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Ceramic coaster, Mineta*Rockefeller Dinner

Title:
Ceramic coaster, Mineta*Rockefeller Dinner
Measurements:
overall: 3/8 in x 3 5/8 in; .9525 cm x 9.2075 cm
Object Name:
Coaster ceramic
Date made:
October 17, 1986
Credit Line:
Gift of Norman Mineta
ID Number:
1987.3058.15
Nonaccession number:
1987.3058
Catalog number:
1987.3058.15
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, General
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b3-08f4-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1313936

The beloved (Radha) in conversation with her confidante from a Rasikapriya

Medium:
Opaque watercolor and gold on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 7.9 x 13.2 cm (3 1/8 x 5 3/16 in)
Type:
Painting
Origin:
India
Date:
ca. 1617
Period:
Mughal dynasty
Topic:
Hinduism  Search this
Radha  Search this
Mughal dynasty (1526 - 1858)  Search this
Rasikapriya  Search this
India  Search this
South Asian and Himalayan Art  Search this
Credit Line:
Purchase — Charles Lang Freer Endowment
Accession Number:
F1931.5
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Related Online Resources:
Google Cultural Institute
See more items in:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Collection
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ye35555286d-ae5b-4ee9-8354-2fdc7bfa7ece
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fsg_F1931.5

Ladies Beside a Lotus Pool

Medium:
Opaque watercolor, gold, and silver on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 20.5 x 16.4 cm (8 1/16 x 6 7/16 in)
Type:
Painting
Origin:
Kulu, Himachal Pradesh state, Punjab Hills, India
Date:
ca. 1710
Topic:
bathing  Search this
lotus  Search this
India  Search this
South Asian and Himalayan Art  Search this
Credit Line:
Purchase — Charles Lang Freer Endowment
Accession Number:
F1932.10
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Related Online Resources:
Google Cultural Institute
See more items in:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Collection
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ye3679e33e5-9ebc-4235-bcf6-ae6fea2043ee
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fsg_F1932.10

Woman Bathing

Medium:
Color on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 16.9 x 10.7 cm (6 5/8 x 4 3/16 in)
Type:
Painting
Origin:
Guler, Himachal Pradesh state, Punjab Hills, India
Date:
ca. 1820
Topic:
bathing  Search this
woman  Search this
India  Search this
South Asian and Himalayan Art  Search this
Credit Line:
Purchase — Charles Lang Freer Endowment
Accession Number:
F1937.44
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Related Online Resources:
Google Cultural Institute
See more items in:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Collection
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ye33ececcd1-69c5-4cb1-8075-4b68640138ff
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fsg_F1937.44

Folio from a Qur'an, Sura 5:52-54

Medium:
Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 32.3 x 21.4 cm (12 11/16 x 8 7/16 in)
Type:
Manuscript
Origin:
Afghanistan
Date:
11th-12th century
Topic:
Islam  Search this
Qur'an  Search this
eastern kufic script  Search this
Afghanistan  Search this
Iran  Search this
Arts of the Islamic World  Search this
sura 5  Search this
Credit Line:
Purchase — Charles Lang Freer Endowment
Accession Number:
F1939.56
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Related Online Resources:
Google Cultural Institute
See more items in:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Collection
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ye3b6974195-8c84-4109-bf12-0676e97b2dfa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fsg_F1939.56
Online Media:

Babur at the Capture of Kabul in 910 H (A.D. 1504), from an Akbarnama

Patron:
Akbar (reigned 1556-1605)  Search this
Artist:
Mahesh  Search this
Basawan  Search this
Medium:
Opaque watercolor, ink and gold on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 36.6 x 23.9 cm (14 7/16 x 9 7/16 in)
Type:
Painting
Origin:
India
Date:
1586-90
Period:
Mughal dynasty, Reign of Akbar
Topic:
elephant  Search this
Mughal dynasty (1526 - 1858)  Search this
Reign of Akbar (1556 - 1605)  Search this
nasta'liq script  Search this
India  Search this
emperor  Search this
South Asian and Himalayan Art  Search this
Credit Line:
Purchase — Charles Lang Freer Endowment
Accession Number:
F1945.27
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Related Online Resources:
Google Cultural Institute
See more items in:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Collection
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ye347f95058-94c5-4b26-9d15-fa4d25daf513
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fsg_F1945.27
Online Media:

The World of Animals

Artist:
Miskin (active late 1570s–ca. 1604)  Search this
Medium:
Opaque watercolor, ink and gold on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 33.8 x 21.7 cm (13 5/16 x 8 9/16 in)
Type:
Painting
Origin:
India
Date:
ca. 1590
Period:
Mughal dynasty, Reign of Akbar
Topic:
bird  Search this
fish  Search this
dragon  Search this
phoenix  Search this
lion  Search this
camel  Search this
horse  Search this
elephant  Search this
Mughal dynasty (1526 - 1858)  Search this
Reign of Akbar (1556 - 1605)  Search this
antelope  Search this
rhinoceros  Search this
illumination  Search this
India  Search this
South Asian and Himalayan Art  Search this
Credit Line:
Purchase — Charles Lang Freer Endowment
Accession Number:
F1945.29
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Related Online Resources:
Google Cultural Institute
Worlds within Worlds: Imperial Paintings from India and Iran
See more items in:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Collection
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ye3330e2383-d9f4-4186-8d21-a7355e647aed
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fsg_F1945.29

Portrait of Muhammad Shah Padishah

Medium:
Ink and gold on paper
Dimensions:
H x W (sheet & image): 10.2 x 15.4 cm (4 x 6 1/16 in)
Type:
Drawing
Origin:
Iran
Date:
1580s-1590s
Period:
Safavid period
Topic:
portrait  Search this
horse  Search this
Safavid period (1501 - 1722)  Search this
Iran  Search this
bow  Search this
Arts of the Islamic World  Search this
equestrian  Search this
arrow  Search this
Credit Line:
Purchase — Charles Lang Freer Endowment
Accession Number:
F1947.22
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Related Online Resources:
Google Cultural Institute
See more items in:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Collection
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ye3e75e55a3-2f44-42a7-ad59-d7223b647ef4
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fsg_F1947.22
Online Media:

Canadian National Exhibition Athletic Day medal

Manufactured by:
Birks Group, Canadian, founded 1879  Search this
Issued by:
Canadian National Exhibition, Canadian, founded 1846  Search this
Received by:
Eulace Peacock, American, 1914 - 1996  Search this
Medium:
enamel on sterling silver with metal , silk, dye and thread
Dimensions:
H x W x D (overall): 4 × 1 7/16 × 1/4 in. (10.2 × 3.7 × 0.6 cm)
H x W x D (pin): 5/16 × 1 7/16 × 1/4 in. (0.8 × 3.6 × 0.6 cm)
H x W x D (ribbon): 1 1/2 × 1 3/8 × 3/16 in. (3.8 × 3.5 × 0.4 cm)
H x W x D (medal): 2 5/16 × 1 5/16 × 1/8 in. (5.8 × 3.4 × 0.3 cm)
Type:
pins (fasteners)
medals
Place made:
Montreal, Quebec, Canada, North and Central America
Place used:
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, North and Central America
Date:
1939
Topic:
African American  Search this
Athletes  Search this
Sports  Search this
Track and field  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
A2014.63.105.1.29
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
Proper usage is the responsibility of the user.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Awards, Medals, and Insignia
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd58d030eab-6865-45d6-80fc-0f703567949d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_A2014.63.105.1.29

Maple Leaf Games medal awarded to Eulace Peacock

Manufactured by:
Birks Group, Canadian, founded 1879  Search this
Issued by:
Achilles Club of Toronto, Canadian  Search this
Received by:
Eulace Peacock, American, 1914 - 1996  Search this
Subject of:
Conn Smythe, Canadian, 1895 - 1980  Search this
Medium:
metal with silk, dye, thread and enamel
Dimensions:
H x W x D (overall): 1 15/16 × 1 1/4 × 1/4 in. (4.9 × 3.2 × 0.6 cm)
H x W x D (medal): 1 1/2 × 1 3/16 × 1/16 in. (3.8 × 3 × 0.2 cm)
Type:
pins (fasteners)
medals
Place used:
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, North and Central America
Place made:
Montreal, Quebec, Canada, North and Central America
Date:
March 22, 1935
Topic:
African American  Search this
Athletes  Search this
Sports  Search this
Track and field  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
A2014.63.105.1.46
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
Proper usage is the responsibility of the user.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Awards, Medals, and Insignia
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5c98738dd-14a0-4f72-bb8a-98fb837541e7
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_A2014.63.105.1.46

Maple Leaf Games medal awarded to Eulace Peacock

Manufactured by:
Birks Group, Canadian, founded 1879  Search this
Issued by:
Achilles Club of Toronto, Canadian  Search this
Received by:
Eulace Peacock, American, 1914 - 1996  Search this
Subject of:
Conn Smythe, Canadian, 1895 - 1980  Search this
Medium:
metal with silk, dye, thread and enamel
Dimensions:
H x W x D (overall): 1 15/16 × 1 1/4 × 1/4 in. (4.9 × 3.2 × 0.6 cm)
H x W x D (medal): 1 1/2 × 1 3/16 × 1/16 in. (3.8 × 3 × 0.2 cm)
Type:
pins (fasteners)
medals
Place used:
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, North and Central America
Place made:
Montreal, Quebec, Canada, North and Central America
Date:
March 22, 1935
Topic:
African American  Search this
Athletes  Search this
Sports  Search this
Track and field  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
A2014.63.105.1.47
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
Proper usage is the responsibility of the user.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Awards, Medals, and Insignia
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5f3ed248c-d2ca-48c9-967c-3705330dd319
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_A2014.63.105.1.47

Frank A. Dubinskas papers

Creator:
Dubinskas, Frank A. (Frank Anthony)  Search this
Names:
Apple Computer, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
3.25 Linear feet (7 document boxes)
1.86 Megabytes (207 files)
Culture:
Mende (African people)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Megabytes
Place:
Africa, West
Sierra Leone
Croatia
Yugoslavia
Date:
1964-1996
Summary:
The papers of Frank A. Dubinskas, a noted anthropologist of organizational culture, primarily documents his research into automated manufacturing at Apple Computer, Inc., but also includes material relating to his research in Sierra Leone and Yugoslavia. Also included is some biograhical material as well as manuscripts and publications.
Scope and Contents:
The Frank A. Dubinskas papers primarily document his research into the social aspects of automated manufacturing at Apple Computer, but also includes a small mount of material from his earlier research as well as biographical information and writings.

Series 1. Biographical, comprises newsclippings, photographs, and other documents relating to Dubinskas' education, opposition to the draft, and employment. Also included are photographs of Dubinskas, as well as obituaries and memorials that followed his death.

Series 2. Research, includes a small amount of correspondence home and final paper relating to Dubinskas' Sierra Leone research into Mende woodcarving, and correspondence home and completed dissertation relating to research into Slavonian folklore in Yugoslavia. The bulk of the research series comprises Dubinskas' work on automated manufacturing at Apple Computer, Inc., specifically related to the istallation and implementation of an automated assembly line at Apple's Fremont facility. Materials consist of both paper and born-digital files and include correspondence, notes, reports, and presentations.

Series 3, Writings, include drafts and published articles and chapters by Dubinskas, as well as reviews of his edited volume, Making Time: Ethnographies of High-Technology Organizations. Also included are case studies that Dubinskas prepared for Harvard Business School and Digital Equipment Corporation.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in three series: 1. Biographical; 2. Research; and 3. Writings.
Biographical Note:
Frank A. Dubinskas (1946-1993) was an anthropologist of organizational behavior best known for his pioneering work in the field of the anthropology of science and technology. He went to Yale Universtiy for undergraduate studies in 1964, and in 1967 he conducted research in Sierra Leone, looking at the aesthetics of Mende woodcarving. He received his B.A. in anthropology 1972. He then went to Stanford University for his M.A. (1976) and Ph.D. (1983) in Anthropology, focusing his doctoral research on village expressive culture in Yugoslavia.

Dubinskas is most well known for his research into culture and technology in high-tech companies, particularly in manufacturing automation, knowledge management, and Chaos Theory in organizations. Among his various projects was his groundbreaking research into automated manufacturing implementation at Apple Computer in 1989-1990.

Dubinskas joined the faculty of the Organizational Studies Department in the Carroll School of Management at Boston College in 1987. From 1991-1992 he was a visiting scholar at the School of American Research in Santa Fe, NM, and in 1992 became the Howard W. Alkire Chair in International Business and Economics at Hamline University in St. Paul, MN.

1946 -- Born

1964-1972 -- Undergraduate studies at Yale University (BA 1972)

1967 -- Research in Sierra Leone

1970-1972 -- Research assistant, Biology/biochemistry, Yale University

1972-1974 -- Research associate, physiology, Anatomy and biochemistry departments, UC Berkeley

1975-1976 -- MA in anthropology, Stanford University

1977-1980 -- Doctoral research in Yugoslavia

1983 -- PhD in anthropology, Stanford University

1983-1984 -- Exxon Fellow, MIT Science, Technology, and Society program

1984-1985 -- Visiting scholar, MIT Science, Technology and Society program and program in anthropology and archaeology

1981-1986 -- Research into US biotechnology industry

1984, 1988 -- Follow up research in Yugoslavia

1985-1987 -- Associate for Case Development, Harvard Business School, Production and Operations Management Group

1985-1993 -- Research into US computer industry and computer integrated manufacturing

1986-1988 -- Research into US and European automotive industry

1987-1992 -- Assistant professor, Organizational Studies Department, Carroll School of Management Boston College

1989-1991 -- Research into automated manufacturing at Apple Computer

1991-1992 -- NEH resident scholar, School of American Research

1992-1993 -- Howard W. Alkire Chair in International Business and Economics, associate professor of Anthropology, and director of international studies, Hamline University

1993, October 25 -- Dies in St. Paul, MN
Provenance:
Received from Anna Hargreaves and Dorothy W. Dubinskas in 1998 and 2000.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Access to the Frank A. Dubinskas papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Folklore  Search this
Organizational behavior  Search this
Citation:
Frank A. Dubinskas papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1998-07
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw370cce331-5e92-44a7-a1fa-5750dde52568
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1998-07

Inka Engineering Symposium 3: Cusco, Inka Capital: Planning and Construction

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Symposia
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2013-11-19T16:21:34.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_fLkAhs6FhmE

Freer Medal Lecture and Award Ceremony: Honoring Gülru Necipoğlu

Creator:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery  Search this
Type:
Lectures
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2023-11-01T11:56:38.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Art, Asian  Search this
See more by:
FreerSackler
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
YouTube Channel:
FreerSackler
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_s_T9jk0-0oU

North American P-51D-30-NA Mustang

Manufacturer:
North American Aviation Inc.  Search this
Materials:
Metal, plastic, fabric
Dimensions:
Other (see description): 13 ft. 4 in. × 32 ft. 3 in. × 37 ft. 2 in., 3702.7kg (406.4 × 983 × 1132.8cm, 8163lb.)
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1945
Credit Line:
Transferred from the U.S. Air Force
Inventory Number:
A19600300000
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv977ffb908-40ba-47f7-a478-a6ca6d1c04a4
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19600300000

Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
Extent:
245 Linear feet ((376 boxes and 10 map drawers))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1878-1965
Summary:
The records in this collection embody the administrative functions of the Bureau of American Ethnology from 1879 to 1965. The collection consists of correspondence, card files, registers, official notices, annual and monthly work reports, research statements, research proposals, grant applications, personnel action requests, notices of personnel action, meeting minutes, purchase orders and requisitions, property records, biographical sketches, resolutions, newspaper clippings, reviews of publications, drafts of publications, circulars, programs, pamphlets, announcements, illustrations, cartographic materials, photographic prints, photographic negatives, bibliographies, and reprinted publications.
Scope and Contents:
The records in this collection embody the administrative functions of the Bureau of American Ethnology from 1879 to 1965. The collection consists of correspondence, card files, registers, official notices, annual and monthly work reports, research statements, research proposals, grant applications, personnel action requests, notices of personnel action, meeting minutes, purchase orders and requisitions, property records, biographical sketches, resolutions, newspaper clippings, reviews of publications, drafts of publications, circulars, programs, pamphlets, announcements, illustrations, cartographic materials, photographic prints, photographic negatives, bibliographies, and reprinted publications.

Correspondence comprises the bulk of this collection. A significant portion of this correspondence originates from the Bureau's duty to field inquiries regarding North American aboriginal cultures and respond to requests relating to the duplication of BAE library and archival materials. Inquiries and requests, received from all parts of the world, were submitted by colleagues, museum curators and directors, students, professors, amateur archaeologists, government agents, military officials, Smithsonian Institution officials, artists, and members of the general public. Other correspondence reflects the Bureau's day-to-day operations and internal affairs. Subjects discussed in this correspondence include research projects, field expeditions, annual budgets, personnel matters, the acquisition of manuscripts, the disbursement of specimens, and production of BAE publications. Correspondence is occasionally accompanied by announcements, circulars, programs, pamphlets, photographs, drawings, diagrams, bibliographies, lists, newspaper clippings, and maps. Also among these records are the card files and registers of incoming and outgoing correspondence maintained by early BAE administrative staff. For a list of correspondents, see the appendix to this finding aid, available in the NAA reading room.

The majority of illustrations, artwork, and photographs that appear in this collection are associated with BAE publications, including BAE Annual Reports, BAE Bulletins, Contributions to North American Ethnology and Smithsonian Institution, Miscellaneous Collection. Maps located among the collection originate, by and large, from BAE field expeditions and research projects. BAE staff also amassed great quantities of newspaper clippings that concerned BAE research or points of interest. Of particular note are three scrapbooks comprised of clippings that relate to "mound builders" and the work of the BAE's Division of Mound Explorations.

Also worthy of note are the various records relating to the 1903 investigation of the BAE. Records related to the investigation highlight the Smithsonian Institution's longstanding dissatisfaction with the internal management of the BAE, its concerns over the BAE's loose relationship with the parent organization, and displeasure with the manner in which BAE scientific research was developing. Other materials of special interest are the various administrative records covering the period 1929 to 1946 and 1949 to 1965. The majority cover personnel matters; however, others justify the work of the BAE and bear witness to growing concerns that the BAE would eventually be absorbed by the Department of Anthropology within the United States National Museum.
Arrangement:
The collection has been arranged into the following 12 series: (1) Correspondence, 1897-1965; (2) Cooperative Ethnological Investigations, 1928-1935; (3) Miscellaneous Administrative Files, 1929-1946; (4) Miscellaneous Administrative Files, 1949-1965; (5) Records Concerning the Photographic Print Collection, 1899-1919; (6) Records Concerning Employees; (7) Fiscal Records, 1901-1902 and 1945-1968; (8) Records Relating to the 1903 Investigation of the BAE; (9) Property Records and Requisitions; (10) Clippings; (11) Publications; (12) BAE Library Materials, Pamphlets and Reprints
Administrative History:
The Bureau of Ethnology was established by an act of the United States Congress on March 3, 1879, but it was largely the personal creation of the geologist and explorer Major John Wesley Powell. His earlier explorations of the Colorado River and Grand Canyon formed the basis of the Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region. While exploring the area, Powell became alarmed at what he perceived to be the decline of the aboriginal way of life due to rapid depopulation. In a letter to the Secretary of the Interior, he warned that "in a few years, it will be impossible to study…Indians in their primitive condition, except from recorded history" (Hinsley). He urged swift government action; the result of which was the appropriation of $20,000 (20 Stat. 397) to transfer all documents relating to North American Indians from the Department of Interior to the Smithsonian Institution and its Secretary's appointment of Powell as director of the newly established Bureau of Ethnology, a position he held until his death in 1902. In 1897, its name was changed to the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) to underscore the limits of its geographical reaches.

Under Powell, the BAE organized the nation's earliest anthropological field expeditions, in which the characteristics and customs of native North Americans were observed firsthand and documented in official reports. Images of Indian life were captured on photographic glass plate negatives, and their songs on wax cylinder recordings. Histories, vocabularies and myths were gathered, along with material objects excavated from archaeological sites, and brought back to Washington for inclusion in the BAE manuscript library or the United States National Museum.

The fruits of these investigations were disseminated via a series of highly regarded and widely distributed publications, most notably BAE Annual Reports, BAE Bulletins, and Contributions to North American Ethnology. BAE research staff also responded routinely to inquiries posed by colleagues, government agencies, and the general public on matters ranging from artwork to warfare. Moreover, the BAE prepared exhibits on the various cultural groups it studied not only for the Smithsonian Institution, but also for large expositions held nationwide.

In 1882 Powell, under instruction of Congress, established the Division of Mound Explorations for the purpose of discovering the true origin of earthen mounds found predominately throughout the eastern United States. It was the first of three temporary, yet significant, subunits supported by the Bureau. Cyrus Thomas, head of the Division, published his conclusions in the Bureau's Annual Report of 1894, which is considered to be the last word in the controversy over the mounds' origins. With the publication of Thomas' findings, the Division's work came to a close.

The course of BAE operations remained largely the same under Powell's successors: W.J. McGee (acting director) 1902; William Henry Holmes, 1902-1910; Frederick W. Hodge, 1910-1918; J. Walter Fewkes, 1918-1928; Matthew W. Stirling, 1928-1957; Frank H.H. Roberts, Jr., 1957-1964; and Henry B. Collins (acting director), 1964-1965. However, following a 1903 internal investigation of the Bureau's administrative activities, Smithsonian officials called for a broader scope of ethnological inquiry and greater application of anthropological research methodologies. The BAE responded in 1904 by expanding agency activities to include investigations in Hawaii, the Philippines, and the Caribbean.

The BAE extended its geographical reaches once again, in the 1940s, to include Central and South America. In 1943, the Institute of Social Anthropology (ISA) was established as an independent subunit of the Bureau for the purpose of developing and promoting ethnological research throughout the American Republics. The findings of ISA-sponsored investigations were published in the six volume series, Handbook of South American Indians (BAE Bulletin 143). Julian H. Steward, editor of the Handbook, was appointed director of ISA operations and held the position until 1946 when George M. Foster assumed responsibility. The ISA was absorbed by the Institute of Inter-American Affairs in 1952, thus terminating its relationship with the BAE.

In 1946 the BAE assumed partial administrative control of the recently established River Basin Surveys (RBS), its third and final autonomous subunit. The purpose of the RBS was to salvage and preserve archaeological evidence threatened by post-World War II public works programs, more specifically the rapid construction of dams and reservoirs occurring throughout the country. Excavations conducted under the RBS yielded considerable data on early North American Indian settlements, and subsequent deliberations on this data were published as reports in various BAE Bulletins.

In 1965, the BAE merged administratively with the Smithsonian Institution's Department of Anthropology to form the Office of Anthropology within the United States National Museum (now the Department of Anthropology within the National Museum of Natural History). The BAE manuscript library, also absorbed by the Department of Anthropology, became the foundation of what is today the National Anthropological Archives (NAA).

In its 86 year existence, the BAE played a significant role in the advancement of American anthropology. Its staff included some of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries' most distinguished anthropologists, including Jeremiah Curtain, Frank Hamilton Cushing, J.O. Dorsey, Jesse Walter Fewkes, Alice Cunningham Fletcher, Albert H. Gatschet, John Peabody Harrington, John N.B. Hewitt, William Henry Holmes, Ales Hrdlicka, Neil Judd, Francis LaFlesche, Victor and Cosmo Mindeleff, James Mooney, James Pilling, Matilda Coxe Stevenson, Matthew Williams Stirling, William Duncan Strong, and William Sturtevant. The BAE also collaborated with and supported the work of many non-Smithsonian researchers, most notably Franz Boas, Frances Densmore, Gerard Fowke, Garrick Mallery, Washington Matthews, Paul Radin, John Swanton, Cyrus Thomas, and T.T. Waterman, as well as America's earliest field photographers such as Charles Bell, John K. Hillers, Timothy O'Sullivan, and William Dinwiddie. Several of its staff founded the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1880, which later became the American Anthropological Association in 1899. What is more, its seminal research continues to be drawn upon by contemporary anthropologists and government agents through the use of BAE manuscripts now housed in the NAA.

Sources Consulted:

Hinsley, Curtis. Savages and Scientists: The Smithsonian Institution and the Development of American Anthropology, 1846-1910. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1981.

McGee, WJ. "Bureau of American Ethnology." The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896, The History of its First Half-Century, pp. 367-396. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1897.

Sturtevant, William. "Why a Bureau of American Ethnology?" Box 286, Functions of the BAE, Series IV: Miscellaneous Administrative Files, 1948-1965, Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology, National Anthropological Archives.
Related Materials:
Additional material relating to BAE administrative affairs and research projects can be found among the National Anthropological Archives' vast collection of numbered manuscripts. Too numerous to list in this space, these include official correspondence, monthly and annual work reports, fiscal records, field notes, personal diaries, expedition logs, catalogues of specimens, vocabularies, historical sketches, maps, diagrams, drawings, bibliographies, working papers and published writings, among various other material. Most of these documents are dispersed throughout the numbered manuscript collection as single items; however, some have been culled and unified into larger units (e.g., MS 2400 is comprised of documents relating to the Division of Mound Explorations). Artwork and illustrations produced for BAE publications are also located among the NAA's numbered manuscript collection as well as its photograph collection (e.g., Photo Lot 78-51 and Photo Lot 80-6).

Photographs concerning BAE research interests can be found among the following NAA photographic lots: Photo Lot 14, Bureau of American Ethnology Subject and Geographic File ca. 1870s-1930s; Photo Lot 24, BAE Photographs of American Indians 1840s to 1960s (also known as the Source Print Collection); Photo Lot 60, BAE Reference Albums 1858-1905; and Photo Lot 85, BAE Miscellaneous Photographs 1895 to 1930. Other photographic lots include portraits of BAE staff and collaborators, namely Photo Lot 33, Portraits of Anthropologists and others 1860s-1960s; Photo Lot 68, Portraits of John Wesley Powell ca. 1890 and 1898; and Photo Lot 70, Department of Anthropology Portrait File ca. 1864-1921.

Additional materials in the NAA relating to the work of the BAE can be found among the professional papers of its staff, collaborators and USNM anthropologists. These include the papers of Ales Hrdlicka, John Peabody Harrington, Otis Mason, J.C. Pilling, Matthew Williams Stirling, and William Duncan Strong. Documents relating to the work of the BAE can be found among the records of the River Basin Surveys (1928-1969) and the Institute of Social Anthropology (1941-1952).

Records related to this collection can also be found in the Smithsonian Institution Archives (SIA). SIA accession 05-124 includes information regarding the 1942 transfer of six audio recordings related to the Chumash Indian language from the Bureau of American Ethnology to the National Archives, nine pages of Chumash translations, and "The Story of Candalaria, the Old Indian Basket-Maker." The Fiscal and Payroll Records of the Office of the Secretary, 1847 to 1942 (Record Unit 93), includes voucher logs, disbursement journals and daybooks of money paid out to the BAE from 1890 to 1910. BAE correspondence can also be found among the Records of the Office of the Secretary (Record Unit 776, accession 05-162). The Papers of William Henry Holmes, second director of the BAE, are also located among the SIA (Record Unit 7084).

Accession records concerning artifacts and specimens collected by the BAE are located in the registrar's office of the National Museum of Natural History.

Related collections can also be found at the National Archives and Records Administration. RG 57.3.1, the Administrative Records of the United States Geological Survey, includes register of applications for BAE ethnological expositions conducted between 1879-1882. RG 75.29, Still Pictures among the Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, includes 22 photographs of Arapaho, Cheyenne, Kiowa, Comanche, Navajo, and Apache Indians taken by William S. Soule for the BAE during 1868-1875. RG 106, Records of the Smithsonian Institution, includes cartographic records (106.2) relating to Indian land cessions in Indiana created for the First Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1881 (1 item); a distribution of American Indian linguistic stock in North America and Greenland, by John Wesley Powell, for the Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, ca. 1887 (1 item); a distribution of Indian tribal and linguistic groups in South America, 1950 (1 item); the Indian tribes in North America, for Bulletin 145, Bureau of American Ethnology, 1952 (4 items). Sound Recordings (106.4) include songs and linguistic material relating to the Aleut, Mission, Chumash, and Creek, gather by the BAE in 1912, 1914, 1930-41. Some include translations (122 items).
Provenance:
The Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology were transferred to the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Archives with the merger of the BAE and the Department of Anthropology of the National Museum of Natural History in 1965. The Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Archives was renamed the National Anthropological Archives in 1968.
Restrictions:
The Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology are open for research.

Access to the Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Citation:
Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.XXXX.0155
See more items in:
Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw391046c25-21e2-4334-a01f-9a6f734ae9cd
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-xxxx-0155
Online Media:

Northern Athapaskan

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
2.08 Linear feet ((6 boxes))
Culture:
Indians of North America -- British Columbia  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Athapascan Indians  Search this
Sarsi Indians  Search this
Denésoliné (Chipewyan)  Search this
Tsattine Indians  Search this
Dakelh (Carrier)  Search this
Cree  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Dictionaries
Vocabulary
Date:
circa 1936-circa 1941
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Alaska/Northwest Coast series contains Harrington's Northern Athapascan research. This section comprises a comparative vocabulary, a comparative dictionary, and other miscellaneous linguistic material, with widely scattered ethnographic information. It combines some secondary source data with original notes which were compiled for the most part during a fieldtrip Harrington made with Robert W. Young to Alberta and British Columbia from October through early December 1939. The two men had corresponded extensively regarding Navajo in 1936 to 1938 and subsequently decided to determine its provenience through the study of languages closely related in vocabulary and construction at the northernmost end of what Harrington termed' 'the chicken-wishbone of Athapascan languages." The northern Athapascan languages for which they obtained data were Sarsi (Sarcee, Sar.), Cold Lake Chipewyan (Cl., Clchip.), Beaver, Carrier (Car.), Babine (Babin), and Sekani (Sekeney, Sek., Sikny, Sik.). They also elicited a short vocabulary in Cree from bilingual speakers, obtained during Harrington's survey of neighboring Canadian languages. The amount of comparative data was increased by the addition of original notes from the earlier work on Navajo and later (1940) work on Tlingit, Eyak, and Upper Umpqua. Harrington may have made these last additions as late as August of 1941 as suggested by the reference "Wn. Aug. 41." The Tlingit notes were subsequently removed to a separate section.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Athapascan languages  Search this
Sarsi language  Search this
Chipewyan language  Search this
Tsattine language  Search this
Carrier language  Search this
Babine language  Search this
Sekani language  Search this
Navajo language  Search this
Cree language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Dictionaries
Vocabulary
Collection Citation:
John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 1.3
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington papers
John Peabody Harrington papers / Series 1: Native American History, Language, and Culture of Alaska and the Northwest Coast
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3a06241b5-54ee-4540-a1ea-3fe746563b15
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref12556
Online Media:

Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection

Creator:
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Names:
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
United States. Department of the Interior  Search this
Extent:
3,710 Photographic prints (29 photograph albums)
3 Linear feet
1430 Negatives (photographic) (acetate)
325 Lantern slides (colored)
Culture:
Oklahoma Cherokee  Search this
Oklahoma Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Osage  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Sioux [Crow Creek]  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Oklahoma Seminole  Search this
Quapaw  Search this
Miami [Oklahoma]  Search this
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Oto  Search this
Sioux [Crow Creek]  Search this
Chickasaw  Search this
Modoc  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Kaw (Kansa)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Cahuilla  Search this
Chemehuevi  Search this
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Isleta Pueblo  Search this
K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo)  Search this
Kumeyaay (Diegueño)  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Payómkawichum (Luiseño)  Search this
Mescalero Apache  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo)  Search this
Picuris Pueblo  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Puye Pueblo  Search this
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
San Carlos Apache  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Minnesota Chippewa  Search this
Lake Superior Chippewa  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Menominee (Menomini)  Search this
Pechanga Band Luiseño  Search this
Rincon Band Luiseño  Search this
Santa Ysabel (Santa Isabela) Diegueño  Search this
Pala Band Luiseño (Agua Caliente)  Search this
Yuit (Siberian Yup'ik)  Search this
Inupiaq (Alaskan Inupiat Eskimo)  Search this
Bering Strait Inupiaq  Search this
Alutiiq (Pacific Eskimo)  Search this
Tlingit  Search this
Eastern Band of Cherokee  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Wahpetonwan Dakota (Wahpeton Sioux)  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Negatives (photographic)
Lantern slides
Photographs
Photograph albums
Place:
Utah
Alaska
Oklahoma
Washington
Florida
Montana
Arizona
Arkansas
Missouri
North Carolina
Minnesota
New Mexico
California
Date:
1880-1928
bulk 1899-1909
Summary:
The Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection includes photographic negatives, photo albums, lantern slides, journals, scrapbooks and other documents created and compiled by the Churchills over the course of Frank's career as a special agent and Indian Inspector for the Department of the Interior between 1899 and 1909. Initially assigned as a revenue collector to the Cherokee Nation and later as an Indian Inspector reviewing boarding schools, Frank's assignments took him all over the United States including Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), Missouri, Texas, Nebraska, Kansas, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, California, Florida, North Carolina and Alaska. During this time the Churchills visited over 80 different Native communities shooting photographs and taking notes.
Scope and Contents:
The Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection includes 1430 photographic negatives, 29 photo albums containing 3710 photographic prints, 325 lantern slides, and 3 linear feet of journals, scrapbooks, and other documents created and compiled by the Churchills over the course of Frank's career as a special agent and Indian Inspector for the Department of the Interior between 1899 and 1909.

Series 1: Photographs in Indian Territory (Oklahoma): Muskogee, Tahlequah, Sulphur Springs and Other Assignments, 1899-1903, includes 11 photo albums and 357 negatives from Frank Churchill's original assignment as revenue collector to the Cherokee Nation. Locations include Indian Territory (Oklahoma) [bulk], Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, South Dakota, Arkansas, and Missouri. The Native communities visited and photographed in this series include— Oklahoma Cherokee, Oklahoma Muskogee (Creek), Quapaw, Osage, Miami, Wyandotte [Oklahoma], Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne), Winnebago [Nebraska], Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma], Ponca, Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee), Oto, Sioux [Crow Creek], Kaw (Kansa), Chickasaw, Modoc, Kiowa, Choctaw.

Series 2: Photographs in the Southwest and Midwest: Arizona, New Mexico, Califonia, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 1903-1907, includes 9 photo albums and 832 negatives from Frank Churchill's assignment as an Indian Inspector. Because the Churchills visited some of the same locations on multiple occasions, it has been hard to date some of the negatives. For that reason, all the negatives made in the Southwest have been included in this series, though there are two photo albums with Southwest photographs included in Series 4. Locations in this series includes Arizona, New Mexico, California, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The Native Communities visited and photographed in this series include—A:shiwi (Zuni), Diné (Navajo), Acoma Pueblo, Akimel O'odham (Pima), Cahuilla, Chemehuevi, Cochiti Pueblo, Hopi Pueblo, Isleta Pueblo, K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo), Kumeyaay (Diegueño), Laguna Pueblo, Luiseño (Luiseno), Mescalero Apache, Mojave (Mohave), Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo), Picuris Pueblo, Piipaash (Maricopa), Puye Pueblo, Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), San Carlos Apache, Taos Pueblo, Tohono O'odham (Papago).

Series 3: Photographs in Alaska and Oregon, 1905-1910 (bulk 1905), includes four photograph albums and 71 negatives from Frank Churchill's appointment as special agent, by President Roosevelt, to investigate the condition of the school & reindeer service and other affairs in Alaska in the summer and fall of 1905. Two of the albums were not made by the Churchills. The first of these (Box 20) includes photographs by William Hamilton and the second (Box 21) includes photographs by W. T. Lopp. Locations in Alaska include St. Lawrence Island, Nuwukmiut/Point Barrow, Teller, Diomedes Islands, Nome, Kotzebue, Wrangell, Port Clarence Bay, Unalaska Island and Baranof Island. There are a number of photographs aboard the U.S. Cutter "Bear" and aboard the mailboat "Georgia." Native communities photographed include—Yuit (Siberian Yup'ik), Inupiaq (Alaskan Inupiat Eskimo), Bering Strait Inupiaq [Diomedes], Alutiiq (Pacific Eskimo), Tlingit.

Series 4: Photographs in Arizona, Utah, North Carolina, Montana, North Dakota, Florida and Miscellaneous, 1907-1909, includes five photograph albums and 163 negatives from Frank Churchill's assignment at Indian Inspector. Because the Churchills visited some of the same locations in the Southwest (Arizona and Utah) on multiple occasions, it has been hard to date some of the negatives. For that reason, all the negatives made in the Southwest have been included in Series 3. Locations include Arizona, Utah, North Carolina, Montana, North Dakota and Florida. Native communities visited and photographed include-Diné (Navajo), Hopi Pueblo, Kaibab Paiute, Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), Eastern Band of Cherokee, Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan), Wahpetonwan Dakota [Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe], Turtle Mountain Chippewa, Seminole. There is restricted material in Box 23 (Album P23380).

Series 5: Non-Native Photographs: Colorado Vacation, Lebanon, New Hampshire, and other Materials, 1898-1913, includes four photograph albums from vacations and other visits made by the Churchills unrelated to Frank's activities as Indian Inspector.

Series 6: Manuscripts: Journals, Documents and Scrapbooks, 1880-1928 (bulk 1899-1909), includes three linear feet of materials arranged in three subseries. Subseries 6.1, Clara Churchill, includes 16 journals, 12 scrapbooks and various other manuscript materials written and accumulated by Clara Churchill during their travels. Many of the journals include personal writings as well as several photographs that are duplicated in the photograph albums. The journals and scrapbooks encompass the full range of the Churchills' travels and include notes from Indian Territory, Southwest, Midwest, Southeast, Plains and Alaska. Subseries 6.2, Colonel Frank C. Churchill, includes official documents around Churchill's assignments as well as the reports Frank submitted back to the Secretary of the Interior (Box 41 and 42). Subseries 6.3, Churchill Museum and Miscellaneous, includes catalogs and other notes related to the large collection of Native American objects amassed by Frank and Clara. Clara also collected other items such as shells, minerals, and sand.

Series 7: Lantern Slides for Lectures, 1899-1909, includes 325 hand colored glass lantern slides. These were made by the Churchills from existing negatives and used for lectures. Lantern slides #1-#121 include views photographed in Alaska in 1905. Sldes #122-#325 include an assortment of views from Oklahoma (Indian Territory), Nebraska, Montana, Minnesota, California, Arizona and New Mexico photographed between 1900 and 1909.
Arrangement:
The Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection has been arranged in seven series by material type and then chronologically. The first five series are then divided into subseries by "Photo Albums" and "Negatives." These include--Series 1: Photographs in Indian Territory (Oklahoma): Muskogee, Tahlequah, Sulphur Springs and Other Assignments, 1899-1903; Series 2: Photographs in the Southwest and Midwest: Arizona, New Mexico, California, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 1907-1907; Series 3: Photographs in Alaska and Oregon, 1905-1910 (bulk 1905-1905); Series 4: Photographs in Arizona, Utah, North Carolina, Montana, North Dakota, Florida and Miscellaneous, 1907-1909; Series 5: Non-Native Photographs: Colorado Vaction, Lebanon, New Hampshire, and other Materials.

Series 6: Manuscripts: Journals, Documents and Scrapbooks, 1880-1928, is arranged in three subseries. Subseries 6.1: Clara G. Churchill, Subseries 6.2: Frank C. Churchill, and Subseries 6.3: Churchill Museum and Miscellaneous. Series 7: Lantern Slides for Lectures, 1899-1909, is arranged in orginal number order from the Hood Museum at Dartmouth College.
Biographical / Historical:
Frank Carroll Churchill was born August 2, 1850 to Benjamin P. Churchill and Susanna Thompson in West Fairlee, Vermont. Frank was educated at Thetford Academy in Thetford, VT and worked as a clerk for D.C. Churchill & Co. in Lyme, NH between 1869-1870. Between 1870 and 1877, Churchill was employed by H.W. Carter as a wholesale merchant in Lebanon, New Hampshire. During this time, Churchill met Clara Corser Turner and they were married on June 11, 1874.

Clara G. (Turner) Churchill was born December 16, 1851, to Colonel Francis H. Corser and Sarah Hook (Perkins) Corser. Colonel Corser and his wife died young, and Clara was adopted by George and Abby H. Turner of Concord, New Hampshire. In 1877, in association with William S. Carter, Frank Churchill opened the business "Carter & Churchill" which was in this business for 21 years. Churchill held various political offices from 1879-91. He served as chairman of the Republican town committee of Lebanon and of the Republican State committee in 1890 and 1891. He served on the staff of Governor Natt Head in 1879 and 1880, with the rank of Colonel. He was chairman of the New Hampshire delegation at the Republican National Convention which nominated President Harrison and represented the Fourth District in the Executive Council in 1889-1890 during the administration of Governor David. H. Goodell.

In 1899 Frank was appointed revenue inspector for the Cherokee Nation in Indian Territory and was later appointed a special agent for the Interior Department to formulate a system of public schools in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) and across the Southwest. In 1905, he was appointed special agent, by President Roosevelt, to investigate the condition of the school & reindeer service and other affairs in Alaska and was reappointed Indian Inspector between 1905-1909. In 1909, Churchill resigned due to failing health and died November 5, 1912. Clara accompanied Frank on all his travels between 1899 and 1909 (see below chronology for full details) maintaining journals and writing articles for publication in "WHAT." Clara was also a painter, producing watercolors and hand-painting many of the photographs she and Frank made on their travels. Following Frank's death, Clara maintained their collection of Native artifacts and photographs in their home in Lebanon, New Hampshire. Clara died April 16, 1945, bequeathing the full collection to Dartmouth College.
Frank Churchill's assignments as Special agent and Indian Inspector from 1899-1909 took him all over the United States including Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), Missouri, Texas, Nebraska, Kansas, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, California, Florida, North Carolina and Alaska. During this time the Churchills visited over 80 different Native communities. For more details, see the chronology below.

Travels in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) and other assignments, 1899-1903

1899, June 29 -- Churchills arrive in Muskogee, Indian Territory (Oklahoma).

1899, July-October -- Visit to Fort Gibson, Tahlequah, Sallisaw, and Vinita (Indian Territory/Oklahoma). Visit to Noel and South west City, Missouri. Visit to Chelsea and Coffeyville, Kansas. Visit to Fort Smith, Arkansas.

1899, November -- Visit Tahlequah while the Cherokee Nation legislature was in session.

1899, December -- Travel in Colorado.

1900, March -- Return to Muskogee and Fort Gibson.

1900, Sept 17-Oct 5 -- Dawes Commission in Vinita.

1901, Mar-Apr 3 -- Visit to the Quapaw Agency, Wyandotte Reservation and school, Modoc reservation and the town of Miami.

1901, April -- Visit to Denison, Texas. Visit to Checotah, Eufaula, South McAlester (Choctaw nation).

1901, Summer -- Visit to Pawhuska, Osage Nation.

1901, October -- Visit to Tishomingo, seat of government of the Chickasaws.

1902, January -- Trip to the Chickasaw Nation Visit to Anadarko, Indian Agency of the Kiowa, Comanche and Apache, Fort Sill, Wichita Mountains, and Lawton.

1902, May -- Frank is dispatched to Sioux City, Iowa.

1902, May-June -- Visit to Winnebago Agency, Omaha Agency, Santee Agency.

1902, July -- Visit to St. Paul, Minnesota and Eau Claire, Wisconsin, (Chippewa Falls). Frank is sent to Sulphur Springs, Texas, to author a report.

1902, August -- Churchills return to Muskogee, IT.

1902, September-October -- Trip to White Eagle, Ponca Agency for a month. Visit to Otoe school, Pawnee School, Shawnee, Sac and Fox reservations.

1902, November-December -- Visit to Crow Creek Agency.

1903, January -- Return to Sulpher Springs, Texas.

1903, March -- Visit to Pawhuska, Osage Nation.

1903, April -- Visit to Colorado.

1903, May-October -- Visit to 23 towns in Oklahoma (IT) with the Secretary of the Interior.

Travels in New Mexico, Arizona and California, 1903-1905

1903, November -- Frank receives orders to proceed to Zuni Pueblo, New Mexico.

1903, December 9 -- Visit to Zuni, followed by Canyon de Chelly, Hubbell's Ranch, Keams Canyon.

1903, December 21 -- Visit to Hopi Pueblo. Walpi, Polacca Day School, Oraibi, Shumopavi (Shungopavi/Songoopavi), Shipaulovi (Supawlavi) and Mishongnovi (Musungnuvi).

1903, December 28 -- Visit to Fort Defiance.

1904, January -- Travel in New Mexico. Visit to Gallup, Laguna Pueblo, Acomita, Paraje, Acoma, Albuquerque, Isleta Pueblo, Santa Fe, Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo), K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo).

1904, February -- Visit to Sacaton, Akimel O'odham (Pima) Reservation and Casa Grande ruins in Arizona.

1904, March -- Visit to Lehi Day School, Salt River Day School, Phoenix Indian School, Gila River Crossing Day School and Maricopa Day School, Arizona.

1904, March 10-26 -- Visit to Fort Mojave and Chemehuevi.

1904, March 30-April -- Visit to Riverside, California, Sherman Institute and Perris School. Side trip to Yuma, Arizona.

1905, January-February -- Visit to Sulphur, IT.

1905, March -- Visit to Mescalero Apache Agency, San Carlos Apache Agency, Geronimo Settlement, Rice Station School at Talkalai.

1905, April 10-20 -- Return to Sherman Institute in Riverside, California. Visit to San Jacinto, Perris, Saboba, Cahuilla, San Manuella (Band of Mission Indians), Coachella, Torres Reservation, Martinez Reservation Day School, Cabazon Reservation, Protrero Reservation and Day School.

1905, April 22-May -- Visit to Temecula, Pechanga Day School, Pala Mission, Campo Reservation, Mission of San Luis Rey, Rincon Day School, Mesa Grande School, Santa Ysabel (Diegueno), Volcan Mountain Day School.

Travels in Alaska, 1905

1905, June -- Frank receives an assignment in Alaska.

1905, July -- Board the U.S. Revenue Cutter "Bear" in Nome. Visit to Reindeer Station in Teller, Cape Prince of Wales, Kotzebue Sound, Cape Thompson, Point Hope and Point Barrow.

1905, August -- Visit to Wainwright Inlet, return to Nome. Visit to Anvil Creek, Gologin (Golovin) Bay, St. Lawrence Island, Pribilof Islands (Seal Islands), St. George, Dutch Harbor and Unalaska.

1905, September -- Board the "Dora" anchored near Belkofski, Cold Bay, Karluk, Afgonak, and Kodiak. Stop in Homer, Seldovia and Seward. Visit to Sitka.

1905, September 28 -- Board the steamer "Georgia" to Juneau and Skagway via Hoonah.

1905, October -- Return to Lebanon, NH.

Travels in Arizona, New Mexico, Minnesota, Wisconsin, California and Utah, 1906-1907

1906, March-April -- Re-assigned to Southwest and arrive in Tucson, Arizona. Visit to San Xavier Mission, Tohono O'odham (Papago) reservation, Casa Grande, Sacaton, Maricopa, Gila Crossing, Salt River and Phoenix schools.

1906, May -- Return to New Mexico to visit Gallup and Zuni Day School.

1906, June -- Visit to St, Paul, Minnesota and the White Earth (Ojibwe) reservation and Wild Rice River School in Boliere.

1906, July -- Visit to Ashland, Wisconsin, Lac Courte Oreilles, Hayward, and Lac de Flambeau (La Pointe Agency.

1906, July-September -- Return to Lebanon, New Hampshire.

1906, September -- Visit to Fond du Lac (Winnebago Lake), Wabeno, and Carter, Wisconsin.

1906, October -- Visit to Phlox, Wausau, Minocqua, Star Lake, Bark River and Wausaukee, Wisconsin.

1906, November-December -- Visit to Keshena (Green Bay Indian School), Menominee Reservation and Ashland, Wisconsin.

1906, December-January -- Stay in Washington, DC.

1907, February -- Return to Albuquerque, New Mexico.

1907, March -- Visit to Santa Fe and various Pueblos (Cochiti, Tesuque, San Ildefonso, Ohkay Owingeh [San Juan], Toas and Picuris).

1907, April -- Return to Albuquerque, visit to Pueblos (Isleta, Laguna, Mesita, Acomita, Paraje, Acoma, Seama).

1907, April -- Visit to Phoenix, Arizona (Phoenix Indian School), Fort McDowell and Salt River Day School.

1907, May -- Visit to Sacaton, Maricopa, Casa Grande, and Yuma, Arizona.

1907, June -- Visit to Riverside (Sherman Institute), and Pomona, California.

1907, June-July -- Travel to Salt Lake City, Utah. Visit Panguitch, Orton, Kanab, Escalante and Marysvale, Utah.

1907, July-August -- Return to Arizona. Visit Flagstaff, Tuba Indian School, as well as Hopi Pueblo (Walpi, Moencopi, and Oraibi).

1907, September-October -- Return to Lebanon, NH.

Travels in North Carolina, Montana and Florida, 1907-1909

1907, October 22 -- Assigned to Cherokee, North Carolina, to make a new roll of the Eastern Band of Cherokee.

1907, November -- Arrive in Cherokee, North Caolina.

1908, February -- Visit to Robbinsville and Big Cove

1908, April -- Cherokee council meeting regarding Churchill's new roll.

1908, May -- Completes assignment in North Carolina.

1908, June-September -- Return to Washington, DC and Lebanon, New Hampshire.

1908, September-October -- Trip to Montana. Visit to Browning, Blackfeet Reservation, Harlem, Fort Belknap and Fort Peck.

1908, November -- Visit to Spirit Lake (Devil's Lake) and Wahpeton, and Fort Totten, North Dakota.

1908, December -- Visit to Morris, Minnesota.

1909, January -- Trip to Washington, DC for the inauguration of President Taft.

1909, February -- Visit to Carlisle, Pennsylvania.

1909, March-April -- Trip to Florida. Visit to Miami, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Gainesville, and St. Augustine.

1909, May -- Visit to Soco Creek and Cherokee, North Carolina.

1909, July -- Return to Lebanon, New Hampshire.

1909, August -- Resignation as Indian Inspector.
Related Materials:
A large collection of Native American cultural objects and archaeology bequeathed by Clara Churchill can still be found at the Hood Museum at Dartmouth College.
Provenance:
Frederick Dockstader, former director of the Museum of the American Indian (MAI), Heye Foundation, illegally removed the majority of the photographs (photo albums, negatives) and manuscript material (journals, reports) from the Hood Museum of Art at Dartmouth College in 1955, before depositing them at the MAI. Those materials were officially gifted to NMAI in 2018 by the Hood Museum. Additional materials from the Churchill collection that remained at the Hood Museum (lantern slides, photographs, scrapbooks, journals) were donated in 2020. These materials have been noted in the finding aid.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Boarding schools  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Photographic prints
Photograph albums
Negatives (photographic)
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection, NMAI.AC.058, National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.058
See more items in:
Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv45e31a2d8-afd7-4320-96c7-1f596f51c142
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-058
Online Media:

The Goddess worshipped by the sage Chyavana from a Tantric Devi series

Artist:
Attributed to Kripal (active 1660-1690)  Search this
Medium:
Opaque watercolor on paper, gold, silver, and beetle wing
Dimensions:
H x W (painting): 17.9 × 21.4 cm (7 1/16 × 8 7/16 in)
Type:
Painting
Origin:
Basohli, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab Hills, India
Date:
ca. 1660-1670
Topic:
worship  Search this
Vishnu  Search this
Devi  Search this
lotus  Search this
sage  Search this
tantra  Search this
India  Search this
Rishi  Search this
conch shell  Search this
mace  Search this
South Asian and Himalayan Art  Search this
sudarshana chakra  Search this
Credit Line:
Purchase — Charles Lang Freer Endowment
Accession Number:
F1997.8
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Related Online Resources:
Google Cultural Institute
See more items in:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Collection
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ye303d73ae6-4a4c-43de-9be2-13b62d45fc47
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fsg_F1997.8

The Two Doorways

Artist:
James McNeill Whistler (1834-1903)  Search this
Medium:
Etching and drypoint; ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W (overall): 20.2 x 29.3 cm (7 15/16 x 11 9/16 in)
Type:
Print
Origin:
United States
Date:
1879-1880
Topic:
etching (printing process)  Search this
United States  Search this
American Art  Search this
Charles Lang Freer collection  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Charles Lang Freer
Accession Number:
F1891.1
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
Related Online Resources:
Google Cultural Institute
See more items in:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Collection
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ye3fe8fb076-4a8d-4067-9661-b0a2d0c6168d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fsg_F1891.1

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