The papers of Neil Merton Judd, archeologist and curator in the Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum, were deposited in the National Anthropological Archives at various times during the 1960's and 1970's. Much of Judd's own material was produced as part of his official duties and lie within the public domain. The collection occupies fourteen linear feet of shelf space.
Scope and Contents note:
These papers reflect the professional life of Neil Merton Judd (1887-1976), archeologist and curator in the former United States National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Included are diaries of expeditions, correspondence, field notes, notes, financial records, copies of historical documents, maps, drawings, photographs, and other documents that cover the period from the 1870s to the 1970s. Most of the material, however, is dated between 1907 and 1965.
Of primary concern is Judd's archeological work in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah, especially at Pueblo Bonito and other sites in the area of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, which he carried out for the National Geographic Society between 1920 and 1927. Appreciable material concerns the so-called Beam expeditions of 1923, 1928, and 1929 to locate study of tree-rings. Other documents relate to Judd's work in San Juan country, Utah; at Paragonah and other sites in southern Utah; and on the Walhalla Plateau in Arizona. Some correspondences, which Judd carried on with William B. Marye between 1932 and 1949, concern Indian bridges in Maryland and nearby states.
Several other expeditions of which Judd was a member are documented among the papers solely or primarily through photographs. There is little material that reflects Judd's personal life, daily curatorial duties at the United States National Museum, work at Rito de los Frijoles with Edgar L. Hewett in 1910, expedition to Guatemala in 1914, or aerial surveys of old canals in Arizona during the 1929-30.
Among correspondents whose letters are included among the papers are Glover M. Allen, Monroe Amsden, Bryant Bannister, James F. Breazeale, Harold S. Colton, Kenneth J. Conant, Fredrick V. Coville, Richard E. Dodge, Harold S. Gladwin, Gilbert Grosvernor, Edgar L. Hewett, Frederick Webb Hodge, William H. Jackson, Jean A. Jeancon, John O. La Gorce, Frank McNitt, Sylvanus G. Morley, Earl H. Morris, Nels C. Nelson, Jesse L. Nusbaum, Deric O'Bryan, George H. Pepper, Frederick Wilson Popenoe, Frank H. H. Roberts, Karl Ruppert, Carl S. Scofield, Hugh L. Scott, Harry L. Shapiro, Anna O. Shepard, Alfred M. Tozzer, and Clark Wissler. In addition to his own material, Judd also acquired some material from members of his expeditions, especially from Frans Blom, Karl Ruppert, and Oscar B. Walsh. He also collected historical documents and photographs. Among these are copies of documents relating to southwestern archeological explorations of the naturalist Edward Palmer. He also acquired photographs by Walter Hough made in Arizona between 1904 and 1920., photographs taken on the Hyde Exploring Expedition to Chaco Canyon, and miscellaneous photographs made on expeditions of William H. Jackson, Edgar A. Mearns, and others.
To a degree, the arrangement of the collection is Judd's own. The series titles in quotation marks are Judd's own.
"Pueblo Bonito File"
Chaco Canyon Notes, Notebooks, and Note Cards
Material Relating to Judd's Bureau of American Ethnology Expeditions between 1915 and 1920
Material Concerning Edward Palmer
Correspondence with William B. Marye
Manuscripts of Writings
Artwork and Photographic Enlargements
Note: Biographical data and a bibliography of Judd's writings are in the series of miscellany among his papers. For an obituary, see Waldo R. Wedel, "Neil Merton Judd, 1887-1976." American Antiquity, volume 43, number 3 (July 1978), pages 399-404, and J. O. Brew, "Neil Merton Judd, 1887-1976." American Anthropologist, volume 80, number 2 (June 1978), pages 352-54. An obituary prepared by Judd is among the papers.
October 27, 1887 -- Born in Cedar Rapids, Nebraska
1907-08 -- Public school teacher in Utah
1907 -- Student archeologist on Byron Cummings' reconnaissance of White Canyon, Utah
1908 -- Student archeologist on Cummings' reconnaissance of Montezuma Canyon, Utah, and Segi Valley, Arizona.
1909 -- Student archeologist on Cummings' reconnaissance of Segi Valley, Arizona, and the Cummings- Douglass expedition to Rainbow Natural Bridge.
1910 -- Student assistant to Edgar L. Hewett on the Archeological Institute of America's expedition to El Rito del los Frijoles, New Mexico
1911 -- Bachelor of Arts, University of Utah
1911-1917 -- Aid, Division of Ethnology, United States National Museum, Smithsonian Institution
1913 -- Master of Arts, George Washington University, Washington, D.C.
1914 -- Member, Archeological Institute's Fourth Quirigua Expedition to Guatemala; supervised the fabrication of a reproduction model of ruins for the Pacific-California International Exposition, San Diego
1915 -- Archeological reconnaissance of Indian mounds in and near Willard, Beaver City, Paragonah, St. George, Kanab, and Cottonwood Canyon, Utah, and "Spanish Diggings" flint quarries in Wyoming for the Bureau of American Ethnology
1916 -- Reconnaissance and excavations of Indian mounds near Paragonah and in Willard County, Utah, for the Bureau of American Ethnology
1916-18 -- Treasurer, American Anthropological Association
1917 -- Director, project for partial restoration of Betatakin ruin, Arizona, for the United States Department of the Interior, and the excavations at Paragonah, Utah, for the Smithsonian and University of Utah
1918 -- Archeological reconnaissance of the Walhalla Plateau, Arizona, for the Bureau of American Ethnology
1918-19 -- Assistant Curator, Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum
1919 -- Archeological investigations in Cottonwood Canyon, Utah, for the Bureau of American theology
1919-30 -- Curator, American Archeology, Division of Archeology, Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum
1920 -- Archeological investigations at Toroweap Valley, Mt. Trumbull, Pariah Plateau, House Rock Valley, Bright Angel Creak, Cottonwood Canyon, and Kanab Creek in Utah and Arizona for the Bureau of American Ethnology and reconnaissance of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, for the National Geographic Society
1920-23 -- Vice President, Anthropological Society of Washington
1921-27 -- Investigations of Pueblo Bonito and nearby ruins in New Mexico for the National Geographic Society
1923 -- Led first Beam expedition to sites in Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado, and carried out explorations in San Juan County, Utah, for the Smithsonian Institution and the National Geographic Society
1925-27 -- Member, Board of Managers, Washington Academy of Science, and President, Anthropological Society of Washington
1925-28 -- Member, Division of Anthropology and Psychology, National Research Council
1926 -- Archeological Observations North of the Rio Colorado, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 82, 1926
1927-36 -- Trustee, Laboratory of Anthropology, Santa Fe, New Mexico
1928 -- Investigations of Indian burials in rock shelter, Wolf Creek, Russell County, Kentucky, for the Bureau of American Ethnology
1929 -- Led Third Beam Expedition to sites in Arizona for the National Geographic Society and reconnaissance of the prehistoric canals in the Gila River and Salt River valleys for the Bureau of American Ethnology
1930 -- Aerial surveys of ancient canals in the Gila River and Salt River valleys for the Bureau of American Ethnology and the United States Department of War
1930-49 -- Curator, Archeology, United States National Museum
1931 -- Investigations on the Natanes Plateau, Arizona, for the Bureau of American Ethnology
1931-32 -- Member, Division of Anthropology and Psychology, National Research Council (second time)
1935 -- Smithsonian Institution's delegate to the second assembly, Pan-American Institute of Geography and History
1936-48 -- Advisory Board, Laboratory of Anthropology, Santa Fe, New Mexico
1937-39 -- Member, Division of Anthropology and Psychology, National Research Council (third time)
1938 -- Married Anne Sarah MacKay
1938-40 -- Member, Board of Managers, Washington Academy of Science
1939 -- President, Society for American Archaeology, and Vice President and Chairman, Section H, American Association for the Advancement of Science
1945 -- President, American Anthropological Association
December 31, 1949 -- Retired from the staff of the United States National Museum
January 1, 1950 -- Honorary Associate in Anthropology of the Smithsonian Institution
1953 -- Awarded the Franklin L. Burr Award of the National Geographic Society
1954 -- The Material Culture of Pueblo Bonito, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, volume 125
1958 -- Awarded Certificate of Award of the Smithsonian Institution
1959 -- Pueblo Del Arroyo, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, volume 138, number 1
1962 -- Awarded the Franklin L. Burr Award of the National Geographic Society (second time)
1964 -- The Architecture of Pueblo Bonito, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, volume 147, number 1
1965 -- Awarded the Alfred Vincent Kidder Award of the American Anthropological Association
1966 -- Awarded Special Award of the United States Department of the Interior
1967 -- The Bureau of American Ethnology: A Partial History, University of Oklahoma Press
1968 -- Men met along the Trail: Adventures in Archeology, University of Oklahoma Press
December 19, 1976 -- Died
Related Archival Materials note:
Additional material in the National Anthropological Archives that relates to Judd can be found among the correspondence files of the Bureau of American Ethnology; files of the Department of Anthropology of the United States National Museum, especially those of the Division of Archeology; papers of Frank H.H. Roberts; papers of William B. Marye; American Antiquities permits records of the Anthropological Society of Washington; papers of John P. Harrington; papers of Frank M. Setzler; papers of Henry B. Collins; and records of the American Anthropological Association. Additional photographs that relate to the expeditions of which Judd was a member are in the cataloged and the uncataloged photographs. For example, negatives and other photographic material of the aerial surveys of ancient canals in the Gila River and Salt River valleys in Arizona are NAA photographic lot 3.
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330.25 Linear feet (519 boxes)
Some materials are held off-site; this will be indicated at the series or sub-series level. Advanced notice must be given to view these portions of the collection.
The Department of Anthropology records contain administrative and research materials produced by the department and its members from the time of the Smithsonian Institution's foundation until today.
Scope and Contents:
The Department of Anthropology records contain correspondence, manuscripts, photographs, memoranda, invoices, meeting minutes, fiscal records, annual reports, grant applications, personnel records, receipts, and forms. The topics covered in the materials include collections, exhibits, staff, conservation, acquisitions, loans, storage and office space, administration, operations, research, budgets, security, office procedures, and funding. The materials were created by members of the Section of Ethnology of the Smithsonian Institution, the Division of Anthropology of the United States National Museum, the Office of Anthropology of the National Museum of Natural History, and the Department of Anthropology of the National Museum of Natural History and range in date from before the founding of the Smithsonian Institution to today. The Department of Anthropology records also contain some materials related to the Bureau of American Ethnology, such as documents from the River Basin Surveys.
Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
This collection is arranged in 28 series: (1) Correspondence, 1902-1908, 1961-1992; (2) Alpha-Subject File, 1828-1963; (3) Alpha-Subject File, 1961-1975; (4) Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Subject Files, 1967-1968; (5) River Basin Survey Files, 1965-1969; (6) Research Statements, Proposals, and Awards, 1961-1977 (bulk 1966-1973); (7) Publication File, 1960-1975; (8) Memoranda and Lists Concerning Condemnations, 1910-1965; (9) Notebook on Special Exhibits, 1951-1952 (10) Section on Animal Industry; (11) Administrative Records, 1891-1974; (12) Administrative Records, 1965-1994 (bulk 1975-1988); (13) Fiscal Records, 1904-1986; (14) Annual Reports, 1920-1983; (15) Chairman's Office Files, 1987-1993; (16) Division of Archaeology, 1828-1965; (17) Division of Ethnology, 1840s, 1860-1972, 1997; (18) Division of Physical Anthropology; (19) Division of Cultural Anthropology, 1920-1968; (20) Records of the Anthropological Laboratory/Anthropology Conservation and Restoration Laboratory, 1939-1973; (21) Collections Management, 1965-1985; (22) Photographs of Specimens and Other Subjects (Processing Laboratory Photographs), 1880s-1950s; (23) Exhibit Labels, Specimen Labels, Catalog Cards, and Miscellaneous Documents, circa 1870-1950; (24) Antiquities Act Permits, 1904-1986; (25) Ancient Technology Program, circa 1966-1981; (26) Urgent Anthropology; (27) Records of the Handbook of North American Indians; (28) Personnel; (29) Repatriation Office, 1991-1994
The Smithsonian Institution was founded in 1846. Although there was no department of anthropology until the creation of the Section of Ethnology in 1879, anthropological materials were part of the Smithsonian's collection from its foundation. The Section of Ethnology was created to care for the rapidly growing collection. In 1881, the United States National Museum was established. Soon thereafter, in 1883, it was broken up into divisions, including the Division of Anthropology. In 1904, Physical Anthropology was added to the Division.
The Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) was created in 1879 as a research unit of the Smithsonian, separating research from collections care. However, during the 1950s, research became a higher priority for the Department of Anthropology and, in 1965, the BAE was merged with the Department of Anthropology to create the Office of Anthropology, and the BAE's archives became the National Anthropological Archives (NAA).
In 1967, the United States National Museum was broken up into three separate museums: the Musuem of History and Technology (now the National Museum of American History), the National Museum of American Art, and the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH). The Office of Anthropology was included in NMNH and was renamed the Department of Anthropology in 1968.
New divisions were added to the Department, including the Human Studies Film Archives (HSFA) in 1981, the Research Institute on Immigration and Ethnic Studies (RIIES) in 1982, and the Repatriation Office in 1993. In 1983, the Smithsonian opened the Museum Support Center (MSC) in Suitland, Maryland, as offsite housing for collections with specialized storage facilities and conservation labs.
The Department of Anthropology is currently the largest department within NMNH. It has three curatorial divisions (Ethnology, Archaeology, and Biological Anthropology) and its staff includes curators, research assistants, program staff, collections specialists, archivists, repatriation tribal liaisons, and administrative specialists. It has a number of outreach and research arms, including the Repatriation Office, Recovering Voices, Human Origins, and the Arctic Studies Center.
The Museum is home to one of the world's largest anthropology collections, with over three million specimens in archaeology, ethnology, and human skeletal biology. The NAA is the Smithsonian's oldest archival repository, with materials that reflect over 150 years of anthropological collecting and fieldwork. The HSFA is the only North American archive devoted exclusively to the collection and preservation of anthropological film and video.
National Museum of Natural History. "Department of Anthropology: About" Accessed April 13, 2020. https://naturalhistory.si.edu/research/anthropology/about
National Museum of Natural History. "History of Anthropology at the Smithsonian." Accessed April 13, 2020. https://naturalhistory.si.edu/sites/default/files/media/file/history-anthropology-si.pdf
National Museum of Natural History. "History of the Smithsonian Catalog." Accessed April 13, 2020 https://siris-sihistory.si.edu/ipac20/ipac.jsp?profile=sicall
1846 -- The Smithsonian Institution is founded
1879 -- George Catlin bequeaths his collection to the Smithsonian The Section of Ethnology is established to oversee ethnological and archaeological collections The Bureau of Ethnology is established by Congress as a research unit of the Smithsonian
1881 -- The U.S. National Museum (USNM) is established as a separate entity within the Smithsonian Institution
1883 -- The staff and collections of the USNM are reorganized into divisions, including a Division of Anthropology
1897 -- The United States National Museum is reorganized into three departments: Anthropology headed by W. H. Holmes; Biology with F. W. True as head; and Geology with G. P. Merrill in charge The Bureau of Ethnology is renamed the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) to emphasize the geographic limit of its interests
1903 -- The Division of Physical Anthropology established
1904 -- The Division of Physical Anthropology is incorporated into the Division of Anthropology
1910 -- The USNM moves into the new Natural History Building
1965 -- The Smithsonian Office of Anthropology is created on February 1 The BAE is eliminated and merged with the Office of Anthropology
1968 -- The Smithsonian Office of Anthropology (SOA) of the National Museum of Natural History is retitled the Department of Anthropology on October 29
1973 -- The Research Institute on Immigration and Ethnic Studies (RIIES) is established at the National Museum of Natural History's (NMNH) Center for the Study of Man (CSM) to study the waves of immigration to the United States and its overseas outposts that began in the 1960's
1975 -- The National Anthropological Film Center is established
1981 -- The National Anthropological Film Center is incorporated into the Department of Anthropology
1982 -- The RIIES, part of the CSM at the NMNH, is transferred to the Department of Anthropology
1991 -- NMNH establishes a Repatriation Office
1993 -- The Repatriation Office is incorporated into the Department of Anthropology
Head Curators and Department Chairs
1897-1902 -- William Henry Holmes
1902-1903 -- Otis T. Mason (acting)
1904-1908 -- Otis T. Mason
1908-1909 -- Walter Hough (acting)
1910-1920 -- William Henry Holmes
1920-1923 -- Walter Hough (acting)
1923-1935 -- Walter Hough
1935-1960 -- Frank M. Setzler
1960-1962 -- T. Dale Stewart
1963-1965 -- Waldo R. Wedel
1965-1967 -- Richard Woodbury
1967-1970 -- Saul H. Riesenberg
1970-1975 -- Clifford Evans
1975-1980 -- William W. Fitzhugh
1980-1985 -- Douglas H. Ubelaker
1985-1988 -- Adrienne L. Kaeppler
1988-1992 -- Donald J. Ortner
1992-1999 -- Dennis Stanford
1999-2002 -- Carolyn L. Rose
2002-2005 -- William W. Fitzhugh
2005-2010 -- J. Daniel Rogers
2010-2014 -- Mary Jo Arnoldi
2014-2018 -- Torbin Rick
2018- -- Igor Krupnik
The NAA holds collections of former head curators and department chairs, including the papers of Otis Tufton Mason, Walter Hough, T. Dale Stewart, Waldo Rudolph and Mildred Mott Wedel, Saul H. Riesenberg, Clifford Evans, and Donald J. Ortner; the photographs of Frank Maryl Setzler; and the Richard B. Woodbury collection of drawings of human and animal figures.
Other related collections at the NAA include the papers of Gordon D. Gibson, Eugene I. Knez, and Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans; and the records of the Bureau of American Ethnology, the Center for the Study of Man, and the River Basin Surveys.
This collection was transferred to the National Anthropological Archives (NAA) by the National Museum of Natural History's Department of Anthropology in multiple accessions.
Some materials are restricted.
Access to the Department of Anthropology records requires an appointment.