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Walter Horn papers, 1908-1992, bulk 1943-1950

Creator:
Horn, Walter William, 1908-1995  Search this
Subject:
Smith, John T.  Search this
Sennhauser, Hans Rudolf  Search this
Harbison, Peter  Search this
Dupree, A. Hunter  Search this
Kunzelman, Charles J.  Search this
von Hummel, Helmuth  Search this
von Hummel, Edeltraut  Search this
Shapiro, Meyer  Search this
Koehler, Wilhelm Reinhold Walter  Search this
Charles, Fred  Search this
Eggenbacher, Christopher  Search this
Duft, Johannes  Search this
Panofsky, Erwin  Search this
University of California, Berkeley  Search this
Allied Forces  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
Art thefts -- Germany -- History -- 20th century  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Confiscations and contributions -- Germany  Search this
Crown jewels -- Holy Roman Empire  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Destruction and pillage -- Europe  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9658
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211866
AAA_collcode_hornwalt
Theme:
Art Theory and Historiography
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211866
Online Media:

Walter Horn papers

Creator:
Horn, Walter William, 1908-1995  Search this
Names:
Allied Forces. Supreme Headquarters. Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Section  Search this
University of California, Berkeley -- Faculty  Search this
Charles, Fred  Search this
Duft, Johannes, 1915-  Search this
Dupree, A. Hunter  Search this
Eggenbacher, Christopher  Search this
Harbison, Peter  Search this
Koehler, Wilhelm Reinhold Walter, 1884-1959  Search this
Kunzelman, Charles J.  Search this
Panofsky, Erwin, 1892-1968  Search this
Sennhauser, Hans Rudolf  Search this
Shapiro, Meyer  Search this
Smith, John T.  Search this
von Hummel, Edeltraut  Search this
von Hummel, Helmuth  Search this
Extent:
2.7 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1908-1992
bulk 1943-1950
Summary:
The papers of art historian and World War II Monuments Man Walter W. Horn measure 2.7 linear feet and date from 1908 to 1992, with the bulk of material dating from 1943 to 1950. Walter Horn taught art history at the University of California, Berkeley from 1938 to his retirement in 1974. During World War II, Horn served as Head of the U. S. Army Intelligence Unit of the Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives Section (MFAA.) The papers contain biographical materials; professional correspondence; records documenting his service in the MFAA; administrative files relating to his work at the University of California, Berkeley; and scattered photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of art historian and World War II Monuments Man Walter W. Horn measure 2.7 linear feet and date from 1908 to 1992, with the bulk of material dating from 1943 to 1950. Walter Horn taught art history at the University of California, Berkeley from 1938 to his retirement in 1974. During World War II, Horn served as Head of the U. S. Army Intelligence Unit of the Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives Section (MFAA.) The papers contain biographical materials; professional correspondence; records documenting his service in the MFAA; administrative files relating to his work at the University of California, Berkeley; and scattered photographs.

Biographical materials include certificates, transcripts, registration books, and diplomas, immigration papers and supporting documentation, birth certificate, passports, and Horn's application for U.S. citizenship. Also found here are papers relating to Horn's academic work, such as bibliographies, curriculum vitae and a few other miscellaneous materials.

The bulk of the papers consist of professional correspondence between Horn and his colleagues. Many of the letters relate to Horn's scholarly publications and projects, especially his seminal work The Plan of St. Gall: A Plan of the Architecture and Economy of, and Life in a Paradigmatic Carolingian Monastery (1979). Prominent correspondents include Meyer Schapiro, Wilhelm Koehler, Fred Charles, Christopher Eggenbacher, Johannes Duft, Hunter Dupree, Peter Harbison, H.R. Sennhauser, and John T. Smith.

Papers and records documenting Horn's World War II service in the the U. S. Army Monuments, Fine Arts & Archives Section have been arranged in one series. There are scattered letters, including ones from Erwin Panofsky, Charles J. Kunzelman, and Helmuth and Edeltraut von Hummel. There are also letters of inquiry about the recovery of the crown jewels of The Holy Roman Empire. Also found in this series are official Army documents, including a directory and inventory of recovered gold coins; receipts for transporting recovered artwork; art looting investigation, interrogation, and arrest reports; and reports on Horn's investigation and recovery of the crown jewels and the gold coin investigation. There is scattered printed material and photographs of the recovered gold coins and of Helmuth and Edeltraut von Hummel.

Horn's papers also contain a few administrative files from his tenure at the University of California, Berkeley, and one folder of color photographs of Horn's papers being prepared for shipment to the Archives of American Art.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 5 series.

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1908-1989 (0.3 linear feet; Box 1, 4)

Series 2: Correspondence, circa 1937, 1949-1992 (1.2 linear feet; Box 1-2, 4, OV 5)

Series 3: U.S. Army Monuments, Fine Arts & Archives Section Files, circa 1938-1989 (0.6 linear feet; Box 2-4, OV 5-6)

Series 4: University of California, Berkeley Administrative Files, 1938-1976 (0.1 linear feet; Box 3)

Series 5: Photographs, 1989 (1 folder; Box 3)
Biographical / Historical:
Walter William Horn (1908-1995) was a professor of art history at the University of California, Berkeley. During World War II, he served in the Army Intelligence Unit of the Monument, Fine Arts and Archives Section (MFAA.)

Walter Horn was born in Waldangelloch, Germany and graduated from the Gymnasium in Heidelberg in 1926. He studied at the Universities of Heidelberg, Berlin and Hamburg. In 1934 he received his Ph.D. in art history from the University of Hamburg, studying under Erwin Panofsky. His dissertation on the facade of the Church of St. Gilles was published in 1937. Horn fled Nazism in Germany and immigrated to the United States.

In 1938 Horn accepted a position at the University of California at Berkeley as a lecturer in art history, becoming the first state sponsored teacher of art history within California. He quickly became a professor and co-founded the university's Department of Art History.

Horn married twice. His first wife was Ann Binkley Rand. His second marriage was to Alberta West Parker, a physician. They had three children, Michael Peters, Peter Matthew, and Rebecca Ann.

In 1943, Horn became a naturalized American citizen and was soon inducted into the U.S. Army. He was assigned to the Detailed Interrogation Center, and by 1945 was serving as a lieutenant in the Third Army Intelligence Center. His German language skills were put to use interrogating prisoners of war and personnel of the Gestapo and S.S. Horn later continued his interrogation work in the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF). After the war, Horn was assigned to the Army Intelligence Unit of the Monuments, Fine Arts & Archives Section (MFAA) and became one of the Monuments Men responsible for tracking and recovering art works and other cultural heritage objects that had been systematically looted and hidden by the Nazis.

Horn led the team of Monuments Men who recovered the stolen Crown Jewels or Imperial Regalia of the Holy Roman Empire. The Crown Jewels, including a crown and sceptre, were discovered walled up in a passage in Nuremburg. Horn also recovered a collection of gold coins valued at $2,000,000 in 1946. He tracked the coins primarily through interrogations of Edeltraut von Hummel. Edeltraut's husband Helmuth von Hummel served as the chief secretary to Martin Bormann, leader of the Nazi Party Chancellery.

After the war, Horn resumed teaching at the University of California, Berkeley, where he served as Chairman of the Department of Art History until his retirement in 1974. He also helped establish the University Art Museum. In 1949, the school implemented a requirement that all employees must sign a loyalty oath to affirm their allegiance to the state constitution and disavow any intent to overthrow the government. There was substantial outcry among the university faculty and several professors who refused to sign were fired. Horn signed the loyalty oath under protest in 1950. He wrote a letter to the press explaining his decision and expressing his concerns.

In 1979, a decades long collaboration with distinguished architect Ernest Born resulted in The Plan of St. Gall, a three volume work on medieval architecture. The book was praised as a monumental undertaking by the scholarly community upon its publication.

Walter Horn died of pneumonia in 1995.
Related Materials:
Walter Horn papers, 1917-1989, are located at The Getty Research Institution Special Collections.
Provenance:
Walter Horn donated his papers to the Archives of American Art in 1989. Additional papers were donated by his wife Dr. Alberta Parker Horn in 1998 and 2002.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Art historians -- California -- Berkeley  Search this
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
Art thefts -- Germany -- History -- 20th century  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Confiscations and contributions -- Germany  Search this
Crown jewels -- Holy Roman Empire  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Destruction and pillage -- Europe  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Walter Horn papers, 1908-1993, bulk 1943-1950. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.hornwalt
See more items in:
Walter Horn papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-hornwalt
Online Media:

Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Horn, Walter William, 1908-1995  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1943-1947
1972-1989
Scope and Contents:
Correspondence in this series relates specifically to Horn's work in the MFAA Section. There is a letter from Erwin Panofsky regarding Horn's decision to volunteer for the U.S. Army and several letters from Charles J. Kunzelman, a retired army colonel, who was interested in Horn's MFAA work and was trying to get Horn an award for his recovery efforts, particularly for the Crown Jewels of the Holy Roman Empire and a large cache of gold coins. There is one letter from the wife of Helmuth von Hummel. Helmuth was the secretary of SS official Martin Bormann, and Horn discovered the location of the missing gold coins by questioning his wife Edeltraut.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Walter Horn papers, 1908-1993, bulk 1943-1950. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.hornwalt, Subseries 3.1
See more items in:
Walter Horn papers
Walter Horn papers / Series 3: U. S. Army Monuments, Fine Arts & Archives Section Files
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-hornwalt-ref174

von Hummel, Helmuth and Edeltraut

Collection Creator:
Horn, Walter William, 1908-1995  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 42
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1946
Scope and Contents:
Originals of the photographs of Edeltraut and Helmuth von Hummel are filed in series 3.5.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Walter Horn papers, 1908-1993, bulk 1943-1950. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Walter Horn papers
Walter Horn papers / Series 3: U. S. Army Monuments, Fine Arts & Archives Section Files / 3.1: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-hornwalt-ref187

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