. We'd adapted our locomotive propulsion apparatus to oil-well drilling which put us into that business; I've visited an oil-well drilling platform 60 miles offshore in the Gulf of Mexico. With expansion of open-pit mining and the proliferation of heavy off-highway vehicles, our motorized-wheel business was booming. Mass transit was promising an even greater future. Also we supplied electrical equipments to Alco and Baldwin as well as our own associates in the Erie Plant. These lines along with parts kept some 2,500 people busy in our Equipment Section."


It took 17 years thanks to his early career change and the depression for Mr. Craton's salary to reach %5,000. The next step up meant that he was eligible to join Elfun, an investment fund for G.E. managers and executives.

With the end of the depression and the increasing industrial activity caused by war production Mr. Craton's salary had risen to $6,700 a year. Overtime and extra compensation brought this to $8,500. By November 1946 several increases had raised his base salary to $9,000 and following a long strike at the plant this figure was raised to $9,720. A March 13, 1946 journal entry noted that Mr. Craton's income tax for 1945 was $1,800 -- "more than he used to make". One of the satisfactions of these increases was the purchase of a small boat that added a great deal to the family's recreation.

Mr. Craton became eligible for the GE stock plan in 1953 and was authorized to purchase 900 shares of company stock over the next 10 years at $71.00 a share. His stock in GE enabled him to retire at age 60 instead of 65. He noted that the 2500 shares he owned in 1965 for which he had paid about $60,000 over the years had a market value of $300,000. It was the income from the Elfun trusts and the dividends from G.E. stock, substantial contributions to his retirement income, that made the extensive travel during his early retirement years possible.

Despite the post-war salary increases and his investment income that appeared to keep pace with the inflation of those years, inflation was an abiding concern for Mr. Craton.

Leisure Time

As a young single man much of Mr. Craton's social life revolved around the Unitarian Church. He enjoyed the young people he met at church-related social affairs and found them interesting.

After their marriage the Cratons played bridge with friends, occasionally played poker for small stakes, went to movies, and attended lectures and concerts at Chautauqua during the season. They entertained and were entertained by friends for cocktails and dinner and made weekend visits to friends living out of town. Swimming, walking the beach and picnics at Peninsula, a local recreation area, were important when the children were young. They were regular television viewers with a number of favorite programs. The Watergate hearings were watched daily during the second Nixon administration and all space shots were followed with interest. The week-end sports programs were watched with anticipation and pleasure. Mr. Craton's interest in opera is well-documented and he was a regular radio and television fan of the Metropolitan Opera performances. He also bought and played frequently recorded arias.

A friendship with the Brightmans developed into a more active social life than usual but this subsided after the Brightmans left Erie.

Recreation during the years from 1945 to 1964 was centered in the Yacht Club which Mr. Craton joined when he bought a small boat. Boating then became a major recreational activity. Young Roger quickly became an excellent sailor, participating in sail boat races with skill and enthusiasm. The first boat was replaced by a larger but still modest one. Mr. Craton's interest eventually resulted in his being elected commodore of the Erie Yacht Club, a highly prized distinction. The Cratons participated in all of the Yacht Club activities, using it for dinner, dancing, and special occasions, even after Mr. Craton sold his boat.

Mrs. Craton joined a local book club in 1928 and was still a member in 1982.

Most of the home repair and upkeep was done by Mr. Craton, a careful and persistent workman who was proud of his results. He was indefatigable in searching for parts and pleased to avoid what he considered outrageous charges, particularly by plumbers. Mrs. Craton did most of the gardening but he helped with the heavy work.

During periods when Mr. Craton was keeping a diary on a daily or weekly basis much of his spare time was devoted to writing it. He also spent many hours in creative writing in an effort to get published and for a brief period in drawing cartoons for possible publication.

Mr. Craton became an avid photographer and gave it special emphasis after the children were born and during vacations. He also used a movie camera for some occasions.

During his retirement years Mr. Craton was a regular attendant at the YMCA Friday speakers luncheon, lunched with a friend on a weekly basis and he and Willie enjoyed frequent dinners out with the Reeds and the Ogdens, friends of long-standing.

For a period of years immediately following retirement Mr. Craton was actively engaged in fundraising for the United charities campaign, particularly among G.E. retirees and played a major role in a capital fund drive for the Booker T. Washington YMCA.

Religious Life

As a small child Mr. Craton went to Sunday School at the May Memorial Unitarian Church in Syracuse where the minister was the Reverend John H. Applebee. After his father's death when he was twelve years old he went to the church service with his mother. In his teens he also belonged to the Young People's Religious Union. He was one of two delegates from May Memorial selected to attend the Unitarian Laymen's Third Annual Institute at Star Island, Isles of Shoal, off Portsmouth, New Hampshire, July 28 - August 11, 1923 where he first met and fell in love with Willette, his wife.

In Schenectady as a young man on his first job Mr. Craton attended All Souls Unitarian Church. He liked the people and the minister, the Reverend Ernest Caldecott, very much and depended heavily on the church for his religious and social life during a period of severe loneliness and homesickness. He began however to have some problems with Unitarianism. Although he enjoyed the sermons as lectures he found them lacking in spirituality. During this period Mr. Craton was also unhappy with the factory management course at General Electric. He felt he was not suited to the manufacturing part of the General Electric Co. although he was much impressed by the vast scope of the company. He finally worked out a transfer from factory management to "test" that resulted in a transfer from Schenectady to Erie, PA and the real beginning of a satisfying career in GE.

The Unitarian church in Erie was neither as large nor as socially well-connected as that in Schenectady but the people were hospitable and the Reverend Charles Judson Dutton an interesting minister. Despite his concerns about the lack of spirituality he continued to attend the church until the children were ready for Sunday School. Both Cratons felt that the children needed a different Sunday School for their religious initiation.

The Cratons tried St Paul's Episcopal for a time and then the Presbyterian Church of the Covenant in the early 40's. There they remained first they attended without joining the church. His attendance was spotty because he was overwhelmed with work and travel. Later the yacht club activity took up the weekends and attendance dropped to Christmas and Easter. The Cratons finally joined the Presbyterian Church because they wanted Bab and Tom Moore to be married there. His retirement did not get Mr. Craton to resume regular attendance but Mrs. Craton was a faithful volunteer in the church library for many years.


Mr. Craton's health as a child seems to have been unexceptional. There were coughs, colds, upper respiratory complaints and several of the common childhood diseases but nothing out of the ordinary.

As a young man he developed an intermittent bladder problem that medication helped some and that seemed to be more nuisance than serious. This was life-long. There was also a chronic urethritis that he noted with concern. While he recorded a number of minor ailments in his journal he lost little or no time from work. The first hospitalization was for an appendectomy in 1947. Mr. Craton's care and concern about his own health carried over to his wife and children. He seemed excessively upset about the children's routine childhood illnesses.

Once Mr. Craton reached the management level at the Corporation he made annual visits to the Mayo Clinic for physical examinations paid for by the company. These were continued for many years after his retirement when Mrs. Craton became a Mayo patient also. The Clinic findings for both of the Cratons are recorded in some detail.

Having disregarded a doctor's advice about a car trip to Florida in 1969 Mr. Craton spent several weeks hospitalized there and several more recovering enough to return to Erie. A detached retina in the summer of 1970 resulted in hospitalization, surgery and a long period wrestling with double vision. Much dreaded prostate surgery occurred in 1971 successfully.

The annual visit to the Mayo Clinic in 1973 brought a diagnosis of angina pectoris, use of nitroglycerine, orders to cut his drinking to one drink a day, to cut down on sweets and to walk every day.

Chronic emphysema was beginning to interfere with Mr. Craton's physical activity and to diminish his pleasure in those he pursued.

Another detached retina meant another hospitalization and recovery period. This was followed by ambulatory surgery for a fracture of a hand. A severe bronchitis took Mr. Craton back to Hamot Hospital again in the first week of February. By this time Mr. Craton was almost living the life of an invalid whose physical condition dictated his activity or lack of it. In May of 1982 there was another hospitalization for tests all of which negative. Following the second retina surgery Mr. Craton in his words "developed a post-operative nervous condition that lasted for months, that required doctoring, extensive use of Valium...For months I had to fight depression, apprehension and the jitters. I had no appetite and lost perhaps as much as twenty pounds". (Special note at beginning of Diary for the year 1978)

During his working and retirement years there were a number of dental problems that seemed to be exacerbated by his objections to the dentist's charges. He continued with the same dentist year after year and also continued complaining about him.

Mr. Craton's Writing

Mr. Craton had interests from a very young age in writing and in drawing cartoons. The interest in writing was life-long, that in cartoons short-lived. Because of the necessity to be practical about earning a living for himself and his mother, Mr. Craton put aside his interest in writing and cartoons and majored in mechanical engineering. Throughout his life however he continued to try to write for publication and document his life whenever he could find the time to do so. In June 1927 for example, six months after his marriage he wrote his first short story. In 1934 after a vacation trip to Canada he tried another short story. The memoir itself is testament to his writing interest. The diary sometimes abandoned for lack of time was always returned to -- once after a lapse of 27 years. This gap was filled during his retirement years when he also wrote extensively on particular periods of his life or special activities such as boating.

A number of statements scattered throughout the memoirs indicate that regular entries were important to him, helped him cope with problems and enhanced his enjoyment of his good times.

Mr. Craton also tried persistently when he could find the time to write and rewrite for publication. While he had no success with his interest in short-story writing and none with the cartoons he submitted to Collier and the Saturday Evening Post for publication, he did succeed with several articles about trains and railroads. An article about diesel electric locomotives in industry resulted in a check for $35.00 and publication in the magazine Purchasing in 1944. Another milestone was the publication in Steel of an article for which he was paid $55.00.

Yankee, a magazine with a circulation of about 350,000 accepted and paid $250 for an article entitled "Candle Light" that was based on visits to the Isles of Shoals when Mr. Craton was a young man. Trains also accepted a railroading article "Joy and Pain on the Boston and Maine" for which it paid $45.00 and in December 1970 published "Tarzan Jr." and paid $125.00 for it. The published articles were a source of pride and satisfaction.


Travel was an important part of Mr. Craton's life. His business trips were frequent and often lengthy, taking him away from wife and family. They included time spent in Hawaii, Australia, Mexico and Venezuela on G.E. business.

Family travel included frequent trips of short duration to visit family or friends, annual trips to the Mayo Clinic combined with visits to family or friends, and trips to Buena Vista, Virginia where cousins, the Robeys lived and operated Southern Seminary, a girls preparatory school. The earliest vacation trip of note was in 1931 to Colorado. This was by car, driving an average 300 miles per day for a total mileage of 3,940 miles. Gasoline averaged 15¢ a gallon, oil 25¢ a quart. There was a trip to Canada in 1933, a Great Lakes Cruise in 1936.

During the war Mr. Craton was sales manager for locomotives for industry, the military, the Maritime Commission and underground mining. Because G.E. thought there was a potential post-war market in Hawaii, particularly in the sugar fields Mr. Craton was sent there while wartime travel restrictions were still in effect to determine the design of a standard diesel electric unit for use in Hawaii.

This trip began a life long love affair with the islands that resulted in seven more trips of several months each with Mrs. Craton after he retired.

During those seven years the Cratons spent two or three of the worst months of the Erie winter in Hawaii.

Mr. Craton's retirement at age 60 meant a real emphasis on travel that started with a nine week trip to Europe in 1962 and included Holland, Germany, Switzerland and Italy and was followed by several months in Florida in early 1963. In 1964 there was a South Sea Island cruise followed by several months in Hawaii, in 1966 a trip of 80 days around the world and in 1967 a return to Europe, with close friends, Barbara and Charles Reed. 1968 saw a trip to the North Cape, the Scandinavian countries, Russia and Ireland.

A trip to Florida in 1969 was an unfortunate one. Mr. Craton spent much of it in hospital and recovering from a back problem. There was a return to Hawaii in 1971 but a planned return in 1972 had to be cancelled because a bleeding intestinal tract sent Mr. Craton into the hospital again. Several months were required for recuperation.

In June 1972 the Cratons returned to Canada, this time to Banff, Lake Louise, Jasper and Vancouver, and again in January 1973 returned to Kappa Sands, Kauai, Hawaii where they spent Erie's worst winter months each year from 1973 through 1977.

A second detached retina for Mr. Craton prevented any winter travel in 1978 but by June of 1978 the Cratons were able to visit Joan and Roger Craton who by then were living outside London. It was a memorable trip with a number of short trips beyond the London area.

Mid March of 1979 took the Cratons on a trip to the American south. Their first stop was to see their great-grandchild Carrie, and then on to Charleston, Savannah, Hilton Head and Jekyll Island, where they visited their friends the Bauschards. Mr. Craton did not enjoy much of this trip, would have preferred being home but realized that his wife needed both a change and less work and more rest than she got at home. They cut the trip short by a week and returned home.

The last recorded trips were to see Joan and Roger and their new home in Connecticut in late March and Roger's summer place in Good Hart in July 1982.
Gift to Smithsonian from Mrs. Willette Craton, October 9, 1992
Collection is open for research.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Electrical engineers  Search this
Electric engineering -- 20th century  Search this
Photographs -- 20th century
Letters (correspondence) -- 1920-1930
Personal papers -- 20th century
Diaries -- 20th century
Forman H. Craton Collection, 1902-1983, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
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Forman H. Craton Papers
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Archives Center, National Museum of American History
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Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers

Knight, Gwendolyn  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Bearden, Romare, 1911-1988  Search this
Bocour, Leonard, 1910-1993  Search this
Dintenfass, Terry, 1920-  Search this
Eichenberg, Fritz, 1901-1990  Search this
Evergood, Philip, 1901-1973  Search this
Halpert, Edith Gregor, 1900-1970  Search this
25.35 Linear feet
0.001 Gigabytes
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
bulk 1973-2001
The papers of African American painter and educator Jacob Lawrence and his wife, artist Gwendolyn Knight measure 25.35 linear feet and 0.001 GB date from 1914 to 2008, with one item from 1816 and the bulk of the material dating from 1973 to 2001. The collection includes biographical material; correspondence including condolence letters to Gwendolyn Knight after Jacob Lawrence's death; writings by Jacob Lawrence and others; printed and digital material; photographs; personal business records; artwork; records from the Jacob Lawrence Catalogue Raisonné Project; materials related to the Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation; professional files; and material related to awards and honors received by Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of African American painter and educator Jacob Lawrence and his wife, artist Gwendolyn Knight measure 25.35 linear feet and 0.001 GB and date from 1914 to 2008, with one item from 1816 and the bulk of the material dating from 1973 to 2001. The collection includes biographical material; correspondence including condolence letters to Gwendolyn Knight after Jacob Lawrence's death; writings by Jacob Lawrence and others; printed and digital material; photographs; personal business records; artwork; records from the Jacob Lawrence Catalogue Raisonné Project; materials related to the Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation; professional files; and material related to awards and honors received by Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight.

Biographical material includes appointment and address books; education and personal identification certificates and documents; awards, certificates, curriculum vitae, and chronologies; biographical material related to other individuals, including identification documents and memorial programs; and transcripts of interviews with Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight.

The correspondence series includes extensive personal and professional correspondence with family, friends, artists, admirers (including students in a number of elementary and middle schools), university students, government agencies, art schools, galleries, museums, publishing houses, and others. Included in this series are condolence letters received by Gwendolyn Knight after Jacob Lawrence's death in 2000.

Writings include published and unpublished writings by and about Jacob Lawrence, as well as writings by others. These writings include speeches, notes, essays, articles, lists, and short stories. Also included is a visitor comment book from the Los Angeles County Museum exhibition of Jacob Lawrence's Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass series.

Printed material includes books; brochures; business cards; clippings; exhibition and event announcements, invitations, catalogs, and programs; magazines; newsletters; posters; post cards; and press releases. Books in this collection may include illustrations by Jacob Lawrence or have personal inscriptions from the author to Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight.

Photographs include photographs of Jacob Lawrence artwork, photographs and reproductions of Gwendolyn Knight artwork, and photographs of Jacob Lawrence, Gwendolyn Knight, and other individuals. Also included in this series are photographs and reproductions of work by others.

Personal business records include a ledger; consignment, financial, and shipping records related to the Terry Dintenfass Gallery; contracts and agreements; and estate documents.

Artwork includes sketches by Jacob Lawrence, a blank sketchbook inscribed by Jacob Lawrence to Gwendolyn Knight, and artwork by other artists.

Jacob Lawrence Catalogue Raisonné Project Records include materials generated by the Jacob Lawrence Catalogue Raisonné Project, a non-profit created with the goal of producing a catalogue raisonné (and later, a digital archive) of Jacob Lawrence's work. These records include address books and phone logs; copies of Jacob Lawrence's CV; founding documents, bylaws, and meeting minutes; correspondence; writings, including draft pages of the catalogue raisonné; business records, including employment files, contracts, invoices, insurance, and tax information; printed and digital material; and photographs and artwork.

The Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation and Related Material series includes founding documents and foundation bylaws, correspondence, financial documents, reports, and proposals. Found within this series are materials related to the Lawrence Center for the Visual Arts, a subsidiary foundation of the Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation.

Professional files include material related to projects and exhibitions, teaching files and inclusion in curricula, files regarding possible fake Jacob Lawrence works, and gallery files.

The honors series is divided into two subseries: awards and certificates, and government honors. Awards and certificates includes honorary degrees, arts prizes, and any other honors awarded to Jacob Lawrence or Gwendolyn Knight. Government honors include resolutions, proclamations, and keys to cities. Also included in this series are correspondence related to awards and honorary degrees, commencement programs, plaques, and medals.
The collection is arranged in 11 series.

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1914-2005 (Boxes 1, 11, 26, OV 10; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1943, 1952-2005 (Boxes 1-5, 12-14, 26; 7.7 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, 1954-1959, 1973-2005, undated (Boxes 5-6, 14-15; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Printed Material, 1816, 1926, 1937, 1945-2008 (Boxes 6-9, 15-17, 26, OV 30, OV 31; 6.8 linear feet)

Series 5: Photographs, circa 1970-1997, undated (Boxes 9, 17, OV 10; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 6: Personal Business Records, 1962-2005 (Boxes 9, 17; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 7: Artwork, 1984, 1990-1994, undated (Boxes 9, 18, 26; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 8: Jacob Lawrence Catalogue Raisonne Project Records, 1982-2002 (Boxes 18-23, Box 26; 5.1 linear feet, ER01; 0.001 GB)

Series 9: Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation and Related Material, 1997-2005 (Box 23; 0.6 linear feet)

Series 10: Professional Files, 1964-2004 (Boxes 23-24; 1.2 linear feet)

Series 11: Honors, 1948, 1966-2005 (Boxes 24-25, 27-29, OV 30; 2.3 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Modernist painter and educator Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000) was born in 1917 as Jacob Armstead Lawrence in Atlantic City, New Jersey. He began his art studies at the Utopia Children's Center in New York City's Harlem district where he studied under the painter Charles Alston. Lawrence dropped out of high school at the age of sixteen to continue his art instruction with Alston, this time at the Harlem Art Workshop, where he met several artists associated with the Harlem Renaissance including the sculptor Augusta Savage.

Gwendolyn Knight (1913-2005) was born in Barbados and moved to New York City with her adoptive parents when she was seven. She attended New York's Wadleigh High School and later Howard University in Washington, D.C. where she studied fine arts with Lois Mailou Jones and James Porter. Forced to leave her studies at Howard because of the Depression, Knight returned to Harlem and continued her artistic pursuits in Augusta Savage's workshop. In 1935, Knight joined the Harlem Mural Project of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) working under Selma Day and Charles Alston. Lawrence and Knight met in Savage's workshop and married in the summer of 1941.

During the Depression, Lawrence also joined the WPA Federal Arts Project in Harlem. Finding WPA murals overwhelming, Lawrence concentrated on traditional painting instead. He produced his first major works in the late 1930s, most notably the Toussaint L'Ouverture series, images that document the life of the revolutionary hero and Haiti's struggle for independence. Other significant works include visual narratives of the lives of abolitionists Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass. In 1940, Lawrence received the prestigious Julius Rosenwald Fellowship, which made it possible for him to purchase his first art studio on 125th Street in the heart of Harlem. He soon portrayed Harlem street life in paintings that became commentaries on the role of African Americans in United States society with highly developed themes of resistance and social opposition. That same year, Lawrence began his most celebrated series, The Migration of the American Negro, multiple tempera panels depicting the exodus of African American sharecroppers in the south to northern industrial cities in search of better employment and social opportunities. Edith Halpert exhibited the works in their entirety at her Downtown Gallery in 1941, establishing Lawrence as the first African American artist to exhibit in a top New York gallery. The following year, New York's Museum of Modern Art and the Phillips Collection in Washington, DC each bought half of the sixty panels in the series, helping to further Lawrence's career within the larger world of American art.

In the summer of 1946, the artist Joseph Albers invited Lawrence to teach at North Carolina's Black Mountain College. It was the first in a series of teaching positions in prestigious art schools including Pratt Institute (1956-1971), Brandeis University (1965), The New School (1966), the Art Students League (1967), and others. During the 1950s and 1960s, Lawrence's work continued to focus on racism and political activism but in the late 1960s shifted to themes of racial harmony.

Both Lawrence and Knight continued independent careers in art. Knight pursued her art studies at the New School in New York and the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture in Maine. In the mid-1960s, she collaborated with other female artists to form the Studio Gallery in New York City. Knight's main body of work consists of portraits and still-lifes that incorporate expressions of African sculpture, Impressionism, dance, and theater. Focusing on gesture, her art is described as light and airy with a minimum of lines allowing empty space to define the work. In 1970, Lawrence traveled to Seattle to teach as a visiting artist at the University of Washington. He was hired on a permanent basis the following year and remained on staff until his retirement in 1986.

Jacob Lawrence died June 9, 2000, in Seattle, Washington at the age of 83. Gwendolyn Knight continued to paint and exhibit her work around the country until her death on February 18, 2005 in Seattle, Washington at the age of 92.
Related Material:
Also found at the Archives of American Art are an oral history interview with Jacob Lawrence conducted by Carroll Greene (1968 October 26), interviews conducted by Avis Berman (1982 July 20-August 4), and an oral history interview with Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight conducted by Paul Karlstrom (1998 November 18). The Archives of American Art also holds a collection of Jacob Lawrence papers, available on microfilm only, reels D286 and 4571-4573. Originals reside at Syracuse University Library, Special Collections.
The Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers were donated to the Archives of American Art in five accretions between 1979 and 1997. Additional papers were donated in 2012 by the Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation via Barbara Earl Thomas, representative.
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
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Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers, 1816, 1914-2008, bulk 1973-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
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Joseph Cornell Study Center Collection

Cornell, Joseph  Search this
Benton, Elizabeth Cornell  Search this
Cornell, Robert  Search this
196.8 Linear feet
186 Nitrate negatives
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Nitrate negatives
Photographic photoprints
New York, New York
1750-1980, bulk 1930-1972
The Joseph Cornell Study Center collection measures 196.8 linear feet and dates from 1750 to 1980, with the bulk of the material dating from 1930 to 1972. Documenting the artistic career and personal life of assemblage artist Joseph Cornell (1903-1972), the collection is primarily made up of two- and three-dimensional source material, the contents of the artists' studio, his record album collection, and his book collection and personal library. The collection also includes diaries and notes, financial and estate papers, exhibition materials, collected artifacts and ephemera, photographs, correspondence, and the papers of Robert Cornell (1910-1965) and Helen Storms Cornell (1882-1966), the artist's brother and mother.
Scope and Contents:
The Joseph Cornell Study Center collection measures 196.8 linear feet and dates from 1750 to 1980, with the bulk of the material dating from 1930 to 1972. Documenting the artistic career and personal life of assemblage artist Joseph Cornell (1903-1972), the collection is primarily made up of two- and three-dimensional source material, the contents of the artists' studio, his record album collection, and his book collection and personal library. The collection also includes diaries and notes, financial and estate papers, exhibition materials, collected artifacts and ephemera, photographs, correspondence, and the papers of Robert Cornell (1910-1965) and Helen Storms Cornell (1882-1966), the artist's brother and mother.

Correspondence is with collectors, museums, galleries, artists, friends, family, charity organizations, admirers and those admired by Cornell, and World War II European pen pals. Discussions about the appreciation, donation, sale, purchase, and exhibition of Cornell's works are frequent, with the inclusion of shipping and loan documentation or notices of payment installments. Galleries and museums frequently request that Cornell agree to an exhibition, which he often declines, and fans request free works be mailed or affordable works be sold to them. With friends, artists, and those he admired, Cornell discussed topics that fascinate him, included bits of poetry or philosophical musings, sent clippings or a collaged letter, and occasionally discussed a project or work in process. After World War II, when so many were displaced by the war in Europe, Cornell answered ads for pen pals in the "Christian Science Monitor," often responding to requests for clothing or other goods, and sometimes exchanging many letters over several years. Family correspondence is with his mother, sisters, brother, and others, and often notes activities of the day, foods eaten, and general musings, as well as occasionally mentioning a project or artwork. Correspondents of note include Stan Brakhage, Betty Freeman, Charles Henri Ford, Allegra Kent, Yayoi Kusama, Roberto Matta, Marianne Moore, Octavio Paz, Sonia Sekula, Pavel Tchelitchew, Parker Tyler, Dorothea Tanning, and Betsy von Furstenberg, among others.

Cornell was often preoccupied with his thoughts, feelings, memories, a project or thematic "exploration," and jotted notes on seemingly any surface available. Notes and musings are on napkins, the backs of envelopes, newspaper clippings, and paper bags from record and magazine stores. Frequently, an observation would trigger a lengthy nostalgic moment, or a "feé," fairy-like child or girl, would capture his imagination and lead him to thoughts of 18th-century ballerinas and silent film stars. Cornell wrote longer diary notes, sometimes expanding on an earlier notation or emotion, and often wrote when he experienced trouble sleeping or woke early. Drafted letters to imaginary muses or admired individuals are interspersed among diaries, often revealing Cornell's yearnings to find emotional intimacy and human connection. Over time, Cornell revisited his notes and occasionally made further notations about renewed thoughts on a topic, dating the note with "revisited" or "reviewed." Notes are often written in a stream-of-consciousness style, for example, jumping from the mention of a record album or composer, to a ballerina of the same period, a note about a French poet, the memory of childhood, or an observation made earlier in the day, all in the space of a few lines. Notes about artistic processes or meanings behind works or images do occasionally emerge from the tangled, poetic notations. Notes also often provide insights into Cornell's internal emotional state and give clues about his intentions behind an artwork or a particular thematic fixation.

Financial materials document Cornell's professional and personal business activities, including the sale of artworks, annual expenses for supplies and household incidentals, payments and schedules for personal assistants, receipts for donations to charities and nonprofits, and tax documents. There is also information about who worked as assistants, or "helpers," in his later years and where Cornell purchased art supplies. Additionally, specific details are documented through receipts and invoices, such as what kind of paint he purchased. Estate records include preparations made for Cornell's artworks after his death, and clippings about other deceased artist's estates show that he thought often about such arrangements in his later years.

Exhibition files highlight several select solo exhibitions for Cornell, as well as preparations and planning for the "Robert Cornell: Memorial Exhibition" in honor of his brother in 1966. Also included are several early exhibition catalogs and announcements, including "Surréalisme" (January 9-29, 1932) and "Exhibition of Objects (Bibloquet) by Joseph Cornell" (December 6-31, 1939) at the Julien Levy Gallery, and "Romantic Museum: Portraits of Women, Constructions and Arrangements by Joseph Cornell" (December 1946) at the Hugo Gallery.

Film projects and collected film materials consist of files related to Cornell's various experimental film projects: "Aviary," "Cappuccino," "Centuries of June," "Fable for Fountains," "Nymphlight," "Serafina's Garden," and unrealized film scenario "Monsieur Phot." Files include film-making notes, correspondence, and photographs. Cornell's interest in film also led him to collect film-related materials, such as film stills, film posters, and screening programs. Scattered correspondence documents the interest other institutions and individuals had in purchasing and viewing his collection. Though most of his collected film stills and movie posters were donated to the Anthology Film Archives, film stills from "Escape Me Never" (1935) and "The Passion of Joan of Arc" (1928) are still within the collection, as well as film-screening programs for Cornell's collection of films.

Writing and design projects document Cornell's work authoring articles and designing issues of specialty dance magazine "Dance Index," and his layouts for popular magazines like "Good Housekeeping," "House and Garden," and "Mademoiselle." Other writing projects include brochures dedicated to opera singers Maria Malibran and Giulia Grisi, "Maria" and "Bel Canto Pet." Materials used for these brochures, such as copper photo engraving plates, are also found. Design work includes a series of Christmas cards created with The Museum of Modern Art as well as traced patterns ("textile tracings") and design clippings from Cornell's time working as a "textile designer" for Traphagen Commercial Textile Studio.

Cornell acquired troves of source material from bookstalls, antique stores, sporting good and department stores, hardware stores, and magazine and record shops. He kept boxes and files of material on admired individuals, such as actresses, artists, dancers, and singers, as well as on art projects or thematic "explorations." Files are on general topics such as American history, scientific phenomena, animals, plants, and humankind, as well as on series of artworks, such as "Castles," "Homage to the Romantic Ballet," and "Medici Slot Machines." Focused "exploration" projects include "Celestial Theatre," "Colombier," "GC 44," and "Switzerland," among others. Materials include photographs, photostats, maps, book fragments, autographed letters, notes, collage clippings and cutouts, collected prints and engravings, box and collage fragments, and scattered artifacts.

Collected ephemera includes large amounts of blank postcards and greeting cards, stamps, collected bus and train tickets, food labels and packaging, decals, and other materials. Artifacts are three-dimensional collected objects and source objects, which include found objects from the streets, dried flowers, and pieces of nature gathered from walks around his neighborhood. Cornell may have gathered materials because they inspired a memory or nostalgic feeling, or because they fit with a bin of other similar objects to select from for an artwork in progress.

Photographs found within the collection are of Cornell at work and as a child with family. Also found are assorted personal and family photographs, photographs of Cornell's attic and garage storage, and photographs of his Utopia Parkway house. Photographs of artwork include few installation photographs, in addition to photographs of Cornell's boxes and collages. Collected photographic materials include vintage photographs, such as tintypes, a cyanotype, stereoscopic glass slides, albumen prints, cabinet cards, and cartes-de-visite. Cornell also collected cased photographs, such as daguerreotypes, ambrotypes, and one opalotype. Negatives and photostats were often produced from various prints and even other photographs and used in Cornell's boxes and collages. Images are of men and women, actors, authors, dancers, performers, well-known men and women, royalty, places, and artwork. Photographs of note include those by Hans Namuth of Willem and Lisa de Kooning and of Edward Hopper's bedroom; photographs by Henri Cartier-Bresson; a photograph by Julia Margaret Cameron; photographs by Brassai; and a photogravure by Alfred Stieglitz from "Camerawork."

Also found in the collection are works of art by others, including a sketch by Pavel Tchelitchew, as well as artwork by Cornell, such as unfinished collages, Rorschach drawings or ink blots, and childhood artwork. Printed material includes assorted bulletins, flyers, exhibition materials for other artists, journals, and sent printed membership and charity materials. Magazines, including "View," are also included, and often have annotations by Cornell or a note to "cut" or "review" with page numbers. A large amount of magazine and newspaper clippings are in the collection, sometimes collected with a group of like material by Cornell, and at other times simply gathered in heaps. Occasional annotations are also found on the clippings.

Cornell's personal library and book collection includes over 2500 titles, ranging from fiction, poetry, and cinema, to history, science, and travel. Notable among the titles are "Baedeker's" travel guides that Cornell often sourced for his "Hotel" box series, as well as an influential publication by Max Ernst, "La Femme 100 têtes," which includes a typed letter and exhibition flyer tucked within. Books often have annotations, some fairly extensive, by Cornell, and assorted collected items, notes, and correspondence tucked between pages. Pages were often cut by Cornell, either to make photostats and use in a box, or to file with other thematic "explorations." A wide range of authors and topics provide insight into Cornell's interests and to ideas behind artwork and diary notes. Cornell's collection of record albums includes over 145 records. These contain inserted notes and clippings and are often referenced in diary notes Cornell made, noting a recent album or song listened to while at work in his studio.

The papers of Cornell's mother, Helen Storms Cornell, and his brother, Robert Cornell, are also included in the collection. Both lived with Cornell his whole life, spending the most time with him at their home at 3708 Utopia Parkway. Financial materials document shared responsibilities for billing, utilities, household fixes and chores, and expenditures, and Helen kept detailed financial records in a series of ledgers. Robert notes when he borrowed money from Cornell, or when he means to pay Cornell back for the purchase of a typewriter. Activities documented in diaries also occasionally cross paths with Cornell, noting his visitors or an exchange of letters continued after introductions through Cornell. Personal activities, such as Robert's interest in his train collection and his drawing projects and cartoon series, are also documented.
The Joseph Cornell Study Center Collection is arranged into 15 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1917-1972 (Boxes 1, 98, OV118; 0.9 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1813, 1934-circa 1973 (Boxes 1-8, 86; 6.5 linear feet)

Series 3: Diaries and Notes, 1940-1976 (Boxes 8-10, 98-99, 135, OV108, OV119; 3.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Personal Business and Estate Records, 1950-1978 (Boxes 10-14; 4.1 linear feet)

Series 5: Exhibition Files, 1932-1973 (Box 14; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 6: Film Projects and Collected Film Materials, circa 1924-1972 (Boxes 14-16, 100, 133; 1.6 linear feet)

Series 7: Writing and Design Projects, circa 1910s, 1936-1962 (Boxes 16-18, 86, 100, 131-132, OV109-OV111, OV120-OV122; 3.6 linear feet)

Series 8: Source Material, 1750-circa 1911, 1926-1972 (Boxes 19-49, 86-92, 96, 100-105, 126-130, 132-137, OV112-OV115, OV125; 42.2 linear feet)

Series 9: Artifacts and Ephemera, 1768, circa 1839-1972 (Boxes 49-52; 3.2 linear feet)

Series 10: Photographic Material, circa 1800s-1972 (Boxes 52-56, 80-86, 93, 106, 128, 133, OV116, OV123-OV124; 7.5 linear feet)

Series 11: Artwork, circa 1810-1972 (Boxes 56-57, 107, OV117; 1.2 linear feet)

Series 12: Printed Material, 1855-1972 (Boxes 57-76, 94-96, 107; 16 linear feet)

Series 13: Book Collection and Personal Library, 1722-1980 (99.8 linear feet)

Series 14: Record Album Collection, circa 1925-1974 (3.2 linear feet)

Series 15: Cornell Family Papers, 1910-1980 (Boxes 77-79, 97, 107; 3.2 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Joseph Cornell (1903-1972) was a self-taught assemblage and collage artist, and filmmaker, active in New York City. He was born in Nyack, New York on December 24, 1903, and died of heart failure at his home in Queens, New York on December 29, 1972. The oldest of four children, he was born Joseph I. Cornell to his mother, Helen Storms Cornell (1882-1966), and his father, Joseph I. Cornell (1875-1917). Cornell had two younger sisters, Elizabeth ("Betty") Cornell Benton (1905-2000) and Helen ("Sissy") Cornell Jagger (1906-2001), as well as one brother, Robert Cornell (1910-1965), who had cerebral palsy.

Cornell attended the Phillips Academy, a preparatory boarding school in Andover, Massachusetts, beginning shortly after his father's death in 1917. He attended for four years but did not receive a diploma, and soon began work as a textile salesman for the William Whitman Company in Manhattan. His work took him, by foot, through the city, visiting secondhand bookshops on Fourth Avenue, browsing music stores and magazine shops, and catching early shows at the Metropolitan Opera House. He would occasionally wait outside the stage doors for favorite singers and dancers to emerge, requesting signatures on photographs or bits of costumes.

Around 1926, Cornell joined the Christian Science Church, joined by his brother Robert shortly thereafter, and both continued to be lifelong members. Cornell kept a number of books in his personal library on Christian Science teachings and regularly subscribed to "The Christian Science Monitor."

After living in several rental houses in Bayside, New York, Cornell's mother purchased a house for the family in 1929 in Flushing, Queens. Cornell, along with his mother and brother, would live at 3708 Utopia Parkway, for the rest of their lives. His two sisters soon married and moved away, eventually settling in Westhampton, Long Island and in the poultry-farming business.

With no formal art training to speak of, Cornell's first work was a Max Ernst-inspired collage, "Untitled (Schooner)," created in 1931. He was especially inspired by Ernst's collage novel, "La Femme 100 têtes," published in 1929. French artist Odilon Redon was also among the few artists Cornell named as an influence on his art. His first sculptural works were small, cardboard pill boxes with bits of ephemera, costume adornments, and nature hidden inside. Cornell also created a series of glass bell jar works, placing small trinkets and Victorian-era-like compositions within. It was these early collages and bell jar works that were included in Cornell's debut exhibition, "Surréalisme" (January 9-29, 1932), a group show at the Julien Levy Gallery. Cornell designed the announcement for the show and exhibited alongside Max Ernst, Man Ray, Pierre Roy, Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, Eugène Atget, George Platt Lynes, Jean Cocteau, and Salvador Dalí. Months later, Cornell was invited to have his first solo show, "Objects by Joseph Cornell: Minutiae, Glass Bells, Shadow Boxes, Coups d'Oeil, Jouets Surréalistes" (November 26-December 30, 1932), also at the Julien Levy Gallery.

In 1932, after eleven years of work, Cornell was laid off from the William Whitman Company due to the Great Depression. Soon after, he took on more responsibility in the church, working part-time as an attendant in the Christian Science Reading Room in Great Neck, New York. Beginning in 1933, he taught Sunday school classes for three years and in 1935, became the Sunday school librarian. However, his religious activities and artistic ventures continued to remain separate.

In the early 1930s, Cornell progressed from movie lover to filmmaker. When Julien Levy began his New York Film Society in 1933, holding screenings of various experimental films in the gallery, Cornell began buying and collecting films and film stills in earnest. He set up a 16-millimeter projector in his home to screen favorites, such as those by Georges Méliès, D.W. Griffith, and Louis Feuillade. His collection quickly grew to over 2,500 film stills and several hundred films, and included silent era films, such as nature documentaries, goofy newsreels, travelogues, early cartoons, and slapstick comedies, as well as several feature films. In 1933, Cornell wrote a screenplay, or "scenario," entitled "Monsieur Phot." Between 1935 and 1937, Cornell also occasionally created publicity photomontages for Universal and Columbia studios. Of the nearly thirty films Cornell created, periods of activity can generally be separated into two areas: collage films of the late 1930s, consisting of combined elements from films in his own collection, and films he directed in the 1950s, which were collaborations with other filmmakers set in New York City. "Rose Hobart," Cornell's most celebrated collage film, was created and shown in the Julien Levy Gallery in 1936 and includes clipped footage from "East of Borneo." Later films were directed and filmed with cinematographers Stan Brakhage, Rudy Burckhardt, and Larry Jordan.

In 1934, Cornell began a job at the Traphagen Commercial Textile Studio as a "textile designer," a job he held for six years. Continuing to work at his kitchen table in the evenings, Cornell completed his first assemblage box construction, "Untitled (Soap Bubble Set)," in 1936. It was first exhibited at The Museum of Modern Art's show, "Fantastic Art, Dada and Surrealism" (December 9, 1936-January 17, 1937). This work was also the first to be acquired by a museum, purchased for $60.00 by the Wadsworth Atheneum in Hartford, Connecticut in 1938. Cornell's European debut was also in 1938, as one of three Americans represented in the "Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme" (January 17-Febuary 24, 1938) at the Galerie Beaux-Arts in Paris, alongside Man Ray and Anne Clark.

At the end of 1939, Cornell began corresponding with poet Charles Henri Ford, founder of avant-garde magazine "View," Pavel Tchelitchew, and Parker Tyler. After his "Soap Bubble Sets," this period saw the development of Cornell's homages to singers and actresses, including "Untitled (Fortune-Telling Parrot for Carmen Miranda)," the destroyed "Garbo (Greta Garbo in the Legendary Film 'The Crystal Mask,' c. 1845)," and "Dressing Room for Gilles." He also began using photostats of art reproduction prints, as with the print of Jean Antoine-Watteau's painting, "Pierrot" (circa 1719), used in his "Gilles" box.

In the 1940s, the Romantic ballet emerged as Cornell's new topic of interest. Through his friend Pavel Tchelitchew, Cornell was introduced to the School of American Ballet and New York City Ballet founders, Lincoln Kirstein and George Balanchine. Cornell collected dance memorabilia and had a great love of the Romantic ballet. His favorite dancers were primarily ballerinas of the nineteenth century, including Fanny Cerrito, Marie Taglioni, Fanny Elssler, Lucille Grahn, and Carlotta Grisi. Cornell's "Homage to the Romantic Ballet" works largely took the shape of jewel-box style wooden boxes with glass overlays and included bits of velvet, tulle, sequins, crystals, and chiffon, occasionally collected from dancers themselves. His most well-known work of this series is "Taglioni's Jewel Casket" (1940). Cornell also admired several living ballet dancers, including Tamara Toumanova, Zizi Jeanmaire, and Allegra Kent, who would all make their way into Cornell's box works and/or collages. Collecting for the "exploration," "Portrait of Ondine," Cornell's cased portfolio dedication to Fanny Cerrito and her role in the ballet "Ondine," began in the 1940s, though not completed until around 1960.

In late 1940, Cornell quit his job at Traphagen to concentrate on freelance commercial magazine design and editorial work during the day and his artwork at night. That same year, Charles Henri Ford started "View" magazine to promote Surrealists and Neo-Romantics in New York City and often asked Cornell to contribute. Published in the December 1941-January 1942 issue, one of his early contributions was a collage dedication to stage actress Hedy Lamarr: "Enchanted Wanderer: Excerpt from a Journey Album for Hedy Lamarr" (1941). Along with writing the accompanying text, he created a photomontage of Lamarr with her face overlaying the painted portrait of a Renaissance boy by Italian painter Giorgione. Peggy Guggenheim, at the advice of Marcel Duchamp, purchased multiple Cornell works prior to opening her new gallery, Art of This Century. Cornell also befriended Roberto Matta Echaurren, another Surrealist living in exile, who introduced him to Robert Motherwell.

After deciding to fully dedicate his time to his art in early 1940, he set up a studio in his basement. Complete with floor-to-ceiling wooden shelving, he kept his large collection of boxed source material stacked with handwritten labels in cardboard boxes. Themed folders of materials such as "Stamps" or "Maps" were kept in stacks and works in progress and finished works were stored in the basement, garage, and attic. Entering a renewed period of productivity, Cornell embarked on many new and important box projects in 1942. One of the first boxes created in his new basement studio, and the first of the "Penny Arcade" or "Medici Slot Machine" series, was "Medici Slot Machine" (1942), which includes a photostat of "Portrait of Marquess Massimiliano Stampa" (1557) by Sofonisba Anguissola. Another work from this time is the first of his "Castle" or "Palace" series, "Setting for a Fairy Tale" (1942), which uses a photostat of a French building from Jacques Androuet du Cerceau's book, "Les Plus excellents bastiments de France" (1576). "Untitled (Pharmacy)" (circa 1942) was the first of his "Pharmacy" series and included twenty-two apothecary jars. Cornell tended to work in series and created thirteen "Palace" boxes between 1942 and 1951, and ultimately created six "Pharmacy" works.

In 1943, Cornell began working at an electronics company, the Allied Control Company, Inc., to do his part to contribute to the defense effort during the war. He also sent correspondence and care packages to displaced Europeans, who listed their needs in "The Christian Science Monitor." Influenced by World War II, one of his strongest works to emerge in 1943 was "Habitat Group for a Shooting Gallery." Another notable work to come out of this period, "The Crystal Cage (Portrait of Berenice)," was an excerpt from one of his album "explorations" that was published in the January 1943 issue of "View."

Cornell left his job at Allied Control in 1944, but soon began working at the Garden Centre in Flushing, owned by a fellow Christian Scientist. Cornell was often nostalgic for this time in his life, devoting an entire "exploration" of material fondly remembered as "GC 44." He rode a bicycle to work and enjoyed collecting trips gathering dried grasses, driftwood, shells, and other relics of nature on the same bicycle as he rode through the streets of Queens. During this time, he continued to tend to his projects for "Dance Index," a magazine founded in 1942 by Lincoln Kirstein, but taken over by Donald Windham in 1944. Cornell designed several covers for the magazine and was given control of the entire summer 1944 issue, which he devoted to the Romantic ballet. He also devoted a special 1945 issue to Hans Christian Andersen, making great use of the New York Public Library Picture Collection.

Throughout the 1940s, Cornell continued to support himself with commercial design work for magazines like "Vogue," "Good Housekeeping," "Harper's Bazaar," "Town & Country," and "Mademoiselle." In 1946, after thirteen years at the Julien Levy Gallery, he joined the Hugo Gallery. In December 1946, Cornell's solo exhibition, "Romantic Museum at the Hugo Gallery: Portraits of Women by Joseph Cornell," celebrated his favorite movie stars, singers, and ballet dancers, and included his work created for the show, "Untitled (Penny Arcade Portrait of Lauren Bacall)." Cornell's "Greta Garbo" box, as well as "Souvenir for Singleton," an homage to Jennifer Jones and her role in the film "Love Letters," were also included in the show. In late 1948, his West Coast debut was in the exhibition, "Objects by Joseph Cornell," held at the Copley Gallery. The end of the 1940s saw the final issue of "View" magazine in 1947, the closure of the Julien Levy Gallery in April 1949, and Cornell's departure from the Hugo Gallery after his last show in November 1949.

In late 1949, Cornell joined the Charles Egan Gallery, known primarily for showing Abstract Expressionists. At this time, Cornell was working on a new series of boxes known as his "Aviary" works, most of which include a white-painted box with cutouts of birds mounted on wood. Though he had worked on bird-related boxes before, including an "Owl" series in the mid-1940s, his "Fortune Telling Parrot" (1939), and "Object 1941" (1941), these newer works were stripped of French elements and left "clean and abstract" by design. His first show at the Egan Gallery, "Aviary by Joseph Cornell" (December 7, 1949-January 7, 1950), included twenty-six "Aviary" works, nearly all created in 1949. Donald Windham agreed to write the foreword for the exhibition catalog, a single folded sheet, and Cornell gave him one of the boxes in the show, "Cockatoo: Keepsake Parakeet," in appreciation. Through the Egan Gallery, Cornell became friends with a new group of artists, including Franz Kline, Jack Tworkov, and Willem de Kooning. Cornell also held two screenings of a selection of his collected films at Subjects of the Artist, an art school founded by Robert Motherwell, Mark Rothko, David Hare, and William Baziotes.

In 1950, Cornell's second show at the Egan Gallery, "Night Songs and Other New Work" (December 1, 1950-January 13, 1951), introduced his new "Observatory" series. These works are largely defined by stark, whitewashed spaces with astronomical charts and constellations replacing colorful birds. The Museum of Modern Art purchased its first Cornell work from this show in early 1951, "Central Park Carrousel, in Memoriam" (1950).

For three months in 1951, Cornell was beset by various ailments and had trouble finding the energy to create new work. He worried more for his aging mother and the health of his brother. After a monthlong vacation with his sisters in Westhampton, he returned with renewed interest in Emily Dickinson's poetry. His whitewashed boxes took on a new form in his newest "Dovecote" series, using grids and circular cutouts. The works then transformed into homages to Dickinson, notably "Toward the Blue Peninsula: For Emily Dickinson" (circa 1953), and then to his "Hotel" series. Cornell's "Hotel" boxes include photostats of vintage European ads for hotels collected from vintage travel guides, especially "Baedeker's," adhered to the back walls of the boxes. Another new series of work, his "Juan Gris" series, was dedicated to Cubist artist Juan Gris. Between 1953 and the mid-1960s, Cornell created at least fifteen "Juan Gris" boxes, which often include a cutout of a white cockatoo in a Cubist-collage habitat. Cornell's third and last show at Egan Gallery, "Night Voyage" (February 10-March 28, 1953), included some of these newest works. After leaving Egan Gallery, his work was introduced to Chicago collectors in a solo show at the Frumkin Gallery, "Joseph Cornell: 10 Years of His Art" (April 10-May 7, 1953), which included nearly thirty pieces. Cornell's first museum retrospective was this same show held at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis (July 12-August 30, 1953).

As New York City continued to change, Cornell grew more nostalgic for the city he had explored since the 1920s. The impending closure of the Third Avenue El train prompted him to dream up a film project to capture its last days, resulting in "Gnir Rednow," a reworking of Stan Brakhage's 1955, "Wonder Ring." During this time, Cornell joined the Stable Gallery, run by Eleanor Ward, interacting often with Robert Rauschenberg, Cy Twombly, and Joan Mitchell, remaining there until the end of the 1950s. His astronomy-themed exhibition, "Winter Night Skies" (December 12, 1955-January 13, 1956), included his "Night Skies" series of work with celestial chart fragments, Greek mythological figures, and paint-splattered "windows" representative of star-filled night skies. In 1956, he became aware of ballerina Allegra Kent, and began a series of work devoted to her, the first of which was "Via Parmigianino (Villa Allegra)" (1956), which included a photostat of a painting by Parmigianino, "The Madonna of the Long Neck" (circa 1540). In late 1957, after two years, Cornell had his last show at Stable Gallery, "Joseph Cornell: Selected Works" (December 2-31, 1957), consisting of a series of "Sand Fountain" boxes and "Space Object" or "Celestial Navigation" works. The "Sand Fountain" boxes included different colors of sand meant to flow within, often from the tops into cordial glasses. His "Celestial Navigations" included galaxy-like compositions set within the boxes, with rolling, painted cork balls, metal rings, and constellation charts, sometimes hovering over cordial glasses or clay pipes. This last Stable Gallery show earned him his first published profile, written by Howard Griffin for the December 1957 issue of "Art News." Also in 1957, he won the Kohnstamm Prize for Construction at the Art Institute of Chicago's 62rd Annual Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture.

Towards the end of the 1950s, Cornell spent less time creating new bodies of work, and focused more on revisiting previous series and reviewing piles of collected source material. In 1959, Cornell returned to making collages, frequently sourcing popular magazines. In December 1959, Cornell was awarded $1,500 for his "Orion" collage, entered in the Art Institute of Chicago's "63rd American Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture." Also in December, he was offered a show at Bennington College in Vermont, which he titled, "Bonitas Solstitialis: Selected Works by Joseph Cornell and an exploration of the Colombier" (November 20-December 15, 1959). The show included one of his newest "explorations" of collected material related to "colombier," or pigeon houses.

By 1962, Cornell was working diligently on new collages, using Masonite boards and colorful magazine clippings. He also began creating collages using nude images interspersed with constellation clippings or hazy blue dyes. As in previous decades and art movements, Cornell became acquainted with new artists, spending less time in the city and more time hosting visitors at his Utopia Parkway home. Visitors included artists Walter De Maria, Robert Whitman, Andy Warhol, James Rosenquist, and Robert Indiana. Tony Curtis also became a frequent visitor and friend, introduced by Richard Feigen in 1964. The early 1960s was also the first time Cornell put out an advertisement for assistants in the "Long Island Star-Journal," employing a number of young men and women who helped organize clippings and run errands. Cornell also met Joyce Hunter, a young runaway waitress at a city coffee shop, who would occupy his thoughts and diary notes for the next several years. When she was murdered at the end of 1964, Cornell paid for her funeral. He went on to make several "Penny Arcade" collages in memoriam to her, including, "Penny Arcade (re-autumnal)" (1964).

In 1964, Cornell began friendships with several women including artist Carolee Schneeman, who was his first assistant in the early 1960s. He also met artist Yayoi Kusama through art dealer Gertrude Stein. After becoming friends, she visited him often and they exchanged letters and notes. As he did with other artist friends, Cornell supported her by purchasing several of her early watercolor paintings, and they stayed connected until his death in 1972.

Cornell's life greatly changed in 1965 with the death of his brother, Robert. By this time, his mother lived with his sister in Long Island, and Cornell was alone in the Utopia Parkway house for the first time. He exchanged frequent letters and phone calls with his mother and devoted much time to thinking about Robert and Joyce, often aligning them in his diary notations. Cornell also created a series of collages dedicated to his brother's memory, incorporating photostats of Robert's hundreds of drawings into Cornell's work, as with the later collage, "The Heart on the Sleeve" (1972). Cornell's "Time Transfixed" series of collages were also dedications to Robert's memory, referencing Magritte and Robert's love of trains. He mounted an exhibition, "Robert Cornell: Memorial Exhibition" (January 4-29, 1966), at the Robert Schoelkopf Gallery, where he showed Robert's artwork alongside his newly created collage dedications.

After Robert's death, Cornell relied more heavily on assistants, going through many part-time "helpers." In October 1966, Cornell's mother died, adding her to his constant thoughts and diaries. Though he was still grieving, he was given two major retrospectives in 1967. The first was at the Pasadena Art Museum, put on by James Demetrion and Walter Hopps, "An Exhibiton of Works by Joseph Cornell" (January 9-February 11, 1967). The second retrospective was at the Guggenheim Museum just three months later, "Joseph Cornell" (May 4-June 35, 1967), organized by Diane Waldman. After these shows, he was highlighted in the December 15, 1967 issue of "Life" in the article, "The Enigmatic Bachelor of Utopia Parkway."

In 1968, Cornell was given an "award of merit," which included a medal and $1,000, by the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters. He was also given a medal and $1,000 by the Brandeis University Creative Arts Awards in the painting category, along with an exhibition. Days later, "The New York Times" announced Cornell the winner, along with Donald Judd, of India's first Triennale of Contemporary World Art. The Brandeis exhibition, "Boxes and Collages by Joseph Cornell" (May 20-June 23, 1968), was organized by William Seitz and concentrated on Cornell's more recent 1960s collages. Cornell was also included in the Metropolitan Museum of Art's hundredth anniversary show, "New York Painting and Sculpture: 1940 to 1970" (October 18, 1969-February 1, 1970), where twenty-two of Cornell's boxes were shown in their own gallery. At the end of 1970, Cornell was given a solo show at the Metropolitan, "Collages by Joseph Cornell" (December 10, 1970-January 24, 1971), which included forty-five of his newest collages.

Now preferring to stay closer to his home in Flushing, Cornell was more interested in sharing his art with young adults and children, than an adult audience. He hosted a group of high school students, sponsored by the Metropolitan Museum of Art's education department, at his home in conjunction with his collage show (1970-1971). He also showed his work in the art department of Queens College of the City University of New York. Cornell still hosted visitors on occasion, having Yoko Ono and John Lennon at his home at least once. Leila Hadley, Betsy von Furstenberg, and Anne Jackson also made frequent visits. With his deteriorating health, Cornell worried about what would happen to his work after his death and hired lawyer Harry Torczyner to help him plan his estate and get his affairs in order.

In 1972, Cornell had a show at the Cooper Union, a college in New York, specifically for children. He displayed his boxes and collages at child-height and had cherry soda and brownies at the opening reception on February 10. He then held a show at the Albright-Knox Art Gallery in Buffalo, also for children: "Children's Preview of the Exhibition of Joseph Cornell – Collages and Boxes (April 18-June 17, 1972). In the winter of 1972, at the request of the Phoenix House drug treatment and prevention program, Cornell contributed to a charity project compiling limited-edition lithographic prints for a portfolio, which included artists like David Hockney, James Rosenquist, and Ellsworth Kelly.

On December 29, 1972, a week after turning sixty-nine, Cornell died of heart failure at his home. He was cremated and interred near the graves of his mother, father, and brother, overlooking the Hudson River in Nyack, New York.

Works Cited:

1. Hartigan, Lynda Roscoe. "Joseph Cornell: Navigating the Imagination." New Haven, Connecticut and London: Yale University Press, 2007. Exhibition Catalog.

2. McShine, Kynaston. "Joseph Cornell." New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1980.

3. San Francisco Cinematheque and The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. "Joseph Cornell: Films." 2007. Exhibition Program. (Presented in conjunction with SFMOMA's exhibition of "Joseph Cornell: Navigating the Imagination").

4. Schaffner, Ingrid and Lisa Jacobs. "Julien Levy: Portrait of an Art Gallery." Cambridge, Massachusetts and London: The MIT Press, 1998.

5. Solomon, Deborah. "Utopia Parkway: The Life and Work of Joseph Cornell." New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1997.
Separated Materials:
The Smithsonian Archives of American Art houses the Joseph Cornell papers, 1804-1986, bulk 1939-1972.
The Joseph Cornell Study Center collection was donated to the Smithsonian American Art Museum by Joseph Cornell's sister and brother-in-law, Elizabeth Cornell Benton and John A. Benton, in 1978, which prompted the creation of the Joseph Cornell Study Center. Additional materials were donated in installments by the artist's estate, the Joseph and Robert Cornell Memorial Foundation, from 1985 to 1997. Elizabeth and John A. Benton originally donated 66 linear feet of three-dimensional and non-textual source material and 50 linear feet of books to the Smithsonian Archives of American Art, which were subsequently transferred to the Smithsonian American Art Museum's Joseph Cornell Study Center in 1994 and 1995.
Access to the collection requires an advanced appointment. Contact collection staff at least two weeks prior to preferred date, at

Series 9: Artifacts and Ephemera, Series 13: Personal Library and Book Collection, and Series 14: Record Album Collection, are still undergoing processing and preservation and may not be available for research use. Record albums are unavailable for playback. Contact collection staff for full lists of publications and record albums.
Unpublished materials are protected by copyright. Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository and the copyright holder.
Collagists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Assemblage (Art)  Search this
Assemblage artists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Found objects (Art)  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Celebrities  Search this
Filmmakers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Photographic photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1900-1950
Photographs -- 1860-1870 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver albumen -- Cartes-de-visite
Photographs -- Daguerreotypes -- 1840-1860
Joseph Cornell Study Center, Smithsonian American Art Museum.
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Archival Repository:
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Milch Gallery records

Milch Gallery  Search this
E. & A. Milch, Inc.  Search this
Milch Galleries  Search this
Vonnoh, Robert William, 1858-1933  Search this
Acheson, Alice  Search this
Adams, Charles L., 19th cent  Search this
Adams, Wayman, 1883-1959  Search this
Aiken, Charles Avery, 1872-1965  Search this
Albee, Grace  Search this
Anderson, Karl, 1874-1956  Search this
Appel, Marianne, 1913-1988  Search this
Archipenko, Alexander, 1887-1964  Search this
Arms, John Taylor, 1887-1953  Search this
Ascher, Mary G. (Mary Goldman), b. 1900  Search this
Azzaretti, Faust  Search this
Bacon, Peggy, 1895-1987  Search this
Baer, Martin, 1895-1961  Search this
Ballin, Hugo, 1879-1956  Search this
Barlow, Myron, 1873-1937  Search this
Barmore, Charles  Search this
Barr, Charles H.  Search this
Barr, Norman, 1908-  Search this
Barrymore, Lionel, 1878-1954  Search this
Baumann, Gustave, 1881-1971  Search this
Beal, Reynolds, 1866-1951  Search this
Bellows, George, 1882-1925  Search this
Benson, Frank Weston, 1862-1951  Search this
Biddle, George, 1885-1973  Search this
Blackburn, Morris, 1902-1979  Search this
Blakelock, Ralph Albert, 1847-1919  Search this
Blanch, Arnold, 1896-1968  Search this
Blanch, Lucile, 1895-1981  Search this
Bluemner, Oscar, 1867-1938  Search this
Blumenschein, Ernest Leonard, 1874-1960  Search this
Bohm, Max, 1868-1923  Search this
Bohrod, Aaron  Search this
Bosa, Louis, 1905-  Search this
Breckenridge, Hugh H. (Hugh Henry), 1870-1937  Search this
Bridgman, Frederick Arthur, 1847-1928  Search this
Browne, George Elmer, 1871-1946  Search this
Bruce, Edward, 1879-1943  Search this
Brush, George de Forest, 1855-1941  Search this
Buck, Claude, 1890-1974  Search this
Burlin, Paul, 1886-1969  Search this
Burr, George Elbert, 1859-1939  Search this
Butler, Howard Russell, 1856-1934  Search this
Calder, Alexander Stirling, 1870-1945  Search this
Carroll, John, 1892-1959  Search this
Chamberlain, Samuel, 1895-1975  Search this
Cheffetz, Asa, 1896-1965  Search this
Christy, Howard Chandler, 1873-1952  Search this
Cole, Alphaeus Philemon, 1876-1988  Search this
Congdon, William, 1912-1998  Search this
Crane, Bruce, 1857-1937  Search this
Curran, Charles C. (Charles Courtney), 1861-1942  Search this
Daingerfield, Elliott, 1859-1932  Search this
Davey, Randall, 1887-1964  Search this
De Groot, Adelaide Milton, b. 1876  Search this
DeCamp, Joseph, 1858-1923  Search this
Dehn, Adolf, 1895-1968  Search this
Dessar, Louis Paul, 1867-1952  Search this
Dewing, Thomas Wilmer, 1851-1938  Search this
Diederich, William Hunt, 1884-1953  Search this
Dike, Phil, 1906-1990  Search this
Donoho, Gaines Ruger, 1857-1916  Search this
Duncan, Charles, b. 1892  Search this
Eakins, Susan Macdowell  Search this
Etnier, Stephen, 1903-1984  Search this
Farnsworth, Jerry, 1895-1982  Search this
Fenton, Beatrice, 1887-1983  Search this
Feshin, Nikolaĭ Ivanovich, 1881-1955  Search this
Fitzgerald, James, 1899-1971  Search this
Flagg, James Montgomery, 1877-1960  Search this
Fredenthal, David, 1914-1958  Search this
French, Daniel Chester, 1850-1931  Search this
Fuchs, Emil, 1866-1929  Search this
Gallagher, Sears, 1869-1955  Search this
Ganso, Emil, 1895-1941  Search this
Gaspard, Leon, 1882-1964  Search this
Genth, Lillian Mathilde, 1876-1953  Search this
Gonzalez, Xavier, 1898-1993  Search this
Greenwood, Marion, 1909-1970  Search this
Gregory, John, 1879-1958  Search this
Gregory, Waylande, 1905-1971  Search this
Grosz, George, 1893-1959  Search this
Halpert, Samuel, 1884-1930  Search this
Hart, George Overbury, 1868-1933  Search this
Hartmann, Sadakichi, 1867-1944  Search this
Haskell, Ernest, 1876-1925  Search this
Hassam, Childe, 1859-1935  Search this
Heerman, Norbert Leo, b. 1891  Search this
Heinz, Charles, 1885-1955  Search this
Hennings, E. Martin, 1886-1956  Search this
Henri, Robert, 1865-1929  Search this
Hopkinson, Charles, 1869-1962  Search this
Ireland, Leroy, 1889-1970  Search this
Judson, Alice, d. 1948  Search this
Kalish, Max, 1891-1945  Search this
Katz, A. Raymond (Alexander Raymond), 1895-1974  Search this
Kingman, Dong, 1911-2000  Search this
Kroll, Leon, 1884-1974  Search this
Kronberg, Louis, 1872-1965  Search this
Kupferman, Lawrence Edward, 1909-1982  Search this
Laufman, Sidney, 1891-  Search this
Lawson, Ernest, 1873-1939  Search this
Lever, Hayley, 1876-1958  Search this
Lie, Jonas, 1880-1940  Search this
Linde, Ossip L.  Search this
Low, Will Hicok, 1853-1932  Search this
Lucioni, Luigi, 1900-  Search this
Lutz, Dan, 1906-  Search this
MacRae, Emma Fordyce, 1887-1974  Search this
Manship, Paul, 1885-1966  Search this
Melchers, Gari, 1860-1932  Search this
Metcalf, Willard Leroy, 1858-1925  Search this
Meyerowitz, William, 1887-1981  Search this
Milch, Albert, 1881-1951  Search this
Milch, Edward, 1865-1954  Search this
Moffett, Ross  Search this
Mora, F. Luis (Francis Luis), 1874-1940  Search this
Moran, Thomas, 1837-1926  Search this
Murphy, Hermann Dudley, 1867-1945  Search this
Murphy, John Francis, 1853-1921  Search this
Myers, Jerome, 1867-1940  Search this
Nagler, Edith Kroger, 1890-1986  Search this
Oberteuffer, Karl A. (Karl Amiard), 1908-1958  Search this
Ochtman, Leonard, 1854-1934  Search this
Parshall, DeWitt, 1864-1956  Search this
Pearson, Ralph M., 1883-1958  Search this
Perrine, Van Dearing, 1868 or 9-1955  Search this
Pittman, Hobson Lafayette, 1899 or 1900-1972  Search this
Pleissner, Ogden M.  Search this
Pollet, Joseph C., 1897-1979  Search this
Pousette-Dart, Nathaniel, 1886-1965  Search this
Pugh, Mabel, b. 1891  Search this
Pène Du Bois, Guy, 1884-1958  Search this
Redfield, Edward Willis, 1869-1965  Search this
Ritschel, William, 1864-1949  Search this
Romano, Umberto, 1906-  Search this
Rungius, Carl, 1869-1959  Search this
Ryder, Chauncey F., 1868-1949  Search this
Ryerson, Margery  Search this
Sample, Paul, 1896-1974  Search this
Sawyer, Wells, 1863-1960  Search this
Schofield, Walter Elmer, 1867-1944  Search this
Shapiro, David, 1916-  Search this
Sharp, Joseph Henry, 1859-1953  Search this
Sheets, Millard, 1907-1989  Search this
Shuster, Will  Search this
Speicher, Eugene Edward, 1883-1962  Search this
Speight, Francis, 1896-1989  Search this
Sterne, Maurice, 1878-1957  Search this
Sterner, Albert, 1863-1946  Search this
Tanner, Henry Ossawa, 1859-1937  Search this
Thayer, Abbott Handerson, 1849-1921  Search this
Trebilcock, Paul, 1902-1981  Search this
Tryon, Dwight William, 1849-1925  Search this
Twachtman, John Henry, 1853-1902  Search this
Ufer, Walter, 1876-1936  Search this
Varian, Dorothy, 1895-1985  Search this
Warneke, Heinz (Heinrich), 1895-1983  Search this
Watkins, Franklin Chenault, 1894-1972  Search this
Waugh, Frederick Judd, 1861-1940  Search this
Weir, John F. (John Ferguson), 1841-1926  Search this
Weir, Julian Alden, 1852-1919  Search this
White, Henry Cooke, 1861-1952  Search this
Wickey, Harry  Search this
Wiggins, Carleton, 1848-1932  Search this
Wiles, Irving Ramsay, 1861-1948  Search this
Woodward, Robert Strong, 1885-1957  Search this
Woodward, Stanley Wingate, 1890-1970  Search this
Wyeth, Andrew, 1917-2009  Search this
Zucker, Jacques, 1900-  Search this
42.2 Linear feet
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gallery records
The records of Milch Gallery measure 42.5 linear feet and date from 1911-1995. Edward Milch (1865-1953) opened the Edward Milch Gallery in New York City. In 1916, he formed a partnership with his brother Albert Milch (1881-1951), a gilder and framer, creating E. & A. Milch, Inc., a gallery specializing in American art. Harold C. Milch (1904-1981), Albert's son, was appointed a partner in 1944 and continued the business until his death. Business records of Milch Gallery, 1911-1968, include correspondence, sales records, inventories, financial records, printed matter, photographs, and legal documents. Later additions to the records date from 1922-1995 and include correspondence; artists' files; financial, sales, and stock records; printed material; and photographs.
Scope and Content Note:
The records of Milch Gallery document the business transactions of the corporation and the professional and personal relationships of the Milch brothers with the artists they represented, as well as with the larger community of artists and art dealers between 1911 and 1995. Unfortunately, early correspondence is sparse. In a letter responding to a 1951 request for historical information, Milch replied: "Several years ago [1947] we had to give up our gallery at 108 West 57th Street, and move to smaller quarters here. Since we had no room for old records, we had to destroy most of them."

Alphabetical files are comprised mainly of incoming correspondence from 1911 to 1962. Correspondence concerns arrangements for exhibitions, sales and consignments, advice to collectors and executors of estates, and routine business matters. A number of the artists represented in these files were friends of the Milch brothers and some of their letters mention their personal lives as well as their formal business with the Gallery. Collectors who routinely dealt with Milch Galleries included John Gellatly, Mary Blair, Hersey Egginton, Carlton Palmer, and Edward Coykendell; a three volume manuscript catalogue of Coykendell's collection is included. Among the estates handled by Milch were Willard Metcalf, John Twachtman, Abbott H. Thayer, Maurice Fromkes, and Thomas Moran.

Also found are sales records and other financial records such as general ledgers, sales and purchase records, and tax information.

Printed matter consists of gallery exhibition catalogs, checklists, invitations, announcements, publications, and scrapbooks. Many catalogs and checklists are annotated with prices and other information. A complete run of Milch Galleries Art Notes, issued intermittently from 1918-1928/29 is preserved with the gallery records. as is a scrapbook relating to early exhibitions held at the Edward Milch Galleries and E. & A. Milch, Inc., and artists represented by them.

Photographs included with the records are less voluminous than might be expected, and pictures of works of art predominate. There are also a very small number of exterior and interior photographs of Milch Gallery, photographs of people including artists, Edward and Albert Milch, and photographs of groups such as Ten American Artists and the Associated Dealers in American Paintings.

The 1995 and 2014 additions measure 3 linear feet and date from 1922-1995. Milch Gallery activities are documented through correspondence; artists' files; financial, sales, and stock records; printed material; and photographs.

See Appendix for a list of Milch Gallery exhibitions and checklists
Records of the Milch Gallery are organized into seven series. With the exception of the alphabetical files, records are arranged by record type and then chronologically. Photographs are categorized by subject, with pictures of individuals arranged alphabetically by name, and works of art arranged alphabetically by artist.

Missing Title

Series 1: Alphabetical Files, 1911-1962

Series 2: Sales Records and Inventories, 1911-1969, undated

Series 3: Financial Records, 1914-1980, undated

Series 4: Printed Matter, 1996, 1910-1967, undated

Series 5: Photographs, 1903-circa 1944, undated

Series 6: Miscellaneous, 1916-1970, undated

Series 7: Addition to the Milch Gallery Records, 1922-1995 (Boxes 60-65, 3 linear feet)
Historical Note:
Between 1911 and 1916, prior to the establishment of the Milch Galleries, Austrian immigrant Edward Milch (1865-1953) operated the Edward Milch Galleries at 939 Madison Avenue 1911, mainly handling prints and providing framing services.

Albert Milch (1881-1951) was employed by a gilder and later a picture framer before becoming the business partner of his older brother. In 1916 they incorporated as E. & A. Milch (with Edward as President and Albert as Secretary of the corporation) and opened the Milch Galleries at 108 West 57th Street, New York City. During their partnership, Edward served as President and Albert as Secretary of the corporation. According to Joseph Gotlieb, a long-time employee, during this period Montross Gallery became inclined toward modern French art and the American artists associated with them began searching for galleries more sympathetic to their interests. "As Albert Milch was a framemaker to several of them, and as he was opening a new gallery in 1916 to specialize in American Art, some artists decided to let the Milch Galleries, and others, handle their work. It turned out to be a good arrangement for both sides, and a successful one" (letter from Joseph S. Gotleib to Susan Hobbs [National Museum of American Art], December 30, 1977).

From the beginning, Milch Galleries dealt in American art almost exclusively, representing living artists, handling the estates of recently deceased artists; in addition they acquired nineteenth century works for resale and accepted pieces on commission. Although framing and restoration services continued to be offered to customers, this aspect of the business soon diminished in importance.

Harold C. Milch (1904-1981), Albert's son, was affiliated with the business, and upon his father's retirement was appointed partner; after Albert died in 1951, Harold was sole proprietor, serving as both President and Secretary.

Milch Galleries moved to smaller quarters at 55 East 57th Street in 1947, and ten years later to 21 East 67th Street. In 1967, the name was changed to Milch Gallery and the business relocated to 1014 Madison Avenue. The gallery dissolved upon the death of Harold Milch. A third brother, David C. Milch, was also an art dealer, but was not associated with Milch Gallery.

Missing Title

1911 -- Edward Milch Galleries opens at 939 Madison Ave.

1912 -- First exhibition at Edward Milch Galleries

1916 -- Incorporation of E. & A. Milch; Edward Milch, President, and Albert Milch, Secretary; change of name to Milch Galleries and relocation to 108 West 57th St.

1918 -- Milch Galleries Art Notes begins publication

1944 -- Edward Milch retires; Albert Milch President, and Harold C. Milch [son of Albert], Secretary

1947 -- Milch Galleries moves to 55 East 57th St.

1951 -- Death of Albert Milch (1881-1951); Harold C. Milch, President and Secretary

1953 -- Death of Edward Milch (1865-1953)

1957 -- Milch Galleries moves to 21 East 67th St.

1966 -- Archives of American Art begins acquiring records of the Milch Galleries (gifts and loans from Milch Galleries)

1967 -- Relocation to 1014 Madison Ave., and name change to Milch Gallery

1981 -- Death of Harold C. Milch (1904-1981)

1986 -- Archives of American Art receives the bulk of Milch Gallery records (gift of Salander-O'Reilly Galleries)
Appendix: List of Milch Gallery Exhibitions and Checklists:
Items marked with an asterisk (*) are contained in the scrapbook rather than with the Milch Gallery exhibition catalogs.

Missing Title

Nov. 16-Dec. 7, 1912* -- Exhibition of 300 Original Sketches in Oil by 100 Well Known American Artists

Feb. 15-March 8, 1913* -- Glimpses of Nature We Love to See, Feast, and Dwell On

April 28-May 7, 1913* -- Portraits of Children and Grown-Ups by Miss Susan Ricker Knox

Oct. 18-Nov. 1, 1913* -- Small Paintings and Bronzes

Oct. 18-Nov. 1, 1913* -- Exhibition of Paintings and Sculptures by Noted American Artists

Feb. 9-21, 1914* -- Paintings by W. Herbert Dunton of The Old West

Oct. 17-31, 1914* -- Portraits in Oil, Miniatures, and Sculpture

Feb. 20-March 7, 1915* -- Paintings and Etchings by Gordon Mallet McCouch

April 26-May 8, 1915* -- Paintings by Frew W. Kost, N.A.

Nov. 7-19, 1915 -- Paintings and Sculpture by Matilda Browne

Nov. 15-30, 1915* -- Views of the Panama California Exposition and Landscapes of Southern California

Jan. 31-Feb. 12, 1916 -- Paintings by Garber, Pearson, Lathrop, and Spencer

Feb. 14-26, 1916* -- Landscapes by Walter Clark, N.A.

Feb. 14-26, 1916* -- Paintings by Guy Wiggins

Nov. 4-18, 1916* -- Opening Exhibition

Nov. 25-Dec. 9, 1916* -- Works by the Late Louis Loeb

Jan. 15-27, 1917* -- Paintings by Helen M. Turner

Jan. 30-Feb. 10, 1917* -- Paintings by Leonard Ochtman, N.A.

Feb. 14-24, 1917* -- Recent Paintings by William V. Schevill

March 6-24, 1917 -- Ten American Painters

March 13-24, 1917* -- George Bellows

March 14-24, 1917* -- Paintings by Frederick J. Waugh

March 26-April 7, 1917* -- Paintings by Howard Russell Butler, N.A.

April 10-21, 1917 -- Paintings by Harry F. Waltman and Howard Giles, and Sculptures by Willard D. Paddock

April 15-27, 1917* -- Paintings by Valentino Molina

April 24-May 5, 1917* -- Paintings by Thalia Millet

Oct. 27-Nov. 17, 1917* -- William Jean Beauley

Jan. 15-Feb. 15, 1918* -- Etchings, Dry-Point and Lithographs by Ernest Haskell

Jan. 28-Feb. 4, 1918 -- Sketches and Paintings by the "Nova Scotia Group"

Feb. 25-March 16, 1918* -- Paintings by Robert Henri

March 13-24, 1918 -- George Bellows

March 22-April 4, 1918* -- Paintings by H. Gabrielle Levey

April 8-, 1918* -- Etchings by Allen Lewis

Nov. 25-Dec. 16, 1918* -- Paintings by Edward H. Potthast, N.A.

Dec. 18-Jan. 16, 1918 -- Annual Holiday Exhibition of Selected Paintings of Limited Size by American Artists

Dec. 23-Jan. 10, 1919* -- Etchings and Dry-Points by Ernest Haskell

Jan. 13-25, 1919* -- Paintings by Mary Prindeville

Jan. 27-Feb. 13, 1919* -- With the A.E.F., Paintings and Drawings Made at the Front by S. J. Woolf

Feb. 14-26 [1919?]* -- Paintings by Arthur C. Goodwin

Feb. 18-March 1, 1919* -- Paintings by Jerome Myers

March 3-16, 1919* -- Recent Paintings of California by William Ritschel, N.A.

March 17-29, 1919 -- Recent Paintings by Lillian Genth, A.N.A.

March 28-April 9, 1919* -- Drawings of New York City by Peter Marcus

April 8-30*, 1919 -- Paintings by Leading American Artists

April 19-May 1*, 1919 -- Paintings by Valentino Molina

May 3-22, 1919 -- Recent American Sculpture

May 5-17*, 1919 -- Recent American Sculpture in Bronze, Wood, and Terra Cotta for the Town and Country House, the Grounds, and Garden

May 20-, 1919 -- Flag Pictures and Street Scenes by Childe Hassam

Nov. 16-Dec. 6, 1919 -- Childe Hassam

Nov. 17-Dec. 6, 1919 -- Exhibition of Works in the Various Mediums by Childe Hassam

Dec. 18-Jan. 16, 1920 -- Annual Holiday Exhibition of Selected Paintings of Limited Size by American Artists

Dec. 29-Jan. 15, 1920* -- Portraits and Other Paintings by Royston Nave

Feb. 2-14, 1920 -- George Biddle

Feb. 2-14, 1920* -- Oil Paintings, Water Colors, Pastels, Monotypes, Silver-Points and Etchings by George Biddle

Feb. 16-28, 1920* -- Paintings by Ossip L. Linde

March 1-12, 1920 -- Bruce Crane

March 1-13, 1920 -- Bruce Crane, A.N.A.

March 15-April 3, 1920 -- Willard L. Metcalf

April 5-20, 1920 -- Paintings

April 8-30 [1920] -- Exhibition of Paintings by Leading American Artists

April 15-May 1, 1920 -- Valentino Molina

Oct. 18-30 [1920?]* -- Paintings of New England and Drawings of the Devastated Towns of Flanders by George Wharton Edwards

Nov. 1-13, 1920 -- Six American Painters [Clark, Potthast, Snell, Nichols, Olinsky, and Volkert

Nov. 1-15, 1920 -- Paintings by Theresa F. Bernstein

Nov. 15-27, 1920 -- Childe Hassam

Nov. 21-Dec. 3, 1920* -- Sculpture by Gleb Derujinsky

Dec., 1920* -- Exhibition by George Biddle

Dec. 1-21, 1920 -- Etchings and Color Etchings by William Meyerowitz

Dec. 27-Jan. 28, 1921 -- Albert Delbert Smith

circa 1920 -- Ossip L. Linde

circa 1920 -- William Meyrowitz

circa 1920 -- Exhibition

Jan. 10-29, 1921 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Brush, Crane, Dewing, Metcalf, Hassam, and Murphy

Jan. 31-Feb. 12, 1921 -- American Art

Feb. 14-26, 1921 -- Guy Wiggins

Feb. 14-26, 1921 -- Arthur G. Goodwin

Feb. 28-March 12, 1921 -- Paintings by Robert Henri

March 14-April 9, 1921 -- Paintings by Gari Melchers

March 28-April 9, 1921 -- Peter Marcus

April 11-23, 1921* -- Portraits and Figure Paintings by Edith Catlin Phelps

April 11-30, 1921 -- Paintings by Willard Metcalf

May 2-30, 1921 -- American Sculpture for the Town and Country House, the Garden, and the Grounds

Oct. 18-30 [1921?]* -- Paintings and Drawings by George Wharton Edwards

Oct. 24-Nov. 5, 1921 -- Portraits and Paintings of Old New Orleans by Wayman Adams

Nov. 7-19, 1921 -- Flower Paintings and Sculpture by Mathilde Browne

Nov. 7-19, 1921 -- Paintings in Oil and Water Color by George H. Clements

Nov. 19-Dec. 3, 1921 -- Sculpture-Gleb Derujinsky

Dec. 5-31, 1921 -- Works by Abbott H. Thayer, Including Important Paintings, Water Colors, and Drawings

circa 1921 -- Exhibition

Jan. 9-21, 1922 -- Paintings by Katherine Langhorne Adams

Jan. 9-21, 1922 -- Paintings of California by Douglass Ewell Parshall

Feb. 13-March 4, 1922 -- Paintings of Cape Ann by Harry A. Vincent, A.N.A.

March 6-25, 1922* -- Pastels of the Cascapedia River, Canada, by Arthur C. Goodwin

March 6-25, 1922 -- Connecticut Landscape Paintings by Wilson Irvine

March 27-April 15, 1922* -- Moonlight Motifs: Garden of the Gods, Colorado and Other Paintings by Robert Reid, N.A.

Dec. 26-Jan. 13, 1923 -- Paintings and Pastels by Henry C. White

Jan. 15-27, 1923* -- Paintings of Spain by William J. Potter

Jan. 29-Feb. 10, 1923 -- Water Colors of the South Sea Islands by William Ritschel, N.A.

Feb. 12-March 3, 1923 -- Paintings by Willard L. Metcalf

March 5-31, 1923 -- Paintings of the Far East by Leon Gaspard

March 19-31, 1923* -- Landscape Paintings by Guy Wiggins, A.N.A.

April 2-21, 1923* -- Portrait Drawings by Ercole Cartotto

April 19-May 6, 1923 -- Paintings by Leading American Artists

Oct. 1-20, 1923 -- Paintings by Sidney E. Dickinson, A.N.A.

Oct. 22- Nov. 3, 1923 -- Paintings and Sculpture by Mathilda Brown (Mrs. Frederick Van Wyck)

Nov. 5-17, 1923 -- Memorial Exhibition of Paintings by William Gedney Bunce

Dec. 11-23, 1923* -- Water Colors by James Montgomery Flagg

Jan. 14-26, 1924 -- Exhibition of Nudes, Portraits, Landscapes and Genre by Eugene Paul Ullman

Feb. 18-March 8, 1924 -- Paintings by Willard L. Metcalf

March 27-April 5, 1924 -- Connecticut Landscapes by Guy Wiggins, A.N.A.

Dec. 1-27, 1924 -- Maurice Fromkes

Jan. 5-17, 1925 -- Paintings of the Pacific Coast by Armin Hansen

Jan. 19-31, 1925 -- Martha Walter

Feb. 16-March 7, 1925 -- Willard L. Metcalf

March 9-21, 1925 -- John Noble

March 23-April 11, 1925 -- Bruce Crane

May 4-16, 1925 -- Brynjulf Strandenaes Exhibition of Portraits

May 18-30, 1925 -- Paintings by Robert Brackman

Dec. 7-31, 1925 -- Paintings by the Late Willard Metcalf

Dec. 7-21, 1925 -- Sketches by Dorothea A. Dreier,

Jan. 11-23, 1926 -- Recent Landscape Paintings by Frank V. Du Mond

Jan. 25-Feb. 13, 1926 -- Smaller Paintings by Max Bohm

Feb. 15-March 6, 1926 -- Paintings of the Sea by William Ritschel

April 13-May 2, 1926 -- Jonas Lie

April 26-May 15, 1926 -- Landscapes and Street Scenes by William Jean Beauley

Nov. 15-27, 1926 -- California Marine Paintings and Water Colors by Armin Hansen

Nov. 29-Dec. 18, 1926 -- Water Colors by Frank W. Benson

Nov. 29-Dec. 18, 1926 -- Silver-Point Drawings by Ercole Cartotto

Jan. 10-22, 1927 -- Portraits by Millie Bruhl Frederick (Mrs. Leopold Fredrick)

Jan. 24-Feb. 12, 1927 -- Paintings of Cornwall and Devonshire by W. Elmer Schofield

Jan. 24-Feb. 12, 1927 -- Etchings by Teresa Cerutti Simmons, Watercolors by Will Simmons

Feb. 14-March 5, 1927 -- Sculpture by Heinz Warneke

March 28-April 16, 1927 -- Paintings by Henry Golden Dearth

April 18-30, 1927 -- Decorative Flower Paintings by Olin Howland

April 18-30, 1927 -- Recent Water Colors by John Whorf of Boston

Oct. 10-28, 1927 -- Decorative Embroideries by Georgiana Brown Harbeson

Nov. 14-26, 1927 -- Pastels and Etchings of Cambodia and China by Lucille Douglass

Nov. 28-Dec. 24, 1927 -- Works by Gari Melchers

Nov. 28-Dec. 24, 1927 -- Sculpture by Max Kalish

Dec. 26-Jan. 14, 1928 -- Water Color Exhibition of West African Native Types by Erick Berry; Also a Group of West African Pottery and Brass Figures Made by the Natives of Nigeria

Dec. 29-Jan. 14, 1928 -- Paintings by Joacb Dooyewaard

Jan. 14-26, 1928 -- Decorative Paintings by Jane Peterson

Feb. 7-April 29, 1928 -- Alfred Hutty

Feb. 13-25, 1928 -- Water Colors by Alice Judson

March 12-24, 1928 -- Etchings of Ancient Dances by Teresa Cerutti-Simmons and Wild Life by Will Simmons

March 12-24, 1928 -- An Important Exhibition of Paintings and Pastels by John H. Twachtman

March 12-24, 1928 -- Sculpture by Heinz Warnecke

March 26-April 14, 1928 -- Water Colors by John Whorf

April, 1928 -- Water Colors by William Ritschel, N.A.

April 15-May 5, 1928 -- Portrait Drawings in Pastel by Jessie Voss Lewis

Oct. 22-Nov. 3, 1928 -- Water Colors of France and Italy, and Etchings by Louis Wolchonok

Oct. 22-Nov. 3, 1928 -- Poetic Landscapes with Figures by Henry M. Rosenberg of Nova Scotia

Nov. 19-Dec. 1, 1928 -- Water Colors by Frank W. Benson

Nov. 19-Dec. 1, 1928 -- Water Colors of Architectural Subjects in France, Also Landscape and Figures by William de Leftwick Dodge

Dec. 1-28, 1928 -- Alfred Hutty

Dec. 3-24, 1928 -- Important Exhibition of Early and Recent Works by Childe Hassam of the American Academy of Arts and Letters

Dec. 3-24, 1928 -- Still Life Paintings by Ruth Payne Burgess

Dec. 20-Jan. 8, 1929 -- Drawings by Frank di Gioia

Dec. 20-Jan. 8, 1929 -- Memorial Exhibition, Water Color Sketches by Thomas Moran, N.A.

Dec. 27-Jan. 14, 1929 -- Erick Berry

Dec. 27-Jan. 14, 1929 -- Helen K. McCarthy Memorial Exhibition

Dec. 29-Jan. 14, 1929 -- Paintings by Jacob Dooyewaard

circa 1928 -- Indian and Animal Pictures and Bronzes by Edwin Willard Deming

Jan. 28-Feb. 9, 1929 -- Painitings of Western Life by F. Tenney Johnson

Jan. 28-Feb. 9, 1929 -- Paintings and Water Colors by Alice Judson

Feb. 11-23, 1929 -- Paintings and Drawings by Max Bohm

Feb. 11-23, 1929 -- Landscapes and Marines by Jay Connaway

Feb. 25-March 9, 1929 -- Water-Colors by Harold Putnam Browne

Feb. 25-March 9, 1929 -- Paintings by Truman Fassett

March 11-23, 1929 -- Recent Water Colors by C.E. Polowetski

March 11-23, 1929 -- Louis Ritman

March 25-April 6, 1929 -- Landscapes by Frank Vincent Du Mond

March 25-April 6, 1929 -- Water Colors by Armin Hansen of California

March 25-April 6, 1929 -- Sculptures by Roy Sheldon

April 8-20, 1929 -- Water Colors by John Whorf, Distinguished Young Boston Artist

Oct. 21-Nov. 2, 1929 -- Corners in Spain, An Exhibition of Paintings by Wells M. Sawyer

Nov. 4-17, 1929 -- Recent Sculpture by Heinz Warnecke

Nov. 4-16, 1929 -- Paintings of Ireland and Other Scenes by Power O'Malley

Nov. 18-30, 1929 -- Group of Recent Paintings by Hayley Lever

Nov. 18-30, 1929 -- Recent Water Colors and Etchings by Louis Wolchonok

Dec. 2-21, 1929 -- Paintings by Maurice Fromkes

Jan. 30-Feb. 11 [192?] -- Water Colors of Greek Temples in Sicily by Wm. De Leftwich Dodge

Feb. 2-15 [192?] -- Figure Paintings by Murray Bewley

March 15-April 3 [192?] -- Paintings by Willard L. Metcalf

March 28-April 16 [192?] -- Paintings by Henry Golden Dearth

April 2-21 [192?] -- Landscape Paintings by Bruce Crane, N.A

Oct. 17-29 [192?] -- Water Colors of the Rivera by Ferris Connah

Oct. 18-30 -- Paintings and Drawings by George Wharton Edwards

Oct. 25-Nov. 13 [192?] -- Recent Landscapes by John F. Carlson, N.A.

Oct. 25-Nov. 13 [192?] -- John F. Carlson

[192?] -- Indian and Animal Pictures and Bronzes by Edwin Willard Deming

Nov. 19-Dec. 1 [192?] -- Water Colors of Architectural Subjects in France, also Landscape and Figures by William De Leftwich Dodge

Jan. 20-Feb 1, 1930 -- West African Water Colors by Erick Berry

Jan. 20-Feb. 1, 1930 -- Paintings by Nelson C. White

Feb., 1930 -- Thelma Wood

Feb. 3-15, 1930 -- Paintings by Horace Brown

Feb. 17-March 1, 1930 -- Paintings by Francis Speight

Feb. 17-March 1, 1930 -- Paintings by Ruth Payne Burgess

March 3-15, 1930 -- Paintings by John Noble

March 17-29, 1930 -- Russian Paintings by Irwin D. Hoffman, Also a Group of Recent Watercolors

March 17-29, 1930 -- Alexander Warshawsky

March 31-April 12, 1930 -- Memorial Exhibition, Paintings and Watercolors of Sigurd Skou

March 31-April 12, 1930 -- Emmanuel Andrew Cavacos

April 14-26, 1930 -- Water Colors by John Whorf

Oct. 20-Nov. 1, 1930 -- Recent Paintings of Lake Como by Charles Warren Eaton

Nov. 3-15, 1930 -- Pastels and Etchings of Angkor and the Far East by Lucille Douglass

Nov. 17-29, 1930 -- Joseph Szekely

Nov. 17-29, 1930 -- Important Exhibiton of Paintings by a "Group of Americans"

Dec. 1-13, 1930 -- Diana Thorne and Canine Portraiture

Dec. 1-13, 1930 -- Recent Paintings of Ireland by Power O'Malley

Dec. 1-13, 1930 -- Paintings by Charles M. Cox of Boston

Jan. 19-31, 1931 -- Portraits by Jere R. Wickwire

Jan. 20-Feb. 1, 1931 -- Nelson C. White

Jan. 24-Feb. 7, 1931 -- Pastels and Etchings of Angkor and the Far East by Lucille Douglass

Feb. 2-24, 1931 -- Recent Paintings by Lillian Gentle

Feb. 2-24, 1931 -- Impressions of India and Palestine by Ruth Coleman

Feb. 16-28, 1931 -- Watercolors of Vermont Scenes and Other Views by Ruth Payne Burgess

Feb. 16-28, 1931 -- Martha Walter Recent Work in Oil and Watercolor

March 2-14, 1931 -- Recent Paintings by Alice Judson

March 2-28, 1931 -- Paintings & Drawings by Gari Melchers

March 16-28, 1931 -- Recent Watercolors by Harold Putnam Brown

March 30-April 11, 1931 -- Paintings by Louis Kronberg

March 30-April 11, 1931 -- Watercolors by John Whorf

April 13-25, 1931 -- Americans by American Artists, Exhibition of Portraits

April 13-25, 1931 -- Louis Kronberg

April 13-25, 1931 -- Portraits and Crayon Heads by Ferris Connah

April 13-May 2, 1931 -- Abbott H. Thayer

Sept. 22-Oct. 6, 1931 -- Water Colors by Gladys Brannigan, Alice Judson, Margery Ryerson

Oct. 19-30, 1931 -- Portraits by William Steene

Nov. 2-7, 1931 -- Portraits and Sketches by Maria Kammerer under the Patronage of Countess Laszlo Szechenyi

Nov. 9-21, 1931 -- Paintings by Bessie Lasky

Nov. 23-Dec. 5, 1931 -- Recent Oils, Water Colors and Etchings by Joseph Margulies

Dec. 7-21, 1931 -- Recent Paintings by George Wharton Edwards

Dec. 7-19, 1931 -- Paintings and Etchings of African and American Big Game by Major A. Radclyffe Dugmore

Dec. 7-19, 1931 -- Watercolors of Yucatan, "Land of the Mayas" by William de Leftwich Dodge

Dec. 20-Jan. 8, 1932 -- Water Colors of the Yellowstone and Mexican Series by Thomas Moran, N.A.

Jan. 11-23, 1932 -- Paintings, Watercolors and Etchings of Animals by Sybilla Mittell Weber

Jan. 25-Feb. 6, 1932 -- Paintings by George Oberteuffer, Member of the Salon d'Automne, Paris

Feb. 8-March 5, 1932 -- Important 19th and 20th Century American Painters

March 7-19, 1932 -- Paintings by Mrs. B. King Couper

March 7-19, 1932 -- Drawings by Maurice Sterne, Ernest Fiene, Alexander Brook, yasuo Kuniyoski, Bernard Karfiol, Peggy Bacon, and Leon Kroll

March 28-April 9, 1932 -- Watercolors by John Whorf

April 11-30, 1932 -- Forty Years of American Art

Oct. 3-15, 1932 -- New Paintings by American Artists

Oct. 19-Nov. 5, 1932 -- Paintings by Stephen Etnier

Nov. 7-30, 1932 -- Paintings by Edward Bruce

circa 1932 -- Recent Paintings by Stephen Etnier

Jan.30-Feb. 25, 1933 -- Important Exhibition of Paintings by Thomas Eakins

March 6-25, 1933 -- 19th and 20th Century Watercolors

March 27-April 14, 1933 -- Paintings by Francis Speight

April 17-May 6, 1933 -- Water Colors by John Whorf

May 15-31, 1933 -- 19th Century American Landscape Artists

Nov. 27-Dec., 1933 -- Water Colors by Emil Holzhaur

Feb. 26-March 17, 1934 -- Paintings by Stephen Etnier

March 19-April 7, 1934 -- Water Colors by John Whorf

April 16-May 5, 1934 -- Bali Studies by Maurice Sterne

June-Aug., 1934 -- Paintings by American Artists

Sept., 1934 -- Paintings by American Artists

Oct. 15-Nov. 3, 1934 -- New and Recent Paintings by American Artists

Nov. 5-21, 1934 -- Paintings by Sidney Laufman

Nov. 26-Dec., 1934 -- Recent Vermont Landscapes by Edward Bruce

circa 1934 -- American Figure Paintings of the 19th and 20th Century

Jan. 7-26, 1935 -- Paintings and Watercolors from the Samuel Halpert Estate

Feb. 4-28, 1935 -- Small Paintings by 19th and 20th Century American Artists

March 4-22, 1935 -- Recent Paintings by Stephen Etneir

March 25-April 13, 1935 -- Water Colors by John Whorf

April 22-May 11, 1935 -- Figure and Landscape Studies by Leon Kroll

May 20-June, 1935 -- Group Exibhition of Paintings

Summer, 1935 -- Paintings by American Artists

Oct. 1-26, 1935 -- Paintings by Childe Hassam

Oct. 28-Nov. 16, 1935 -- Watercolors by Millard Sheets

through Dec., 1935 -- Paintings by Americans

Jan. 1936 -- Paintings by Americans

Feb. 3-29, 1936 -- Important Exhibition of 19th and 20th Century American Painters

March 2-21, 1936 -- Stephen Etnier

March 30-April 19, 1936 -- Watercolors by John Whorf

May 18-June, 1936 -- Paintings by American Artists

Summer, 1936 -- Paintings by American Artists

September, 1936 -- Paintings by American Artists

Oct. 12-31, 1936 -- Contemportary Viewpoint

through Nov. 30, 1936 -- 19th and 20th Century American Figure Paintings

circa 1936 -- Landscapes--Contemporary Viewpoint

Jan. 11-30, 1937 -- Selected Landscapes

Feb., 1937 -- Contemporary American Sculpture

March 15-April 3, 1937 -- Watercolors by Millard Sheets

April 12-30, 1937 -- John Whorf

April 27-May 16, 1937 -- Maurice Sterne

May, 1937 -- Paintings by American Artists

Summer, 1937 -- Paintings

Oct. 1-15, 1937 -- Recent Watercolors

Oct. 18-Nov. 6, 1937 -- Paintings by Lucille Blanche

Nov. 8-30, 1937 -- Paintings by American Artists

Dec. 6-24, 1937 -- Watercolors by Lester Field

Jan. 3-22, 1938 -- Recent Paintings by Stephen Etnier

Jan. 24-Feb. 5, 1938 -- Paintings by Margaret Cooper

Feb. 7-26, 1938 -- Colonial Portraits

March 7-26, 1938 -- Recent Oils and Watercolors by Millard Sheet

April 4-23, 1938 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

Summer, 1938 -- Paintings by American Artists

through Oct., 1938 -- Paintings by American Artists

Oct. 24-Nov. 12, 1938 -- Recent Watercolors by Karl Oberteuffer

Nov. 21-Dec. 17, 1938 -- Paintings for the Home by American Artists

Jan. 16-Feb. 4, 1939 -- Recent Paintings by Floyd Clymer

Feb. 6-25, 1939 -- Harry Hering

March 6-31, 1939 -- Figure Paintings by American Artists

April 3-22, 1939 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

May 15-June 3, 1939 -- Recent Watercolors by Millard Sheets

Summer, 1939 -- Selected Group of Paintings by American Artists

Sept., 1939 -- Paintings and Watercolors by American Artists

through Oct. 13, 1939 -- Recent Paintings by a Group of American Artists

Oct. 16-Nov. 4, 1939 -- Recent Paintings by Saul Schary

Nov. 13-Dec. 2, 1939 -- Toreros and Dancers of Spain and Mexico by Carlos Ruano Llopis

Dec., 1939 -- Paintings for the Home

Nov. 5-17 [193?] -- Table Portraits by Eulabee Dix

[193?] -- Paintings by American Artists

Jan. 2-27, 1940 -- Stephen Etnier

Feb. 12-March 2, 1940 -- Recent Watercolors by Robert Carson

March 11-30, 1940 -- Daniel Serra Paintings

April 8-27, 1940 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 28-May 18, 1940 -- Rubin Recent Paintings

through June 29, 1940 -- Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

through Sept. 28, 1940 -- Summer Exhibition of Paintings by a Selected Group of Early and Contemporary American Artists

Oct. 1-19, 1940 -- Recent Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

Oct. 21-Nov. 9, 1940 -- Recent Watercolors by Allen Ingles Palmer

Nov. 18-Dec. 7, 1940 -- Helen Sawyer

Dec., 1940 -- Selected Paintings for the Home, and A Group of Original Studies in Color by Maurice Sterne

Jan. 13-Feb. 8, 1941 -- Watercolors by American Artists

Feb. 17-March 15, 1941 -- Paintings by Stephen Etnier, Sidney Laufman, and Francis Speight

April 7-26, 1941 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 28-May 17, 1941 -- Remembrances of South America and British West Indies by Manicol

May 19-June 30, 1941 -- Group of Paintings by Selected Contemporary American Artists

Summer, 1941 -- Exhibition of Selected Paintings by American Artists

Sept., 1941 -- A Selected Group of Paintings by Americna Artists

Oct. 6-25, 1941 -- Recent Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

Oct. 27-Nov. 15, 1941 -- Eliot O'Hara Watercolors

Nov. 17-Dec. 5, 1941 -- Recent Paintings by Jay Connaway

Nov. 17-Dec. 6, 1941 -- Recent Watercolors by Richard A. Kimball

Dec. 8-27, 1941 -- Edith Blum Paintings

Jan. 5-24, 1942 -- Recent Paintings by Stephen Etnier

through Feb. 28, 1942 -- Selected Paintings by a Group of Contemporary American Artists

March 9-28, 1942 -- New Talents Presented by the Gloucester Society of Artists

April 6-25, 1942 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

May, 1942 -- Selected Paintings by Contemporary American Artists

June 2-13, 1942 -- Yun Gee

Summer, 1942 -- Selected Paintings by Early and Contemporary American Artists

Summer, 1942 -- Paintings by Selected American Artists

Oct. 5-31, 1942 -- Recent Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

Nov. 9-30, 1942 -- Watercolors by American Artists

Jan. 18-Feb. 6, 1943 -- Paintings by Yovan Radenkovitch

April 4-24, 1943 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 26-May 15, 1943 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Childe Hassam

May 25-June 5, 1943 -- Exhibition by Gladys Irene Cook

June, 1943 -- Selected Paintings by American Artists

Summer, 1943 -- Exhibition of Paintings by American Artists

Sept., 1943 -- Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

Oct. 4-23, 1943 -- Paintings by Yun Gee

Nov., 1943 -- Recent Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

Jan. 24-Feb. 12, 1944 -- Recent Watercolors by James Fitzgerald

Feb. 14-March 4, 1944 -- Paintings by Sidney Laufman

March 6-25, 1944 -- Paintings by Jessie Ansbacher

April 3-22, 1944 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

May, 1944 -- Paintings by Important American Artists

Summer, 1944 -- Exhibition of Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

Summer, 1944 -- Exhibition of Selected Paintings by a Group of American Artists

Oct. 2-21, 1944 -- Recent Paintings by Jay Connaway

Oct. 23-Nov. 11, 1944 -- Harry Hering

Nov. 13-Dec. 2, 1944 -- Paintings by Hobson Pittman

Dec., 1944 -- Paintings for the Home by American Artists

Jan. 3-13, 1945 -- Paintings by Therese Steinhardt

Jan. 22-Feb. 10, 1945 -- Louis Ritman

Feb. 18-, 1945 -- Memorial Exhibition, Paintings and Pastels by William Henry Singer, Jr., N.A.

Feb. 19-March 10, 1945 -- Recent Watercolors by Eliot O'Hara, A.N.A. (Elect)

March, 1945 -- Paintings by a Selected Group of Contemporary Artists

April 9-28, 1945 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

May, 1945 -- Paintings by American Artists, Late 19th and Early 20th Century

Summer, 1945 -- Paintings by a Selected Group of Contemporary American Artists

Oct., 1945 -- Paintings by a Group of Selected American Artists

Oct. 22-Nov. 10, 1945 -- Helen Sawyer

Nov. 19-Dec. 1, 1945 -- Recent Paintings by Stephen Etnier

Nov. 19-Dec. 8, 1945 -- Hilde Kayn

Dec., 1945 -- Paintings for the Home by American Artists

Dec. 31-Jan. 19, 1946 -- Paintings by Stpehen Etnier

Jan. 28-Feb. 16, 1946 -- Paintings by Alexandra Pregel

Feb. 18-March 9, 1946 -- W.H. Singer

March 11-30, 1946 -- Paintings by American Artists

April 8-27, 1946 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

Summer, 1946 -- Paintings by 19th and 20th Century Americans

Oct. 7-26, 1946 -- Recent Watercolors by Allen Ingles Palmer

Oct. 28-Nov. 16, 1946 -- Paintings by Ferdinand Warren

Nov. 18-Dec. 7, 1946 -- Louis Di Valentin

Dec. 9-29, 1946 -- Recent Watercolors by Wm. F.C. Ewing and Richard A. Kimball

Jan., 1947 -- Paintings by Selected American Artists

Jan. 13-Feb. 1, 1947 -- Gerrit V. Sinclair Paintings

Feb. 3-21, 1947 -- Recent Watercolors by Jerri Ricci

Feb. 24-March 15, 1947 -- Childe Hassam Paintings

March 31-April 19, 1947 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 21-May 10, 1947 -- Pastels of Charleston by Hobson Pittman

June 2-13, 1947 -- Yun Gee

Oct. 6-25, 1947 -- Special Exhibition of American Paintings Honoring the Great Artists Who Have Been Shown in Our Galleries

Oct. 27-Nov. 15, 1947 -- New Paintings, Oil Studies, and Drawings by Leon Kroll

Nov. 17-Dec. 6, 1947 -- F. Douglas Greenbowe Watercolors

Jan. 19-Feb. 7, 1948 -- Paintings by Alexandria Pregel

March 22-April 3, 1948 -- American Art

March 22-April 3, 1948 -- Paintings by Artists Equity Association Members

May, 1948 -- Paintings by a Group of Selected American Artists

May 24-June 5, 1948 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 16th Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Oct. 5-23, 1948 -- Impressions of New York

Oct. 25-Nov. 13, 1948 -- Paintings by Ernest Lawson

Nov. 15-27, 1948 -- Sculpture by Eleanor M. Mellon

Dec. 20-Jan. 8, 1949 -- Drawings by Frank di Gioia

Jan. 10-29, 1949 -- Six Watercolorists [Greenbowie, Knauth, Newman, Palmer, Ricci and Whorf]

Jan. 31-Feb. 19, 1949 -- New Paintings by Ferdinand Warren

Feb. 21-March 12, 1949 -- Paintings by Louis Di Vanentin

April 4-23, 1949 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 25-May 7, 1949 -- Paintings by Mildred Hayward

May 9-21, 1949 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 17th Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

June 17-July 5, 1949 -- Paintings by Guy Pene DuBois

Oct. 4-29, 1949 -- Opening Exhibition of Paintings and Watercolors by 19th and 20th Century American Artists

Oct. 24-Nov. 12, 1949 -- Recent Watercolors by Henry Edmiston

Nov. 14-Dec. 3, 1949 -- Paintings by John H. Twachtman

Dec. 5-24, 1949 -- F. Douglas Greenbowe Watercolors

[194?] -- Paintings for the Home by American Artists

June [194?] -- 2-13Yun Gee

Jan. 9-28, 1950 -- Paintings by Gordon Samstag

Jan. 30-Feb. 18, 1950 -- George C. Ault Memorial Exhibition

Feb. 20-March 11, 1950 -- Recent Paintings by David Burr Moreing

March 13-April 1, 1950 -- Paintings by Frank di Gioia

April 3-22, 1950 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 24-May 13, 1950 -- Paintings by Contemporary American Artists

May 15-27, 1950 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 18th Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Oct. 2-21, 1950 -- Recent Paintings by Benjamin Kopman

Nov. 13-Dec. 2, 1950 -- Paintings by Stephen Etnier

Dec. 4-30, 1950 -- Special Exhibition of American Paintings in Honor of the Philadelphia Museum of Art Diamond Jubilee

through Dec. 23, 1950 -- Watercolors and Drawings by Frank di Gioia

Jan. 8-27, 1951 -- New Gouaches of the Circus and Theatre by Walter Philipp

Jan. 29-Feb. 17, 1951 -- Louis Ritman Paintings

Feb. 19-March 10, 1951 -- Recent Watercolors by Jerri Ricci

March 12-31, 1951 -- Paintings, Panels, Figures of Africa, Belgian Congo, Bechuanaland, and Rhodesia by Jay Robinson

April 2-21, 1951 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 24-May 12, 1951 -- Sculpture and Drawings of Nicolaus Koni

May 21-June 1, 1951 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 19th Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Oct. 22-Nov. 10, 1951 -- Recent Paintings by Thomas Blagden

Nov. 12-Dec. 1, 1951 -- Recent Paintings by David Burr Moreing

Dec., 1951 -- Group Exhibition

Jan. 7-26, 1952 -- Paintings of Italy and "Little Italy" by Frank di Gioia

Jan. 28-Feb. 16, 1952 -- London to Algiers, Recent Watercolors by Eliot O'Hara, N.A.

Feb. 18-March 8, 1952 -- Recent Paintings by Jacques Zucker

April 7-26, 1952 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 28-May. 10, 1952 -- Paintings by Alexandra Pregel

May 12-24, 1952 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 20th Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Oct. 28-Nov. 15, 1952 -- Paintings by John Sharp

Nov. 17-Dec. 6, 1952 -- Stephen Etnier: Recent Paintings

Dec. 8-27, 1952 -- Childe Hassam Watercolors

Jan. 5-24, 1953 -- Jay Robinson

Jan. 26-Feb. 14, 1953 -- Iver Rose

Feb. 16-March 7, 1953 -- Recent Watercolors by Jerri Ricci

April 6-25, 1953 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

May 18-29, 1953 -- Richard Whorf

May 18-29, 1953 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 21st Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

June, 1953 -- Paintings and Watercolors by 19th and 20th Century American Artists

Oct., 1953 -- Paintings and Watercolors by American Artists

Oct. 26-Nov. 14, 1953 -- Recent Paintings by David Burr Moreing

Nov. 17-Dec. 5, 1953 -- Ogden W. Pleissner Recent Paintings

Dec. 7-30, 1953 -- Recent Landscapes by Sidney Laufman

Jan. 4-23, 1954 -- Paintings of New York's "Little Italy" by Frank di Gioia

Jan. 25-Feb. 13, 1954 -- Round the World by Watercolor with Eliot O'Hara, N.A.

Feb. 15-March 6, 1954 -- Hobson Pittman

March 8-27, 1954 -- Jay Robinson: Kentucky, Part II

April 5-24, 1954 -- John Whorf Watercolors

May 17-28, 1954 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 22nd Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Oct. 25-Nov. 13, 1954 -- Recent Watercolors by James Vance

Nov. 15-Dec. 4, 1954 -- Stephen Etnier Recent Paintings

Dec. 6-24, 1954 -- Recent Paintings by Thomas Blagden

Jan. 3-22, 1955 -- Recent Paintings by Jacques Zucker

Jan. 24-Feb. 12, 1955 -- Recent Watercolors by Jerri Ricci

Feb. 14-March 5, 1955 -- Paintings of Spain and Her People by Maurice Fromkes

April 25-May 14, 1955 -- Gluckmann Recent Paintings

May 16-27, 1955 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 23rd Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Oct. 24-Nov. 12, 1955 -- Paintings and Gouaches by John Taylor

Nov. 14-Dec. 3, 1955 -- Paintings and Panels by Jay Robinson of West and Central Africa

Dec. 5-30, 1955 -- Childe Hassam and American Impressionism

Jan., 1956 -- Recent Paintings by a Group of American Artists

Feb. 6-25, 1956 -- F. Douglas Greenbowe Watercolors

March, 1956 -- Group Exhibition

April 9-28, 1956 -- John Whorf Watercolors

May, 1956 -- Paintings by a Group of 18 American Artists

May 7-19, 1956 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 24th Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Nov. 5-24, 1956 -- Stephen Etnier Recent Paintings

Nov. 27-Dec. 15, 1956 -- Ogden M. Pleissner Recent Paintings

Dec. 1-Jan. 19, 1957 -- Jay Robinson Paintings in Fired Enamel on Copper

Feb. 11-March 2, 1957 -- Recent Paintings by Thomas Blagden

March 4-23, 1957 -- Adolph Dehn

April 15-May 4, 1957 -- John Whorf Watercolors

Oct. 28-Nov. 16, 1957 -- Recent Still Life Paintings by Aaron Bohrod

Jan. 13-Feb. 8, 1958 -- Recent Paintings by a Group of Contemporary Americans

Feb. 10-March 8, 1958 -- Long Island Paintings by Childe Hassam

March 10-29, 1958 -- Paintings by Louis Di Valentin

March 31-April 19, 1958 -- Recent Paintings by Sidney Laufman

April 21-May 10, 1958 -- John Whorf Watercolors

May, 1958 -- Americans: 1865-1925

June, 1958 -- Exhibit to Benefit Friends of the Whitney Museum

June 3-27, 1958 -- American Paintings and Sculpture

Oct. 6-25, 1958 -- Recent Paintings by David Shapiro

Oct. 27-Nov. 15, 1958 -- Stephen Etnier Recent Paintings

Nov. 17-Dec. 6, 1958 -- Paul Sample Recent Paintings

Dec. 8-24, 1958 -- Recent Drawings and Watercolors of France, Italy, Spain, and North Africa by Frank di Gioia

Jan. 19-Feb. 7, 1959 -- Marion Greenwood Paintings

March 2-21, 1959 -- Leon Kroll Paintings and Drawings

March 23-April 18, 1959 -- Elmer L. Mac Rae Forgotten Artist of the 1913 Armory Show

May 4-23, 1959 -- Philip Visson

Oct., 1959 -- Paintings by American Artists

Oct. 26-Nov. 14, 1959 -- Recent Painting by Aaron Bohrod

Nov. 17-Dec. 5, 1959 -- Ogden M. Pleissner Recent Paintings

Dec. 7-30, 1959 -- Recent Oils and Watercolors by Thomas Blagden

Jan. 18-Feb. 6, 1960 -- Elmer L. Mac Rae, Re-Discovered Artist of the 1913 Armory Show and a Founder of "The Pastellists"

through Jan. 15, 1960 -- Paintings by American Artists

March 14-April 2, 1960 -- Xavier Gonzalez Recent Paintings

April 4-23, 1960 -- Paintings by Louis Bosa

April 25-May 14, 1960 -- Grigory Gluckmann

May-June, 1960 -- Group of Contemporary Armerican Artists

Oct. 10-29, 1960 -- Adolf Dehn Caseins and Watercolors

Oct. 31-Nov. 19, 1960 -- Stephen Etnier

Dec., 1960 -- Paintings for the Home

Jan., 1961 -- Group Exhibition, 19th and 20th Century Americans

Jan. 30-Feb. 18, 1961 -- Recent Watercolors by Jerri Ricci

Feb. 20-March 11, 1961 -- Frank di Gioia Recent Paintings

March 20-April 8, 1961 -- David Fredenthal Memorial Exhibition

April 10-29, 1961 -- Allen Tucker

May, 1961 -- Contemporary American Artists

June-July, 1961 -- 19th & 20th Century American Artists

Oct. 10-28, 1961 -- David Shapiro Recent Paintings

Oct. 31-Nov. 18, 1961 -- Aaron Bohrod

Nov. 21-Dec. 9, 1961 -- Thomas Fransioli

Feb. 6-24, 1962 -- Retrospective Exhibition, Maurice Sterne

March 6-24, 1962 -- Three Watercolorists: Childe Hassam, John Whorf, and David Fredenthal

April 3-21, 1962 -- Thomas Blagden

April 24-May 12, 1962 -- Grigory Gluckmann

Summer, 1962 -- Gallery Group of Contemporary Americans

Sept., 1962 -- 19th & 20th Century American Artists

Oct., 1962 -- Gallery Group of Contemporary Americans

Oct. 30-Nov. 17, 1962 -- Stephen Etnier

Nov. 21-Dec. 8, 1962 -- Pleissner Recent Paintings

Dec., 1962 -- Group Exhibition

Jan. 22-Feb. 9, 1963 -- Paul Sample Recent Paintings

Feb. 11-March 2, 1963 -- Group of Contemporary Americans

March 5-23, 1963 -- Gouaches by John Taylor

March 26-April 13, 1963 -- Fletcher Martin Recent Paintings

April-May, 1963 -- Gallery Group-Contemporary Americans

Oct. 8-26, 1963 -- David Shapiro Recent Work

Oct. 30-Nov. 16, 1963 -- Xavier Gonzalez Recent Watercolors

Nov. 19-Dec. 7, 1963 -- New Paintings by Aaron Bohrod

April, 1964 -- Watercolors and Pastels

April 21-May 9, 1964 -- Grigory Gluckmann

May 13-29, 1964 -- Frank di Gioia Recent Paintings

Oct., 1964 -- Group Exhibition

Nov. 3-21, 1964 -- Stephen Etnier

Nov. 24-Dec. 12, 1964 -- Thomas Blagden

Jan., 1965 -- Comtemporary American Artists

Feb. 2-14, 1965 -- Figure Paintings by Murray Bewley

Feb. 2-14, 1965 -- Exhibition by George Biddle

Feb. 11-23, 1965 -- Paintings and Drawings by Max Bohm

Feb. 14-26, 1965 -- Paintings by Arthur C. Goodwin

Feb. 16-28, 1965 -- Water Colors by Matilda Browne

Feb. 16-March 6, 1965 -- Water Colors by Adolf Dehn

March, 1965 -- 19th and 20th Century American Artists

March 1-13, 1965 -- Bruce Crane, N.A.

March 6-25, 1965 -- Pastels of the Cascapedia River, Canada, by Arthur C. Goodwin

March 26-April 7, 1965 -- Paintings by Howard Russell Butler, N.A.

March 23-April 10, 1965 -- Paintings by Dan Lutz

March 28-April 16, 1965 -- Paintings by Henry Golden Dearth

April 2-21, 1965 -- Landscape Paintings by Bruce Crane, N.A.

April 13-May 1, 1965 -- Paintings by Louis Bosa

April 16-28, 1965 -- Water Colors and Etchings by Adolphe W. Blondheim

May, 1965 -- Gallery Contemporaries

Oct. 25-Nov. 13, 1965 -- Recent Landscapes by John F. Carlson, N.A.

Oct. 26-Nov. 13, 1965 -- Twenty-Four New Paintings by Aaron Bohrod, Artist in Residence, University of Wisconsin

Nov. 2-14, 1965 -- Paintings by Ann Crane

Nov. 5-17, 1965 -- Memorial Exhibition of Paintings of Venice by Wm. Gedney Bunce, N.A.

Nov. 7-19, 1965 -- Paintings and Sculpture by Matilda Browne

Nov. 16-Dec. 4, 1965 -- Electra Bostwick

Dec. 7-30, 1965 -- Recent Drawings and Watercolors of European Countries and North Africa by Frank di Gioia

Jan. 11-29, 1966 -- Georges Schreiber Watercolors: 1963-1965

Jan.-Feb., 1966 -- 19th and 20th Century American Artists

Feb.-March, 1966 -- Group Exhibition

June, 1966 -- Group Exhibition

Oct. 11-29, 1966 -- Thomas Blagden

Nov. 1-19, 1966 -- Stephen Etnier

Nov. 22-Dec. 10, 1966 -- Pleissner

Jan. 24-Feb. 11, 1967 -- Xavier Gonzalez

April, 1967 -- Group Exhibition

April 18-May 6, 1967 -- Grigory Gluckmann

July, 1967 -- Group Exhibition

undated -- Etchings and Color-Etchings

undated -- Etchings of China and Cambodia by Lucille Douglass

undated -- Thomas Jefferson Bust in Bronze by Robert Aitken, N.A.

undated -- Paintings by Ossip L. Linde

undated -- Etchings by William Meyerowitz

undated -- Recent Screens and Panels by Roy Mac Nicol

undated -- Summer Exhibition of Paintings and Watercolors by 19th and 20th Century American Artists

undated -- Paintings by Clement

undated -- Important Works in Paintings and Sculpture by Leading American Artists

Jan. 3-14, undated -- Armin Hansen

Jan. 8-27, undated* -- Recent Etchings by William Meyerowitz

Jan. 8-31, undated -- Group of American Figure Paintings, 19th and 20th Century

Jan. 9-21, undated -- Paintings by Katherine Langhorne Adams

Jan. 16-28, undated -- Paintings by Dewitt Parshall, N.A., and Douglass Parshall, N.A.

Jan. 23-Feb. 11, undated -- Paintings by Bruce Crane, Elliott Daingerfield, Granville Smith, and F. Ballard Williams

Jan. 27-Feb. 11, undated -- Willam de Leftwick Dodge

Jan. 28-Feb. 16, undated -- Paintings by Gari Melchers

Jan. 29-Feb. 10, undated -- Paintings of the California Coast by Armin Hansen

Jan. 30-Feb. 11, undated -- Sigrud Skou

Feb. 13-25, undated -- Water Colors by Alice Judson

Feb. 13-25, undated -- Paintings by Guy Wiggins, N.A.

Feb. 13-March 11, undated -- Paintings by H.T. Keasbey

Feb. 15-March 5, undated -- Frederic James

Feb. 17-March 1, undated -- Silver Point Drawings by Thelma E. Wood

Feb. 18-March 6, undated -- Landcapes, Nature Moods Expressed in Terms of Light by Julie Mathilde Morrow

Feb. 18-March 8, undated -- Paintings of Venice, Rome and French Landscape, also Pastel Drawings of the Battle Sectors of the 26th Division, A.E.F. by J. Alden Twachtman

Feb. 27-March 10, undated -- Portrait Busts and Drawings by Alexander Portnoff

March 5-17, undated* -- Pastels of the Hudson River by Arthur C. Goodwin

March 7-16, undated -- Paintings of Africa and Spain by Lillian Genth

March 7-26, undated -- Sigurd Skou

March 8-20, undated -- Paintings by Sigurd Skou

March 10-22, undated -- MacDowell Club of New York City Annual Exhibition of Paintings

March 22-April 10, undated -- Paintings of the Cathedrals of France by Pieter Van Veen

March 26-April 12, undated -- Paintings by E. Martin Hennings

March 26-April 14, undated -- Recent Etchings by Elias M. Grossman

March 28-April 16, undated -- Martha Walter Water Colors of Spain and North Africa

April 5-17, undated -- Paintings by Ernest L. Blumenschein, Victor Huggins, Walter Ufer

April 7-19, undated -- Figure Paintings by Louis Ritman

April 12-23, undated -- Portraits and Figure Paintings by Edith Catlin Phelps

April 12-24, undated -- Paintings of American Gardens by Abbott Graves

April 16-28, undated -- Portrait Drawings in Pastel by Jessie Voss Lewis (Mrs. H.L. Daingerfield Lewis)

April 19-May 1, undated -- Paintings by Valentino Molina

April 21-May 3, undated -- Paintings of Tahiti and California by William Ritschel, N.A.

April 21-May 3, undated -- Leonard Lopp, Glacier Park Artist

April 22-May 15, undated -- Sculpture for House, Garden & Grounds by Leading American Artists, and Pottery by Clara L. Poillon

April 24-May 5, undated -- Paintings by Thalia Millett

April 26-May 15, undated -- Dan Lutz, Mighican Summer and Mexican Sojourn

April 26-May 15, undated -- William H. Singer

April 27-May 16, undated -- Recent Paintings by Gluckmann

May 3-28, undated -- Exhibition of Sculpture for Garden and Grounds by Leading Sculptors

May 5-17, undated -- Recent American Sculpture in Bronze, Wood and Terra Cotta for the Town and Country House, Grounds and Garden

Oct. 11-23, undated -- Paintings by Anna Heyward Taylor

Oct. 25-Nov. 13, undated -- Water Colors by Alice Judson

Oct. 27-Nov. 15, undated -- Paintings and Etchings by William Auerbach-Levy

Oct. 30-Nov. 11, undated* -- Connecticut Landscape Paintings by Robert Nisbet, A.N.A.

Oct. 31-Nov. 12, undated -- Paintings of China and Tibet by Alice Job

Oct. 31-Nov. 14, undated -- Drawings by James Wilkie

Nov. 5-17, undated -- Paintings of Venice

Nov. 15-27, undated* -- Water Colors by Childe Hassam

Nov. 16-Dec. 5, undated -- Recent Etchings by Alfred Hutty

Nov. 16-Dec. 5, undated -- Paintings by W. Elmer Schofield

Nov. 17-29, undated -- Paintings and Etchings by Power O'Malley

Nov. 18-30, undated -- Recent Work in Water Color and Etching by Louis Wolchonok

Nov. 19-Dec. 1, undated -- Winter Landscapes in Water Color by Walter Launt Palmer, N.A.

Nov. 19-Dec. 1, undated -- Painter Friends, Robert H. Nisbet, Guy C, Wiggins, Edward C. Volkert, Wilson Irvine, George M. Bruestle, and Carl J. Nordell

Nov. 23-, undated -- Landscapes by Ault, Brook, Coleman, Karfiol, Ritman, Speight, Sterne, and Weber

Nov. 23-Dec. 6, undated -- Portraits of America's Most Distinguished Women by Leon Gordon

Nov. 24-Dec. 3, undated -- Sculpture by Gleb Derujinsky

Nov. 26-Dec., undated -- Exhibition of Recent Vermont Landscapes by Edward Bruce

Nov. 26-Dec. 5, undated -- Alfred Hutty

Nov. 27-Dec. 9, undated -- Paintings by Sigure Schou

Dec. 1-27, undated -- Works Painted in Spain by Maurice Fromkes

Dec. 1-25, undated -- Annual Holiday Exhibition of Selected Paintings of Limited Size

Dec. 3-29, undated -- Recent Paintings, Water Colors, and Etchings by Hilde Hassam, N.A., of the American Academy of Arts and Letters

Dec. 6-30, undated -- Selected Paintings for the Home by American Artists

Dec. 14-Jan. 2, undated -- Recent Paintings by George Shillard

Dec. 20-Jan. 8, undated -- Selected Small Paintings for the Home

Dec. 27-Jan. 12, undated -- Helen K. McCarthy Memorial Exhibition

Dec. 30-Jan. 18, undated -- Paintings by Stewart McDermot

Dec. 31-Jan. 12, undated -- Second Annual Exhibition in Pure Water Color by The Aquarellists
Milch Gallery gave the Archives of American Art a small selection of correspondence, photographs, and printed matter, and loaned a few other items in 1966-1967; these records were microfilmed on reels D285, N730, and NM1-NM2. Records of the Milch Gallery were purchased from the estate of Harold C. Milch by Elliott Galleries of New York City, and subsequently acquired by Salander-O'Reilly Galleries, which donated them to the Archives in 1986. With the exception of the scrapbook about Thomas Moran (reel N730; present location of the original is unknown), prior loans and gifts from Milch Gallery were incorporated and refilmed with the 1986 gift.

Stuart Feld of Hirschl & Adler Galleries donated an additional .8 linear feet of records in 1995. Zachary Ross of Hirschl & Adler Galleries donated 2.2 linear feet in 2014.
The collection is open for research. Patrons must use microfilm copy.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
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Milch Gallery records, 1911-1995. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
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Archives of American Art

The North Star, Volume 1, Number 22

Created by:
The North Star, American, 1847 - 1859  Search this
Edited by:
Frederick Douglass, American, 1818 - 1895  Search this
Martin Robison Delany, American, 1812 - 1885  Search this
Published by:
William Cooper Nell, American, 1816 - 1874  Search this
Written by:
Lucretia Mott, American, 1793 - 1880  Search this
Printed by:
John Dick, British  Search this
ink on paper
H x W (Folded): 25 × 18 1/4 in. (63.5 × 46.4 cm)
H x W (Open): 24 13/16 × 36 5/16 in. (63 × 92.3 cm)
Place printed:
Rochester, Monroe County, New York, United States, North and Central America
May 26, 1848
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Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
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Public domain
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Collection Creator:
Macbeth Gallery  Search this
3.3 Linear feet (Boxes 120-130 )
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
The 19 scrapbooks in this series are the collection's main source of Macbeth Gallery exhibition catalogs and related news clippings. Although incomplete, the scrapbooks provide fairly comprehensive coverage of the gallery's history and include material on day-to-day events at the gallery as well as important occasions such as the gallery's fortieth, fiftieth and sixtieth anniversaries, news of the art world in general and some photographs. Some of the scrapbooks also contain printed material related to art, exhibitions and events elsewhere. Many of the exhibition catalogs found here are annotated with prices and other notes. Notably missing is the catalog for the 1908 exhibition, The Eight.

See Appendix for a list of Macbeth Gallery exhibitions documented in Series 5: Scrapbooks.
As some of the dates of the scrapbooks overlap, they were numbered 1-19 for clarity. The scrapbook cover for #3 is housed in Box 120, and the contents are housed in Box 122.
Appendix: Macbeth Gallery Exhibitions Documented in Scrapbooks:
This chronological list of Macbeth Gallery exhibitions is extensive, but incomplete. While an attempt has been made to establish the accuracy of the information provided here, dates and titles of exhibitions are not guaranteed to be accurate. Most of the exhibitions listed here are documented in the scrapbooks through exhibition catalogs and/or invitations, lists of artwork and news clippings. The list is annotated with AAA microfilm reel and frame numbers to assist researchers in locating material on specific exhibitions.

Scrapbook 1, 1892-1901

Dec. 7-21, 1892 -- Water Colors by American Artists (NMc1: 273-275)

Jan.23-Feb.11, 1893 -- Landscapes in Oil (NMc1: 276-277)

Feb. 27-Mar. 18, 1893 -- Landscapes in Oil by William Keith (NMc1: 278-279)

Mar. 20-Apr. 8, 1893 -- Watercolors by Dutch Artists (NMc1: 281-282)

Nov. 8-29, 1893 -- Second Annual Exhibition of Watercolors by American Artists (NMc1: 283-285)

Dec. 2-16, 1893 -- Drawings in Watercolors and in Black and White by C. R. Grant and Wilson De Meza (NMc1: 287-290)

Jan. 20-Feb. 3, 1894 -- Pictures and Sketches by Anton Mauve (NMc1: 291-292, 311-313)

Feb. 6-17, 1894 -- Paintings by Henry W. Ranger (NMc1: 295-296)

Feb. 23-Mar. 8, 1894 -- Paintings by Gaylord Langston Truesdel (NMc1: 299-300)

Mar. 16-29, 1894 -- Figure Subjects by Seven American Artists (NMc1: 302-303)

Apr. 13-May 6, 1894 -- Landscapes by American Artists (NMc1: 304-305)

Dec. 1-22, 1894 -- Paintings and Drawings by D.A.C. Artz (NMc1: 315-316)

Feb. 2-16, 1895 -- Paintings and Sketches by Theodore Robinson (NMc1: 318-319)

Mar. 15-30, 1895 -- Pictures and Sketches by Anton Mauve (NMc1: 321-323)

Feb. 17-29, 1896 -- Paintings in Oil by Philip Zilcken (NMc1: 329-330)

Mar. 9-21, 1896 -- Paintings by Arthur B. Davies (NMc1: 329-331)

Mar. 6-20, 1897 -- Paintings by Robert C. Minor (NMc1: 343-344)

Apr. 24-May 8, 1897 -- Paintings by Arthur B. Davies (NMc1: 348-349)

Jan. 17-29, 1898 -- Portrait Drawings in Pastel and Chalk by Sergeant Kendall (NMc1: 356-357)

Jan. 31-Feb. 12, 1898 -- Expressions of New England Landscape by Leonard Ochtman (NMc1-358-359)

Jan. 9, 1898 -- Exhibition of Pictures and Sketches by Anton Mauve (NMc1: 362)

Nov. 7, 1898 -- Exhibition of Watercolors by Mr. Ozawa of Tokyo, Japan (NMc1: 363)

Jan. 9-21, 1899 -- Paintings by Willbur A. Reaser (NMc1: 366-367)

Feb. 1-14, 1899 -- Paintings by H. M. Rosenberg (NMc1: 368-369)

Feb. 17-Mar. 9, 1899 -- Paintings by Charles Walter Stetson (NMc1: 370-371)

Jan. 8-20, 1900 -- Twenty-seven Drawings by Childe Hassam (NMc1: 376-377)

Mar. 9-24, 1900 -- Watercolors and Monotypes in Color by Maurice B. Prendergast (NMc1: 379-380)

Nov. 19-Dec. 1, 1900 -- Pictures by Rosina Emmet Sherwood (NMc1: 383-384)

Jan. 21-Feb. 2, 1901 -- Pictures and Portraits by Wilbur A. Reaser (NMc1: 385)

Feb. 25-Mar. 9, 1901 -- Frederick Ballard Williams (NMc1: 394-395)

Feb. 4-16, 1901 -- Landscapes by Alexander H. Wyant and George Inness (NMc1: 390-391)

May 9-31, 1901 -- Paintings by Arthur B. Davies (NMc1: 400-402)

Nov. 29-Dec. 14, 1901 -- Watercolors, Color Prints from Wood Blocks and Etchings Printed in Color by Helen Hyde (NMc1: 405-406)

Scrapbook 2, 1893-1898

Primarily news clippings.

Scrapbook 3, 1902-1910

Feb. 3-15, 1902 -- Private Collection of American Pictures (NMc1: 2-5)

Mar. 17-29, 1902 -- Some Phases of London When the Lamps Are Lighted, Done in Pastel by Fernand Lungren (NMc1: 10-13)

Mar. 31-Apr. 5, 1902 -- Group of Pictures by Sidney Starr (NMc1: 13)

Apr. 1-12, 1902 -- Pictures by Robert Henri (NMc1: 15-16)

Apr. 14-26, 1902 -- Drawings by Jane Erin Emmet (NMc1: 21-22)

Apr. 28-May 11, 1902 -- Landscapes by W. L. Lathrop (NMc1: 20)

Jan 19-31, 1903 -- Drawings and Sketches by Homer D. Martin, 1836-1897 (NMc1: 27)

Jan. 27-Feb. 11, 1905 -- Pictures by William Sartain (NMc1: 37-39)

Feb. 23-Mar. 8, 1905 -- Paintings by Arthur B. Davies (NMc1: 62-64)

May 1-6, 1905 -- Oil Paintings by American Artists from the Macbeth Gallery (at the Galleries of George D. Brodhead, Rochester, NY) (NMc1: 69-72)

Jan 29-Feb. 10, 1906 -- Abbot H. Thayer and Gladys Thayer (NMc1: 77-78)

Feb. 19-Mar. 3, 1906 -- Pictures by Charles H. Davis (NMc1: 79-80)

Mar. 10-24, 1906 -- Stephen Parrish (NMc1: 81-82)

Nov. 9-24, 1906 -- A Group of American Paintings (NMc1: 91-92)

Jan. 11-26, 1907 -- Paintings by William Sartain (NMc1: 100-101)

Feb. 1-16, 1907 -- Paintings by Paul Dougherty (NMc1: 105-106)

Feb. 23-Mar. 9, 1907 -- Paintings by Charles H. Davis (NMc1: 107-108)

Mar. 11-23, 1907 -- Portraits by Ellen Emmet (NMc1: 112-113)

Mar. 28-Apr. 3, 1907 -- Paintings by William Keith (NMc1: 115-117)

Nov. 11-23, 1907 -- Paintings by Augustus Vincent Tack (NMc1: 124-125)

Nov. 27-Dec. 12, 1907 -- Paintings by John La Farge (NMc1: 127-131)

Jan. 6-18, 1908 -- Paintings by Jerome Myers (NMc1: 133-134)

Jan. 20-Feb. 1, 1908 -- Paintings by Paul Dougherty (NMc1: 137-138)

Feb. 3-15, 1908 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Arthur B. Davies, William J. Glackens, Robert Henri, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Maurice B. Prendergast, Everett Shinn, John Sloan (NMc:142-143 Catalog missing from scrapbook)

Feb. 19-Mar. 7. 1908 -- Forty Selected Paintings by Living American Artists (NMc1: 147-149)

Mar. 11-24, 1908 -- Paintings by a Group of American Artists (Deceased), Copley to Whistler (NMc1: 151-152)

1908 -- Kwaunon Meditating on Life by John La Farge (NMc1: 155)

Nov. 10-25, 1908 -- Paintings by Howard Pyle (NMc1: 158-159)

Nov. 27-Dec. 10, 1908 -- Paintings by Charles Melville Dewey (NMc1: 161-162)

Dec. 15-31, 1908 -- Bronzes by a Group of American Artists (NMc1: 165-166)

Jan. 7-21, 1909 -- Forty Selected Paintings by Living American Artists (NMc1: 168-169)

Jan. 22-Feb. 4, 1909 -- Paintings by Henry W. Ranger (NMc1: 171-172)

Feb. 5-18, 1909 -- Paintings by Paul Dougherty (NMc1: 176

Feb. 19-Mar. 4, 1909 -- Arthur B. Davies (NMc1: 178)

Mar. 5-Mar. 18, 1909 -- Paintings by Charles H. Davis, N.A. (NMc1: 183-184)

Mar. 19-Apr. 1, 1909 -- A Group of Figure Subjects by Blendon Campbell, Charles W. Hawthorne, Robert Henri, George Luks, Kenneth Miller (NMc1: 186-187)

Apr. 2-15, 1909 -- Paintings by Louis Loeb (NMc1: 188-189)

Apr. 16-29, 1909 -- Paintings by a Group of Boston Artists (NMc1: 191-192)

May 10-22, 1909 -- Paintings by American Artists from the Macbeth Galleries, New York [at Findlay Art Co., Kansas City, MO] (NMc1: 195-197)

Nov. 18-Dec. 4, 1909 -- Paintings by Albert P. Lucas (NMc1: 203-205)

Dec. 7-24, 1909 -- Watercolors and Pastels by American Artists (NMc1: 207-210)

Dec 7-24, 1909 -- Second Annual Exhibition of Bronzes by American Sculptors (NMc1: 211-212)

Jan. 6-19, 1910 -- Sixteen Paintings of the Cornish Coast by Paul Dougherty (NMc1: 213-215)

Jan. 20-Feb. 2, 1910 -- Paintings by Mary Curtis Richardson of San Francisco (NMc1: 218-220)

Jan. 20-Feb. 2, 1910 -- First Exhibition of Paintings by Ben Foster (NMc1: 216-218)

Feb 3-16, 1910 -- Landscapes and Figures by Frederick Ballard Williams (NMc1: 227-229)

Feb. 3-16, 1910 -- Spanish Paintings by F. Luis Mora (NMc1: 225-227)

Feb. 17-Mar. 2, 1910 -- The Fur Jacket by J. McNeill Whistler (NMc1: 231-232)

Feb. 17-Mar. 2, 1910 -- Paintings by William Sartain (NMc1: 233-235)

Mar. 3-16, 1910 -- Fourteen Landscapes by Charles H. Davis (NMc1: 237-239)

Mar. 3-16, 1910 -- Recent Portraits by Cecilia Beaux (NMc1: 239-240)

Mar. 17-30, 1910 -- Paintings by Hermann Dudley Murphy (NMc1: 244-246)

Mar. 17-30, 1910 -- Figure Paintings by Charles W. Hawthorne (NMc1: 242-244)

Mar. 31-Apr. 13, 1910 -- Paintings of Baily's Island by Frederick J. Waugh (NMc1: 249-251)

Mar. 31-Apr. 13, 1910 -- Nineteen Landscapes by Chaucey F. Ryder (NMc1: 247-249)

Apr. 14-27, 1910 -- George B. Luks (NMc1: 253-255)

Apr. 30-May 14, 1910 -- The Woman's Art Club of New York, Exhibition of Works in Oil and Sculpture (NMc1: 259-262)

Scrapbook 4, 1907-1913

Primarily news clippings.

Scrapbook 5, 1910-1915

Nov. 3-16, 1910 -- Recent Paintings by Charles W. Hawthorne (NMc2: 1-2)

Nov. 17-30, 1910 -- The Navajo Country in Watercolors by Frederick J. McComas (NMc2: 4-6)

Dec. 6-24, 1910 -- Watercolors, Pastels and Small Bronzes (NMc2: 7-14)

Jan. 5-18, 1911 -- Portraits by Ellen Emmet (NMc2: 15-16)

Jan. 19-Feb. 1, 1911 -- Paintings by Henry B. Snell (NMc2: 17-24)

Feb. 2-22, 1911 -- A Group of Thirty Selected Paintings (NMc2: 25-28)

Feb. 23-Mar. 8, 1911 -- A Group of Forty Selected Paintings (NMc2: 29-32)

Mar. 9-22, 1911 -- Paintings by Charles H. Davis, Paul Dougherty, Daniel Garber, William Sartain, F. Ballard Williams (NMc2: 33-35)

Mar. 23-Apr. 5, 1911 -- A Group of Paintings by Ben Foster, Albert L. Groll, Leonard Ochtman, Chauncey F. Ryder, Gardner Symons (NMc2: 36-38)

Apr. 8-22, 1911 -- The Woman's Art Club of New York, Exhibition of Works in Oil and Sculpture (NMc2: 39-42)

Nov. 16-29, 1911 -- Landscapes, Marines and Wood Interiors by Robert Henri (NMc2: 45-48)

Dec. 6-30, 1911 -- Small Bronzes by American Sculptors (NMc2: 49-52)

Jan. 3-16, 1912 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc2: 53-55)

Jan. 17-30, 1912 -- Paintings by Frederick C. Frieseke (NMc2: 56-58)

Jan. 31-Feb. 13, 1912 -- Paintings by Elihu Vedder (NMc2: 59-63)

Feb. 14-Mar. 2, 1912 -- Paintings by Charles H. Davis, Paul Dougherty, Ben Foster, William Sartain, Gardner Symons, F. Ballard Williams (NMc2: 64-66)

Mar. 4-16, 1912 -- Paintings by Emil Carlsen (NMc2: 67-69)

Mar. 6-19, 1912 -- Memorial Exhibition of a Collection of Paintings by Joseph R. Woodwell (NMc2: 71-75)

Mar. 18-30, 1912 -- Paintings by Arthur B. Davies (NMc2: 71, 76)

Apr. 1-10, 1912 -- Paintings by Richard E. Miller (NMc2: 77-79)

Apr. 15-27, 1912 -- A Group of Selected Paintings by American Artists (NMc2: 80-85)

Nov. 4-18, 1912 -- Frederick Ballard Williams (NMc2: 80-97)

Nov. 19-30, 1912 -- First Annual Exhibition of Painters of the Far West (NMc2: 99-103)

Dec. 3-16, 1912 -- Paintings by William Baxter Closson (NMc2: 99, 104)

Dec. 4-16, 1912 -- Marbles and Bronzes by Chester Beach (NMc2: 99, 105-114)

Dec. 30-Jan. 13, 1913 -- Lawrence Mazzanovich (NMc2: 116-119)

Jan 14-27, 1913 -- Paintings by Guy C. Wiggins (NMc2: 120-122)

Jan. 14-27, 1913 -- Paintings by Charles A. Hawthorne (NMc2: 120, 122-124)

Jan. 28-Feb. 10, 1913 -- Paintings by Paul Dougherty (NMc2: 125-127)

Feb. 11-24, 1913 -- Paintings by Gardner Symons (NMc2: 128-130)

Feb. 15-Mar. 1, 1913 -- Annual Exhibition of The Woman's Artclub (NMc2: 131-136)

Feb. 25-Mar. 10, 1913 -- Paintings by F. C. Frieseke (NMc2: 137-138)

Mar. 4-17, 1913 -- Paintings by Charles Morris Young (NMc2: 137-142)

Mar. 11-24, 1913 -- Landscapes by F.K.M. Rehn, N.A. (NMc2: 143-147)

Mar. 18-31, 1913 -- Paintings by John Carlson (NMc2: 148-151)

Mar. 25-Apr. 7, 1913 -- A Selected Group of Paintings (NMc2: 148, 152-154)

Apr. 15-28, 1913 -- A Selected Group of American Paintings (NMc2: 155-158)

Apr. 15-28, 1913 -- Paintings and Pastels by Blendon R. Campbell (NMc2: 155, 159)

Oct. 14-27, 1913 -- Paintings by Katherine S. Dreier (NMc2: 161-163)

Oct. 28-Nov. 10, 1913 -- A Group of Selected Paintings by American Artists (NMc2: 164-166)

Nov. 17-24, 1913 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc2: 167-169)

Dec. 2-15, 1913 -- Second Exhibition by the Society of Men Who Paint the Far West (NMc2: 172-176)

Jan. 1914 -- Drawings of Game Birds by Frank W. Benson (NMc2: 179-180)

Jan. 6-19, 1914 -- Paintings by Emil Carlsen, Paul Dougherty, Frederick C. Frieseke, Childe Hassam, Willard L. Metcalf, Kenneth H. Miller, J. Alden Weir (NMc2: 179, 181-183)

Jan. 27-Feb. 16, 1914 -- Recent Sculpture by Chester Beach (NMc2: 185-186)

Jan. 27-Feb. 16, 1914 -- Paintings by Charles H. Davis, Daniel Garber, Richard E. Miller, Chauncey F. Ryder, Gardner Symons (NMc2: 185, 187)

Feb. 17-Mar. 2, 1914 -- Sculpture by Chester Beach, Abastenia St. L. Eberle, Mahonri Young (NMc2: 188-191)

Feb. 17-Mar. 9, 1914 -- A Group of Selected Paintings by American Artists (NMc2: 188, 192-193)

Mar. 10-30, 1914 -- Sketches in Passing by Frederick J. Waugh (NMc2: 195, 208-209)

Mar. 11-30, 1914 -- A Collection of Paintings by Deceased American Artists (NMc2: 195-207)

Mar. 31-Apr. 20, 1914 -- A Group of Selected Paintings by American Artists (NMc2: 212-217)

Apr. 21, 1914 -- A Group of Selected Paintings by American Artists (NMc2: 219-224)

Oct. 27-Nov. 16, 1914 -- A Group of Selected Paintings by American Artists (NMc2: 226-227)

Nov. 17-Dec. 7, 1914 -- Portrait Heads in Terra Cotta by Janet Scudder (NMc2: 233)

Nov. 17-Dec 7, 1914 -- Recent Paintings by Robert Henri (NMc2: 235-237)

Dec. 8-28, 1914 -- Exhibition of Home Pictures (NMc2: 243-247)

Jan. 5-25, 1915 -- A Group of Selected Paintings (NMc2: 243, 248-249)

Jan. 26-Feb. 15, 1915 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc2: 251-254)

Jan. 26-Feb. 15, 1915 -- Parisian Sketches by Lester D. Boronda (NMc2: 251)

Feb. 2-15, 1915 -- Our Untrodden Empire: A Collection of Paintings Executed in South Central Alaska by Robert V. Sewell (NMc2: 257-260)

Feb. 16-Mar. 8, 1915 -- Paintings by Deceased American Artists (NMc2: 262, 265)

Feb. 16-Mar. 8, 1915 -- Small Paintings by Guy C. Wiggins (NMc2: 261)

Feb. 16-Mar. 8, 1915 -- Paintings by Colin Campbell Cooper (NMc2: 261-264)

Scrapbook 6, March 1915-January 1918

Mar. 10-30, 1915 -- The Dance As Interpreted in Marble and Bronze by American Sculptors (NMc2: 267)

Mar. 30-Apr. 19, 1915 -- Paintings by Twelve Landscape Painters (NMc2: 274-277)

Sept. 27-Oct. 17, 1915 -- Paintings and Sculpture by Woman Artists for the Benefit of the Woman Suffrage Campaign (NMc2: 279-283)

Oct. 30-Nov. 19, 1915 -- Oils and Water Colors by Hayley Lever; Recent Paintings by Randall Davey (NMc2: 294-296

Dec. 4-31, 1915 -- Third Exhibition of the Society of Men Who Paint the Far West (NMc2: 300, 302-305)

Feb. 1916 -- Decorations by Elmer Mac Rae (NMc2: 318-319)

Jan. 4-18, 1916 -- Recent Paintings by F. C. Frieseke (NMc2: 306-307)

Jan. 4-18, 1916 -- Paintings by John F. Carlson (NMc2: 306, 309-310)

Jan. 19-Feb. 1, 1916 -- Paintings by Emil Carlsen, Helen M. Turner, Daniel Garber (NMc2: 313)

Jan. 19-Feb. 1, 1916 -- Decorative Panels of Flowers, Birds and Animals by F. S. Church (NMc2: 311,317)

Feb. 2-15, 1916 -- Paintings by Jules Guerin (NMc2: 318-321)

Feb. 16-29, 1916 -- Annual Exhibition of Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc2: 323-326)

Mar. 1916 -- Group of High Fire Porcelains by Adelaid Alsop Robineau of Syracuse, NY, recently shown at the Panama-Pacific Exposition (NMc2: 322)

Mar. 8-21, 1916 -- Paintings by Charles H. Davis, Paul Dougherty, Kenneth H. Miller, Chauncey F. Ryder, William Sartain (NMc2: 329-330)

Mar. 22-Apr.4, 1916 -- Recent Water Colors by Charles Hovey Pepper (NMc2: 333)

Mar. 22-Apr. 4, 1916 -- Paintings, Drawings and Sculpture by Arthur B. Davies, Walt Kuhn, Jules Pascin (NMc2: 332, 334)

Apr. 6-27, 1916 -- Paintings by American Artists Past and Present (NMc2: 338-341)

Oct. 31-Nov. 13, 1916 -- The Whalers of New Bedford: Paintings by Clifford W. Ashley (NMc2: 346-348)

Oct. 31-Nov. 14, 1916 -- Special Exhibition by Painter Friends (NMc2: 346)

Nov. 14-27, 1916 -- Memorial Exhibition of Paintings by the Late Roger Donoho (NMc2: 349-353)

Nov. 28-Dec. 11, 1916 -- Paintings by Randall Davey (NMc2: 356-357)

Nov. 28-Dec. 11, 1916 -- Paintings by Kenneth Hayes-Miller, Benjamin D. Kopman and J. M. Block (NMc2: 356)

Dec. 13-Jan. 15, 1917 -- Watercolors by Paul Dougherty (NMc2: 358-362)

Jan. 16-Feb. 5, 1917 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc2: 366-368)

Feb. 8-26, 1917 -- Loan Exhibition of Paintings by Charles W. Hawthorne (NMc2: 370-379)

Feb. 27-Mar. 12, 1917 -- Paintings by Charles H. Davis, Richard E. Miller, Chauncey F. Ryder (NMc2: 381-382)

Mar. 13-26, 1917 -- Paintings by Arthur Crisp, Florence W. Gotthold, Martha Walter (NMc2: 384-385)

Mar. 28-Apr. 10, 1917 -- Pictures in Tempera of the St. Andrew's Golf Links by William R. O'Donovan (NMc2: 386-387)

Summer, 1917 -- Summer Exhibition (NMc2: 388-391)

Oct. 1917 -- Opening Exhibition of Our Second Quarter-Century (NMc2: 393-396)

Nov. 3-17, 1917 -- Portraits by Louis Betts (NMc2: 400-403)

Nov. 13-26, 1917 -- Paintings by Arthur Crisp, Florence W. Gotthold, Martha Walter (NMc2: 384-385)

Nov. 22-Dec. 5, 1917 -- Paintings and Small Bronzes of New York (NMc2: 407-410)

Dec. 1917 -- Pastels by Lillian Crittenden (NMc2: 411)

Dec. 6-24, 1917 -- Small paintings and Pastels by Frederick C. Frieseke, Nancy M. Ferguson, Lilian Crittenden (NMc2: 411)

Jan. 2-31, 1918 -- In Aid of Men Blinded in Battle: Retrospective Loan Exhibition of Arthur B. Davies (NMc2: 412-416)

Scrapbook 7, February 1918-January 1922

Feb. 5-20, 1918 -- Watercolors by Gifford Beal (NMc2: 433-434)

Feb. 5-20, 1918 -- Intimate Paintings Moderately Priced (NMc2: 435-436)

Mar. 1918 -- Group of Paintings by American Artists (NMc2: 441-442)

Mar. 6-27, 1918 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc2: 438-439)

Mar. 27-Apr. 18, 1918 -- Paintings by Charles H. Davis, Ben Foster, Willard L. Metcalf (NMc2: 441, 443-444)

Apr. 18-May 10, 1918 -- Group of Paintings by Charlotte B. Coman (NMc2: 446)

Apr. 19-May 9, 1918 -- Paintings by Emil Carlsen, Childe Hassam, J. Alden Weir (NMc2: 446-447)

Oct. 23-Nov. 13, 1918 -- Opening Exhibition: Group of Selected Paintings (NMc2: 449-451)

Dec. 1918 -- Second Exhibition of Intimate Paintings (NMc2: 453-458)

Jan. 7-29, 1919 -- John H. Twachtman (NMc2: 460-470)

Jan. 27-Feb. 8, 1919 -- Paintings by Charles H. Davis and Paul Dougherty (NMc2: 473-474)

Feb. 17-Mar. 1, 1919 -- Thirty Paintings by Fifteen Artists (NMc2: 476-477)

Mar. 6-22, 1919 -- Paintings by Louis Ritman (NMc2: 480-483)

Mar. 6-29, 1919 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc2: 484-491)

Apr. 7-19, 1919 -- Paintings by Felicie Waldo Howell (NMc2: 496-497)

Apr. 7-19, 1919 -- Fifteen American Paintings (NMc2: 499-500)

May 1919 -- Comparative Exhibition of American Paintings (NMc2: 501-506)

Oct. 5-Nov. 8, 1919 -- Fifteen Paintings by Fifteen Artists (NMc2: 510-511)

Nov. 10-Dec. 6, 1919 -- Third Exhibition of Intimate Paintings (NMc2: 512-518)

Dec. 10-31, 1919 -- Loan Exhibition of Paintings by Emil Carlsen (NMc2: 520-527)

Dec. 3-20, 1919 -- Paintings by William Baxter Closson (NMc2: 520)

Jan. 9-31, 1920 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc2: 531-536)

Feb. 2-21, 1920 -- Paintings by Charles H. Davis, Frederick C. Frieseke, Richard E. Miller (NMc2: 539-541)

Mar. 20-Apr.10, 1920 -- Paintings by Hayley Lever (NMc2: 542-545)

Apr. 5-24, 1920 -- Group of Paintings by Felicie Waldo Howell (NMc2: 546)

Apr. 5-24, 1920 -- Paintings by Maurice Fromke (NMc2: 546-548)

Oct. 18-Nov. 8, 1920 -- Paintings of the Orient by Hovsep Pushman (NMc2: 550-554)

Oct. 18-Nov. 8, 1920 -- Group of Paintings by Ben Foster, Robert Henri, Hayley Lever, Gardner Symons (NMc2: 555-558)

Nov. 9-29, 1920 -- Paintings by Frank W. Benson and Willard L. Metcalf (NMc2: 559-562)

Nov. 30-Dec. 31, 1920 -- Fourth Exhibition of Intimate Paintings (NMc2: 564-570)

Jan. 3-17, 1921 -- Recent Landscapes by Chauncey F. Ryder (NMc2: 573-576)

Jan. 3-17, 1921 -- Old Salem Doorways Painted Last Summer by Felicie Waldo Howell (NMc2: 577-581)

Jan. 18-Feb. 7, 1921 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc2: 583-588)

Feb. 9-28, 1921 -- An American Summer in Watercolors by F. Luis Mora (NMc2: 596-599)

Feb. 9-28, 1921 -- The East Side in Sculpture by Abastenia St. L. Eberle (NMc2: 600)

Feb. 9-28, 1921 -- Recent Paintings by Emil Carlsen (Br14: 623; NMc2: 589-594)

Mar. 1-21, 1921 -- Connecticut Landscapes by Charles H. Davis (NMc2: 603-606)

Mar. 1-21, 1921 -- Paintings of Cornwall and Elsewhere by W. Elmer Schofield (NMc2: 607-610)

Mar. 1-21, 1921 -- Annual Exhibition, Society of Animal Painters and Sculptors (NMc2: 611-616

Mar. 22-Apr. 11, 1921 -- Paintings by F. C. Frieseke and Albert L. Groll (NMc2: 621-624)

Mar. 22-Apr. 11, 1921 -- Paintings by Jonas Lie (NMc2: 617-620)

Mar. 22-Apr. 11, 1921 -- Portraits and Landscapes by Gladys Thayer (NMc2: 625-628)

Apr. 12-May 7, 1921 -- Loan Exhibition of Paintings by J. Francis Murphy, 1853-1921 (NMc2: 629-637)

Oct. 11-30, 1921 -- Opening Exhibition, Season of 1921-1922: Group of Selected Paintings (NMc2: 640-641)

Nov. 1-19, 1921 -- West Indian Marines by Frederick J. Waugh (NMc2: 642-645)

Nov. 21-Dec. 12, 1921 -- Fifth Exhibition of Intimate Paintings (NMc2: 646-655)

Dec. 13-Jan. 2, 1922 -- Paintings of Glacier National Park by Charles Warren Eaton (NMc2: 660, 664-666)

Dec. 13-Jan. 2, 1922 -- Oils, Pastels, and Watercolors by George Alfred Williams (NMc2: 660-663)

Scrapbook 8, January 1922-March 1923

Jan. 3-23, 1922 -- Paintings of South America by E. W. Deming (NMc2: 669-670)

Jan. 3-23, 1922 -- New England Streets by Felicie Waldo Howell (NMc2: 671-674)

Jan. 3-23, 1922 -- California Landscapes by F. Ballard Williams (NMc2: 677-680)

Jan. 24-Feb. 13, 1922 -- Paintings by Elliot Torrey (NMc2: 681-684)

Jan. 24-Feb. 20, 1922 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc2: 685-692)

Feb. 14-Mar. 6, 1922 -- Third Annual Exhibition, Society of Animal Painters and Sculptors (NMc2: 694-698)

Mar. 7-27, 1922 -- Paintings by Edmund Greacen (NMc2: 704-707)

Mar. 7-27, 1922 -- Paintings by Gardner Symons (NMc2: 700-705)

Mar. 28-Apr. 17, 1922 -- Paintings by Charles H. Davis (NMc2: 707-717)

Apr. 27-May 20, 1922 -- Paintings by Frederick C. Frieseke Hayley Lever and Malcolm Parcell (NMc2: 721-726)

Apr. 27-May 20, 1922 -- Paintings by Malcolm Parcell (NMc2: 722)

Oct. 31-Nov. 20, 1922 -- Paintings by Alice Worthington Ball (NMc2: 731-735)

Oct. 31-Nov. 20, 1922 -- Recent Paintings and Figure Compositions by Charles W. Hawthorne (NMc2: 731-735)

Nov. 21-Dec. 11, 1922 -- Sixth Exhibition of Intimate Paintings (NMc2: 738-747)

Nov. 21-Dec. 11, 1922 -- George Wharton Edwards (NMc2: 748-749)

Dec. 12-30, 1922 -- Imaginitive Landscapes by W. G. Krieghoff (NMc2: 751-752)

Dec. 12-30, 1922 -- Watercolors of New York by Joseph Pennell (NMc2: 751, 753-755)

Jan. 2-22, 1923 -- Paintings and Studies by Orland Campbell (NMc2: 758-761)

Jan. 2-22, 1923 -- Recent Landscapes by Daniel Garber (NMc2: 758, 762-764)

Jan. 2-22, 1923 -- Decorative Paintings by Spencer Nichols (NMc2: 765, 769)

Jan. 2-22, 1923 -- Figure Compositions by Ivan G. Olinsky (NMc2: 765-768)

Jan. 23-Feb. 12, 1923 -- The Canadian Rockies in Paintings by Belmore Browne (NMc2: 772, 778)

Jan. 23-Feb. 12, 1923 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc2: 772-777)

Jan. 23-Feb. 12, 1923 -- Decorative Panels by Felicie Waldo Howell (NMc2: 778-782)

Feb. 13-Mar. 5, 1923 -- Paintings by Ruth A. Anderson and Elizabeth C. Spencer (NMc2: 783, 788-790)

Feb. 13-Mar. 5, 1923 -- Landscapes by Chauncey F. Ryder (NMc2: 783-786)

Feb. 13-Mar. 5, 1923 -- Paintings of the West by Maynard Dixon (NMc2: 783, 787)

Mar. 6-26, 1923 -- Recent Paintings by Emil Carlsen (NMc2: 792-794)

Mar. 12-31, 1923 -- Watercolors by J. Olaf Olson (NMc2: 795-796)

Scrapbook 9, March 1923-December 1924

Mar. 27-Apr. 16, 1923 -- Paintings by John J. Enneking (NMc3: 1-4)

Apr. 17-May7, 1923 -- Paintings by Maurice Braun (NMc3: 5-8)

Apr. 17-May 7, 1923 -- Recent Paintings by Catharine Wharton Morris (NMc3: 5, 9)

Oct. 9-29, 1923 -- Opening Exhibition, Season 1923-1924 (NMc3: 17-22)

Oct. 30-Nov. 19, 1923 -- Paintings by Emil Carlsen, Theodore Robsinson, J. Alden Weir (NMc3: 24-27)

Nov. 20-Dec. 10, 1923 -- Seventh Exhibition of Intimate Paintings (NMc3: 30-35)

Nov. 20-Dec. 11, 1923 -- South American Sketches by Rachel Hartley (NMc3: 37-42)

Dec. 11-31, 1923 -- Scenes about Provincetown by Charles W. Hawthorne; Flowers by Marion C. Hawthorne (NMc3: 37, 43)

Dec. 11-31, 1923 -- Recent Paintings by Douglas Parshall (NMc3: 44)

Dec. 1923 -- Collection of Paintings from the Macbeth Gallery, Halaby Galleries, Dallas (NMc3: 47-54)

Jan. 2-21, 1924 -- Paintings by Robert Henri and Grace Ravlin (NMc3: 56-57)

Feb. 7-25, 1924 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc3: 62-68)

Feb. 26-Mar. 17, 1924 -- Paintings by Victor Higgins (NMc3: 68, 72-74)

Feb. 26-Mar. 17, 1924 -- Paintings by Frank Duveneck (NMc3: 68-69)

Mar. 18-Apr. 7, 1924 -- Paintings from Tusayan by Maynard Dixon (NMc3: 76-79)

Apr. 8-28, 1924 -- Paintings of the Orient by Hovsep Pushman (NMc3: 80-82)

Apr. 8-28, 1924 -- The Canadian Rockies in Paintings by Belmore Browne (NMc3: 80, 84)

Sept. 23-Oct. 6, 1924 -- Paintings of the French West Indies by Christiana Moron (NMc3: 86-87)

Oct. 7-27, 1924 -- Selected Group of Paintings by Thirty American Artists (NMc3: 86, 88)

Nov. 4-17, 1924 -- Recent Paintings by Chauncey F. Ryder (NMc3: 90-91)

Nov. 18-Dec. 8, 1924 -- A Group of Paintings by Frederick C. Frieseke (NMc3: 92-93)

Dec. 9-29, 1924 -- Retrospective Exhibition of Paintings by Louis Comfort Tiffany (NMc3: 95-97)

Scrapbook 10, January 1925-November 1927

Dec. 30-Jan. 19, 1925 -- Montauk by Childe Hassam (NMc3: 104-112)

Jan. 20-Feb. 9, 1925 -- George Inness Centennial Exhibition, 1825-1894 (NMc3: 117-123)

Feb. 10-Mar. 2, 1925 -- Water Colors of Egypt and Jerusalem by Taber Sears (NMc3: 126, 129-130)

Feb. 10-Mar.2, 1925 -- The New England Year in Paintings by Charles H. Davis (NMc3: 126-128)

Mar. 3-23, 1925 -- Paintings by E. W. Redfield (NMc3: 131-133)

Mar. 24-Apr. 13, 1925 -- Paintings by Daniel Garber (NMc3: 135-138)

Apr. 14-May 4, 1925 -- Recent Paintings by Robert Henri (NMc3: 140-143)

Apr. 14-May 4, 1925 -- C. W. Hawthorne: Watercolors of Bermuda (NMc3: 139)

Oct. 13-26, 1925 -- Collection of American Masters Loaned for Exhibition (NMc3: 152-154)

Oct. 27-Nov. 16, 1925 -- Memorial Exhibition of Paintings by the Late William Sartain (NMc3: 155-158)

Nov. 7-23, 1925 -- Paintings by Contemporary American Artists Loaned by the Macbeth Galleries, New York, Engaged by the Muncie Art Students' League, Muncie, Indiana (NMc3: 147-148)

Nov. 17-Dec. 7, 1925 -- Paintings by DeWitt and Douglass Parshall (NMc3: 159-162)

Dec. 4-31, 1925 -- Easel Paintings by American Artists, Loaned by Macbeth Galleries to the Springfield Art Association (NMc3: 205, 207)

Dec. 8-Jan. 4, 1926 -- Watercolors by Distinguished American Artists (NMc3: 163-166)

Jan. 5-25, 1926 -- Recent American Portraits (NMc3: 168, 172-173)

Jan. 5-18, 1926 -- American Society of Miniature Painters, 27th Annual Exhibition (NMc3: 168-171)

Jan. 26-Feb. 15, 1926 -- Paintings by Jonas Lie (NMc3: 176-179)

Jan. 26-Feb. 15, 1926 -- First Exhibition of Paintings by John Huffington (NMc3: 176, 180-181)

Feb. 7-Mar. 17, 1926 -- Exhibition of Oil Paintings by American Artists Lent by the Macbeth Galleries to the Utica Public Library Art Gallery (NMc3: 205-206)

Feb. 16-Mar. 8, 1926 -- New Paintings by Charles W. Hawthorne (NMc3: 186-189)

Feb. 16-Mar. 8, 1926 -- Chauncey F. Ryder (NMc3: 184)

Feb. 16-Mar. 8, 1926 -- Sculpture by Gleb Derujinsky (NMc3: 186-189)

Mar. 9-29, 1926 -- Modern Landscapes by Guy Wiggins (NMc3: 191-194)

Mar. 9-29, 1926 -- Etchings and Drawings by Emil Fuchs (NMc3: 191, 195-197)

Mar. 30-Apr. 19, 1926 -- The Affairs of Anatol by Robert Reid (NMc3: 198-201)

Apr. 20-May 3, 1926 -- Pastels Done in Spain by A. Sheldon Pennoyer (NMc3: 202)

June 1-25, 1926 -- Pictures Selected from the Brooklyn Museum Exhibition of the National Association of Women Painters and Sculptors (NMc3: 204)

Summer, 1926 -- Summer Exhibition (NMc3: 199-201)

Oct. 11-18, 1926 -- Paintings Selected by Louis Bliss Gillet (NMc3: 210-212)

Oct. 19-Nov. 8, 1926 -- Paintings by Stanley M. Woodward (Br14: 671; NMc3: 213-214)

Nov. 9-22, 1926 -- Ernest Haskell, 1876-1925, Memorial Exhibition (NMc3: 215-222)

Nov. 23-Dec. 6, 1926 -- Porto Rico and St. Thomas: Exhibition of Paintings by Rachel Hartley (NMc3: 226-229)

Nov. 23-Dec. 6, 1926 -- Recent Landscapes and Marines by Jay H. Connaway (NMc3: 226, 230)

Dec. 1926 -- Watercolors and Etchings by American Artists (NMc3: 231-233)

Dec. 28-Jan. 10, 1927 -- Recent Paintings by a Group of Mystic, Conn., Artists (NMc3: 235-238)

Jan. 11-31, 1927 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc3: 239-244)

Jan. 18-31, 1927 -- Watercolors by John Lavalle of Boston (NMc3: 253-255)

Jan. 22-Feb. 7, 1927 -- Crapo Gallery Opening Exhibition: Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists assembled by Macbeth Gallery at Swain School, New Bedford, Mass. (NMc3: 245-249)

Feb. 1-14, 1927 -- Recent Paintings by Frank W. Benson (NMc3: 259-262)

Feb. 2-14, 1927 -- American Society of Miniature Painters, 28th Annual Exhibition (NMc3: 253, 256-258)

Feb. 8-26, 1927 -- Works by American Artists Selected by the Associated Dealers in American Paintings, Inc. at Anderson Galleries (Macbeth Gallery one of nine participants (NMc3: 263, 265-271)

Feb. 15-28, 1927 -- New Paintings by Chauncey F. Ryder (NMc3: 278-281)

Mar. 1-14, 1927 -- Watercolors by Aiden L. Ripley (NMc3: 282, 286)

Mar. 1-14, 1927 -- Paintings by a Group of Members of the Guild of Boston Artists (NMc3: 282-285)

Mar. 15-28, 1927 -- Paintings by Malcolm Parcell (NMc3: 287-290)

Mar. 15-28, 1927 -- Recent Pastels of Chartres by Carl Schmidt (NMc3: 287)

Mar. 29-Apr. 18, 1927 -- Thirty-fifty Anniversary Exhibition, Retrospect and Prospective (NMc3: 291-294)

Apr. 19-May 9, 1927 -- Frank A. Brown, Watercolors (NMc3: 296, 302-303)

Aug. 22-Sept. 5, 1927 -- American Art Exhibition arranged for Eastern Long Island by the Macbeth Gallery at Southampton, NY (NMc3: 297-301)

Oct. 18-29, 1927 -- American Art Exhibition, Art League of Fort Worth, Assembeled by the Macbeth Gallery (NMc3: 304, 306-311)

Oct. 18-31, 1927 -- Etchings by Walter Raymond Duff (NMc3: 313-315)

Oct. 18-31, 1927 -- Paintings by Max Bohm (NMc3: 313-315)

Nov. 1-14, 1927 -- Yankee Whalers by Clifford W. Ashley (NMc3: 316-317)

Scrapbook 11, November 1927-June 1930

Nov. 15-28, 1927 -- Paintings of Mallorca by Bernhard Gutmann (NMc3: 319-320)

Nov. 15-28, 1927 -- Paintings of Flowers by Carle J. Blenner (NMc3: 319, 321)

Nov. 29-Dec. 12, 1927 -- The Bathers , Paintings by William S. Horton (NMc3: 322-325)

Nov. 29-Dec. 12, 1927 -- Sidewalks of New York, Chalk Drawings by H. Devitt Welsh (NMc3: 326-327)

Dec. 13-31, 1927 -- Joint Exhibition of Paintings by Daniel Garber and Stanley Woodward (NMc3: 328)

Jan. 3-16, 1928 -- Portrait Drawings by Edith Leslie Emmet (NMc3: 329, 331)

Jan. 3-23, 1928 -- Recent Paintings by Jonas Lie (NMc3: 329-330)

Jan. 24-Feb. 13, 1928 -- Watercolors by John Lavalle (NMc3: 332-334)

Jan. 24-Feb. 13, 1928 -- Walter Ufer: Pictures from Taos (NMc3: 332, 334)

Jan. 24-Feb. 6, 1928 -- American Society of Miniature Painters, 29th Annual Exhibition (NMc3: 337-340)

Feb. 7-21, 1928 -- Small Pictures of Mountain and Sea by Jay Connaway (NMc3: 342)

Feb. 14-27, 1928 -- The Canadian Rockies by Belmore Brown (NMc3: 342-343)

Feb. 14-27, 1928 -- Sculpture by Gleb Derujinsky (NMc3: 342-344)

Feb. 21-Mar. 5, 1928 -- Watercolors of Venice, Spain and Brittany by Frank A. Brown (NMc3: 351-356)

Feb. 21-Mar. 10, 1928 -- Works by American Artists Selected by the Associated Dealers in American Paintings, Inc., at Anderson Galleries; Macbeth Gallery one of sixteen participants (NMc3: 346-352)

Feb. 25-Mar. 17, 1928 -- The Macbeth-Milch Circuit Exhibition of Contemporary American Paintings at Grand Rapids Art Gallery (NMc3: 385-387)

Feb. 28-Mar. 12, 1928 -- Paintings by Frank L. Schenk, 1856-1927 (NMc3: 357-358)

Feb. 28-Mar. 19, 1928 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc3: 357, 359-363)

Mar. 20-Apr. 2, 1928 -- Lanscapes of Italy by A. Sheldon Pennoyer (NMc3: 366, 368)

Mar. 20-Apr. 9, 1928 -- Recent Landscapes, Switzerland and Other Subjects by Carl Lawless (NMc3: 366-367)

Apr. 2-15, 1928 -- Water Colors by Earl Winslow (NMc3: 355)

Apr. 10-30, 1928 -- St. Ives by Hayley Lever (NMc3: 369)

Apr. 29-May 20, 1928 -- The Macbeth-Milch Circuit Exhibition of Contemporary American Paintings at the University of Wyoming (NMc3: 385-386)

Spring, 1928 -- American Painting for Home Decoration (NMc3: 370-377)

Oct. 16-29, 1928 -- The Canadian Rockies in Watercolors by J. Olaf Olson (NMc3: 389-392)

Nov. 7-24, 1928 -- Etchings by Sears Gallagher (NMc3: 393)

Nov. 13-26, 1928 -- Sand Dunes and Flowers by Frederick Lowell (NMc3: 393-394)

Nov. 26-Dec. 17, 1928 -- Etchings by Carlton T. Chapman (NMc3: 395)

Nov. 27-Dec. 10, 1928 -- Portraits by Ernest L. Ipsen (NMc3: 396-397)

Dec. 4-31, 1928 -- Etchings by Margery A. Ryerson (NMc3: 395)

Dec. 11-24, 1928 -- Landscapes in Watercolor and Gouache by H. Anthony Dyer and Character Studies in Watercolor and Pastel by Nancy Dyer (NMc3: 398-400)

Jan. 2-14, 1929 -- Figures and Landscapes by the Late J. Alden Weir, 1852-1929 (NMc3: 401-402)

Jan. 15-28, 1929 -- Paintings by H. Dudley Murphy; Watercolors by Nellie Littlehale Murphy (NMc3: 404-405)

Jan. 15-28, 1929 -- Portraits by William James (NMc3: 406-407)

Feb. 4-18, 1929 -- Twenty-five Etchings by Harold Denison (NMc3: 410, 416-417)

Feb. 5-18, 1929 -- Paintings by Emil Carlsen and Dines Carlsen (NMc3: 408-409)

Feb. 19-Mar. 4, 1929 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc3: 410-415)

Mar. 5-18, 1929 -- Marine Paintings by Stanley W. Woodward (NMc3: 419-423)

Mar. 19-Apr. 1, 1929 -- Watercolors by Frederick C. Frieseke (NMc3: 424-425)

Mar. 19-Apr. 1, 1929 -- Pastels of Louisiana by Will H. Stevens (NMc3: 424)

Apr. 1929 -- Paintings by Childe Hassam (NMc3: 433-438)

Apr. 2-15, 1929 -- Paintings by Arthur Meltzer (NMc3: 431)

Apr. 2-15, 1929 -- Watercolors by Earle B. Winslow (NMc3: 431)

June, 1929 -- Old Mill Afternoon by Childe Hassam, Ainslie Galleries, Inc., Detroit in collaboration with Macbeth Gallery (NMc3: 465-467)

Oct. 1-14, 1929 -- Portraits in Oil and Pastel by Paul Swan (NMc3: 472-473)

Oct. 15-28, 1929 -- Exhibitions from the Summer Colonies: No. 1, Lyme (NMc3: 476-477)

Oct. 19-29, 1929 -- Milch-Macbeth Exhibition of Prints and Paintings by American Artists at the High Museum under the auspices of the Atlanta Art Association (NMc3: 462)

Oct. 20-Nov. 11, 1929 -- Memorial Exhibition of Paintings by John Huffington (NMc3: 476-479)

Nov. 12-25, 1929 -- Exhibition from the Summer colonies: No. 2, Selections from the North Shore Arts Association of Gloucester (NMc3: 480-481)

Nov. 26-Dec. 3, 1929 -- Recent Landscapes by Charles H. Davis (NMc3: 482-483)

Dec. 10-Dec. 23, 1929 -- Watercolors by J. Olaf Olson (NMc3: 484-486)

Dec. 24-Jan. 6, 1930 -- Exhibitions from the Summer Colonies: No. 3, Mystic (NMc3: 487-488)

Jan. 7-20, 1930 -- Paintings of Wyoming Days and Nights by Ogden N. Pleissner (NMc3: 490, 492)

Jan. 21-Feb. 3, 1930 -- Landscapes by Aldro T. Hibbard (NMc3: 490-491)

Feb. 4-17, 1930 -- Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists (NMc3: 493-498)

Feb. 4-18, 1930 -- Monotypes in Black and White by Seth Hoffman (NMc3: 500-502)

Feb. 18-Mar. 3, 1930 -- Decorative Pastels by Wilbur A. Reaser (NMc3: 503-504)

Feb. 18-Mar. 3, 1930 -- Landscapes by John F. Carlson (NMc3: 503, 505

Mar. 4-17, 1930 -- Art of the Cartoon by Clare A. Briggs (NMc3: 507)

Mar. 4-17, 1930 -- Watercolors by Gladys Brannigan (NMc3: 507)

Mar. 18-31, 1930 -- Landscapes by Chauncey F. Ryder (NMc3: 508-509)

Apr. 1-14, 1930 -- Landscapes by Harry Leith-Ross (NMc3: 510-511)

Apr. 15-29, 1930 -- The Soviet Union as Seen by Eliot O'Hara (NMc3: 512-513)

Spring 1930 -- Spring/Summer Exhibition (NMc3: 514-516)

Scrapbook 12, September 1930-December 1932

Oct. 1930 -- Opening Exhibition, 1930-1931 Season (NMc3: 517-519)

Oct. 14-Nov. 4, 1930 -- Etchings by Thomas Handforth (NMc3: 523-524)

Nov. 1930 -- Paintings of Museum Importance (NMc3: 521)

Nov. 4-25, 1930 -- Monotypes in Black and White by Seth Hoffman (NMc3: 522, 524

Dec. 1930 -- Paintings by Young Americans (NMc3: 525)

Dec. 1930 -- Etchings and Lithographs by Edward Haskell (NMc3: 526-527)

Jan. 6-31, 1931 -- Brittany and Other Recent Paintings by Jonas Lie (NMc3: 528-531)

Feb. 2-8, 1931 -- Group Exhibition of Important Paintings (NMc3: 535)

Feb. 9-21, 1931 -- Brackman (NMc3: 536)

Feb. 24-Mar. 7, 1931 -- Paintings by Paul Dougherty and Mahonri Young (NMc3: 539)

Mar. 9-28, 1931 -- Recent Paintings by Daniel Garber (NMc3: 540)

Mar. 30-Apr. 11, 1931 -- Brittany Subjects by Jay Connaway, Landscapes by Arthur Meltzer, Pastel Impressions by J. H. Guest (NMc3: 545-549)

Apr. 13-May 2, 1931 -- Paintings and Drawings by Abbot H. Thayer (NMc3: 545-549)

May, 1931 -- Selected Paintings and Etchings by American Artists (NMc3: 552-553)

Oct. 1931 -- October Show (NMc3: 355)

Oct. 1931 -- October Watercolor Exhibition (NMc3: 556)

Nov. 4-30, 1931 -- Fifteen New Paintings from the Artists Studios (NMc3: 558-559)

Nov. 11-Dec. 31, 1931 -- Lithographs by Stow Wengenroth (NMc3: 560-566)

Dec. 1-19, 1931 -- Small Paintings by Ivan Olinsky and Cecil Chichester (NMc3: 562-563)

Dec. 8-31, 1931 -- Wood Engravings by Thomas Nason (NMc3: 564)

Dec. 21-Jan. 9, 1932 -- Maine Coast Towns by C. K. Chatterton (NMc3: 565-566)

Jan. 11-23, 1932 -- Landscapes, Figures, Still Life Subjects Painted in Vermont by Herbert Meyer (NMc3: 564)

Jan. 11-23, 1932 -- Paintings by Lily Cushing (NMc3: 569, 571)

Jan. 25-Feb. 13, 1932 -- Hudson River School (NMc3: 573-576)

Feb. 15-27, 1932 -- Paintings by James Chapin (NMc3: 589)

Feb. 15-Mar. 1, 1932 -- Monotypes in Black and White by Seth Hoffman (NMc3: 590-591)

Feb. 29-Mar. 10, 1932 -- Sanford Ross: 16 Wash Drawings of 16 New Jersey Landmarks (NMc3: 598-599)

Feb. 29-Mar. 12, 1932 -- George Fuller, 1822-1844 (NMc3: 593-596)

Mar. 14-26, 1932 -- Winter Landscapes and Other Subjects by F. C. Frieseke (NMc3: 600-601)

Mar. 28-Apr. 9, 1932 -- Recent Paintings by Jonas Lie (NMc3: 603)

Apr. 11-30, 1932 -- Forty Years of American Art (NMc3: 605-610)

May 2-14, 1932 -- Paintings by a Group of Younger Artists (NMc3: 616-618)

June 1932 -- June Exhibition (NMc3: 619)

Sept. 26-Oct. 15, 1932 -- Paintings from the Summer Colonies (NMc3: 621-622)

Oct. 17-Nov. 7, 1932 -- Special Sale Exhibition (NMc3: 626-628)

Oct. 17-Nov. 7, 1932 -- Etchings and Lithographs by Mons Breidvik (NMc3: 626-627)

Nov. 9-26, 1932 -- Paintings by Max Bohm, Eugene Higgins, Jerome Myers, John Noble (NMc3: 630)

Nov. 14-Dec. 5, 1932 -- Lithographs by Stow Wengenroth (NMc3: 630)

Nov. 29-Dec. 12, 1932 -- Vermont Watercolors by Henry Holt (NMc3: 632-633)

Dec. 6-19, 1932 -- Lights of New York by Felicie Waldo Howell (NMc3: 634-635)

Dec. 14-Jan. 3, 1933 -- Paintings by Robert Strong Woodward (NMc3: 636)

Scrapbook 13, 1932

Scrapbook of 40th Anniversary of Macbeth Gallery, 1932.

Scrapbook 14, 1930-1934

Jan. 1-29, 1933 -- Forty Years of American Painting assembled by the Macbeth Gallery at Montclair Art Museum (NMc4: 263-268)

July 9-25, 1933 -- American Landscapes assembled by the Macbeth Gallery at Four Fountains, Southampton, NY (NMc4: 290-295)

Scrapbook 15, January 1933-February 1935

Jan. 1933 -- Watercolors Made by Americans, Assembled by the College Art Association (NMc3: 639-641)

Jan. 3-16, 1933 -- Drawings by J. Louis Lundean (NMc3: 643)

Jan. 17-30, 1933 -- Paintings of Flowers by C. G. Nelson (NMc3: 644)

Jan. 31-Feb. 13, 1933 -- Intimate Paintings (NMc3: 645)

Feb. 21-Mar. 6, 1933 -- Group Exhibition (NMc3: 646)

Mar. 1933 -- Paintings and Etchings by Living American Artists (NMc3: 647-648)

Mar. 7-20, 1933 -- Paintings by Robert Henri (NMc3: 649)

Mar. 21-Apr. 3, 1933 -- Watercolors by Sanford Ross (NMc3: 652)

Mar. 21-Apr. 10, 1933 -- Brackman (NMc3: 652-653)

Apr. 4-17, 1933 -- Opportunity Exhibition (NMc3: 661)

Apr. 4-18, 1933 -- Drawings by Adolf Dehn (NMc3: 661)

Apr. 11-24, 1933 -- The Sea at Monhegan by Jay Connaway (NMc3: 662)

Apr. 18-May 1, 1933 -- Watercolor Exhibition (NMc3: 663)

Apr. 25-May 8, 1933 -- Paintings by A. T. Hibbard, Hayley Lever and Ivan G. Olinsky (NMc3: 664)

May 2-22, 1933 -- Mono-Etchings by Bernard Sanders (NMc3: 664)

May 9-29, 1933 -- Child Portraits by Margery Ryerson (NMc3: 669)

May 16-29, 1933 -- Exhibition of Figures and Still Lifes, Macbeth Gallery Extension (NMc3: 669)

June 1933 -- American Art Past and Present (NMc3: 671)

Oct. 17-30, 1933 -- Paintings and Watercolors by a Group of American Artists Under 35 (NMc3: 672)

Oct. 31-Nov. 13, 1933 -- Drawings by Robert Henri (NMc3: 673)

Oct.-Nov. 1933 -- Mexico as Seen by American Printmakers (NMc3: 674)

Nov. 4-27, 1933 -- Brackman Portraits: Figures in Pastel (NMc3: 675, 678)

Nov. 4-27, 1933 -- American Sport and Other Subjects by Percy Crosby (NMc3: 675-677)

Nov. 28-Dec. 11, 1933 -- Paintings by Ogden M. Pleissner (NMc3: 684, 686)

Nov. 28-Dec. 11, 1933 -- Figures and Fantacies by Ralph Rowntree (NMc3: 684-685)

Nov. 28-Dec. 11, 1933 -- Paintings by Horace Day (NMc3: 681)

Nov. 28-Dec. 11, 1933 -- Drawings by Jerome Myers (NMc3: 682-683)

Dec. 12-23, 1933 -- Paintings by Janet Scudder (NMc3: 687)

Dec. 12-23, 1933 -- The New York Scene in Watercolor by Hamilton A. Wolf (NMc3: 688-689)

Dec. 26-Jan. 8, 1934 -- Group Exhibition, Members of the Louis Comfort Tiffany Foundation (NMc3: 692)

Jan. 9-27, 1934 -- Paintings by Herbert Meyer (NMc3: 692)

Jan. 24-Feb. 6, 1934 -- Oils, Watercolors, Drawings, Etchings by Harrison Cady (NMc3: 696-697)

Jan. 30-Feb. 19, 1934 -- Paintings and Drawings by Lintott (NMc3: 699-700)

Feb. 20-Mar. 12, 1934 -- Paintings by C. K. Chatterton (NMc3: 703-704)

Feb. 27-Mar. 12, 1934 -- Golinkin (NMc3: 707-708)

Mar. 6-20, 1934 -- Drawings by Meyer Bernstein (NMc3: 709)

Mar. 13-36, 1934 -- Paintings by Jonas Lie (NMc3: 710)

Mar. 20-Apr. 2, 1934 -- Watercolors of South America by Eliot O'Hara (NMc3: 712)

Mar. 27-Apr. 16, 1934 -- Memorial Exhibition, Paintings by Charles H. Davis, 1856-1933 (NMc3: 715-722)

Apr. 3-16, 1934 -- Drawings by Hetty Beatty, Sculptor (NMc3: 726)

Apr. 10-23, 1934 -- Oils and Watercolors by Gertrude Schweitzer (NMc3: 726)

Apr. 17-May 1, 1934 -- Monhegan Marines by Jan Connaway (NMc3: 727)

May 1-14, 1934 -- Watercolors and Pastels by H. Amaird Oberteuffer and Karl Oberteuffer (NMc3: 728)

May 1-21, 1934 -- Review of the Season (NMc3: 729)

May 7-14, 1934 -- Paintings by John C. E. Taylor, William Luther King, Stuyvesant van Veen (NMc3: 730)

May 1934? -- Third Exhibition and Sale of American Paintings at $100 (NMc3: 731)

June 4-15, 1934 -- Our Glorious Navy: Paintings by Arthur Beaumont, Lieut. U.S.N.R. (NMc3: 732-733)

Oct. 1-15, 1934 -- Opening Exhibition, Season of 1934-1935, Paintings by Nelson A. Moore, 1924-1902 (NMc3: 735-736)

Oct. 16-30, 1934 -- Collectors Examples of American Painting (NMc3: 739-740)

Nov. 7-19, 1934 -- Greenland and Other Subjects by Rockwell Kent (NMc3: 742-743)

Nov. 20-Dec. 3, 1934 -- Southern New Mexico: Drawings and Lithographs by Peter Hurd (NMc3: 748-749)

Nov. 20-Dec. 11, 1934 -- Brackman (NMc3: 742-743)

Dec. 4-31, 1934 -- Lithographs and Drawings of Stow Wengenroth (NMc3: 750)

Dec. 11-31, 1934 -- Robert Hallowell, Mostly Portraits (NMc3: 751-752)

Jan. 2-14, 1935 -- Leopold Seyffert, Subjects from Guatemala and Flowers (NMc3: 754-755)

Jan. 22-Feb. 4, 1935 -- Group of Paintings by Younger Artists (NMc3: 756)

Apr. 10-30, 1935 -- After St. Ives by Hayley Lever (NMc3: 761-762)

date unknown -- Mr. Jonas Lie: Brittany and Other Recent Paintings (NMc3: 764)

Sept. 30-Oct. 7, 1930 -- Watercolors by Carolyn G. Bradley and Marion L. Simmons (NMc3: 764-765)

March 28-April 19, 1932 -- Small Paintings of Museum Importance on Exhibition (NM3: 764-767)

Scrapbook 16, February 1935-January 1938

Feb. 5-19, 1935 -- Robert Strong Woodward, "Landscapes of New England" (NMc4: 401-402)

Feb. 19-28, 1935 -- Portraits by Leonebel Jacobs (NMc4: 404)

Mar. 5-18, 1935 -- Loan Exhibition (NMc4: 408-409)

Apr. 23-May 13, 1935 -- Still Lifes by Emil Carlsen, 1853-1932 (NMc4: 411-413)

May 14-June 3, 1935 -- Watercolors and Pastels (NMc4: 414)

Summer 1935 -- Summer Exhibition (NMc4: 415)

Oct. 8-21, 1935 -- Recent Paintings by Frederick C. Frieseke (NMc4: 416-417)

Nov. 19-Dec. 3, 1935 -- Drawings by Lintott (NMc4: 418-419)

Dec. 3-31, 1935 -- Drawings and Lithographs by Stow Wengenroth (NMc4: 420)

Dec. 9-31, 1935 -- Oils, Watercolors, Drawings by Gertude Schweitzer (NMc4: 421)

Jan. 14-Feb. 3, 1936 -- Herbert Meyer (NMc4: 422-423)

Feb. 1936 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 429)

Feb. 1936 -- Drawings by Eastman Johnson (NMc4: 430)

Feb. 4-17, 1936 -- Homer D. Martin, 1836-1897, Centennial Exhibition (NMc4: 426-427)

Mar. 10-23, 1936 -- Contemporary Americans (NMc: 430)

Mar. 10-23, 1936 -- Watercolors by Steven Donahos (NMc4: 430)

Mar. 24-Apr. 16, 1936 -- Brackman (NMc4: 431)

Apr. 7-27, 1936 -- Paintings and Watercolors by C. K. Chatterton (NMc4: 433-434)

Apr. 28-May 11, 1936 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 435)

Apr. 28-May 11, 1936 -- Watercolors by Mary S. Powers (NMc4: 435)

May 19-June 1, 1936 -- Drawings by Richard Guggenheimer (NMc4: 436)

May 27-June 3, 1936 -- Pastel Portraits by Frank Root McCreery (NMc4: 437-438)

Oct. 5-26, 1936 -- Opening Exhibition, 45th Season, New Paintings by Fourteen American Painters (NMc4: 447-448)

Nov. 4-16 1936 -- Paintings by Elliot Orr (NMc4: 444-445)

Nov. 17-30, 1936 -- Recent Paintings by Ogden M. Pleissner (NMc4: 447-448)

Dec. 1936 -- Lester D. Boronda: Paintings from Mason's Island (NMc4: 449)

Dec. 15, 1936-Jan. 18, 1937 -- An Introduction to Homer (NMc4: 451-460)

Jan. 19-Feb. 1, 1937 -- Exhibition of Portraits by Stuart, Copley, West, Allston, Badger, Jarvis, Morse, Sully, Peale, Smibert and Waldo (NMc4: 478-479)

Jan. 19-Feb. 1, 1937 -- Group of Watercolors (NMc4: 480)

Feb. 2-15, 1937 -- John C. E. Taylor: Flower Arrangements and Other Oils (NMc4: 481)

Feb. 16-Mar. 1, 1937 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Horace Day (NMc4: 482)

Mar. 2-15, 1937 -- Hayley Lever, Paintings New and Old (NMc4: 485)

Mar. 2-15, 1937 -- Paintings by Josef Presser (NMc4: 485)

Mar. 16-Apr. 5, 1937 -- Recent Work by Jon Corbino (NMc4: 487-490)

Apr. 13-26, 1937 -- Memorial Exhibition of Paintings, Crayon Drawings and Dry Points by the late Alexander Shilling (NMc4: 499)

Apr. 30-May 17, 1937 -- Edna Reindel (NMc4: 503)

Oct. 5-19, 1937 -- American Paintings Dedicating the Art Gallery Woman's Club Art Building, Montana State University (NMc4: 505-514)

Oct. 6-18, 1937 -- Opening Exhibition, Paintings by a Group of Contemporary Artists (NMc4: 517)

Oct. 19-Nov. 1, 1937 -- First Exhibition, Watercolors by Andrew Wyeth (NMc4: 518-519)

Nov. 2-15, 1937 -- Marine and Other Subjects from the Canary Islands by Cadwallader Washburn (NMc4: 524-525)

Nov. 16-29, 1937 -- Paintings by Lorenzo James Hatch (NMc4: 524-525)

Nov. 30-Dec. 14, 1937 -- Monhegan Island, Maine, Marines by Jay Connaway (NMc4: 527)

Jan. 4-17, 1938 -- "The Eight" Thirty Years Later (NMc4: 529-530)

Scrapbook 17, January 1938-July 1941

Jan. 18-Feb. 1, 1938 -- Paintings by Dale Nichols (NMc4: 538-540)

Feb. 8-21, 1938 -- Vermont in Watercolors by Stanford Stevens (NMc4: 541-542)

Feb. 8-21, 1938 -- Modern American Interior: Prizewinning Design and Selected Drawings from a Competition Sponsored by James H. Blauvet and Associates, Interior Designers (NMc4: 543)

Feb. 23-Mar. 7, 1938 -- Herbert Dickens Ryman (NMc4: 546)

Mar. 1-14, 1938 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Anne Goldthwaite (NMc4: 546-547)

Mar. 8-21, 1938 -- Recent Watercolors of Woodstock, Charleston, New England by John W. Taylor (NMc4: 548-549)

Mar. 22-Apr. 11, 1938 -- Jon Corbino (NMc4: 554-561)

Apr. 12-25, 1938 -- Paintings by Ohio Artists (NMc4: 580-571)

Apr. 26-May 9, 1938 -- Paintings by Furman Joseph Finck (NMc4: 572-573)

May-June 1938 -- Winslow Homer: Watercolors and Early Oils from the Estate of Mrs. Charles S. Homer and Other Sources (NMc4: 574-579)

Oct. 4-28, 1938 -- Opening Exhibition (NMc4: 581)

Nov. 1-23, 1938 -- Dale Nichols, Watercolors and Tempera of Alaskan Subjects (NMc4: 582-583)

Nov. 29-Dec. 19, 1938 -- Sea Island Country Watercolors by Horace Day (NMc4: 584)

Jan. 10-30, 1939 -- Herbert Meyer (NMc4: 588-589)

Feb. 7-27, 1939 -- American Watercolors Past and Present (NMc4: 592-597

Mar. 7-Apr. 3, 1939 -- Monhegan by Jay Connaway (NMc4: 602-603)

Apr. 5-24, 1919 -- Oils and Watercolors by Ogden M. Pleissner (NMc4: 606-607)

May 2-22, 1939 -- Paintings by Francis Chapin, Antonio P. Matino, and Moses Soyer and Drawings by Jon Corbino (NMc4: 609-611)

Oct. 10-30, 1939 -- Andrew Wyeth (NMc4: 614)

Nov. 1-30, 1939 -- Americana Paintings, Watercolors, Prints, Drawings (NMc4: 616-617)

Dec. 5-30, 1939 -- In the Georges Islands, Maine: Paintings by N.C. Wyeth (NMc4: 618)

Dec. 5-30, 1939 -- Dry Brush Drawings by Stow Wengenroth (NMc4: 618-619)

Jan. 2-27, 1940 -- Brackman (NMc4: 623-624)

Jan. 30-Feb. 19, 1940 -- Paintings by Moses Soyer (NMc4: 630-631)

Feb. 20-Mar. 11, 1940 -- Watercolors by Emil J. Kosa, Jr. (NMc4: 637)

Mar. 12-30, 1940 -- Paintings by Edna Reindel (NMc4: 636)

April 1940 -- Paintings and Drawings by Jon Corbino (NMc4: 639-640)

May 7-18, 1940 -- "Star Boat Races," by Gerald Foster (NMc4: 640)

Summer 1940 -- Summer Exhibition (NMc4: 641)

Oct. 1940 -- October Exhibition (NMc4: 642)

Nov. 12-Dec. 2, 1940 -- Paintings by Antonio P. Martino (NMc4: 645)

Dec. 10-30, 1940 -- Monhegan Paintings and Sketches by Jay Connaway (NMc4: 648)

Dec. 31, 1940-Jan. 13, 1941 -- Oils and Watercolors by Contemporary Artists (NMc4: 649)

Jan. 14-Feb. 3, 1941 -- Paintings and Drawings by Augustus Vincent Tack (NMc4: 650-651)

Feb. 4-24, 1941 -- Recent Paintings by Peter Hurd (NMc4: 652)

Feb. 18-Mar. 3, 1941 -- Earl Gross Watercolors (NMc4: 654-655)

Feb. 25-Mar. 16, 1941 -- Recent Paintings by Herman Maril (NMc4: 656-657)

Mar. 18-Apr. 5, 1941 -- Joseph de Martini Gouache Paintings (NMc4: 656)

Mar. 25-Apr. 7, 1941 -- Men of Moment: Drawings by Ivan Opffer (NMc4: 660)

Apr. 8-28, 1941 -- Paintings by Orland Campbell (NMc4: 661-662)

Apr. 29-May 12, 1941 -- Small Paintings by Moses Soyer (NMc4: 667-668)

May 1941 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 667)

May 13-24, 1941 -- The 1941 Showing of Blauvelt Interiors (NMc4: 669-671)

May-June 1941 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 669)

Scrapbook 18, July 1941-October 1945

Sept. 1941 -- Group Exhibition: Oils (NMc4: 682)

Oct. 7-27, 1941 -- Third Exhibition of Watercolors by Andrew Wyeth (NMc4: 685)

Oct. 28-Nov. 17, 1941 -- Recent Oils and Watercolors by Ogden M. Pleissner (NMc4: 685-686)

Oct. 28-Nov. 17, 1941 -- Watercolors by Merrill A. Bailey (NMc4: 685)

Nov. 18-Dec. 1, 1941 -- Drawings and Watercolors by Carl Newland Werntz (NMc4: 688-689)

Nov. 18-Dec. 1, 1941 -- Hymn to the Sun: A Sculpture in Bronze by Emily Winthrop Miles (NMc4: 688)

Dec. 1941 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 690)

Dec. 2-22, 1941 -- Original Dolls by Edith Flack Ackley and their Portraits in Watercolor by Telka Ackley (NMc4: 690)

Jan. 5-24, 1942 -- Paintings by Furman Joseph Finck (NMc4: 694)

Jan. 5-24, 1942 -- Watercolors of Maine and Florida by Maurice Becker (NMc4: 694-695)

Jan. 19-Feb. 14, 1942 -- Watercolors, Pastels, Drawings by Jerome Myers, 1867-1940 (NMc4: 696)

Feb. 16-28, 1942 -- Watercolors by Cory Kilvert (NMc4: 697-698)

Feb. 16-Mar. 7, 1942 -- Paintings by Deceased American Masters (NMc4: 697-698)

Mar. 9-28, 1942 -- Paintings by Marsden Hartley (NMc4: 700-701)

Mar. 9-28, 1942 -- Watercolors by Karl Mattern (NMc4: 700)

Apr. 13-30, 1942 -- Fiftieth Anniversary Exhibition, 1892-1942 (NMc4: 703-704)

May 4-29, 1942 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 707)

June 1942 -- June Exhibition (NMc4: 708)

June 15-27, 1942 -- War Bond Exhibitions of Contemporary American Art (NMc4: 708)

Sept. 1942 -- September Exhibition (NMc4: 709)

Nov. 16-28, 1942 -- Watercolors by Jean Paul Slusser (NMc4: 710)

Nov. 24-Dec. 12, 1942 -- T. Chambers, First American Modern (NMc4: 711-714)

Dec. 1-14, 1942 -- Watercolors by Red Robin (NMc4: 715-716)

Dec. 15, 1942-Jan. 2, 1943 -- Leaves From a Soldier's Sketchbook by Pvt. Olin Dows, U. S. Army (NMc4: 717)

Jan. 4-23, 1943 -- Paintings by Sprinchorn (NMc4: 717-718)

Feb. 1-13, 1943 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 719)

Feb. 15-Mar. 6, 1943 -- Small Paintings by Moses Soyer (NMc4: 720)

Mar. 15-27, 1943 -- Ellen du Pont Wheelwright (NMc4: 721)

Mar. 15-27, 1943 -- Watercolors by Cory Kilvert (NMc4: 721)

Mar. 29-Apr. 17, 1943 -- Recent Paintings by Joseph De Martini (NMc4: 722)

Mar. 29-Apr. 17, 1943 -- Watercolor Exhibition (NMc4: 722)

Apr. 19-May 1, 1943 -- Corp. Herman Maril (NMc4: 728)

Apr. 19-May 8, 1943 -- Theodore Robinson (NMc4: 723-725)

May-June 1943 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 729)

Sept. 1943 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 731)

Oct. 11-30, 1943 -- Watercolors by Henry Gasser (NMc4: 723-733)

Nov. 1-20, 1943 -- Tempera and Watercolors by Andrew Wyeth (NMc4: 735-736)

Nov. 22-Dec. 4, 1943 -- Portraits of Children by Barnard Lentott (NMc4: 741-742)

Dec. 1943 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 741)

Dec. 6-24, 1943 -- Rural Vermont: Watercolors by Sylvia Wright (NMc4: 743-744)

Jan. 3-15, 1944 -- Watercolors of War by Red Robin (NMc4: 743-744)

Jan. 31-Feb. 19, 1944 -- Loan Exhibition, Worthington Whittredge, 1825-1910 (NMc4: 745-746)

Feb. 21-Mar. 11, 1944 -- Paintings by Constance Richardson (NMc4: 749-750)

Mar. 13-Apr. 1, 1944 -- Watercolors by Vanessa Helder (NMc4: 751, 753)

Mar. 13-Apr. 1, 1944 -- Temperas and Watercolors by Peter Hurd (NMc4: 751-753)

Apr. 3-22, 1944 -- American Paintings of the Early 19th Century (NMc4: 754-755)

Apr. 24-May 13, 1944 -- Brackman (NMc4: 756-757)

May 15-June 3, 1944 -- Two Vermont Artists: Clay Bartlett and Arthur K. D. Healy (NMc4: 758-759)

June 5-24, 1944 -- Women at War by Edna Reindel (NMc4: 760)

July 1944 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 762)

Sept. 25-Oct. 15, 1944 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 763)

Oct. 16-Nov. 4, 1944 -- Paintings by Felicia Meyer (NMc4: 764-765)

Nov. 15-Dec. 2, 1944 -- The Aleutian Air Force: Paintings by Ogden M. Pleissner (NMc4: 766-767)

Dec. 4-23, 1944 -- Paintings by John W. Taylor (NMc4: 769-770)

Jan. 8-27, 1945 -- Paintings by Carl Gaertner (NMc4: 771-772)

Jan. 29-Feb. 10, 1945 -- Contemporary American Watercolors (NMc4: 772)

Feb. 19-Mar. 10, 1945 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Maurice Becker (NMc4: 773-774)

Mar. 12-31, 1945 -- Some Early 19th Century Americans (NMc4: 777-778)

Apr. 2-21, 1945 -- Paintings by Joseph De Martini (NMc4: 778-779)

Apr. 23-May 12, 1945 -- Gouaches by Herman Maril (NMc4: 781)

Apr. 23-May 12, 1945 -- Paintings by Molly Luce (NMc4: 781-782)

May-June 1945 -- Group Exhibition: Contemporary Oils and Watercolors (NMc4: 783)

July, Sept., 1945 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 783)

Oct. 1-7, 1945 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 784)

Scrapbook 19, October 1945-November 1949

Oct. 26-Nov. 17, 1945 -- Tempera and Watercolors by Andrew Wyeth (NMc4: 787-788)

Nov. 26-Dec. 15, 1945 -- Marsden Hartley: Paintings and Drawings (NMc4: 791-792)

Dec. 1945 -- Christmas Exhibition (NMc4: 793)

Jan. 7-26, 1946 -- New York in Watercolors by James Lechay (NMc4: 794)

Jan. 28-Feb. 16, 1946 -- Herbert Meyer (NMc4: 795)

Feb. 18-Mar. 19, 1946 -- Ary Stillman (NMc4: 797-798)

Mar. 11-30, 1946 -- Watercolors by Arthur K. D. Haley (NMc4: 800-801)

Apr. 1-20, 1946 -- Albert P. Ryder (NMc4: 802-805)

Apr. 22-May 11, 1946 -- Paintings by Constance Richardson (NMc4: 809-810)

May 13-31, 1946 -- Furman Jospeh Finck (NMc4: 811-812)

June 1946 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 813)

July 1946 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 813)

Sept. 1946 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 814)

Sept. 30-Oct. 19, 1946 -- Gouaches by Charles Schucker (NMc4: 815)

Oct. 2-Nov. 9, 1946 -- Watercolors and Drawings by Olin Dows (NMc4: 816-817)

Nov. 4-30, 1946 -- Ogden M. Pleissner (NMc4: 818)

Dec. 2-28, 1946 -- Oils and Watercolors by Emil J. Kosa, Jr. (NMc4: 819-820)

Jan. 6-26, 1947 -- Carl Gaertner (NMc4: 821-822)

Jan. 27-Feb. 15, 1947 -- Carl Sprinchorn (NMc4: 823)

Mar. 3-22, 1947 -- Dorothy Hoyt (NMc4: 825-826)

Mar. 24-Apr. 12, 1947 -- Joseph De Martini (NMc4: 827-828)

Apr. 14-May 10, 1947 -- Whistler Loan Exhibition (NMc4: 828-834)

June-July, 1947 -- Summer Exhibition (NMc4: 840)

Sept. 1947 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 841)

Oct. 13-Nov. 1, 1947 -- Paintings by Allen Tucker (NMc4: 842-844)

Nov. 3-22, 1947 -- Watercolors by Henry Gasser (NMc4: 846-847)

Nov. 24-Dec. 13, 1947 -- James Lechay (NMc4: 849-850)

Dec. 15, 1947-Jan. 3, 1948 -- Watercolor Exhibition (NMc4: 851)

Jan. 5-24, 1948 -- Clay Bartlett (NMc4: 852-853)

Jan. 26-Feb. 14, 1945 -- Exhibition (NMc4: 854)

Jan. 26-Feb. 14, 1948 -- Oils and Watercolors by Contemporary Artists (NMc4: 854)

Feb. 16-Mar. 6, 1948 -- Herman Maril (NMc4: 855-856)

Mar. 22-Apr. 3, 1948 -- American Art: A Multiple Exhibition arranged by the Associated Dealers in American Art (NMc4: 857-858)

Apr. 5-24, 1948 -- Raphael Gleitsmann (NMc4: 866-867)

Apr. 26-May 15, 1948 -- Oils and Watercolors by John La Farge (NMc4: 864)

May-Sept. 1948 -- Group Exhibitions (NMc4: 867)

Oct. 4-23, 1948 -- Watercolors by Charles Culver (NMc4: 869-870)

Oct. 26-Nov. 13, 1948 -- Ogden M. Pleissner (NMc4: 872)

Nov. 15-Dec. 4, 1948 -- Andrew Wyeth (NMc4: 874-875)

Nov. 21-Dec. 4, 1948 -- Oils and Gouaches by Charles Schucker (NMc4: 332-333)

Dec. 6-31, 1948 -- Watercolors and Drawings by Hermann Gross (NMc4: 877-878)

Jan. 4-22, 1949 -- Electra Bostwick (NMc4: 879, 882)

Jan. 27-Feb. 19, 1949 -- Paintings by Edna Reindel (NMc4: 880-881)

Feb. 28-Mar. 19, 1949 -- Thomas Doughty (NMc4: 885-887)

Mar. 21-Apr. 9, 1949 -- Watercolors by Arthur K. D. Healy (NMc4: 889)

Apr. 12-30, 1949 -- Drawings by Olin Dows (NMc4: 890)

May 1949 -- Group Exhibition (NMc4: 894)

Oct. 10-29, 1949 -- Clay Bartlett: Paintings of North and South America (NMc4: 895-896)

Nov. 1-19, 1949 -- Watercolors by Henry Gasser (NMc4: 897-898)

Scrapbook 20, 1949-1952

Nov. 21-Dec. 10, 1949 -- Oils and Gouaches by Charles Shucker (NMc4: 332-333)

Dec. 1949 -- Watercolor Exhibition (NMc4: 334)

Jan. 3-21, 1950 -- Carl Gaertner (NMc4: 335-356)

Jan. 23-Feb. 11, 1950 -- Constance Richardson (NMc4: 337-338)

Mar. 6-25, 1950 -- John Taylor (NMc4: 339-340)

Apr. 1950 -- Joseph De Martini (NMc4: 341)

May 8-27, 1950 -- Carl Sprinchorn (NMc4: 342-343)

Summer 1950 -- Summer Exhibition (NMc4: 345)

Oct. 9-28, 1950 -- Caseins by James Lechay (NMc4: 345-346)

Oct. 31-Nov. 18, 1950 -- Ogden M. Pleissner: Paris and the Provinces (NMc4: 347-348)

Nov. 21-Dec. 9, 1950 -- Andrew Wyeth (NMc4: 349-350)

Jan. 2-20, 1951 -- Nat Koffman (NMc4: 356-357)

Jan. 22-Feb. 10, 1951 -- Watercolors by Hermann Gross (NMc4: 358)

Feb. 12-Mar. 3, 1951 -- Watercolors (D55:390-391; NMc4: 359)

Mar. 5-24, 1951 -- Paintings by Francis Colburn (NMc4: 360)

Mar. 27-Apr. 14, 1951 -- Paintings by Herman Maril (NMc4: 361)

Apr. 16-May 5, 1951 -- Raphael Gleitsmann (NMc4: 362-363)

Summer 1951 -- Summer Exhibition (NMc4: 364)

July 7-Aug. 4, 1951 -- Paintings and Drawings by Andrew Wyeth (NMc4: 364-381)

Nov. 26-Dec. 15, 1951 -- Watercolors by Arthur K. D. Healy (NMc4: 387)

Feb. 4-Mar. 1, 1952 -- Italian Landscapes by George Inness (NMc4: 388-389)

June-July, Sept. 1952 -- Summer Exhibition (NMc4: 392)

Nov. 6-29, 1952 -- Andrew Wyeth (NMc4: 391-392)
Fragile original scrapbooks are closed to researchers. For more information, please contact Reference Services.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Macbeth Gallery records, 1838-1968, bulk 1892 to 1953. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
AAA.macbgall, Series 5
See more items in:
Macbeth Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art

The Daily Picayune

Published by:
The Daily Picayune, American, 1837 - 1914  Search this
ink on paper
H x W: 21 1/8 × 32 1/4 in. (53.7 × 81.9 cm)
Place printed:
New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana, United States, North and Central America
July 10, 1856
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
American South  Search this
Business  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Fugitive enslaved  Search this
Labor  Search this
Resistance  Search this
Self-liberation  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
Proper usage is the responsibility of the user.
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National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Slavery and Freedom Objects
Books and Published Materials
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
Online Media:

The Liberator, Vol. XXIII, No. 7

Created by:
The Liberator, American, 1831 - 1865  Search this
Edited by:
William Lloyd Garrison, American, 1805 - 1879  Search this
Published by:
Isaac Knapp, American, 1808 - 1858  Search this
Printed by:
J.B. Yerrington & Son, American  Search this
ink on paper
H x W (closed): 24 3/4 × 17 7/8 in. (62.9 × 45.4 cm)
Place printed:
Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
February 18, 1853
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Antislavery  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Resistance  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Societies  Search this
U.S. History, 1815-1861  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift from the Liljenquist Family Collection
Object number:
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
Proper usage is the responsibility of the user.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
Liljenquist Family Collection
Slavery and Freedom Objects
Books and Published Materials
Abolitionist movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
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The Liberator, Vol. XXIV, No. 16

Created by:
The Liberator, American, 1831 - 1865  Search this
Edited by:
William Lloyd Garrison, American, 1805 - 1879  Search this
Published by:
Isaac Knapp, American, 1808 - 1858  Search this
Printed by:
J.B. Yerrington & Son, American  Search this
ink on paper
H x W (closed): 25 1/4 × 18 3/8 in. (64.1 × 46.7 cm)
Place printed:
Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
April 21, 1854
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Antislavery  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Fugitive enslaved  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Resistance  Search this
Self-liberation  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Societies  Search this
U.S. History, 1815-1861  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift from the Liljenquist Family Collection
Object number:
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
Proper usage is the responsibility of the user.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
Liljenquist Family Collection
Slavery and Freedom Objects
Books and Published Materials
Abolitionist movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
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The Liberator, Vol. XXV, No. 8

Created by:
The Liberator, American, 1831 - 1865  Search this
Edited by:
William Lloyd Garrison, American, 1805 - 1879  Search this
Published by:
Isaac Knapp, American, 1808 - 1858  Search this
Printed by:
J.B. Yerrington & Son, American  Search this
ink on paper
H x W (closed): 25 × 17 15/16 in. (63.5 × 45.6 cm)
Place printed:
Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
February 23, 1855
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Antislavery  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Fugitive enslaved  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Resistance  Search this
Self-liberation  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Societies  Search this
U.S. History, 1815-1861  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift from the Liljenquist Family Collection
Object number:
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
Proper usage is the responsibility of the user.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
Liljenquist Family Collection
Slavery and Freedom Objects
Books and Published Materials
Abolitionist movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
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The Liberator, Vol. XV, No. 20

Created by:
The Liberator, American, 1831 - 1865  Search this
Edited by:
William Lloyd Garrison, American, 1805 - 1879  Search this
Published by:
Isaac Knapp, American, 1808 - 1858  Search this
Printed by:
J.B. Yerrington & Son, American  Search this
ink on paper
H x W (closed): 24 13/16 × 17 7/8 in. (63 × 45.4 cm)
Place printed:
Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
May 16, 1845
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Antislavery  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Resistance  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Societies  Search this
U.S. History, 1815-1861  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift from the Liljenquist Family Collection
Object number:
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
Proper usage is the responsibility of the user.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
Liljenquist Family Collection
Slavery and Freedom Objects
Books and Published Materials
Abolitionist movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
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Online Media:

Rural Sports, Balloon Hunting

Thomas Rowlandson  Search this
Thomas Tegg  Search this
Print, Etching on Paper, Colored
2-D - In Frame (H x W x D): 47.6 x 64.8cm (18 3/4 x 25 1/2 in.)
2-D - Unframed (H x W): 22.9 x 34.9cm (9 in. x 13 3/4 in.)
ART-Prints, Original
Country of Origin:
United Kingdom
Credit Line:
Gift of Harry F. Guggenheim
Inventory Number:
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
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National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum

Rocket Practice in the Marshes

J. Grant Woolwich  Search this
Print, Lithograph on Paper, Colored
2-D - In Frame (H x W x D): 50.8 x 63.5cm (20 x 25 in.)
ART-Prints, Original
Country of Origin:
United Kingdom
Credit Line:
Gift of Pip and Frederick C. Durant, III.
Inventory Number:
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
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National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum

Rural Sports, Balloon Hunting

Thomas Tegg  Search this
Print, Etching on Paper, Colored
2-D - Unframed (H x W) (Matted): 37.1 x 47.3cm (14 5/8 x 18 5/8 in.)
ART-Prints, Original
Country of Origin:
United Kingdom
Credit Line:
Donor: Mr. Thomas A. Knowles
Inventory Number:
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
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National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum

Frederick Douglass Patterson papers

Patterson, Frederick D. (Frederick Douglass), 1901-1988  Search this
Phelps-Stokes Fund  Search this
Tuskegee Institute  Search this
United Negro College Fund  Search this
Carver, George Washington, 1864?-1943  Search this
Moton, Robert Russa, 1867-1940  Search this
Patterson, Frederick D. (Frederick Douglass), 1901-1988  Search this
18.66 Linear feet (21 boxes)
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Legal documents
1882 - 1988
President of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute (later Tukegee Institute; now Tuskegee University) from 1935 - 1953 and founder of the United Negro College Fund (1944). Patterson was born on October 10, 1901. Orphaned at age two, he was raised by his eldest sister, Wilhelmina (Bess), a school teacher in Texas. He studied at Iowa State College, where he received a doctorate in veterinary medicine in 1923 and a master of science degree in 1927. Five years later, he was awarded a second doctorate degree from Cornell University. Patterson taught veterinary science for four years at Virginia State College, where he was also Director of Agriculture. His tenure at Tuskegee University started in 1928 and spanned almost 25 years, first as head of the veterinary division, then as the director of the School of Agriculture and finally as Tuskegee's third president. He married Catherine Elizabeth Moton, daughter of Tuskegee University's second president, Dr. Robert R. Moton. Patterson also founded the School of Veterinary Medicine at Tuskegee in 1944, the same year he founded the United Negro College Fund (UNCF). The UNCF continues today as a critical source of annual income for a consortium of Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Tuskegee University among them.
Scope and Content note:
The Frederick Douglass Patterson Collection comprises 18.66 linear feet of correspondence, manuscripts, research material, published writings, photographs, audiovisual material, scrapbooks, diplomas, awards, and other materials chronicling the personal life and professional career of Frederick D. Patterson.

The collection is comprised of glimpses into the life of Dr. Patterson. The little correspondece that survived is located in Series 2: Career, Series 3: Correspondence, and Series 4: Organizations. Some of the correspondence takes the form of congratulatory notes from 1953 during Patterson's transfer from Tuskegee Institute to the Phelps-Stokes Fund, located in Series 2. There is also a personal note sent to Patterson's wife, Catherine Patterson, from George Washington Carver in which he describes peanut oil as a good massage oil.
Arrangement note:
The collection is arranged by series and chronologically therein:

1. Biography: This series provides insight into Patterson's family life through primary documents. It is comprised of family wills, insurance policies, and his autobiography. Sub-series are arranged alphabetically by title.

2. Career: This series contains materials from Patterson's long professional career in the field of higher education, including his tenure as present of both the Tuskegee Institute and the Phelps-Stokes Fund. Sub-series are arranged chronologically.

3. Correspondence: This series contains letters sent to Patterson (and his wife) of a personal and professional nature. Several letters relate to Patterson's personal business "Signs and Services," which was a small billboard advertising company. There are also letters from George Washington Carver. The series is arranged chronologically. 4. Organizations: This series contains material from the various foundations Patterson founded and to which he belonged, including the R.R. Moton Fund and the College Endowment Funding Plan. He is especially noted for developing the United Negro College Fund. The series is organized alphabetically by sub-series title.

5. Honors: This series contains the awards, citations, and resolutions Patterson received during his lifetime. Folders are organized chronologically. 6. Subject Files: This series comprises articles, employee vitas, and other documents collected and organized by Patterson. Among the subjects in the files are higher education, Negroes, segregation, civil rights, and employee records. There is no key to this system.

7. Photographs: The Photograph series mostly documents Patterson's tenure at Tuskegee University. The series includes images of Patterson and various other notable figures during formal functions at the university. Noteworthy personalities include George Washington Carver, Eleanor and Franklin D. Roosevelt, and President Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana.

8. Printed Materials: This series contains books, programs, and other documents from Patterson's personal collection. The series is organized alphabetically by author's last name.
Biographical note:
Frederick Douglass Patterson was born on October 10, 1901 to parents William and Mamie Brooks Patterson, in the Buena Vista Heights area of Anacostia in Washington, D.C. The youngest of six children, Patterson's parents died of tuberculosis before he reached the age of two years, his mother when he was eleven months old and his father a year later. Following his parents' death, the Patterson children were split up and sent to live in the homes of family and friends as stipulated in his father's last will and testament until he was seven years old, Patterson lived in the Anacostia area with a family friend he called "Aunt Julia."

When he was seven years old, Patterson's older sister Bess (a recent graduate of the Washington Conservatory of Music) decided to seek employment in Texas and took him with her. Many of their parents' family still lived in the state, which allowed Patterson the opportunity to spend months with various aunts and uncles, while his sister taught music throughout the South. After completing eighth grade, Patterson joined his sister at the Prairie View Normal School, where she taught music and directed the choir. Patterson attended the school for four years, during which time he developed an interest in veterinary medicine.

In 1920, Patterson enrolled at Iowa State College as a veterinary student. He graduated in 1923 and moved to Columbus, Ohio, to join his brother John. While there, he took the Ohio State Board exam for Veterinary Medicine. Although he became certified, a lack of money prevented him from practicing. Four years later he received a teaching offer from Virginia State College (VSC) in Petersburg, Virginia, which afforded him the opportunity to work within his profession. While at VSC Patterson took a leave of absence and returned to Iowa, in 1926, to pursue a Master's degree in veterinary medicine.

After five years at VSC, the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute offered Patterson a position running the veterinarian hospital and teaching veterinary science. He moved to Tuskegee, Alabama in 1928. While at Tuskegee, Patterson decided to pursue a Ph.D. in bacteriology at Cornell University. During his year and a half leave from Tuskegee, Patterson completed his coursework and wrote his dissertation. After he returned to Tuskegee, a serial killer murdered three people, including the head of the Department of Agriculture. Confronted with this tragedy, school officials quickly offered Patterson the vacant position, which he accepted in 1934.

Robert R. Moton, second president of Tuskegee, retired in 1935 and a search was soon commenced to find the next president for the school. Patterson, in the meantime, pursued more personal matters when he met and married Catherine Moton (with whom he would have a son) in June 1935. By then he was already hired to take his now, father-in-law's, position as President of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute.

As president of Tuskegee, Patterson made several changes and many additions to the institution. He increased faculty housing for professors; integrated the Board of Trustees' meeting meals and eventually arranged for both balck and white members to eat at one table; shortened the name to Tuskegee Institute; and established the Department of Commercial Dietetics in 1935, the veterinary medicine program in 1942, and the engineering program in 1948. While many considered Patterson's changes important achievements, it was his development of the Commercial/Military Aviation Program that would bring the school distinction and fame.

Patterson first attempted to develop the aviation program in 1939. The government fostered the development of such programs by subsiding the expenses. All a university had to do was present able-bodied instructors and willing pupils. Tuskegee had both. By 1940 the United States Air Force was interested in integrating its forces. In order to do this they needed trained black pilots. Tuskegee was the perfect place to provide the needed pilots since the school was situated in an all-black environment where students could concentrate on learning to fly without having to worry about racist reactions from their fellow classmates. To accommodate this program, the Tuskegee Army Air Base was created. Tuskegee pilots flew missions throughout World War II and would later be recognized for their bravery.

An important part of Patterson's duties as president was fund-raising. By 1943 he found it increasingly difficult to find ample sources of funds to run the Institute. He came to realize Tuskegee and similar black colleges would benefit if they pooled their funding resources and asked for larger amounts of money from philanthropic individuals and organizations as a collective. Working together would cut fund-raising expenses; this in turn would leave more money for the colleges to use as they wished. Patterson named his new creation the United Negro College Fund (UNCF); it would go on to raise millions of dollars for the nation's historically black colleges. He served as the first president of the organization.

During the fifteen years Patterson served as president of Tuskegee, he hosted many famous personalities, including W.E.B. DuBois, Mary McLeod Bethune, Eleanor Roosevelt, Duke Ellington, Paul Robeson, Pearl Buck, and Andre Segovia. He developed a lasting relationship with George Washington Carver, who had been a professor with Tuskegee since the days of Booker T. Washington.

Patterson served on many organizational boards in addition to his educational work. His involvement with the Phelps-Stokes Fund would ultimately lead Patterson to leave his beloved Tuskegee Institute to apply his educational philosophies on a broader scale. In 1953 the Fund approached Patterson and offered him the presidency of the organization. Patterson, feeling he needed a change, accepted the offer. He resigned from Tuskegee that same year and moved to New York to begin a new life.

Organized in 1911, the Phelps-Stokes Fund supported African, African American, and Native American education and worked on solving housing problems in New York City. Patterson's interest in African education began before he joined Phelps-Stokes. In 1950 the World Bank/International Bank Commission to Nigeria hired him to "evaluate the resources of Nigeria and…to study the educational programs and the organizational structure of advanced education." Through his work with the Fund he continued his efforts to improve the educational opportunities for Africans and help them move beyond colonialism. Patterson traveled extensively throughout the west coast of Africa in support of these goals.

In addition to forming the UNCF, Patterson created two other organizations (the Robert R. Moton Institute and the College Endowment Funding Plan), during the mid 1960s and 1970s. Each was designed to improve funding efforts for historically black colleges. The Robert R. Moton institute began as an off-shoot of the Phelps-Stokes as a site for conferences to address the Fund's primary concerns. Patterson's idea for the Institute came from a desire to put to use a piece of property inherited after Moton's death. Empathy with the frustrations of college presidents regarding the restricted funding for institutional expenses led Patterson to create the College Endowment Funding Plan. The Endowment was designed to alleviate this situation by providing matching funds to eligible colleges. The Endowment made its first payment in 1978. Unfortunately, by the 1980s, the Moton Institute lost most of its government funding due to federal cutbacks. This resulted in reductions to the Institute's programming.

It was not until Patterson was well into his eighties that he began to retire from his life of public service. On June 23, 1987, President Ronald Reagan presented Dr. Patterson with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest possible honor that can be bestowed upon a civilian, for his service in higher education and his role in creating funding sources for the nation's historically black colleges. A year later Frederick Douglass Patterson died at the age of eighty-seven.

Honorary Degrees

undated -- Xavier University

1941 -- Virginia State College

1941 -- Wilberforce University

1953 -- Morehouse College

1956 -- Tuskegee Institute

1961 -- New York University

1966 -- Edward Waters College

1967 -- Atlanta University

1969 -- Franklin and Marshall College

1970 -- Virginia Union University

1975 -- Bishop College

1977 -- St. Augustine's College

1982 -- Brooklyn College of the City University of New York

1984 -- Stillman College

1985 -- Payne College


undated -- Association for the Study of Negro Life and History Carter

undated -- The Southern Education Foundation, Inc. Distinguished Service Citation

undated -- The United Negro College Fund (UNCF) and Texas Association of Developing Colleges Annual Leadership Awards

1950 -- Christian Education department, African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, Inc. Citation for Distinguished Service

1953 -- Bethune-Cookman College, the Mary McLeod Bethune Medallion

1953 -- John A. Andrew Clinical Society at Tuskegee Institute, Citation for Distinguished Service in the Cause of Humanity

1953 -- Tuskegee Institute, Certificate of Appreciation for 25 Years of Service

1957 -- Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, Inc. Beta Lamda Sigma Chapter, Bigger and Better Business Award

1960 -- National Alumni Council of the UNCF, Inc. Award

1963 -- National Business League, Booker T. Washington Award

1965 -- Booker T. Washington Business Association, Certificate of Acknowledgement

1970 -- Moton Conference Center Award

1970 -- Tuskegee National Alumni Association, R.R. Moton Award

1972 -- American College Public Relations Association, 1972 Award for Distinguished Service to Higher Education

1972 -- UNCF F.D. Patterson 71st Birthday Award

1975 -- National Business League, Booker T. Washington Symbol of Service Award

1976 -- Phelps-Stokes Fund, Continuous Creative and Courageous Leadership in the Cause of Higher Education for Blacks

1977 -- Yale Alumni Associates of Afro-America, Distinguished Service Award

1979 -- Alpha Phi Alpha Education Foundation Inc., Distinguished Educator Award

1979 -- Tuskegee Institute Alumni Association Philadelphia Charter Award

1980 -- The Iowa State University Alumni Association, Distinguished Achievement Citation

1980 -- Gary Branch NAACP Life Membership Fight for Freedom Dinner 1980, Roy Wilkins Award

1980 -- State of Alabama Certificate of Appreciation

1982 -- St. Luke's United Methodist Church Achievement Award

1983 -- Tuskegee Airmen, Inc., Distinguished Service Award

1984 -- Booker T. Washington Foundation, Booker T. Washington Distinguished Service Award

1984 -- The Ohio State University Office of Minority Affairs, Distinguished Humanitarian and Service Award

1985 -- Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc, Eta Zeta Lamda Chapter Civic Award

1985 -- United States, Private Sector Initiative Commendation

1987 -- Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc of New York State, Founders Day Award

1987 -- Presidential Medal of Freedom

1987 -- Brag Business Achievement Award

1987 -- Phelps-Stokes Fund, Aggrey Medal

Public Service

1941-1971 -- Southern Educational Foundation, Inc., Board Member

1943-1988 -- United Negro College Fund, Founder, President, and Member

1960s-1988 -- Robert R. Moton Memorial Institute, Founder

1970s-1988 -- The College Endowment Funding Plan, Founder

undated -- American National Red Cross, Board of Governors Member

undated -- Boys Scouts of America, National Council Member

undated -- Citizens Committee for the Hoover Report on Reorganization of Federal Government, Board Member

undated -- Institute of International Education, Advisory committee Member

undated -- National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Life Member

undated -- National Business League, President and Board Member

undated -- National Urban League, National Committee Member

undated -- Phelps-Stokes Fund, Board of Trustees Member

undated -- President's Commission on Higher Education for Negroes

undated -- Southern Regional Education, Board of Control Member
Related Materials:
Additional biographical materials in the Dale/Patterson Collection of the Anacostia Community Museum Archives.

This collection contains artifacts catalogued in the ACM Objects Collection.
The Frederick Douglass Patterson papers were donated to the Anacostia Community Museum in 2001 by Frederick Douglass Patterson, Jr.
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment:
The Frederick Douglass Patterson papers are the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. Rights to work produced during the normal course of Museum business resides with the Anacostia Community Museum. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
Universities and colleges -- Administration  Search this
African Americans -- Education (Higher)  Search this
African American universities and colleges  Search this
Photographic prints
Legal documents
Frederick Douglass Patterson papers, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Frederick Douglass Patterson, Jr.
See more items in:
Frederick Douglass Patterson papers
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
Online Media:

Charlotte Cramer Sachs Papers

Sachs, Charlotte Cramer, 1907-2004  Search this
Cramanna  Search this
Cramarc  Search this
Crambruck Press  Search this
Cramer Products Company  Search this
Joy Originals  Search this
Joy Products  Search this
Sachs, Alexander  Search this
Samuels, Donald  Search this
4 Cubic feet (13 boxes)
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Patent applications
Sheet music
bulk 1940-2002
Papers relating to Charlotte Cramer Sachs's life and career as an inventor mainly of food and household-related products: correspondence, photographs, business papers, awards, patents, printed materials, notes, and miscellany. The collection primarily consists of invention-related marketing materials including invention samples and prototypes, notes, clippings, business correspondence, and customer account records.
Scope and Contents:
The records are divided into two series. Series 2 is further divided into eight subseries.

Series 1 documents the inventor's creativity through her artistic, literary, and musical records. Also included are awards and certificates received and materials related to her childhood home. This series contains few photos of Cramer Sachs herself, although a print of one of her paintings, "Portrait of a Lady," circa 1953, seems to be a self-portrait. There are no photos of her husband or daughter in the collection. Also missing is any information related to the inventor's formal education, childhood, the circumstances of her departure from Berlin, marriage, and family life.

Materials in Series 2 constitute the bulk of the collection and are primarily comprised of marketing ephemera, with very few financial and production records. This series gives a broad outline of Cramer Sachs's many inventions documenting Joy Products and wine-related inventions in the most depth.

Series 1: Creative and Artistic Papers, 1933-2002

These records include sheet music, songbooks, stories, and poetry of the inventor's own creation; photographic prints of her artwork; art exhibition materials; publishing company (Crambruck Press) records and published materials; childhood residence ("Haus Cramer") materials, and awards and certificates unrelated to inventions. Artwork and songs make up the bulk of the materials, and are arranged alphabetically by subject. Records in this series provide a context for Cramer Sachs's career as an inventor, although they do not reveal extensive information regarding her personal life or history.

Records relating to artwork include press releases, exhibition photographic prints and negatives, promotional materials, newspaper clippings, notebooks compiled by Cramer Sachs, as well as donation records of artworks given by the inventor to The Cathedral Church of St. John the Divine.

Crambruck Press publishing company is a combined name which incorporates the inventor's surname, Cramer and mother's maiden name, Bruck. These records include a pre-publication notice and order form for a Crambruck Press publication, correspondence from a donor, as well as three Crambruck Press publications: From Boring Dinosaur to Passionate Computer by Livingston Welch, 1968; Poems by Helen H. Shotwell, 1970; and In Search of Harmony by Charlo, 1964.

Haus Cramer materials include photographs, newspaper clippings (many of them in German), correspondence between Cramer Sachs and Stanford University, and floor plans of the house designed in 1912 by German architect Hermann Muthesius. A framed black-and-white photographic print of Haus Cramer is fragile and is housed in a sink matte, box 9.

Poetry materials, songs, and stories are contained in bound books, published songbooks, original sheet music, and copyright records for song words, manuscripts written by Cramer Sachs, as well as correspondence records related to her writings. The song "With Love From New York" was used in the marketing of "Joy New Yorkshire Pudding Mix," and the records contain a vinyl recording which doubles as a marketing piece. Allusions to her husband, Alexander Sachs, and daughter, Eleanor, are found in some of her songs and stories.

Translation materials are comprised of correspondence (mostly in German), as well as Cramer Sachs's complete English translation of the "Stoffel Flies Across the Ocean" story, originally written in German by Erika Mann, circa 1932.

Series 2: Invention Records, 1905-2002

Invention Records contain information related to Cramer Sachs as an inventor and are divided into eight subseries. Materials include: patent related records; samples and prototypes; marketing and advertising materials; newspaper and magazine clippings; business correspondence records; customer account records; Wine Museum materials; and patent searches. These present a broad overview of Cramer Sachs's many inventions, although the majority of information is concentrated in the Household/Office, Food Products, and Wine-related series. Records are arranged chronologically by invention. The final subseries contain patent searches requested by the inventor.

Subseries 2.1: Cramer Products Company and Affiliate Company Records, 1942-2002

Materials include financial records, business correspondence, company awards and certificates, real estate materials, license agreements with outside inventors, a promotion prospectus for the company, and three company stamps (three dimensional). Also included are records of an invention for which Cramer Sachs sought copyright, "Orthodontic Device," 1954, and those having to do with products distributed—not invented—by Cramer Products Company, "Forster Longfresh," 1985. In addition, there are black-and-white photographic prints of an office opening which include images of Cramer Sachs in 1967. These records are arranged chronologically.

Subseries 2.2: Household/Office Records, 1913-1972

These records relate to seven different inventions, each with varying degrees of information. "Combination Key and Flashlight," 1940 was an improvement on previous patents and therefore consists of the earlier patent materials (1913 and 1938), Cramer Sachs's patent application materials, an official, sealed patent application (1940), prototype drawings, correspondence records related to manufacturing and distribution, photographic prints, and a newspaper article. "Cozi-Crib," 1958 and 1968, and "Joy Originals Log Cabin Furniture Set," 1957, records include marketing materials whereas "Holdit," 1972, and "Party Platter," 1962, are minimally represented by one or two photographic prints. "Gaitray" materials consist of four product samples. Materials for "Miracle Knee Tray," circa 1953 include marketing ephemera, a photograph, and two product samples. A prototype for the "Traypron," 1954, is also included. These records are arranged alphabetically by invention name.

Subseries 2.3: Food Products, 1940-1969

Records in this subseries are mostly comprised of Joy Products prepared mix materials. Two exceptions are the small, fragile recipe book, 1940, and the "Caviodka," 1962, records. Business correspondence materials contain those from a food and equipment consultant, the Colgate-Palmolive Company, and Arthur Colton Company, in addition to those relating to the incorporation of Cramer Sachs's "baking mix manufacturing plant" (1945). There are numerous packaging samples of various Joy Products, along with handwritten recipes and notes. An example of early packaging for Joy Products "Early American Muffin Mix" is in flat box 10. This subseries also includes customer surveys and comments, marketing plans and proposals, advertisements, and a marketing portfolio compiled by the inventor. A scrapbook contains Joy Products newspaper clippings, advertisements, marketing ephemera, and photographs of store displays. The scrapbook pages are extremely brittle and are housed in sleeves. Preservation copies are available for research use. These records are arranged chronologically.

Subseries 2.4: Pet Accessories, 1953-1954

This subseries consists of materials relating to three inventions: "Bonnie Stand," circa 1953-1954; "Guidog," 1953; and "Watch-Dog," 1953. Records include photographic prints, marketing materials, printing blocks (for "Bonnie Stand"), as well as a declaration of invention for, and a product sample of, "Watch-Dog." These records are arranged alphabetically by invention name.

Subseries 2.5: Games, 1961-1969

The inventor created two games: "Domi-Notes," circa 1961 and "Musicards," circa 1969. "Domi-Notes" materials include an order form citing the distributor as G. Schirmer, Inc. and the addressee as Walter Kane and Son, Inc., and three games two in cardboard boxes, (fragile) and one housed in the original hard plastic case. Records relating to "Musicards" consist of two game samples including directions for playing.

Subseries 2.6: Wine-Related, 1966-2002

Wine-related records cover twenty distinct inventions and range from specialty cabinets—which make-up the bulk of the materials—to bottle accessories such as the "Bottle Bib" and the "Cramanna Bottle Ring." The type and number of records vary, with the majority concentrated in the "Cool-Safe," "Cramarc Multiple Cabinet," "Modern Wine Cellar," and "Well Tempered Systems" folders. Records in invention-specific folders are arranged alphabetically and include marketing materials, press releases, photographic prints and some negatives, cabinet drawings, brochures, order forms, correspondence, as well as product samples of "Bottle Bibs."

Customer account records are arranged alphabetically and consist of billing statements, invoices, receipts, blueprints, correspondence, cabinet drawings, customer feedback, bills of lading, and memoranda. Letters from David H. Wollins laud Cramer Sachs's cabinet as "the finest home wine storage system in the world." Examples of how the inventor handled an unsatisfied customer can be found in the Col. Charles Langley folder.

Miscellaneous wine-related materials follow the customer account records. Included are advertising ephemera, photographs, and newspaper clippings originally assembled into a binder by Cramer Sachs. Taped to the inside front cover was a cut-out from a magazine advertisement which reads, "If you stick with the herd, you could end up as a lamb chop." Miscellaneous materials also include unlabeled cabinet drawings, photographic prints, competitor materials, photocopies from Grossman's Guide to Wines, Spirits, and Beers, as well as marketing materials and newspaper clippings covering a range of wine-related inventions. These records are arranged alphabetically by subject.

The final section of the wine-related subseries documents the development and eventual dissolution of The Wine Museum of New York. Records are arranged chronologically and include a provisional charter; an extension of the provisional charter; a newspaper clipping; outreach correspondence; a binder of wine museum materials including brochures, event invitations, exhibition opening cards, board member profiles, a press release, and newspaper clippings; wine museum exhibition information; and records related to the dissolution of the museum.

Subseries 2.7: Temperature and/or Humidity Controlled Devices, 1968-2002

This subseries documents the inventor's temperature and/or humidity controlled inventions that do not relate to wine. Cramer Sachs created the "Well Tempered Cabinet" for both wine and musical instruments; it is documented in this and the wine-related subseries. These records cover eight distinct inventions which range from specialty cabinets for musical instruments, furs, and cigars to devices designed to cool the body. Records relate to marketing, invention-specific business correspondence, confidential information and competition agreements, and include photographic negatives and prints. Miscellaneous cabinet drawings, cigar-related materials, and newspaper articles are also included. Records are arranged alphabetically by invention name followed by miscellaneous materials.

Subseries 2.8: Patent Searches, 1905-1980

Records in this subseries include correspondence as well as copies of several patented inventions for which Cramer Sachs requested information.
Tha collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Creative and Artistic Papers, 1933-2002

Series 2: Invention Records, 1905-2002

Subseries 2.1: Cramer Products Company and Affiliate Company Records, 1942-2002

Subseries 2.2: Household/Office, 1913-1972

Subseries 2.3: Food Products, 1940-1969

Subseries 2.4: Pet Accessories, 1953-1954

Subseries 2.5: Games, 1961-1969

Subseries 2.6: Wine-related, 1966-2002

Subseries 2.7: Temperature and/or Humidity Controlled Devices, 1968-2002

Subseries 2.8: Patent Searches, 1905-1980
Biographical / Historical:
Charlotte Cramer Sachs was born in Berlin, Germany on September 27, 1907. Her father, Hans Siegfried Cramer, worked as a businessman for a successful grain import and export company whose innovative enterprises included the import of soy beans from Eastern Europe. In 1903, Hans married Gertrud Bruck, one of the first women to attain her Abitur, somewhat similar to an American high school diploma, at age eighteen. Bruck's formal education ended there, as her wish to attend university was thwarted by her father Adalbert, a judge who insisted that she remain at home. The couple settled in Berlin and had two children—Frederick H., born March 2, 1906, and Charlotte. From 1913 to 1924 The Cramers lived in the Berlin Dahlem suburb occupying "Haus Cramer," a villa built in 1912 to their specifications by German architect Hermann Muthesius.

On September 12, 1924, Cramer Sachs married Donald Samuels, a top executive of the Manhattan Shirt Company and moved to New York from England where their daughter Eleanor was born on June 11, 1926. Several years later, the couple divorced. Mother and daughter lived together in London for a few years before moving back to New York around 1936. Charlotte's parents relocated to New York at the same time, after a brief stay in London following their flight from Berlin after Hitler's rise to power. In August 1945, Charlotte Cramer married Alexander Sachs, a leading economist who had introduced Albert Einstein to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and acted as advisor to the President.

Although she established her business career in America, Cramer Sachs retained fond memories of the house and extensive grounds in Dahlem. In 1977 she composed the song "A Salute to Berlin" to commemorate the designation of Haus Cramer as one of the city's historic landmarks. In 2000, she donated a painted portrait of herself from the time she had lived in Haus Cramer to the villa's new owner, Stanford University. The house retains additional significance in the context of this collection because Cramer Sachs credited its wine cellar—unusual in that it provided a separate, climate controlled environment for red and white wines—as an inspiration for her line of custom-built, vibration-free wine storage devices, which would later make Cramer Products Company a household name among wine connoisseurs.

While she did not attend university her pursuit of learning continued throughout her life as she studied poetry, musical composition, and the fine arts. Cramer Sachs often told her niece, Lilian Randall, that she wished she had received further education, although her public art exhibitions, poetry awards, numerous original songs, the establishment of Crambruck Press (her own publishing company), as well as language fluency in French, English, and German, are testaments to this inventor's intellectual curiosity and development. Evidence of Cramer Sachs's entrepreneurial spirit surfaced in her early thirties with her first patent: Improvements in Combined Key and Flashlight, July 16, 1940, patent number 2,208,498.

In 1940, Cramer Sachs completed courses from the New York Institute of Dietetics, an effort spurred by the onset of her daughter's diabetes. With financial assistance from her parents in the early 1940s, Cramer Sachs developed Joy Products prepared mixes, marking the beginning of a successful career in inventing. "We were a pioneer in that field," said Cramer Sachs of her baking mix manufacturing company, an operation that consisted of a Bronx neighborhood factory employing ninety workers. The enterprise began with corn muffin and popover mixes and expanded into frostings, puddings, and breads. Newspaper clippings from the time promoted Joy packaged mixes as ideal gifts for "the boys overseas" who were in locations where it was "impossible to get together the makings of a cake." Cramer Sachs refused an early offer to sell her mix formulas which were subsequently copied and exploited by larger, more powerful companies. Joy Products, whose name was chosen to express the inventor's delight in creativity, remained in business as a modest one-woman operation for over twenty years before succumbing to competition.

Cramer Sachs created another highly successful invention, the specialty wine cabinet, more than twenty years after she founded Joy Products. In addition to her memories of visits with her father to the wine cellar in her family's German villa, further motivation came from an interest—though she hardly drank it at all—in wine and recognition that "standard cooling and refrigerating appliances [were] too cold for wines." Reportedly, Cramer Sachs "started looking for [an appropriate device] and could not find one," and thus the impetus to invent took shape. The "Modern Wine Cellar," 1966, was an early example of over twenty wine-related inventions, most of them storage devices. A mention of her product in Grossman's Guide to Wines, Spirits, and Beers, increased demand among wine lovers and may have prompted Cramer Sachs to state that she "should find a good market" for her newest invention line. Testimony from David H. Wollins, a successful New York lawyer and customer of Cramer Sachs, lauded the cabinet as "the finest home wine storage system in the world." She framed his letter and hung it in her office at 381 South Park Avenue, her base operation where she employed one or two part-time helpers from the 1960s until her death in 2004.

The inventor took great joy in music, expressed in her own numerous compositions and her creation of the games "Domi-Notes" and "Musicards" in 1961 and 1969. Her fondness for music also prompted the expansion of her specialty cabinets to include temperature and humidity controlled devices for storing a variety of items, most notably the "Well Tempered Cabinet for Musical Instruments," which Cramer Sachs first designed for legendary violinist Isaac Stern. Soon the inventor began producing similar cabinets for the storage of cigars, furs, and documents.

Described by her niece as "shy with people but a great admirer of talent, intellect, and humanity," Cramer Sachs also "harbored a great love for animals." She invented several pet accessories in the early 1950s, including: "Watch-Dog," a dog collar with a time piece; "Bonnie Stand," a holder fashioned to accommodate disposable food bowls; and "Guidog," an early version of a retractable dog leash.

In 1972, Cramer Sachs suffered the loss of her only child, Eleanor, and in the summer of the next year her husband Alexander passed away. She continued her "business of creating new product ideas" for the remainder of her life. The most recent invention materials represented in the collection are those for the "Conservator" from 2002, a temperature and humidity controlled device with compartments to store a variety of items. In her last telephone conversation with her niece, on March 10, 2004, Cramer Sachs expressed her hope that she would feel "strong enough to get to the office the next day or so." The inventor died the following day at the age of 96.

Patents issued to Charlotte Cramer Sachs:

United States Patent: 2,208,498, "Combined Key and Flashlight," July 16, 1940

United States Patent: 2,509,423, "Wedge Heel Shoe," May 30, 1950

United States Patent: 2,808,191, "Lap Tray," October 1, 1957

United States Patent: Des. 363,618, "Cabinet," October 31, 1995
Related Materials:
Materials in Other Organizations

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum

Related materials on husband Alexander Sachs's political and professional life found in the Papers of Alexander Sachs

Art Gallery of Ontario, E. P. Taylor Research Library and Archives, Toronto Ontario, Canada

Correspondence between Cramer Sachs and Sam and Ayala Zacks dating from the 1970s and relating to Zionist art found in the Sam and Ayala Zacks Fonds.

Columbia University Libraries, Avery Drawings & Archives Collections Haus Cramer architectural records and papers, 1911-2004, (bulk 1911-1955)

This collection primarily contains original and reprographic architectural records, photographs, correspondence and personal and professional records related to the design, construction, and ownership of the Haus Cramer in Dahlem, Berlin, Germany, designed by German architect Hermann Muthesius in 1911-1913 for Hans and Gertrud Cramer, with later additions by Muthesius and other architects. A significant portion of the collection also documents the Cramer family's efforts to obtain restitution after World War II for the seizure of the house in the 1930s. Also included are records documenting the restoration and reuse, an effort led by noted architectural historian Julius Poesner.

Mount Holyoke College Archives and Special Collections

Cramer papers, 1938-1954

Cramer, Frederick Henry, 1906-1954; historian and college teacher. Mount Holyoke College faculty member, 1938-1954. Papers consist of writings, biographical information, and photographs; primarily documenting his scholarly activities and his interest in automobile racing.

German Historical Institute

Charlotte Cramer Sachs in the Immigrant Entrepreneurship: German-American Business Biographies, 1720 to the Present.

The collaborative research project Immigrant Entrepreneurship: German-American Business Biographies, 1720 to the Present sheds new light on the entrepreneurial and economic capacity of immigrants by investigating the German-American example in the United States. It traces the lives, careers and business ventures of eminent German-American business people of roughly the last two hundred and ninety years, integrating the history of German-American immigration into the larger narrative of U.S. economic and business history.
The papers were donated to the Archives Center at the National Museum of American History in the spring of 2005 by Lilian Randall (niece), Erich Cramer (nephew), Aileen Katz (niece), Elisabeth Weissbach (niece), and John Cramer (nephew).
The collection is open for research use. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Baked products  Search this
Food mixes  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Wine -- Storage  Search this
Women inventors  Search this
Women inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Business records -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Patent applications
Photographs -- 20th century
Sheet music
Charlotte Cramer Sachs Papers, 1905-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Charlotte Cramer Sachs Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Online Media:

Beatrice Medicine papers

Medicine, Beatrice  Search this
28 Linear feet (65 document boxes, 1 box of oversize materials, 1 box of ephemera, 1 shoebox of index cards, 1 map drawer)
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Native American  Search this
American Indian -- Education  Search this
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Standing Rock Sioux Tribe of North & South Dakota
bulk 1945-2003
The Beatrice Medicine papers, 1913-2003 (bulk 1945-2003), document the professional life of Dr. Beatrice "Bea" Medicine (1923-2005), a member of the Standing Rock Sioux tribe, anthropologist, scholar, educator, and Native rights activist. The collection also contains material collected by or given to Medicine to further her research and activism interests. Medicine, whose Lakota name was Hinsha Waste Agli Win, or "Returns Victorious with a Red Horse Woman," focused her research on a variety of topics affecting the Native American community: 1) mental health, 2) women's issues, 3) bilingual education, 4) alcohol and drug use, 5) ethno-methodologies and research needs of Native Americans, and 6) Children and identity issues. The collection represents Medicine's work as an educator for universities and colleges in the United States and in Canada, for which she taught Native American Studies courses. Additionally, because of the large amount of research material and Medicine's correspondence with elected U.S. officials and Native American leaders, and records from Medicine's involvement in Native American organizations, the collection serves to represent issues affecting Native Americans during the second half of the 20th century, and reflects what Native American leaders and organizations did to navigate and mitigate those issues. Collection materials include correspondence; committee, conference, and teaching material; ephemera; manuscripts and poetry; maps; notes; periodicals; photographs; training material; and transcripts.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Beatrice Medicine reflect Medicine's interests as an academic and an activist, and contain correspondence, committee, conference, and teaching material, ephemera, manuscripts and poetry, maps, notes, periodicals, photographs, and training material (see series scope notes for further details on contents). The majority of the material is printed matter that Medicine collected, with less of her own work included. Taken together, the collection reflects issues affecting Native Americans during the second half of the 20th century, as well as the network of Native American leaders and organizations that navigated these issues. Student papers, letters of recommendation, evaluations, and documents containing personally identifiable information are restricted.
The collection is divided into 24 series:

Series 1: Native American Culture and History, 1954-1962, 1967-1975, 1978-1989, 1991-1997, 1999-2002

Series 2: Appropriations, Economics, and Labor, 1955, circa 1970-1980, 1988, 1993, circa 1995-2000

Series 3: Archaeology, 1935-1950, 1952-1973, 1987-1995

Series 4: Native American Artists, Authors, Crafts, Film, and Poets, 1951-1969, 1972-2002

Series 5: Census, Demographic, and Poll Data, 1974, 1984-1986

Series 6: Civil Rights, 1972, 1980, 1983-1997

Series 7: Committee Material: Correspondence, Meeting Minutes, and Memos, 1985-1995

Series 8: Conference Material, 1955-1962, 1965, 1968-1974, 1976-2002

Series 9: Correspondence, 1952, 1959, 1962, 1966-2000

Series 10: Education: Native American Institutions and Teaching Material, 1948-2002

Series 11: Ephemera: Campaign, Pow-Wow, and Other Event Buttons, and Calendars, 1973, 1976, circa 1980-2000

Series 12: Health: Alcohol and Drug Addiction and Recovery, Disabilities, Healthcare, Mental Health, Nutrition, and Wellness, 1955, 1965, 1969-1999, 2004

Series 13: Historic Preservation, 1942, 1956, 1960-1969, 1979, circa 1985-1998

Series 14: Invitations, 1966-1979, 1982, 1991-2002

Series 15: Linguistics: Native American Languages, 1961, 1963, 1975, 1978-1981, 1987-1995

Series 16: Manuscripts, 1964-2003

Series 17: Maps, 1982-1991

Series 18: Museum Material: Native American Museums, Exhibit Preparation, and the National Museum of the American Indian, 1949, 1962, circa 1976-1998

Series 19: Oversized Material, 1962, circa 1965-1996, 1999

Series 20: Published material: Journals, Magazines, Monographs, and Newsletters, 1914, 1932, 1944, 1946-1947, 1952-2003

Series 21: Reports, 1947-1949, 1956-1998

Series 22: Training Material, 1968, 1988-2000

Series 23: Women and Gender, 1962, 1965, circa 1970-1997

Series 24: Restricted Material, 1972, 1978, 1987-1999
Biographical / Historical:
A member of the Standing Rock Sioux tribe, Beatrice "Bea" Medicine—also known by her Lakota name Hinsha Waste Agli Win, or "Returns Victorious with a Red Horse Woman"—was born on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation in Wakpala, South Dakota on August 1, 1923.

As a young adult, she studied at the South Dakota State University on the Laverne Noyes Scholarship, where she attained her B.A. in Anthropology in 1945. Between 1945 and 1951, Medicine worked a variety of teaching positions, including for three American Indian institutions (see Chronology for Medicine's complete work history). In 1951, Medicine went back to school and worked as a research assistant until she earned her master's degree in Sociology and Anthropology from Michigan State University in 1954. For the remainder of her life, Medicine served as faculty, visiting professor, and scholar-in-residence at thirty-one universities and colleges in the United States and Canada, teaching cultural and educational anthropology courses, as well as Native American Studies. As an educator, Medicine carried out her research on a variety of issues affecting Native American and First Nation communities, including: 1) mental health issues, 2) women's issues—professionalization, sterilization, socialization, and aging, 3) bilingual education, 4) alcohol and drug use and abuse, 5) ethno-methodologies and research needs, and 6) socialization of children and identity needs. Medicine's research in American Indian women's and children's issues, as well as her research in gender identity among the LGBT community was among the first to document the narratives of the members of these groups.

In 1974, Medicine testified alongside her cousin, Vine Deloria, Jr., as an expert witness in the Wounded Knee trial (United States v. Banks and Means). Following this, Medicine returned to school to pursue her Ph.D. in Cultural Anthropology, which she completed in 1983 at the University of Wisconsin. With her experience as a researcher, educator, activist, and Lakota woman, medicine sought to create more opportunities for multicultural and bilingual education for minority students, especially those of Native American descent. Such education, she believed, provided students a means to preserve and legitimize their own cultural identity, debase negative stereotyes, and be recognized as individuals who are capable of academic and economic achievement.

Medicine was an active member of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) and pursued her educational agenda further through the establishment of the Committee of Anthropologists in Primarily Minority Institutions (CAPMI) (1987-1995), which brought anthropologists out of retirement to teach at minority institutions. (See Chronology for a complete list of organizations and committees in which Medicine was involved.) The program was short-lived but provided a space for minority students to confront a field that historically misrepresented them, reclaim their narratives and languages, and instigate positive change as potential future anthropologists.

Medicine officially retired on August 1, 1989, but continued to be active in AAA and was honored many times for her contributions to the field of anthropology. Some of her recognitions include the Distinguished Service Award from AAA (1991) and the Bronislaw Malinowski Award from the Society for Applied Anthropology (1996). One of Medicine's highest honors, however, was serving as the Sacred Pipe Woman at the 1977 Sun Dance. Medicine continued her research into retirement, and went on to publish her first book in 2001, Learning to Be an Anthropologist and Remaining "Native": Selected Writings. Medicine died in Bismarck, North Dakota on December 19, 2005. Medicine's final work, Drinking and Sobriety Among the Lakota Sioux was published posthumously in 2006. In honor of her life's work and dedication to education, the Society for Applied Anthropology (SfAA) created the Bea Medicine Award, a scholarship travel grant for students to attend the Annual Meeting of the SfAA.

Chronology: Beatrice Medicine

1923 August 1 -- Beatrice Medicine (also known by her Lakota name, Hinsha Waste Agli Win, or "Returns Victorious with a Red Horse Woman") is born on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation in Wakpala, South Dakota.

1941-1945 -- Receives scholarship: Laverne Noyes Scholarship, South Dakota State University

1945 -- Receives Bachelor of Arts, Anthropology, South Dakota State University.

1945-1946 -- Teacher, Home Economics, Haskell Indian Institute (B.I.A.)

1947-1948 -- Health Education Lecturer, Michigan Tuberculosis Association

1948-1949 -- Teacher, Santo Domingo Pueblo, United Pueblos Agency, Albuquerque, New Mexico

1949-1950 -- Teacher, Navajo Adult Beginner's Program, Albuquerque Indian School

1950-1951 -- Teacher, Home Economics, Flandreau Indian School

1950-1954 -- Fellowship: Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs Fellowships

1951-1954 -- Research Assistant, Sociology and Anthropology, Michigan State University

1953-1954 -- Fellowship: John Hay Whitney Foundation Fellowship

1954 -- Receives Master of Arts, Sociology and Anthropology, Michigan State University. Fellowship: American Council of Learned Societies Fellowship

1954- -- Charter Member, American Indian Women's Service League

1955-1958 -- Teaching and Research Assistant, University of Washington

1956 -- Honor: Outstanding Alumna, South Dakota State University

1960 -- Mentioned as "Who's Who Among American Indians"

circa 1960 -- Alpha Kappa Delta, Sociology Hononary Phi Upsilon Omicron, Home Economic Honorary

1960-1963 -- Lecturer, Anthropology, University of British Columbia

1960-1964 -- Board of Directors, Native Urban Indian Centers in Vancouver, British Columbia and Calgary, Alberta

1963-1964 -- Lecturer/Sociology and Teacher/Counselor, Mount Royal College, Indian Affairs Branch Receives grant: American Council of Learned Societies Research Grant

1965 -- Lecturer, Social Science, Michigan State University

1966 -- Psychiatric Social Worker, Provincial Guidance Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

1966-1967 -- Receives grant: Career Development Grant, National Institute of Mental Health

1966- -- Member, National Congress of American Indians (Education Issues)

1967 -- Receives grant: Ethnological Research Grant, National Museum of Canada

1967-1968 -- Lecturer, Sociology and Anthropology, University of Montana

1968 -- Teacher, "Cultural Enrichment Program," Standing Rock Indian Reservation, South Dakota Cited in "The Role of Racial Minorities in the United States," Seattle, Washington

1968 March -- Speaker: "The Pow-Wow as a Social Factor in the Northern Plains Ceremonialism," Montana Academy of Sciences

1968 May -- Speaker: "Patterns and Periphery of Plains Indian Pow-Wows," Central States Anthropological Society

1968 June -- Speaker: "Magic Among the Stoney Indians," Canadian Sociology and Anthropological Association, Calgary, Alberta

1968 August -- Speaker: "Magic Among the Stoney Indians," International Congress of Americanists, Stuttgart, German Speaker: "The Dynamics of a Dakota Indian Giveaway," International Congress of Americanists, Stuttgart, German

1968-1969 -- Director, American Indian Research, Oral History Project and Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of South Dakota

1968-1970 -- Consultant, Text Book Evaluation Committee, American Indians United

1969 -- Assistant Professor, Teacher Corps, University of Nebraska

1969 September -- Speaker: "The Red Man Yesterday," Governor's Interstate Indian Council, Wichita, Kansas

1969 December -- Speaker: "The Native American in Modern Society," Northwestern State College

1969-1970 -- Assistant Professor, San Francisco State University Speaker: "The Indian in Institutions of Higher Learning," Annual Conference, National Indian Education Association

1969-1975 -- Member, Editorial Board, American Indian Historical Society

1970 -- Mentioned for second time as "Who's Who Among American Indians" Steering Committee Member, Indian Ecumenical Convocation of North America Member, Planning Committee Indian Alcoholism and Drug Use

1970 August -- Speaker: "The Role of the White Indian Expert," 2nd Annual Conference, National Indian Education Association

1970 October -- Speaker: "The Ethnographic Study of Indian Women," Annual Convention, American Ethnohistorical Soceity

1970 November -- Speaker: "The Anthropologists as the Indian's Image Maker," Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association Speaker: "The Anthropologist and Ethnic Studies Programs," Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association

1970-1971 -- Associate Professor, Anthropology, San Francisco State University Member, Mayor's Committee on the Status of Women, San Francisco, California

1971 -- Member, Native American Scholars Board, Steering and Selection, American Indian Historical Society

1971 May -- Speaker: "Ethnic Studies and Native Americans," National Education Association

1971-1973 -- Pre-Doctoral Lecturer, Anthropology, University of Washington Consultant, American Indian Heritage Program

1972 -- Honored in "Potlatch" ceremony by Makah Tribal people at the National Indian Education Conference for contributions to Indian education Receives grant: American Council of Learned Societies Travel Grant, Americanist Annual Meeting, Rome, Italy Curriculum Advisor, Lakota Higher Education Center, Prine Ridge, South Dakota

1972 March -- Speaker: "Warrior Women Societies," Northwest Anthropological Conference

1972 April -- Chairperson and Speaker: "Racism and Ethnic Relations," Society for Applied Anthropology

1972 June -- Chairperson, Native American Studies Symposium, International Congress of Americanists, Mexico

1972 August -- Speaker: "Warrior Women of the Plains," International Congress of Americanists, Rome, Italy

1972 November -- Speaker: "Native Americans in the Modern World," Southwest Minnesota State College

1973 -- Expert Witness, Yvonne Wanro Trial, Spokane, Washington Member, Organization of American States, First Congress of Indigenous Women, Chiapas, Mexico Speaker: "Self-Direction in Sioux Education," American Anthropological Association Speaker: "North American Native Women: The Aspirations and Their Associations," presented as a Delegate to the Inter-American Commission on Indigenous Women, Chiapas, Mexico

1973-1974 -- Visiting Professor, Anthropology, Native American Studies Program, Dartmouth College

1973-1976 -- Member, Committee on Minorities in Anthropology, American Anthropological Association

1973- -- Consultant, Human Services Department, Sinte Gleska Community College

1974 -- Expert Witness, Wounded Knee Trial, Lincoln, Nebraska Speaker: "Indian Women's Roles: Traditional and Contemporary," Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association

1974-1975 -- Visiting Professor, Anthropology, Colorado College

1975-1976 -- Visiting Associate Professor, Anthropology, Stanford University

1975-1977 -- Member, Steering Committee, Council of Anthropology and Education, American Anthropological Association

1976 -- Visiting Professor, Educational Anthropology, University of New Brunswick Expert Witness, Topsky Eagle Feathers Trial, Pocatello, Idaho Panelist, White House Conference on Ethnic Studies, Washington, D.C.

1977 -- Expert Witness, Greybull Grandchildren Custody Case, Portland, Oregon American Indian representative to the World Conference on Indigenous People, Geneva, Switzerland Honor: Outstanding Alumna, South Dakota State University

1977 August 18 -- Medicine serves as Sacred Pipe Woman at the Sun Dance, Green Grass, South Dakota

1977-1980 -- Education Consultant, National Congress of American Indians, Washington, D.C.

1978 -- Cited in the Directory of Significant 20th Century American Minority Women, Gaylord Professional Publications Biographical Sketch in "Moving Forward" of the Bookmark Reading Program, Third Edition

1978 August -- Speaker: "Issues in the Professionalization of Native American Women," Annual Meeting, American Psychological Association

1978-1982 -- Advanced Opportunity Fellow, Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Madison

1979 -- Visiting Professor, Department of Education Policy Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison

1979 August -- Honorary Doctorate of Human Letters, Northern Michigan University Speaker: "The Dakota Indian Memorial Feast: Reservation and Urban Manifestations," International Congress of Americanists, Lima, Peru

1980 -- Member, Nominations Committee, American Anthropological Association Biographical Sketch in "Native American Indian Personalities, Historical and Contemporary," Dansville, New York: The Instructor Publications, Inc.

1981 -- Visiting Professor, Graduate School of Public Affairs, University of Washington-Seattle Speaker: "Linguistically Marginated: The Transformation of Dominated Speech Varieties," American Anthropological Association

1982 -- School of Social and Behavioral Science Academic Planning, California State University Speaker: "Policy Decisions: Federal Regulations and American Indian Identity Issues," Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association

1982-1983 -- Anthropology Department Curriculum Committee, California State University

1982-1985 -- Associate Professor of Anthropology, Coordinator, Interdisciplinary Program in American Indian Studies, California State University Coordinator, Interdisciplinary Program in American Studies Program, California State University

1982- -- President, Assembly of California Indian Women

1983 -- Receives Ph.D., Cultural Anthropology, University of Wisconsin Expert Witness, Fortunate Eagle Trial, Reno, Nevada Award: Outstanding Woman of Color, National Institute of Women of Color, Washingtonton, D.C. (for anthropological contributions) Award: Outstanding Minority Researcher, American Educational Research Association Publishes book with Patricia Albers: The Hidden Half: Indian Women of the Northern Plains Honor: Significant Academic Book (The Hidden Half), Choice, Association of Colleges and Research Libraries, American Library Association

1983-1984 -- Student Affirmative Action Coordinating Council, California State University

1983-1986 -- Member, Executive Board, Southwest Anthropological Association Member, Governing Board, Common Cause

1984 -- Member, Advisory Board of National Research for Handicapped Native Americans, North Arizona University Scholarly Publications Award Selection Committee, California State University Award: Faculty Award for Meritorious Service, California State University Speaker: Field Work Methods: "Ties That Bond," Committee on the Status of Women in Anthropology," Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association Speaker: "Career Patterns of American Indian Women," Council of Education and Anthropology, Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association

1984 November -- Faculty Award for Meritorious Service, California State University

1984-1985 -- Participant, Chancellor's Office Grant to "Cross-Cultural Perspectives in the Social Sciences," California State University

1985 November -- Speaker: Conference on "The Native American: His Arts, His Culture, and His History," West Virginia State College

1985-1986 -- Board of Directors, Naechi Institute on Alcohol and Drug Education

1985-1988 -- Professor, Department of Anthropology and Director, Native Centre, University of Calgary

1985-1989 -- Member, Malinowski Awards Committee, Society for Applied Anthropology

1987 -- Honor: Outstanding Minority Professorship Martin Luther King and Rosa Parks Visiting Professor, University of Michigan

1987-1995 -- Member, Committee of Anthropologists in Primarily Minority Institutions, American Anthropological Association

1988 August 1 -- Medicine officially retires.

1989 -- Volunteer (Committee of Anthropologists in Primarily Minority Institutions, American Anthropological Association), Standing Rock College Honor (twice): Outstanding Minority Professorship Martin Luther King and Rosa Parks Visiting Professor, Wayne State University.

1990 -- Honor: "Outstanding Contributions for the promotion of sex equity in Education," Illinois State Board of Education Honor: Outstanding Lakota Woman, Standing Rock College

1991 -- Honor: Distinguished Service Award, American Anthropological Association. Medicine was the first American Indian to receive this award.

1991 -- Visiting Professor, Saskatchewan Indian Federal College Visiting Professor, Colorado College Visiting Professor, Anthropology, Humboldt State University

1992 -- Visiting Distinguished Professor, Women's Studies, University of Toronto

1993 -- Visiting Professor, Rural Sociology, South Dakota State University Award: Distinguished Native American Alumna Award, South Dakota State University

1993-1994 December -- Research Co-ordinator, Women's Perspectives, Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples

1994- -- Adjunct Professor, University of Alberta

1995 -- Scholar in Residence, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul Visiting Scholar, Museum of Anthropology, University of British Columbia Award: Ohana Award, Multi-Cultural Counseling Excellence, American Association of Counselors

1996 -- Award: Bronislaw Malinowski Award, Society for Applied Anthropology. Buckman Professor, Department of Human Ecology, University of Minnesota

circa 1997- -- Associate Professor of Anthropology Emeritus, Department of Anthropology, California State University

2001 -- Publishes book: Learning to Be an Anthropologist and Remaining "Native": Selected Writings.

2005 -- Award: George and Louise Spindler Award, Council on Anthropology and Education, American Anthropological Association.

2005 December 19 -- Medicine dies during emergency surgery in Bismarck, North Dakota.

2006 -- Book: Drinking and Sobriety Among the Lakota Sioux is published posthumously.

2008 -- The Society for Applied Anthropology creates the Bea Medicine Award.
The papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Beatrice Medicine between 1997 and 2003, and by Ted Garner in 2006.
Materials relating to student grades, letters of recommendation, and evaluations have been restricted.
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Alcohol  Search this
Gender imagery  Search this
Discrimination  Search this
Linguistics -- Research -- United States  Search this
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Lakota Indians  Search this
Beatrice Medicine papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
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Kraushaar Galleries records

Kraushaar Galleries  Search this
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
Carnegie Institute  Search this
Cleveland Museum of Art  Search this
Ernest Brown and Co.  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
New Britain Institute. Art Museum  Search this
Toledo Museum of Art  Search this
University of Nebraska--Lincoln. Department of Art  Search this
Whitney Museum of American Art  Search this
Wichita Art Museum  Search this
Albrizio, Humbert, 1901-1970  Search this
Allard, J.  Search this
Arnest, Bernard, 1917-  Search this
Bacon, Peggy, 1895-1987  Search this
Beal, Gifford, 1879-1956  Search this
Beal, Reynolds, 1866-1951  Search this
Bignou, Etienne  Search this
Bouché, Louis, 1896-1969  Search this
Brueming, Karen  Search this
Cantene, David  Search this
Cowles, Russell, 1887-1979  Search this
DeLonga, Leonard  Search this
Demuth, Charles, 1883-1935  Search this
Evett, Kenneth, 1913-2005  Search this
Fausett, Dean, 1913-  Search this
Flannery, Vaughn  Search this
Glackens, Edith  Search this
Glackens, William J., 1870-1938  Search this
Guillaume, Paul, 1891-1934  Search this
Halberstadt, Ernst, 1910-1987  Search this
Hardy, Thomas, 1921-  Search this
Harrison, Preston  Search this
Hartell, John  Search this
Heliker, John, 1909-2000  Search this
Juley, Peter A., 1862-1937  Search this
Kirsch, Frederick D. (Frederick Dwight), b. 1899  Search this
Kraushaar, Antoinette M., 1902-1992  Search this
Kraushaar, John F., 1871-1946  Search this
Kuhn, Walt, 1877-1949  Search this
Lachaise, Gaston, 1882-1935  Search this
Lasker, Joe  Search this
Laurent, Robert, 1890-1970  Search this
Lechay, James  Search this
Luks, George Benjamin, 1867-1933  Search this
Miller, Harriette  Search this
Morris, Carl, 1911-1993  Search this
Murdock, Roland P. -- Art collections  Search this
Navas, Elizabeth S., 1885-1979  Search this
Penney, James, 1910-1982  Search this
Phillips, Duncan, 1886-1966  Search this
Prendergast, Charles, 1863-1948  Search this
Prendergast, Maurice Brazil, 1858-1924  Search this
Robinson, Boardman, 1876-1952  Search this
Ruellan, Andrée, 1905-2006  Search this
Schnakenberg, H. E. (Henry Ernest), 1892-1970  Search this
Sloan, John, 1871-1951  Search this
Smalley, David, 1940-  Search this
Smith, Vernon, 1894-1969  Search this
Stanley, Alix W.  Search this
Williams, Esther, 1907-1969  Search this
Wilson, Ralph L.  Search this
106.3 Linear feet
0.181 Gigabytes
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Exhibition catalogs
Financial records
The records of New York City Kraushaar Galleries measure 106.3 linear feet and 0.181 GB and date from 1877 to 2006. Three-fourths of the collection documents the gallery's handling of contemporary American paintings, drawings, and sculpture through correspondence with artists, private collectors, museums, galleries, and other art institutions, interspersed with scattered exhibition catalogs and other materials. Also included are John F. Kraushaar's estate records; artists' files; financial ledgers documenting sales and gallery transactions; consignment and loan records; photographs of artwork; sketchbooks and drawings by James Penney, Louis Bouché, and others; and two scrapbooks.
Scope and Content Note:
The records of New York City Kraushaar Galleries measure 106.3 linear feet and 0.181 GB and date from 1877 to 2006. Three-fourths of the collection documents the gallery's handling of contemporary American paintings, drawings, and sculpture through correspondence with artists, private collectors, museums, galleries, and other art institutions, interspersed with scattered exhibition catalogs and other materials. Also included are John F. Kraushaar's estate records; artists' files; financial ledgers documenting sales and gallery transactions; consignment and loan records; photographs of artwork; sketchbooks and drawings by James Penney, Louis Bouché, and others; and two scrapbooks.

The collection reflects all activities conducted in the day-to-day administration of the business and relates to the acquisition, consignment, loan, sale, and exhibition of art by twentieth-century American artists and European artists of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The records document specific arrangements for loans and exhibitions, artist-dealer relations, relationships with public and private collectors, interaction with the art dealer community, and routine requests for information.

Much of the artist correspondence relates to practical arrangements for exhibitions of artwork, but in many cases also documents the development of individual artists and the effect of their relationship with the galleries on their ability to produce marketable work. Many of the artists represented in the collection also wrote lengthy letters, particularly to Antoinette Kraushaar, describing their attitudes to their work and providing insight into how that work was shaped by events in their personal lives.

The bulk of the correspondence with museums and institutions concerns practical arrangements for loans of artwork and provides detailed information about market prices and insurance values. It offers insight into the general climate of opinion toward particular artists and styles at any given time. Correspondence with other galleries and dealers also concerns loans and sales of artwork but, due to the typically cordial and cooperative nature of relations between the Kraushaars and their contemporaries, may also provide a more extensive and personal view of relationships and trends in the art dealer community. Similarly, while a portion of the correspondence with private collectors concerns routine requests for information and loans of art on approval, there is also substantive correspondence documenting the development of the artistic vision of collectors such as Preston Harrison, Elizabeth S. Navas, and Duncan Phillips.

From 1917 to the mid-1930s correspondence was handled mainly by John Kraushaar, and the bulk of that relating to European galleries and European art can be found during these years. Although there are only a handful of materials before 1926, records from the 1920s and 1930s document Kraushaar Galleries' growing commitment to American artists and the climate of the market for their work. The financial hardships of the Depression are vividly depicted in the numerous letters written during the 1930s seeking payment on accounts receivable and requesting extensions on accounts payable.

From the mid-1930s to 1968 correspondence was conducted primarily by Antoinette Kraushaar and, to some degree, by her assistants in later years. As the galleries' focus on American art increased, so did the volume of correspondence with artists, and the collection is particularly rich during the 1940s and early 1960s. In later years to 2006, most of the correspondence was conducted by Carol Pesner and gallery assistants.

The exhibition catalogs included in the collection do not represent a complete set. Those found are working copies used by the galleries in preparation for exhibitions and are often annotated with prices or insurance values. Additional exhibition catalogs can be found on the microfilm described in the Administrative Information section of this finding aid.

The majority of Kraushaar Galleries' insurance records can be found in files relating to the company Wm. E. Goodridge & Son, later known as Wm. E. Goodridge, Inc. Shipping and transportation records are generally filed under the names of the companies used for such transactions and can primarily be found under Davies, Turner & Co., Hudson Forwarding & Shipping Co., Railway Express Agency, Inc., and W. S. Budworth & Son, and to a lesser degree under American Railway Express Company, Arthur Lenars & Cie., C. B. Richard & Co., De La Rancheraye & Co., Hayes Storage, Packing & Removal Service, Inc., and Willis, Faber & Co. Ltd.

The 2008-2022 additions include correspondence similar in content and with correspondents as described above, as well as some artists' Christmas cards. However, the bulk of the additional correspondence dates from 1965-1999, with a handful of miscellaneous correspondence from 1877 to the mid-twentieth century. Also found are financial and business records including records from the closing of the John F. Kraushaar estate; over 40 ledgers providing nearly complete documentation of the gallery's sales and transactions from its establishment to 1946; incoming consignment records, including account statements and correspondence with artists, from the 1940s to 2006; and outgoing consignment and loan records from 1899-2006. The gallery's representation of its stable of artists is documented through artists' files containing printed and digital materials, exhibition catalogs and announcements, price lists, and biographical information, as well as containers of photographs and negatives of artwork. Also found is a 1933 sketchbook by James Penney, drawings and sketchbooks by Louis Bouché, and two scrapbooks.

See Appendix for a list of Kraushaar Galleries exhibitions
Kraushaar Galleries generally filed all types of records together with correspondence in a combination of alphabetical and chronological files. Thus financial records, insurance records, receipts, photographs, and exhibition catalogs can be found interfiled with general correspondence in Series 1-3. A group of photographs of artwork maintained separately by Kraushaar Galleries constitutes Series 4. Series 6 was minimally processed separately from Series 1-5, and the arrangement reflects the original order of the addition for the most part.

Records in Series 1-3 were originally filed alphabetically by name of correspondent and then by month, by a span of several months, or by year. The alphabetical arrangement has been retained, but to facilitate access the collection was rearranged so that correspondence was collated by year. From 1901 to 1944 outgoing letters and incoming letters are filed separately; in 1945 some outgoing letters are filed separately, with the bulk of the material filed together as correspondence; from 1946 to 1968 incoming and outgoing letters are filed together as correspondence.

For Series 1-3 organizations or individuals represented by at least 15 letters are filed in separate file folders. All other correspondents are arranged in general files by letters of the alphabet, with selected correspondents and subjects noted in parentheses after the folder title.

Series 2 and several boxes in Series 3 contain a variety of notes and receipts received and created by Kraushaar Galleries that were originally unfoldered. The notes can be found in folders adjacent to the receipts and include handwritten notes of customer names and addresses, financial notes and calculations, catalogs of exhibitions, invitations and announcements to exhibitions frequently used as note paper, and other miscellany. Although most of the miscellaneous notes are undated, they are filed, with the receipts, at the end of the year to which they appear to relate. For the years 1929 and 1930 Kraushaar Galleries created separate alphabetical files for some of the billing statements received from other businesses. These have been filed adjacent to "Miscellaneous Notes" and "Receipts" in the appropriate years.

Kraushaar Galleries tended to file correspondence with businesses alphabetically according to the letter of the last name: for example, Wm. E. Goodridge & Son would be filed under G rather than W.

Missing Title

Series 1: Outgoing Letters, 1920-1945 (boxes 1-9; 9 linear ft.)

Series 2: Incoming Letters (boxes 10-26; 16.25 linear ft.)

Series 3: Correspondence, 1945-1968 (boxes 26-53; 27.75 linear ft.)

Series 4: Photographs, undated (box 54; 0.5 linear ft.)

Series 5: Artwork, [1926, 1938] (box 53; 2 items)

Series 6: Addition to the Kraushaar Galleries Records, 1877-2006 (boxes 55-99, 101-117, BV100; 52.3 linear feet, ER01-ER02; 0.181 GB)
Historical Note:
Charles W. Kraushaar established Kraushaar Galleries in 1885 as a small store on Broadway near Thirty-first Street in New York City. Initially the store sold artist materials, photogravures, and reproductions. Drawing on his previous experience working with William Schause, a leading dealer in European paintings, Kraushaar soon progressed to selling original watercolors, paintings, and engravings by European artists, primarily landscapes of the Barbizon School.

In 1901 Kraushaar moved the business to 260 Fifth Avenue and with the assistance of his brother, John F. Kraushaar, began adding more modern French and American painters to the inventory. Of particular interest to John Kraushaar was the group of American realists known as "The Eight," who had held a self-selected, self-organized exhibition at the Macbeth Gallery in 1908. The Eight were Arthur B. Davies, William Glackens, Robert Henri, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, Everett Shinn, and John Sloan. Luks, whom John Kraushaar met around 1902, was probably the first major American artist represented at Kraushaar Galleries. In 1917 John Sloan was invited to hold his first one-person show at the galleries despite accusations that his exhibition at the Whitney Studio the previous year had represented a brutal depiction of life that lacked subtlety and sensitivity.

When Charles Kraushaar died suddenly in 1917, John assumed control of the galleries and soon enlisted the assistance of his daughter, Antoinette Kraushaar. Antoinette had suffered a bout of pneumonia during the influenza epidemic of 1918 that cut short her education; grooming her for a career in the galleries was a logical step. Following the end of the First World War, Kraushaar resumed his buying trips to Europe, often accompanied by Antoinette, and exhibited works by European artists such as André Derain, Henri Matisse, Amedeo Modigliani, Pablo Picasso, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and Vincent Van Gogh. However, it was the increasing commitment to contemporary American artists for which the galleries would become best known. In addition to The Eight, the Kraushaars developed their inventory of American paintings and etchings with exhibitions of work by artists such as Gifford Beal, Charles Demuth, Guy Pène Du Bois, Gaston Lachaise, Jerome Myers, Charles Prendergast, and Henry Schnakenberg.

Returning from a buying trip to Europe in 1929, John Kraushaar wrote to California collector Preston Harrision on July 26 that "the prices over there, especially for modern pictures are astounding." Nevertheless, Kraushaar believed that investing in modern art would yield benefits within the next five years, and he refused to be influenced by museums and critics outside of New York who were reluctant to agree. He exhibited a healthy disrespect for museum directors in general, whom he referred to in his letters to Harrision as "dead heads" who ought to be sent to different art centers of the world in order to "get in touch with what is going on there" (March 11, 1929).

Like most of its contemporaries, Kraushaar Galleries suffered considerably during the Depression of the 1930s and struggled to collect and, in turn, pay accounts due. On October 5, 1931, John Kraushaar confessed to H. S. Southam, "Business is very bad with us, and I know that you will treat it confidentially when I tell you that I have had to sacrifice a good part of my personal holdings to provide cash for my own business." By 1934 the rent on the galleries' current location at 680 Fifth Avenue, where Kraushaar had moved in 1919, was out of all proportion to the amount of business that was being generated. In 1936, a timely move to 730 Fifth Avenue allowed the family to effect substantial economies without a disproportionate loss of business.

During the 1930s, John Kraushaar's health began to fail, and he was frequently absent from the galleries. Consequently, Antoinette Kraushaar took on greater responsibility for the operation of the business with the assistance of her brother Charles. Although Antoinette was one of few women to hold such a prominent position in the art business at that time, there is no evidence in the records to suggest that artists or customers who had been accustomed to dealing with John Kraushaar had any difficulty accepting the transition in management from father to daughter.

Nevertheless, collecting accounts remained difficult, and although business had improved by 1938 it was now stymied by the threat of war in Europe. The warmth of relations between the Kraushaars and the artists they handled, and their colleagues, was crucial to Antoinette during these years. She repeatedly expressed her gratitude for their understanding and assistance in her letters as she struggled to meet financial obligations and operate the business in her father's absence, experimenting with different strategies as she evolved an approach that would sustain the business. In a letter to Gifford Beal dated August 6, 1941, she spoke of "hellish times" and stressed, "I have learned a great many things during the past few years and hope that we are groping our way towards a working solution of our own affairs at least."

While there is no question that Antoinette Kraushaar shared her father's genuine interest in contemporary American artists, the growing commitment to these artists that was forged during these years was driven in large part by necessity. By increasing her stock of American art and adding "younger painters of promise," she was able to sell work in a much broader price range. Consequently she could reach a wider audience and increase the likelihood that the business would remain solvent. This method of business also suited her personality far more than having a very specialized inventory of highly priced work, an approach that she confessed to J. Lionberger Davis on December 3, 1940, "requires a particular kind of temperament, and frankly I neither like it nor believe in it."

Throughout her career Antoinette imbued the business with her personal style. She understood that elitism alienated art buyers of moderate income, who constituted her bread and butter, and believed strongly that the gallery environment should not be intimidating to potential customers. She corresponded at length with old and new clients alike, patiently offering advice when asked and maintaining liberal policies for those who wished to borrow artwork on approval. She also participated in events that promoted efforts to make art available to a wider audience, such as a 1951 exhibition and seminar at the Florida Gulf Coast Art Center that addressed problems of buying and selling art. She was a two-time board member of the Art Dealers Association of America and considered the organization to be an important source of support for the gallery community.

In her dealings with other commercial galleries and art institutions, Antoinette Kraushaar exhibited a strong spirit of cooperation and enthusiasm, consistently lending art to small, locally owned businesses and community organizations as well as to more established galleries and world-class museums. She also developed long and mutually beneficial associations with the art departments of many educational institutions across the country, which proved to be fertile ground for young and upcoming artists.

Antoinette Kraushaar exhibited the same honesty and fairness in dealing with artists as her father had, expressing her opinions of their work in a forthright manner and maintaining a policy of always looking at the work of any artist who came to her. She understood the inherent difficulties of dealing with living artists but relished the excitement of encouraging their work and watching them develop. On November 14, 1947, in reply to a letter from the artist Bernard Arnest, in which Arnest apologized for burdening her with his worries, she reminded him, "One of the functions of a dealer is to act as a safety valve. Didn't you know?"

Although she would not retain artists indefinitely if she felt their work had deteriorated in quality, Antoinette often stressed that she was prepared to accept little or no initial financial return on the work of artists who showed promise or whose work held a particular appeal for her. In a letter of December 30, 1940, she reassured Walt Dehner that the lack of sales from his recent exhibition would not lead her to withdraw his work from the galleries. In typically unassuming style she advised Dehner to "go on painting whatever interests you. We have found that there is no recipe for success, either artistic or material."

In the early 1940s Antoinette Kraushaar implemented two changes to her inventory. Sensing that interest in sculpture was growing, she rearranged the space to give that medium more room and attention. The market for etchings had been declining since the late 1930s, and as she reduced this part of her inventory she also acted on her personal passion for drawings by opening a small gallery devoted to contemporary American drawings that were priced well within the range of most customers.

By the time Kraushaar Galleries moved to 32 East Fifty-seventh Street, late in 1944, American art had become the main focus of the business. While the long-standing interest in The Eight and other artists of that period continued, the galleries also handled contemporaries such as Louis Bouché, Samuel Brecher, John Heliker, Andrée Ruellan, and Karl Schrag. When John Kraushaar died in December 1946, Antoinette and Charles legally assumed control of the business. This partnership continued until 1950, when Antoinette assumed sole ownership of the gallery.

In 1955 the galleries moved uptown to smaller quarters at 1055 Madison Avenue, and Antoinette Kraushaar gave up the greater part of her print business. She was inundated with requests from artists to be allowed a chance to show her their work, and the galleries' exhibition schedule was always full. Contemporary artists she now represented included Bernard Arnest, Peggy Bacon, Russell Cowles, Kenneth Evett, William Dean Fausett, William Kienbusch, Joe Lasker, and George Rickey, and she continued to exhibit artwork by Charles Demuth, William Glackens, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, Boardman Robinson, and John Sloan.

By the late 1950s the artists of the generation that her father had promoted in the early part of the century had died, but Antoinette Kraushaar had the pleasure of seeing his faith in them come to fruition. In a letter to Ralph Wilson dated October 20, 1958, she stated with satisfaction, "The Boston Museum is taking (at long last) a deep interest in (Maurice) Prendergast, and they will probably do an important show within the next year." Her correspondence with William Glackens's son Ira in the 1960s reveals the extent to which Glackens's popularity had grown since his death in 1938, and the market for John Sloan's work had been increasing steadily since the late 1920s. In 1962 James Penney summed up Kraushaar Galleries' success in the foreword of a catalog for an exhibition of paintings and sculpture the galleries had organized with the Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute at Hamilton College:

Missing Title

1854 -- Charles W. Kraushaar born

1871 -- John F. Kraushaar born

1885 -- Kraushaar Galleries established on Broadway near Thirty-first Street

1901 -- Galleries moved to 260 Fifth Avenue

1902 -- Antoinette Kraushaar born

1917 -- Charles W. Kraushaar died; John Kraushaar assumed control of the business, increasing inventory of modern American and European artists; first John Sloan exhibition

1919 -- Galleries moved to 680 Fifth Avenue

[1920] -- Antoinette Kraushaar began assisting with the business

1924 -- Maurice Prendergast died

1936 -- Galleries moved to the Heckscher Building at 730 Fifth Avenue

1938 -- William J. Glackens died

1944 -- Galleries moved to the Rolls Royce Building at 32 East Fifty-seventh Street; American art now the main focus of the business

1946 -- John Kraushaar died; Antoinette and Charles Kraushaar assumed control of the business

1948 -- Charles Prendergast died

1950 -- Antoinette Kraushaar assumed sole ownership of Kraushaar Galleries

1951 -- John Sloan died

1955 -- Galleries moved to 1055 Madison Avenue

1959 -- Carole Pesner joined Kraushaar Galleries

1964 -- Galleries extended into adjacent building

1981 -- Galleries moved to 724 Fifth Avenue

1986 -- Katherine Kaplan joined Kraushaar Galleries

1988 -- Antoinette Kraushaar retired from day-to-day management of the business

1992 -- Antoinette Kraushaar died
Appendix: List of Kraushaar Galleries Exhibitions:
The Archives of American Art does not hold a complete collection of catalogs from exhibitions held at Kraushaar Galleries; therefore the dates and titles of exhibitions provided in this appendix are inferred from a variety of sources including correspondence, notes, artists' files, and requests for advertising. Italics indicate that the exact title of an exhibition is known.

Missing Title

Jan., 1912 -- Paintings by Gustave Courbet and Henri Fantin-Latour

Apr., 1912 -- Paintings by Frank Brangwyn and Henri Le Sidaner

Jan., 1913 -- Paintings by Ignacio Zuloaga

May, 1913 -- Etchings by Seymour Haden

June, 1913 -- Paintings and Lithographs by Henri Fantin-Latour

Oct., 1913 -- Etchings by Frank Brangwyn

Jan., 1914 -- Ignacio Zuloaga

Mar., 1914 -- Paintings by Alphonse Legros

Apr., 1914 -- George Luks

May, 1914 -- Seven Modern Masterpieces including Gustave Courbet, Henri Fantin-Latour, Alphonse Legros, Matthew Maris, and James McNeill Whistler

undated, 1915 -- Paintings by John Lavery

Jan.-Feb., 1917 -- James McNeill Whistler's White Girl

Feb.-Mar., 1917 -- Paintings by Augustus Vincent Tack

Mar.-Apr., 1917 -- Paintings and Etchings by John Sloan

Summer, 1917 -- Works by French artists including A. L. Bouche, Josef Israels, Gaston La Touche, and Alphonse Legros

Oct., 1917 -- Monoprints by Salvatore Antonio Guarino

Nov., 1917 -- Etchings and Mezzotints by Albany E. Howarth

Jan., 1918 -- Recent Paintings by John Lavery

Jan.-Feb., 1918 -- Paintings and Watercolors by George Luks

Feb.-Mar., 1918 -- Paintings by Augustus Vincent Tack

Mar., 1918 -- Paintings by John Sloan

Apr.-May, 1918 -- Paintings by A. L. Bouche

May, 1918 -- War Paintings by J. Mortimer Block, Charles S. Chapman, Guy Pène Du Bois, H. B. Fuller, George Luks, W. Ritschell, John Sloan, and Augustus Vincent Tack

Oct., 1918 -- Oil Paintings by William Scott Pyle

Nov., 1918 -- Paintings by Gustave Courbet, Henri Fantin-Latour, Alphonse Legros, Edouard Manet, Antoine Vollon, James McNeill Whistler, and Ignacio Zuloaga, and bronzes by Antoine Louis Bayre, Emile Antoine Bourdelle, and Mahonri Young

Apr., 1919 -- Paintings and Monoprints by Salvatore Anthonio Guarino

Jan.-Feb., 1919 -- Decorative Panels and Other Paintings by Augustus Vincent Tack

Mar., 1919 -- Paintings and Drawings by John Sloan

May, 1919 -- Paintings by George Luks, Monticelli, and A. P. Ryder

Sept., 1919 -- Work by Jean Louis Forain

Oct., 1919 -- Etchings and Lithographs by Alphonse Legros

Jan., 1920 -- Recent Paintings by George Luks

Feb., 1920 -- Recent Paintings by John Sloan

Feb., 1920 -- Paintings by William Scott Pyle

Mar., 1920 -- Recent Paintings by Gifford Beal

Apr., 1920 -- Recent Paintings by Augustus Vincent Tack

Apr., 1920 -- Paintings by Henri Le Sidaner

Apr., 1920 -- Paintings and Drawings by Jean Louis Forain

Apr.-May, 1920 -- Paintings and Drawings by Jerome Myers

May, 1920 -- Paintings by Henrietta M. Shore

Jan., 1921 -- Paintings by French and American Artists

Jan.-Feb., 1921 -- Paintings by George Luks

Feb., 1921 -- New Paintings by Augustus Vincent Tack

Apr., 1921 -- John Sloan Retrospective

Summer, 1921 -- French and American Artists

Oct., 1921 -- Paintings of Mountford Coolidge

Oct., 1921 -- Works by Henri Fantin-Latour and Henri Le Sidaner

Nov., 1921 -- Frank Van Vleet Tompkins

Dec., 1921 -- Paintings and Bronzes by Modern Masters of American and European Art

Jan., 1922 -- Exhibition of Recent Paintings and Watercolors by George Luks

Feb., 1922 -- Paintings by Augustus Vincent Tack

Mar., 1922 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Gifford Beal

Apr., 1922 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Guy Pène Du Bois

Summer, 1922 -- Paintings by Modern Masters of American and European Art

Oct., 1922 -- Recent Paintings of the Maine Coast by George Luks

Jan., 1923 -- Exhibition of Paintings by George Luks

Feb., 1923 -- Paintings and Decorative Panels by Augustus Vincent Tack

Mar., 1923 -- Landscapes by Will Shuster

Mar., 1923 -- Paintings by Samuel Halpert

Apr., 1923 -- Marine Figures and Landscapes by Gifford Beal

Apr.-May, 1923 -- Paintings by John Sloan

May, 1923 -- Paintings by Frank Van Vleet Tompkins

June, 1923 -- Etchings by Marius A. J. Bauer

Oct., 1923 -- American Watercolors by Gifford Beal, Reynolds Beal, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, and William Zorach

Dec., 1923 -- Etchings and Lithographs by Alphonse Legros

Dec., 1923 -- Paintings, Drawings, and Pastels by Charles Adolphe Bischoff

Jan., 1924 -- Paintings by Celebrated American Artists

Mar., 1924 -- Paintings and Drawings by Guy Pène Du Bois

Apr., 1924 -- New Paintings by George Luks

May, 1924 -- Paintings by Marjorie Phillips

Summer, 1924 -- French and American Modern Artists

Oct., 1924 -- Painting, Watercolors, and Sculpture by William Zorach

Nov., 1924 -- Watercolors by Seven Americans

Dec., 1924 -- French Paintings

Jan., 1925 -- Paintings by John Sloan

Jan.-Feb., 1925 -- Maurice Prendergast Memorial Exhibition

Mar., 1925 -- Plans and Photographs of Work in Landscape Architecture by Charles Downing Lay

Apr., 1925 -- Paintings by William J. Glackens

Dec., 1925 -- Watercolors by Gifford Beal, Reynolds Beal, Carl Broemel, Richard Lahey Jerome Myers, Maurice Prendergast, Henry E. Schnakenberg, Abraham Walkowitz, and William Zorach

undated, 1926 -- Lower Broadway by W. Walcot

Feb., 1926 -- Paintings by Paul Burlin

Feb., 1926 -- Portraits of Duncan Phillips, Esq. Charles B. Rogers, Esq. & The Hon. Elihu Root Painted by Augustus Vincent Tack

Mar., 1926 -- Paintings, Watercolors, and Drawings by Gifford Beal

Apr., 1926 -- John Sloan

Sept.-Oct., 1926 -- Exhibition of Etchings by C. R. W. Nevinson

Oct., 1926 -- Drawings, Etchings, and Lithographs by Nineteenth-Century French Artists

Oct., 1926 -- Paintings and Drawings by Mathieu Verdilhan

Dec., 1926 -- Exhibition of Watercolors by Gifford Beal, Reynolds Beal, Carl Broemel, Guy Pène Du Bois, Ernest Fiene, Samuel Halpert, Henry Keller, Louis Kronberg, Richard Lahey, Charles Lay, Jerome Myers, Maurice Prendergast, Henry

Dec., 1926 -- Schnakenberg, A. Walkowitz, Martha Walters, William Zorach

Jan., 1927 -- French Drawings and Prints

Feb., 1927 -- Paintings, Drawings, Etchings, and Lithographs by John Sloan

Mar., 1927 -- Gifford Beal

Mar.-Apr., 1927 -- Decorative Panels and Watercolors by Margarett Sargent

Mar.-Apr., 1927 -- Exhibition of Drawings and Lithographs of New York by Adriaan Lubbers

Apr., 1927 -- Paintings and Etchings by Walter Pach

Apr.-May, 1927 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Leopold Survage

Apr.-May, 1927 -- Etchings and Woodcuts by D. Galanis

May, 1927 -- Paintings by Guy Pène Du Bois

Summer, 1927 -- Paintings by American Artists

Summer, 1927 -- Paintings, Watercolors, and Drawings by Georges Braque, Honoré Daumier, Edgar Degas, André Derain, Henri Fantin-Latour, Jean Louis Forain, Constantin Guys, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Edouard Manet, Henri Matisse, Amedeo Modigliani, Claude Monet, Morissot, Pablo Picasso, Camille Pissarro, Odilon Redon, Segonzac, and Georges Seurat

Oct.-Nov., 1927 -- Exhibition of Etchings in Color by Bernard Boutet de Monvel

Nov., 1927 -- Exhibition of Paintings, Drawings, Lithographs, and Watercolors by Ernest Fiene

Dec., 1927 -- Watercolors by American Artists including Gifford Beal, Reynolds Beal, Carl Broemel, Charles Demuth, Guy Pène Du Bois, Ernest Fiene, Henry G. Keller, Richard Lahey, Charles Downing Lay, Howard Ashman Patterson, [Maurice] Prendergast, Henry E. Schnakenberg, Abraham Walkowitz, Frank Nelson Wilcox, and [William] Zorach

Dec., 1927 -- Paintings by Guy Pène Du Bois

Dec., 1927 -- Paintings, Sculpture, and Decorative Media by George Biddle

Jan.-Feb., 1928 -- Paintings by S. J. Peploe

Feb., 1928 -- Drawings by Henri Fantin-Latour

Feb., 1928 -- Pastels and Drawings by Margarett Sargent

Feb., 1928 -- Drawings for Balzac's Les Contes Drolatiques by Ralph Barton

Feb.-Mar., 1928 -- Sculpture by William Zorach

Mar., 1928 -- Recent Paintings by Marjorie Phillips

Mar.-Apr., 1928 -- Exhibition of Paintings by William Glackens

Apr., 1928 -- Paintings, Drawings and Lithographs by R. H. Sauter of London, England

Oct., 1928 -- Modern French Paintings, Watercolors and Drawings

Oct.-Nov., 1928 -- Paintings, Watercolors, Drawings, Etchings, and Lithographs by Richard Lahey

Nov., 1928 -- Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture by J. D. Fergusson

Nov.-Dec., 1928 -- Paintings, Drawings and Etchings by Walter Pach

Dec., 1928 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Abraham Walkowitz

Jan., 1929 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Margarett Sargent

Jan., 1929 -- Watercolors by Rodin

Jan.-Feb., 1929 -- Exhibition of Sculpture by Arnold Geissbuhler

Feb., 1929 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Guy Pène Du Bois

Feb.-Mar., 1929 -- Paintings by Gifford Beal

Mar., 1929 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Adriaan Lubbers

Mar.-Apr., 1929 -- Exhibition of Etchings by Gifford Beal, Frank W. Benson, Childe Hassam, Kenneth Hayes Miller, and John Sloan

Apr., 1929 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Arnold Friedman

Apr., 1929 -- Sculpture by Harriette G. Miller

May, 1929 -- Paintings by Howard Ashman Patterson

May, 1929 -- Paintings by William Meyerowitz

Oct., 1929 -- Exhibition of Modern French Paintings, Watercolors and Drawings

Nov., 1929 -- Modern French and American Paintings, Watercolors, Prints, and Sculpture (at Gage Galleries in Cleveland)

Jan., 1930 -- Paintings by Paul Bartlett

Feb., 1930 -- Watercolors by Auguste Rodin

Feb.-Mar., 1930 -- Paintings by Guy Pène Du Bois

Summer, 1930 -- Paintings by American Artists

Oct., 1930 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Maurice Prendergast

Nov., 1930 -- Paintings by Ruth Jonas

Nov., 1930 -- Sculpture by Harriette G. Miller

Jan., 1931 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Richard Lahey

Jan.-Feb., 1931 -- Paintings by Erle Loran Johnson

Feb.-Mar., 1931 -- Paintings, Watercolors and Etchings by Gifford Beal

Mar., 1931 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Walter Pach

Mar.-Apr., 1931 -- Paintings, Drawings, and Etchings by Rudolf H. Sauter

May, 1931 -- Exhibition of Watercolors by John La Farge, Gifford Beal, H. E. Schnakenberg, Maurice Prendergast, Guy Pène Du Bois, Richard Lahey

Fall, 1931 -- Modern French Paintings, Watercolors, and Drawings

Dec., 1931 -- Exhibition of Drawings and Watercolors by D. Y. Cameron, Joseph Gray, Henry Rushbury, Muirhead Bone, Edmund Blampied, Gwen John

Dec., 1931 -- Lithographs and Posters by H. de Toulouse-Lautrec

Jan., 1932 -- Watercolors by Pierre Brissaud

Feb., 1932 -- Paintings and Drawings by A. S. Baylinson

Mar., 1932 -- Watercolors and Pastels by French and American Artists

Apr., 1932 -- Paintings by Nan Watson

May, 1932 -- Sculpture by Behn, Bourdelle, Geissbuhler, Lachaise, Maillol, Miller, Nadelman, Renoir, Young, Zorach; Decorative Panels by Max Kuehne, and Charles Prendergast

June-Aug., 1932 -- Paintings and Watercolors by American Artists

Oct.-Nov., 1932 -- Paintings, Watercolors, and Drawings by Various Artists

Jan., 1933 -- Paintings by Paul Bartlett

Jan.-Feb., 1933 -- Lithographs by Henri Fantin-Latour

Feb., 1933 -- Etchings of Dogs by Bert Cobb

Feb.-Mar., 1933 -- Paintings by American Artists

Feb.-Apr., 1933 -- Paintings by Contemporary Americans

Apr., 1933 -- Paintings by Maurice Prendergast

Oct., 1933 -- Exhibition of French Paintings, Watercolors, and Drawings

Oct.-Nov., 1933 -- Drawings by Emily W. Miles

Oct.-Nov., 1933 -- Exhibition of Etchings and Lithographs

Nov., 1933 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Henry E. Schnakenberg

Dec., 1933 -- Watercolors by Gifford Beal

Jan., 1934 -- Exhibition of Drawings by Denys Wortman for "Metropolitan Movies"

Summer, 1934 -- Paintings by Gifford Beal, Reynolds Beal, Isabel Bishop, Ann Brockman, Preston Dickinson, Guy Pène Du Bois, William J. Glackens, Richard Lahey, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Harriette Miller, Maurice Prendergast, Henry E. Schnakenberg, and John Sloan

Oct.-Nov., 1934 -- Exhibition of Etchings and Lithographs

Nov.-Dec., 1934 -- Paintings by Gifford Beal

Mar., 1935 -- Complete Collection of Etchings by Mahonri Young

July-Aug., 1935 -- Paintings by American Artists including Gifford Beal, Reynolds Beal, Ann Brockman, Guy Pène Du Bois, William J. Glackens, Max Kuehne, Richard Lahey, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Harriette G. Miller, Maurice Prendergast, Henry E. Schnakenberg, John Sloan, and Abraham Walkowitz

Oct.-Nov., 1935 -- Decorative Panels by Charles Prendergast

Nov., 1935 -- Exhibition of Paintings by H. E. Schnakenberg

Mar., 1936 -- Paintings by Louis Bouché

Apr., 1936 -- Paintings by Gifford Beal

Oct.-Nov., 1936 -- Loan Collection of French Paintings

Dec., 1936 -- Monotypes in Color by Maurice Prendergast

Jan., 1937 -- Recent Watercolors by H. E. Schnakenberg

Jan., 1937 -- Paintings of Flowers by William J. Glackens

Feb., 1937 -- Etchings by John Sloan

Feb., 1937 -- A Group of American Paintings

Sept., 1937 -- A Group of Paintings by Gifford Beal, Louis Bouché, Guy Pène Du Bois, William J. Glackens, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, Theodore Robinson, John Sloan, J. Alden Weir

Oct.-Nov., 1937 -- Decorative Panels by Charles Prendergast

Dec., 1937 -- American Watercolors

Jan.-Feb., 1938 -- Paintings by Gifford Beal

Feb.-Mar., 1938 -- Drawings by William Glackens, Guy Pène Du Bois, John Sloan, Denys Wortman

Apr., 1938 -- Paintings by Louis Bouché

May, 1938 -- Paintings and Pastels by Randall Davey

Oct., 1938 -- Selected Paintings by Modern French and American Artists

Nov., 1938 -- Paintings by Guy Pène Du Bois from 1908 to 1938

Nov., 1938 -- Paintings and Sculpture by Harriette G. Miller

Dec., 1938 -- Watercolors by Prendergast, Keller, Demuth, Wilcox and Others

Jan., 1939 -- Paintings by H. H. Newton

Oct., 1939 -- French and American Paintings

Oct.-Nov., 1939 -- Drawings by William Glackens of Spanish-American War Scenes

Nov., 1939 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Russell Cowles

Jan.-Feb., 1940 -- Recent Paintings by Louis Bouché

Feb.-Mar., 1940 -- Paintings by Henry Schnakenberg

Mar.-Apr., 1940 -- Paintings by Maurice Prendergast

Apr.-May, 1940 -- Watercolors by Charles Kaeselau

May-June, 1940 -- A Group of Recent Paintings by Gifford Beal, Russell Cowles, John Koch, Henry Schnakenberg, Esther Williams, Louis Bouché, Guy Pène Du Bois, Harriette G. Miller, John Sloan, Edmund Yaghjian

Oct., 1940 -- Drawings by American Artists

Nov., 1940 -- Walt Dehner

Mar., 1941 -- John Koch

May-June, 1941 -- Watercolors and Small Paintings by Gifford Beal

Oct.-Nov., 1941 -- Recent Paintings by Russell Cowles

Nov.-Dec., 1941 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Henry E. Schnakenberg

Dec., 1941 -- Charles Prendergast

Jan., 1942 -- Paintings by Samuel Brecher

Jan.-Feb., 1942 -- Recent Paintings by Guy Pène Du Bois

Mar.-Apr., 1942 -- Recent Paintings by Louis Bouché

Mar.-Apr., 1942 -- Illustrations by Boardman Robinson Commissioned by the Limited Editions Club for Edgar Lee Masters' "Spoon River Anthology"

Dec., 1942 -- Paintings from the Period of the Last War

Feb., 1943 -- Paintings and Watercolors by William Dean Fausett

Mar., 1943 -- Paintings by John Hartell

May-July, 1943 -- Watercolors by Contemporary American Artists

Feb.-Mar., 1944 -- Samuel Brecher

Feb.-Mar., 1944 -- Paintings, Gouaches, and Drawings by Andrée Ruellan

Mar., 1944 -- Vaughn Flannery

Mar.-Apr., 1944 -- Recent Paintings by Russell Cowles

Apr.-May, 1944 -- Recent Paintings by Louis Bouché

May-June, 1944 -- Retrospective Exhibition of Paintings and Watercolors by Henry G. Keller

Oct., 1944 -- Esther Williams

Nov.-Dec., 1944 -- Paintings and Watercolors of France by Maurice Prendergast

Dec., 1944 -- William J. Glackens Sixth Memorial Exhibition

Dec., 1944 -- Kraushaar Galleries Sixtieth Anniversary Exhibition of Paintings by William J. Glackens, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, and John Sloan

Jan.-Feb., 1945 -- Paintings by Gifford Beal

Feb.-Mar., 1945 -- Paintings by Andrée Ruellan

Apr.-May, 1945 -- Charles Locke

May-June, 1945 -- William Dean Fausett

Oct., 1945 -- Paintings by John Hartell

Nov.-Dec., 1945 -- Recent Watercolors by Marion Monks Chase

Nov.-Dec., 1945 -- Gouaches by Cecil Bell

Dec., 1945 -- Memorial Exhibition of Paintings and Watercolors by Ann Brockman

undated, 1946 -- Russell Cowles

Jan.-Feb., 1946 -- Richard Lahey

Feb., 1946 -- John Koch

Feb.-Mar., 1946 -- Paintings by Ernst Halberstadt

Mar., 1946 -- Paintings of Mexico and Guatemala by Henry E. Schnakenberg

Mar., 1946 -- Iver Rose

Apr., 1946 -- Louis Bouché

Apr.-May, 1946 -- Russell Cowles

May-June, 1946 -- Paintings by Bernard Arnest, Charles Harsanyi, Irving Katzenstein, Anna Licht, James Penney, Etienne Ret, and Vernon Smith

Sept., 1946 -- Retrospective Exhibition of the Work of Boardman Robinson

Nov., 1946 -- Guy Pène Du Bois

Nov.-Dec., 1946 -- William J. Glackens Eighth Memorial Exhibition

Jan., 1947 -- Karl Schrag

Feb.-Mar., 1947 -- Sculpture by Robert Laurent

Feb.-Mar., 1947 -- Paintings by Iver Rose

Feb.-Mar., 1947 -- Recent Paintings by Vernon Smith

Apr., 1947 -- Charles Prendergast

Apr., 1947 -- Louis Bouché

Apr.-May, 1947 -- Esther Williams

Oct.-Nov., 1947 -- Anna Licht

Nov., 1947 -- William J. Glackens Ninth Memorial Exhibition, with Works by Lenna Glackens

Mar., 1948 -- Russell Cowles

Apr.-May, 1948 -- Bernard Arnest

Aug.-Sept., 1948 -- New York Paintings and Watercolors

Oct.-Nov., 1948 -- Kenneth Evett

Nov.-Dec., 1948 -- Watercolors and Pastels by Harriette G. Miller

Jan.-Feb., 1949 -- John Hartell

Sept.-Oct., 1949 -- Contemporary American Watercolors and Gouaches

Oct., 1949 -- Contemporary Paintings

Jan., 1950 -- Maurice Prendergast Retrospective of Oils and Watercolors

Jan.-Feb., 1950 -- James Penney

Feb.-Mar., 1950 -- Paintings by Karl Schrag

Mar.-Apr., 1950 -- Russell Cowles

Jan.-Feb., 1951 -- William Sommer

Feb., 1951 -- Prints and Drawings by Various Artists

Feb., 1951 -- Paintings by Louis Bouché

Mar., 1951 -- Kenneth Evett

Apr.-May, 1951 -- Paintings by Gallery Artists

May-July, 1951 -- Contemporary American Watercolors

July-Aug., 1951 -- Paintings on the Summer Theme

Sept.-Oct., 1951 -- Vaughn Flannery

Oct.-Nov., 1951 -- Recent Paintings by Gallery Artists

Nov., 1951 -- Paintings by John Koch

Nov.-Dec., 1951 -- Joe Lasker

Dec., 1951 -- Small Prints and Drawings

Jan., 1952 -- Recent Gouaches by William Kienbusch

Jan., 1952 -- John Sloan: Recent Etchings from 1944-1951, and Etchings and Drawings Selected from All Periods of His Career

Feb.-Mar., 1952 -- Andrée Ruellan

Mar.-Apr., 1952 -- Bernard Arnest

Apr.-May, 1952 -- Recent Sculpture by Robert Laurent

May, 1952 -- Recent Paintings by Contemporary American Artists

May-June, 1952 -- Watercolors by Joseph Barber, Edward Christiana, Walt Dehner, Sidney Eaton, Wray Manning, and Woldemar Neufeld

July-Aug., 1952 -- Color Prints (Woodcuts, Etchings, and Lithographs) by Eleanor Coen, Caroline Durieux, Max Kahn, Tom Lias, Woldemar Neufeld, James Penney, George Remaily, Ann Ryan, and Karl Schrag

Nov., 1952 -- Karl Schrag

Dec., 1952-Jan. 1953 -- Eight Oregon Artists

Jan., 1953 -- Charles Prendergast Memorial Exhibition

Jan.-Feb., 1953 -- John Hartell

May, 1953 -- John Heliker

June, 1953 -- Humbert Alberizio, Vaughn Flannery, William Kienbusch, George Rickey, Andrée Ruellan, and Karl Schrag

Sept., 1953 -- Works by Gifford Beal, Kenneth Evett, Tom Hardy, John Koch, and James Lechay

Sept.-Oct., 1953 -- Paintings by Glackens, Lawson, Prendergast, Sloan

Oct.-Nov., 1953 -- Paintings by E. Powis Jones

Oct.-Nov., 1953 -- Recent Works by John Koch

Nov., 1953 -- Kenneth Evett: Drawings from Greek Mythology

Nov.-Dec., 1953 -- Recent Metal Sculptures by Tom Hardy

Nov.-Dec., 1953 -- Pastels, Drawings and Prints by Peggy Bacon

Nov.-Dec., 1953 -- Recent Paintings by Ralph Dubin

Feb.-Mar., 1954 -- Russell Cowles

Mar.-Apr., 1954 -- James Penney

Nov.-Dec., 1954 -- Tom Hardy: Metal Sculptures

Jan., 1955 -- Mobiles, Machines, and Kinetic Sculpture by George Rickey

Jan.-Feb., 1955 -- James Lechay

Feb., 1955 -- Mobiles by George Rickey

Feb.-Mar., 1955 -- Drawings, Etchings, and Lithographs by John Sloan (with a selection of prints by artists whose work influenced him in his early years: Rembrandt, Hogarth, Goya, Rops, Daumier, Rowlandson and others, to mark the publication of John Sloan: A Painter's Life by Van Wyck Brooks)

Mar.-Apr., 1955 -- Jane Wasey

Apr., 1955 -- Recent Work by Joe Lasker

May-June, 1955 -- Sculpture and Drawings by Contemporary American Artists

Jan., 1956 -- Carl Morris

Jan.-Feb., 1956 -- John Laurent

Feb.-Mar., 1956 -- William Kienbusch

Mar., 1956 -- Andrée Ruellan

Mar.-Apr., 1956 -- Karl Schrag

Apr.-May, 1956 -- John Heliker

May, 1956 -- Monotypes by Maurice Prendergast

Oct., 1956 -- The Eight

Jan.-Feb., 1957 -- Paintings by John Hartell

Apr., 1957 -- James Penney

Apr.-May, 1957 -- John Heliker

May-June, 1957 -- Fourteen Painter-Printmakers (American Federation of Arts exhibition)

June-July, 1957 -- 20th Century American Artists

Nov., 1957 -- William Glackens and His Friends (based on the book by Ira Glackens)

Nov., 1957 -- Marguerite Zorach

Jan., 1958 -- Gouches, Drawings and Small Glyphs by Ulfert Wilke

Jan.-Feb., 1958 -- Tom Hardy

Feb.-Mar., 1958 -- John Koch

Feb.-Mar., 1958 -- Still Life Exhibition with Works by William J. Glackens and Maurice Prendergast

Feb.-Mar., 1958 -- Cecil Bell

Mar., 1958 -- Karl Schrag

Mar., 1958 -- Carl Morris

Mar.-Apr., 1958 -- Louis Bouché

Apr., 1958 -- Paintings and Drawings by Joe Lasker

Apr.-May, 1958 -- Paintings and Drawings by Walter Feldman

Apr.-May, 1958 -- Sculpture by Henry Mitchell

May-June, 1958 -- Works in Casein and Gouache by Bernard Arnest, William Kienbusch, Carl Morris, and Karl Schrag

July, 1958 -- Still Life Paintings and Watercolors by American Artists

Oct.-Nov., 1958 -- Kenneth Evett

Nov., 1958 -- Elsie Manville

Nov.-Dec., 1958 -- John Laurent

Jan., 1959 -- Kinetic Sculpture by George Rickey

Jan.-Feb., 1959 -- Bernard Arnest

Mar., 1959 -- Karl Schrag

Mar.-Apr., 1959 -- Paintings by Joe Lasker

Apr.-May, 1959 -- Henry Mitchell

Sept.-Oct., 1959 -- Robert Searle

Oct.-Nov., 1959 -- Russell Cowles

Nov., 1959 -- Caseins and Paintings by William Kienbusch

Dec., 1959 -- Paintings by Vaughn Flannery

Feb., 1960 -- James Lechay

Apr., 1960 -- Landscapes by John Sloan

Apr.-May, 1960 -- John Guerin

May-June, 1960 -- Drawings and Small Sculpture by Gallery Artists

Oct., 1960 -- Ainslie Burke

Oct.-Nov., 1960 -- Leon Goldin

Nov.-Dec., 1960 -- Ulfert Wilke

Jan., 1961 -- Leonard DeLonga

Jan., 1961 -- Kenneth Evett

Jan.-Feb., 1961 -- Walter Feldman

Feb.-Mar., 1961 -- Watercolors and Pastels by Early Twentieth-Century American Artists

Mar., 1961 -- Paintings by Ralph Dubin

Mar.-Apr., 1961 -- James Penney

Apr.-May, 1961 -- John Koch

June, 1961 -- Works by Humbert Albrizio, Bernard Arnest, Cecil Bell, Louis Bouché, Ralph Dubin, Kenneth Evett, Walter Feldman, John Hartell, John Heliker, William Kienbusch, John Koch, Robert Laurent, James Lechay, Elsie Manville, Henry Mitchell, James Penney, George Rickey, Andrée Ruellan, Henry E. Schnakenberg, Karl Schrag, Jane Wasey, and Marguerite Zorach

Sept., 1961 -- Works by Contemporary Americans

Oct., 1961 -- George Rickey: Kinetic Sculpture

Oct.-Nov., 1961 -- Carl Morris

Nov.-Dec., 1961 -- Peggy Bacon

Dec., 1961 -- Selected Works by Twentieth-Century Americans

Jan., 1962 -- Polymer Resin and Sumi Ink Paintings by Kenneth Evett

Jan.-Feb., 1962 -- Louis Bouché

Feb.-Mar., 1962 -- Karl Schrag

Mar., 1962 -- Marguerite Zorach

Apr., 1962 -- John Laurent

Apr.-May, 1962 -- Sculpture by Tom Hardy

May-June, 1962 -- Drawings by Contemporary American Artists

July-Aug., 1962 -- Group Exhibitions - Paintings, Drawings and Sculpture by 20th Century American Artists

Oct., 1962 -- Bernard Arnest

Feb., 1963 -- William Kienbusch

Feb.-Mar., 1963 -- John Guerin

Mar., 1963 -- John Hartell

Sept.-Oct., 1963 -- Andrée Ruellan

Oct.-Nov., 1963 -- Ainslie Burke

Nov., 1963 -- Walter Feldman

Dec., 1963 -- Drawings by John Koch

Dec., 1963 -- Paintings by Contemporary Americans

Jan., 1964 -- Leonard DeLonga

Jan.-Feb., 1964 -- Joe Lasker

Feb.-Mar., 1964 -- Leon Goldin

Mar., 1964 -- Paintings by Ralph Dubin

Apr., 1964 -- Carl Morris

Apr.-May, 1964 -- Paintings and Drawings by John Heliker

Oct.-Nov., 1964 -- Louis Bouché

Nov.-Dec., 1964 -- Karl Schrag

Dec., 1964 -- Kenneth Evett

Feb., 1965 -- Russell Cowles

Feb.-Mar., 1965 -- James Lechay

Mar.-Apr., 1965 -- James Penney

Apr.-May, 1965 -- Gifford Beal

Feb., 1966 -- Dennis Leon

Feb.-Mar., 1966 -- Henry Schnakenberg

Mar.-Apr., 1966 -- John Hartell

Apr., 1966 -- Elsie Manville

Oct., 1966 -- Contrasts - Early and Late Works by Selected Contemporaries

Oct.-Nov., 1966 -- Tom Hardy

Nov.-Dec., 1966 -- Francis Chapin

Dec., 1966-Jan., 1967 -- Karl Schrag: Etchings and Lithographs

Jan.-Feb., 1967 -- Leonard DeLonga

Feb.-Mar., 1967 -- Carl Morris

Mar.-Apr., 1967 -- Ainslie Burke

Apr.-May, 1967 -- John Heliker: Paintings, Drawings, and Watercolors

May-June, 1967 -- William Glackens

Oct., 1967 -- Kenneth Callahan

Oct.-Nov., 1967 -- John Laurent

Jan.-Feb., 1968 -- Dennis Leon

Feb.-Mar., 1968 -- Robert La Hotan

Apr., 1968 -- John Guerin

Apr.-May, 1968 -- Leon Goldin

Sept.-Oct., 1968 -- Contemporary Sculpture and Drawings

Oct.-Nov., 1968 -- Karl Schrag

Nov.-Dec., 1968 -- James Lechay: Portraits and Landscapes

Dec., 1968-Jan., 1969 -- Group Exhibition

Jan., 1969 -- Elsie Manville

Mar., 1969 -- Kenneth Evett

Apr.-May, 1969 -- James Penney

Sept.-Oct., 1969 -- New Works by Contemporary Artists

Oct.-Nov., 1969 -- John Hartell: Exhibition

Nov., 1969 -- Peggy Bacon

Dec., 1969 -- Selected Examples by American Artists 1900-1930

Jan., 1970 -- Leonard DeLonga

Feb., 1970 -- Joe Lasker

Mar., 1970 -- Group Exhibition

Mar.-Apr., 1970 -- Dennis Leon

Apr.-May, 1970 -- Jerome Myers

Oct.-Nov., 1970 -- Tom Hardy

Jan.-Feb., 1971 -- Jane Wasey

Mar.-Apr., 1971 -- Kenneth Callahan

Oct., 1971 -- Ainslie Burke

Nov.-Dec., 1971 -- Karl Schrag

Feb.-Mar., 1972 -- John Koch

Mar.-Apr., 1972 -- Robert La Hotan

Apr.-May, 1972 -- Leon Goldin

May-June, 1972 -- Selected Works by 20th Century Americans

Sept.-Oct., 1972 -- Gallery Collection: American Watercolors and Drawings

Oct.-Nov., 1972 -- John Hartell

Nov.-Dec., 1972 -- Peggy Bacon

Dec., 1972 -- 20th Century Americans

Jan., 1973 -- Leonard DeLonga

Feb., 1973 -- Carl Morris

Mar., 1973 -- James Lechay

Mar.-Apr., 1973 -- Russell Cowles: Landscape Paintings

Apr.-May, 1973 -- Jerome Witkin

May-June, 1973 -- Kenneth Evett: Watercolors

Oct.-Nov., 1973 -- Kenneth Callahan

Jan., 1974 -- Joe Lasker

Jan.-Feb., 1974 -- Bernard Arnest

Feb.-Mar., 1974 -- Concetta Scaravaglione

Oct., 1974 -- Ainslie Burke

Oct.-Nov., 1974 -- James Penney

Jan., 1975 -- Tom Hardy

Jan.-Feb., 1975 -- Karl Schrag

Feb.-Mar., 1975 -- Robert La Hotan

Mar.-Apr., 1975 -- William Kienbusch

Apr., 1975 -- Elsie Manville

Apr.-May, 1975 -- Gifford Beal

Oct.-Nov., 1975 -- John Hartell

Nov., 1975 -- Daniel O'Sullivan

Mar., 1976 -- Jerome Witkin

May, 1976 -- Linda Sokolowski

Sept.-Oct., 1976 -- Joe Lasker, Illustrations from Merry Ever After

Oct., 1976 -- Leonard DeLonga

Nov.-Dec., 1976 -- Kenneth Callahan

Jan., 1977 -- James Lechay

Mar., 1977 -- Karl Schrag

Mar.-Apr., 1977 -- David Cantine

Oct.-Nov., 1977 -- John Hartell

Nov.-Dec., 1977 -- Ainslie Burke

Feb., 1978 -- Robert La Hotan

Apr., 1978 -- Elsie Manville

Oct., 1978 -- Tom Hardy

Oct.-Nov., 1978 -- Jerome Witkin

Jan.-Feb., 1979 -- Joe Lasker

Feb., 1979 -- Kenneth Evett

Feb.-Mar., 1979 -- Karl Schrag

Mar.-Apr., 1979 -- Carl Morris

Apr.-May, 1979 -- Linda Sokolowski

Oct.-Nov., 1979 -- Daniel O'Sullivan

Feb.-Mar., 1980 -- Kenneth Callahan

Mar., 1980 -- Ainslie Burke

Oct., 1980 -- John Hartell

Jan., 1981 -- Leonard DeLonga

Feb., 1981 -- James Lechay

Feb.-Mar., 1981 -- Robert La Hotan

Mar.-Apr., 1981 -- Jerry Atkins

Apr.-May, 1981 -- Ben Frank Moss

Jan.-Feb., 1982 -- Jerome Witkin

Feb.-Mar., 1982 -- Elsie Manville

Mar.-Apr., 1982 -- Karl Schrag

Apr.-May, 1982 -- Linda Sokolowski

May-June, 1982 -- David Cantine

Sept.-Oct., 1982 -- Kenneth Callahan

Oct.-Nov., 1982 -- Joe Lasker

Nov.-Dec., 1982 -- Daniel O'Sullivan

Jan.-Feb., 1983 -- William Kienbusch: Memorial Exhibition

Feb.-Mar., 1983 -- Jerry Atkins

Mar.-Apr., 1983 -- John Hartell

Apr.-May, 1983 -- John Heliker

May-June, 1983 -- Kenneth Evett

Oct., 1983 -- Concetta Scaravaglione

Oct.-Nov., 1983 -- Ben Frank Moss

Nov.-Dec., 1983 -- Russell Cowles

Dec., 1983-Jan., 1984 -- 20th Century Americans

Jan.-Feb., 1984 -- Marguerite Zorach: Paintings at Home and Abroad

Feb.-Mar., 1984 -- Robert La Hotan

Mar., 1984 -- David Smalley

Apr., 1984 -- Carl Morris

May, 1984 -- Karl Schrag

July, 1984 -- Drawings by 20th Century Americans

July-Aug., 1984 -- Collages and Drawings by Joseph Heil

Aug.-Sept., 1984 -- Drawings and Prints by Tom Hardy

Sept.-Oct., 1984 -- James Penney: Memorial Exhibition

Oct.-Nov., 1984 -- Paintings and Drawings by Leon Goldin

Nov.-Dec., 1984 -- Isabelle Siegel

Dec., 1984-Jan., 1985 -- Group Exhibition: Contemporary American Paintings and Sculpture

Jan.-Feb., 1985 -- James Lechay

Feb.-Mar., 1985 -- Ainslie Burke

Mar., 1985 -- Karen Breunig

Apr., 1985 -- Kenneth Callahan

Oct., 1985 -- Elsie Manville

Oct.-Nov., 1985 -- William Glackens

Jan.-Feb., 1986 -- Linda Sokolowski

Feb.-Mar., 1986 -- Jerry Atkins

Apr.-May, 1986 -- Jane Wasey

Oct.-Nov., 1986 -- John Hartell

Nov.-Dec., 1986 -- Karl Schrag

Feb.-Mar., 1987 -- Kenneth Evett

Apr.-May, 1987 -- Ben Frank Moss

May-June, 1987 -- David Smalley

Oct.-Nov., 1987 -- Isabelle Siegel

Feb.-Mar., 1988 -- Karen Breunig

Mar.-Apr., 1988 -- Leon Goldin

Sept.-Oct., 1988 -- Elsie Manville

Oct.-Nov., 1988 -- James Lechay

Jan.-Feb., 1989 -- Karl Schrag

Feb.-Mar., 1989 -- Linda Sokolowski

Jan.-Feb., 1990 -- Kenneth Callahan: Works of the Fifties

Jan.-Feb., 1990 -- Gifford Beal: Watercolors

Mar., 1990 -- Robert La Hotan: Recent Paintings

Mar.-Apr., 1990 -- Sonia Gechtoff: New Paintings

May-June, 1990 -- David Smalley: Recent Sculpture

May-June, 1990 -- Andrée Ruellan: Sixty Years of Drawing...

Oct., 1990 -- Isabelle Siegel

Nov., 1990 -- Leon Goldin

Jan.-Feb., 1991 -- Karl Schrag

Feb.-Mar., 1991 -- Joe Lasker

Apr., 1991 -- Ainslie Burke

Nov.-Dec., 1991 -- Linda Sokolowski: Oils, Collages, Monotypes

Dec., 1991-Jan., 1992 -- Elsie Manville: Small Works on Paper

Mar., 1992 -- Tabitha Vevers

May-June, 1992 -- Sonia Gechtoff

Oct.-Nov., 1992 -- James Lechay

Nov.-Dec., 1992 -- Karl Schrag

Mar., 1993 -- Leon Goldin: Works on Paper

Apr.-May, 1993 -- Robert La Hotan

Oct., 1993 -- David Smalley: Sculpture Inside and Out

Oct., 1993 -- Andrée Ruellan: Works on Paper 1920-1980

Mar.-Apr., 1994 -- Kenneth Evett: Travels: Themes and Variations (Watercolors of Italy, Greece, Arizona, Maine and California)

Mar.-Apr., 1994 -- Tabitha Vevers

Oct.-Nov., 1994 -- Linda Sokolowski

Nov.-Dec., 1994 -- Karl Schrag

Jan.-Feb., 1995 -- Langdon Quin

Mar.-Apr., 1995 -- Robert La Hotan

Sept.-Oct., 1995 -- Sonia Gechtoff

Jan.-Feb., 1996 -- Elsie Manville: Paintings and Works on Paper

Oct.-Nov., 1996 -- Karl Schrag: A Self Portrait Retrospective, 1940-1995

Jan.-Feb., 1997 -- Joe Lasker: Paintings and Watercolors

Mar.-Apr., 1997 -- Tabitha Vevers

Oct.-Nov., 1997 -- James Lechay

Feb.-Mar., 1998 -- Linda Sokolowski: Canyon Suite: Works from the Southwest

Mar.-Apr., 1998 -- Leon Goldin: Paintings on Paper

Sept.-Oct., 1998 -- Sonia Gechtoff: Mysteries in the Sphere

Oct.-Nov., 1998 -- Langdon Quin: Recent Paintings

Nov.-Dec., 1998 -- John Gill

Jan.-Feb., 1999 -- Robert La Hotan

Feb.-Mar., 1999 -- Ann Sperry: Where Is Your Heart

Nov.-Dec., 1999 -- Kathryn Wall

Jan.-Feb., 2000 -- Elsie Manville

Sept.-Oct., 2000 -- Joe Lasker

Oct.-Nov., 2000 -- James Lechay

Oct.-Nov., 2000 -- Tabitha Vevers

May-June, 2001 -- Kenneth Callahan: Drawings

Dec., 2001-Jan., 2002 -- Sur La Table: A Selection of Paintings and Works on Paper

Jan.-Feb., 2002 -- Karl Schrag: Theme and Variations II: The Meadow

undated, 2003 -- Ann Sperry

Jan.-Feb., 2003 -- Andrée Ruellan: Works on Paper from the 1920s and 1930s

Oct.-Nov., 2003 -- Joe Lasker: Muses and Amusements

Nov.-Dec., 2003 -- Tabitha Vevers

Mar.-Apr., 2004 -- Leon Goldin: Five Decades of Works on Paper

May-July, 2004 -- Anne Frank: A Private Photo Album

Jan.-Feb., 2005 -- John Gill: Ceramics

Sept.-Oct., 2005 -- Karl Schrag: The Painter of Bright Nights
Related Material:
An untranscribed oral history interview with Antoinette Kraushaar was conducted for the Archives of American Art by Avis Berman in 1982, and is available on five audio cassettes at the Archives' Washington D.C. research facility.
Separated Material:
In addition to the records described in this finding aid, the following materials were lent to the Archives for filming in 1956 and are available on microfilm reels NKR1-NKR3 and for interlibrary loan: a book of clippings from 1907 to 1930, primarily of exhibition reviews; loose clippings and catalogs of exhibitions from 1930 to 1946; and a group of photographs and clippings relating to George Luks and other artists. These materials were returned to Kraushaar Galleries after microfilming.
53.5 linear feet of records were donated to the Archives of American Art by Kraushaar Galleries in three separate accessions in 1959, 1994, and 1996. Katherine Kaplan of Kraushaar Galleries donated an additional 38.4 linear feet in 2008-2009 and an additional 8.4 linear feet in 2012-2017 and 6.0 linear feet in 2022.
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. A fragile original scrapbook is restricted. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Authorization to publish, quote or reproduce requires written permission from Katherine Kaplan Degn, Kraushaar Galleries. Contact Reference Services for more information.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
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Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State)
Exhibition catalogs
Financial records
Kraushaar Galleries records, 1877-2006. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
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