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Ricki Covette Burlesque Collection

Creator:
Covette, Ricki  Search this
Donor:
Jewell, Irene  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (6 boxes, 2 map folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertisements
Brochures
Certificates
Clippings
Decals
Letters (correspondence)
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Theater programs
Date:
1940–2002
bulk 1950s–1970s
Summary:
This collection consists of eight scrapbooks and five posters documenting the burlesque career of Irene Jewell (stage name Ricki Covette), who at 6'8" was billed as "The World's Tallest Exotic Dancer." The albums contain clippings; letters; certificates; photographs, including photographs of her act; ephemera, such as postcards, travel brochures, postcards, and decals, from her travels; advertisements; and theater programs.
Scope and Contents:
Scrapbooks and posters documenting the burlesque career of Irene Jewell (stage name Ricki Covette), who at 6'8" was billed as "The World's Tallest Exotic Dancer."
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Scrapbooks

Series 2: Posters
Biographical / Historical:
Born in 1925 in rural Alberta, Canada, Irene Jewell aspired to become a singer and dancer. Moving to the United States in the 1950s, Jewell began a thirty-year career in show business, including theater, small parts in television and film, but especially burlesque, under her stage name "Ricki Covette." Billed as "The World's Tallest Exotic Dancer" at 6'8" and the "Glamazon," Covette's career spanned the peak of burlesque's popularity; her career highlights included headlining at clubs, including an 82-week stint at the ShoBar in New Orleans, Louisiana, and a solo act world tour in Japan, the United Kingdom, and the Americans. Besides her burlesque career, Covette also had parts in theater, including playing the role of Gymnasia in the 1963-1964 tour of A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum, and appearing in the 1966 film The Swinger. After she left show business, she started a successful second career as a real estate broker in the Los Angeles area and travelled with her husband, cinematographer Stuart Jewell, shooting footage of nature and culture. In 2010 she appeared in Leslie Zemeckis's documentary, Behind the Burly! Covette died in February 2016.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center in 2014 by Irene Jewell (stage name Ricki Covette).
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Social Security numbers are present and have been rendered unreadable and redacted. Researchers may use the photocopies in the collection. The remainder of the collection has no restrictions.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Burlesque (Theater) -- 1920-1970  Search this
Burlesque shows -- 1920-1970  Search this
Postcards -- 20th century  Search this
Striptease -- 1920-1970  Search this
Stripteasers -- 1920-1970  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 20th century
Brochures -- 20th century
Certificates -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Decals
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Photographs -- 1950-2000
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Theater programs -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Ricki Covette Burlesque Collection, 1940–2022, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1335
See more items in:
Ricki Covette Burlesque Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8447243f0-1217-4a84-81b0-d5612eaf8621
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1335
Online Media:

Sandra and Gary Baden Collection of Celebrity Endorsements in Advertising

Creator:
Baden, Gary  Search this
Baden, Sandra  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Tear sheets
Magazines (periodicals)
Date:
circa 1897-1979
Summary:
An extensive collection of magazine advertisements featuring celebrities from entertainment, sports, royalty, and the arts.
Scope and Contents:
A wide-ranging collection of over 1,000 celebrity advertising endorsements, ca. 1897-1979. The endorsements were culled by a collector/hobbyist from high-end magazines publications such as Fortune, McCalls, Playbill and Vogue. They feature a wide range of celebrities from the fields of performing arts, sports, business, politics and "society." The products endorsed vary greatly with heavy concentrations of cigarettes, beauty products and electronic equipment predominating. The bulk of the collection covers the 1920s-1970s with an especially high concentration of material from the 1930s-1940s. The majority are in color.

Advertisements are filed according to the profession or background of the endorser Thereunder, ads are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the endorser. Where more than one endorser is featured, the advertisement is filed under the last name of the endorser most prominently featured in the advertisement. If they are all of equal status within the advertisement, the advertisement is filed under the last name appearing earliest in the alphabet.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into five series.

Series 1: Performing Arts

Series 2: Business/Politics

Series 3: Sports

Series 4: Society, fashio, Royalty

Series 5: Writers, Musicians, Artists, Singers
Biographical / Historical:
The use of celebrities for promoting a product is an advertising device that has been used with increasing frequency since the latter part of the 19th century. Personalities from all walks of life, society, sports, and entertainment have regularly lent their image for product endorsement. These products have ranged from alcohol to moth crystals to cigarettes and a variety of other products. The trend continues to grow and refine itself expanding from the realm of print media into television, radio, motion pictures, and the internet.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Archives Center of the National Museum of American History by Gary and Sandra Baden, of Chevy Chase, D.C., in 1997.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Celebrities  Search this
Endorsements in advertising  Search this
advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Tear sheets
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Citation:
The Sandra and Gary Baden Collection of Celebrity Endorsements in Advertising, 1897-1979, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0611
See more items in:
Sandra and Gary Baden Collection of Celebrity Endorsements in Advertising
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8ddbbdd2a-6ac1-4ec5-a013-b96ffc469af6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0611
Online Media:

The Carolyn and Donald Grepke Paper Doll Collection

Creator:
Grepke, Donald, 1932-  Search this
Grepke, Carolyn, 1937-1995  Search this
Extent:
70 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1800s-1998, undated
Summary:
Abstract: Collection consists of over a century of paper dolls documenting their use as advertisements, and depictions of popular culture, fashion trends, family lifestyles, gender roles, ideal communities,and cultural heroes.
Scope and Contents:
Collection consists of paper dolls dating from the 1800s-1998. The bulk of the paper dolls, however, date from the 1900s-1970s. Due to the Grepkes' careful selection, the paper dolls are in excellent condition, most were never used or played with. In addition, most of the sets are complete, with few or no missing pieces. A sustainable amount of the collection remains in original packaging which often included the periodical or comic book in which it was published, the original box, or a folder or booklet. A substantial amount of these paper dolls was commercially produced with examples of hand-made dolls and clothing. Clothing for the dolls is mostly created from paper with examples of cloth, wood, and plastic. Hand colored commercially produced dolls and clothing also exist within the collection. Special features on the dolls could include hair, plastic eyes, photographic faces, and moveable parts.

The artwork aspect of the collection provides potential research use with illustrations by such paper doll artists as Queen Holden, who was renowned for her dolls of the 1930s, and Tom Tierney, who has depicted almost every celebrity of the 20th century in paper doll form. Originals and reproductions of Grace Gebbie Drayton's (1877-1936) Dolly Dingle paper dolls series, which appeared in the Pictorial Review from 1913-1933, are included among the materials. Drayton is well known for her creation and illustration of the "Campbell Kids." She illustrated books and other publications and designed dolls and toys. Frances Tipton Hunter, creator of the "Little Busy Bodies" who appeared in Women's Home Companion in 1922 and 1923, career spanned from the 1920s to her death in 1957. Besides the "Little Busy Bodies" her work also appeared in periodicals including the Saturday Evening Post, The Delineator, Collier's, and Ladies Home Journal.

Not just seen from the perspective of artwork or playthings the serious scholar will be able to focus on a variety of topics related to the dolls. Researchers interested in fashion, popular culture, and images of women, children, or celebrities will find this collection of great value. The collection has a large representation of movie and television stars from the 1930s through the 1950s. In addition, American notions of ideal family sizes, settings, relationships, teenage life, and leisure activities are represented in the collection. Dates of the paper dolls are most often time of publication rather than era they represent.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in 14 series.

Series 1, Advertisements, circa 1800-1980, undated

Series 2, Animals, circa 1950-1995, undated

Series 3, Celebrities, circa 1930-1995, undated

Subseries 3.1, Film, circa 1930-1995, undated

Subseries 3.2, Music, circa 1950-1995, undated

Subseries 3.3, Pop Culture, circa 1950-1995, undated

Subseries 3.4, Royalty, circa 1950-1995, undated

Subseries 3.5, Stage and Theater, circa 1930-1950, undated

Subseries 3.6, Television, circa 1950-1995, undated

Series 4, Literature, circa 1920-1995, undated

Series 5, Mass Media, circa 1935-1995, undated

Subseries 5.1, Cartoons, circa 1960-1995, undated

Subseries 5.2, Comic Books, circa 1940-1995, undated

Subseries 5.3, Motion Picture Film, circa 1935-1995, undated

Subseries 5.4, Newspapers, circa 1934-1951, undated

Subseries 5.5, Radio, circa 1940-1955, undated

Subseries 5.6, Television, circa 1950-1995, undated

Series 6, Toys, circa 1890-1990, undated

Subseries 6.1, Paper Dolls, circa 1890-1980, undated

Subseries 6.2, Three Dimensional Dolls as Paper Toys, circa 1910-1990, undated

Series 7, Family, circa 1880-1990, undated

Subseries 7.1, Children, circa 1880-1980, undated

Subseries 7.2, Infants, circa 1920-1970, undated

Subseries 7.3, Family, circa 1930-1950, undated

Subseries 7.4, Teenagers, circa 1910-1990, undated

Series 8, Clothing and Fashion, circa 1890-1995, undated

Subseries 8.1, Bridal, circa 1900-1990, undated

Subseries 8.2, Clothing of the World, circa 1900-1995, undated

Subseries 8.3, Designers, circa 1950-1980, undated

Subseries 8.4, Eras and Historic, circa 1890-1995, undated

Subseries 8.5, Military, circa 1940-1950, undated

Series 9, Historical Figures and Events, circa 1950-1998, undated

Subseries 9.1, African American, circa 1990-1995, undated

Subseries 9.2, Military, circa 1970-1990, undated

Subseries 9.3, Religion, circa 1984-1998, undated

Subseries 9.4, United States Presidents, circa 1970-1995, undated

Subseries 9.5, United States History, circa 1950-1990, undated

Subseries 9.6, Women, circa 1910-1995, undated

Subseries 9.7, World Leaders, circa 1980-1990, undated

Series 10, Holidays and Celebrations, circa 1930-1990, undated

Series 11, Occupations, circa 1900-1995, undated

Series 12, Periodicals, circa 1890-1995

Subseries 12.1, Characters, circa 1900-1995

Subseries 12.2, Periodicals, circa 1890-1995

Series 13, Miscellaneous Materials, circa 1890-1995, undated

Series 14, Publications, 1978-1993

Subseries 14.1, Articles, circa 1980-1990

Subseries 14.2, Books, 1978-1993
Biographical / Historical:
Donald Eugene Grepke (September 18, 1932- April 15, 2005) and Carolyn Joan Moyer Grepke (December 10, 1937- December 19, 1995) began collecting paper dolls in the 1970s in Fort Wayne, Indiana. Donald was born and raised in Fort Wayne where he attended Elmhurst High School, worked at a grocery store filling station, and graduated in 1951. In 1955, he began working at Zollner Corporation, manufacturers of pistons for cars and trucks, and retired on disability in 1989.

Carolyn Joan Moyer was born in Pennville, Indiana. Carolyn's family moved to Fort Wayne when she was four years old and after a few years they moved to Churubusco, Indiana. They returned to Fort Wayne where Carolyn attended North Side High School and graduated in 1956. Carolyn began working at Lincoln National Life Insurance Company after high school and continued to work there until she passed away.

Donald Grepke and Carolyn Moyer married at Trinity United Methodist Church in Fort Wayne, Indiana on March 2, 1957. One child, Randell Lee Grepke, was born to the union on May 5, 1958.

One of Carolyn's favorite toys as a child was paper dolls. One day while reading a publication about antiques, Donald saw an advertisement for an auction which included paper dolls in excellent condition. This began their paper doll collection. Over the next - 20-25 years, while on vacations and weekend drives, they would stop at antique shops, flea markets, and auctions in search of paper dolls. When Carolyn worked on weekends, Don would venture out by himself or with a male friend in search of paper dolls. Their collection grew to over 4,000 paper dolls.

After Carolyn passed in 1995, Don lost interest in collecting paper dolls. He pondered for about three years on what to do with the collection. He decided to donate the collection to the Smithsonian Institution in memory of his wife, where the materials would be available to the public for research and exhibition purposes.
Related Materials:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Helen Popenoe Paper Doll Collection (NMAH.AC.1156)

Elinor S. Miller Paper Doll Collection (NMAH.AC.1110)

Ming-Ju Sun Garfinckel's Fashion Drawings (NMAH.AC.0897)

Miss America 1951 Papers (NMAH.AC0888)

Beatrice Litzinger Postcard Collection (NMAH.AC.0530)

Jane and Michael Stern Collection (NMAH.AC.1392)

Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, Series 9: Domestic and Community Life (NMAH.AC.0300)

Brownie Wise Papers (NMAH.AC.0509)

Edward J. Orth Memorial Archives of the World's Fair (NMAH.AC.0560)

Division of Cultural and Community Life, National Museum of American History

Division holds a collection of paper dolls.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, by Donald Grepke in memory of his wife Carolyn Grepke in December 2000.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Paper dolls  Search this
Dolls  Search this
Citation:
The Carolyn and Donald Grepke Paper Doll Collection, 1800s-1998, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0752
See more items in:
The Carolyn and Donald Grepke Paper Doll Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep86b115168-77de-49bc-a925-9e6679e7ada4
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0752
Online Media:

Norcross Greeting Card Collection

Collector:
Norcross, Arthur Dickinson, d. 1968  Search this
Rust, Fred Winslow, 1877?-1949  Search this
Rust Craft Greeting Card Company (Dedham (Mass.))  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Extractive Industries  Search this
Designer:
Tuck, Raphael, fl. 1880s  Search this
Prang, Louis, fl. 1880-1900  Search this
Chase, Ernest Dudley, fl. 1920s  Search this
Manufacturer:
Norcross Greeting Card Company (New York (N.Y.))  Search this
Rust Craft Publishers (Boston, Mass.)  Search this
Extent:
1,200 Cubic feet (3,010 boxes, 362 volumes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lithographs
Business records
Chromolithographs
Color slides
Greeting cards
Valentines
Trade cards
Postcards
Motion pictures (visual works)
Advertisements
Scrapbooks
Slides (photographs)
Place:
New York (N.Y.) -- 20th century
Boston (Mass.) -- 1910-1950
Date:
1800-1981
bulk 1880-1881
Summary:
Collections consists of the records of both the Norcross Greeting Card Company founded in New York City in the 1920s and The Rust Craft Greeting Card Company, founded in Kansas City, Missouri, 1906. Both the Norcross and Rust Craft companies collected antique greeting cards. Also includes a small number of modern cards by other manufacturers, circa 1930-1980. Collection represents development of the greeting card industry, social trends in the United States and technology of the printing industry from 1924 through 1978.
Scope and Contents:
The Norcross Greeting Card Collection consists of cards and a few records of both the Norcross Greeting Card Company and the Rust Craft Greeting Card Company, circa 1911 1981; antique greeting cards, circa 1800 1930 (bulk 1880 1900) collected by both these companies and their executives; and a small number of modern cards by other manufacturers, circa 1939 1960. According to Norcross Company officials in 1978, this collection represents "not only a history of the development of the greeting card industry but also a history of social trends in the United States" and gives "an indication of the quality and technology of the [printing] industry from 1924 through 1978."
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series.

Series 1: Norcross Company Records, 1920-1981

Series 2: Antique Greeting Card Collection, circa 1800-1930 (bulk 1880-1990)

Series 3: Rust Craft Company Records, circa 1920-1980

Series 4: Greeting Cards by Other Manufacturers, 1939-1960

Series 5: Norcross Company Permanent Files, 1911-1981

Series 6: Rust Craft Company Permanent Files, 1927-1981
Biographical / Historical:
Arthur D. Norcross founded the Norcross Greeting Card Company in New York City in the nineteen twenties. From the start Norcross cards had a "look" which contributed to their selling success although, through the years, the company commanded only a small share of the greeting card market. In 1974 the company relocated to West Chester and Exton, Pennsylvania, where in 1981 Norcross and the Rust Craft Greeting Card Company merged to form divisions of a parent company.

At some point, Norcross executives realized the value of collecting and preserving antique greeting cards. The company built a large collection of antique cards, a number of which traveled in shows around the country bringing attention not only to the cards themselves but also to the Norcross Company.

Arthur Norcross died in 1968, and the company had four owners from then until 1982. One of the owners, the Ziff Corporation, a New York publisher, picked up the Norcross Company to augment the floundering Rust Craft Greeting Card Company that it had purchased primarily for its television holdings. Finally the Norcross and Rust Craft combination was acquired by Windsor Communications, Inc., a privately held company. In August 1981 Windsor entered into Chapter 11 proceedings under the Federal bankruptcy law and ceased producing greeting cards. Factors leading to bankruptcy included the expensive consolidation of Norcross and Rust Craft, a doubtful marketing strategy, and unsuccessful efforts to continue producing two distinct lines of greeting cards.

The Rust Craft Greeting Card Company, some of whose records are contained in this collection, was begun as a little bookshop by Fred Rust, (1877? 1949) in Kansas City in 1906. Later that year he created a plain Christmas folder which he called a "letter," perhaps a forerunner of the greeting card. These "letters" proved successful sellers prompting Rust to increase his publications over the years and expand his line to include post cards, greeting cards with envelopes, calendars, and blotters, in addition to lines of cards for New Year's and birthdays. Donald Rust, his brother, soon joined him to take over manufacturing, and in 1908, Fred Rust, seeking to increase distribution, carried his line to Boston while Donald carried his to California. The original bookshop was retained until 1910 when all retailing was discontinued. After building a considerable volume of business, the firm was consolidated in Boston in 1914 and became known as Rust Craft Publishers.

Sales mounted as the company issued cards for various seasons. Many of the sentiments were written by Fred Rust himself. Around 1927 Ernest Dudley Chase joined the firm as an associate in charge of creation and advertising. In the 1950s the company relocated to Dedham, Massachusetts and finally in 1981 merged with the Norcross Company in West Chester and Exton, Pennsylvania.

A popular innovation of the Rust Craft Company was a card bearing the sentiment printed on the card itself with four or five extra sentiments tucked in as part of the message and design. This card was so popular that it was patented with the name Tukkin. The Rust Craft Company also collected some antique greeting cards.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

AC0109 Division of Domestic Life Greeting Card Collection, circa 1854-1975

AC0126 Burris and Byrd Family Card Sample Case, circa 1920

AC0263 Susie Paige Afro-American Greeting Card Collection, 1900-1984

AC0376 Olive Leavister 19th Century Handmade Valentine Collection, 1830-1880

AC0404 Archives Center Business Americana Collection, circa 1900-present

AC0530 Beatrice Litzinger Postcard Collection, 1900-1990

AC0468Archives Center Scrapbook Collection, circa 1880-circa 1960

AC0579 Greeting Card Collection, 1920s-1970s

AC0886 Ernest Dudley Chase Papers, 1930s-1940s

AC1198 Beatrice Morgan Steyskal Collection of Greeting Cards, 1958-1970

AC0060 Warshaw Collection of Business Americana

AC1251 L.F. Pease Greeting Card Company Collection, circa 1908-1913

AC 1252 Sandford Greeting Card Company and Family Papers, circa 1840-1990

AC 0062 Hoffmania (or Hoffman Collection

AC0295 Rocky Herosian Collection, 1910-1943

AC0674 Jean Clairmook Radio Scrapbook, 1930-1932

AC0136 Celia K. Erskine Scrapbook of Valentines, Advertising Cards, and Postcards, circa 1882-1884

The Valentine & Expressions of Love [videocassette], 2000 within the Archives Center Miscellaneous Film and Videotape Collection, (AC0358)
Provenance:
Norcross Greeting Card Company, West Chester, Pennsylvania, 1982-1985.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270. Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Genre/Form:
Lithographs
Business records -- 20th century
Chromolithographs -- 1880-1900
Color slides
Greeting cards -- ca. 1800-1980
Valentines
Trade cards
Postcards
Motion pictures (visual works) -- 1960-1980
Advertisements
Scrapbooks
Slides (photographs) -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Norcross Greeting Card Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0058
See more items in:
Norcross Greeting Card Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8fee76ca9-fd6e-4fb4-b182-ce197659fe7d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0058
Online Media:

Consumer engineering, 1920s-1970s marketing between expert planning and consumer responsiveness Jan Logemann, Gary Cross, Ingo Köhler, editors

Editor:
Logemann, Jan L  Search this
Cross, Gary S  Search this
Köhler, Ingo 1971-  Search this
Physical description:
xi, 96 pages illustrations (black and white, and colour) 24 cm
Type:
Books
History
Place:
United States
Date:
2019
20th century
Topic:
Consumer behavior--History  Search this
Marketing--History  Search this
Consumption (Economics)--History  Search this
Consumer behavior  Search this
Consumption (Economics)  Search this
Marketing  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1115225

Dewey Michaels Burlesque Collection

Photographer:
Garbo (Chicago)  Search this
Laverne, Gene (Buffalo, NY)  Search this
Kriegsmann, James J.  Search this
Maurice (Chicago)  Search this
Seymour, Mamie (New York)  Search this
Bruno ((Bernard?) of Hollywood (New York City))  Search this
Bakchy, Boris (New York)  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Community Life  Search this
Michaels, Dewey, 1898- (theater owner, director, producer)  Search this
Names:
Palace Burlesque Theatre (Buffalo, N.Y.)  Search this
Extent:
0.33 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Photographs
Place:
Buffalo (N.Y.) -- photographs -- 1920-1970
Date:
late 1920's-1967
Scope and Contents:
Newspaper clippings; advertising brochures; and photoprints of performers at the Palace Theatre (including studio publicity portraits). The majority of the items are silver gelatin photoprints. Some photographers are listed below as index terms. Subjects of photographs include strippers and comedians; photographs of women include portraits as well as full-length figures, nude or in costume.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series. Arranged alphabetically by subjects' names within categories.
Biographical / Historical:
George Dewey Michaels (1898-1982) was owner, director, general manager and producer of the Palace Burlesque Theater in Buffalo, New York until it closed on September 29, 1977, when Michaels was 79 years old. Michaels started in the business when he was 19 years old. Through the years, he featured Abbott and Costello, Phil Silvers, Jerry Lewis, Red Buttons, and Sammy Davis, Jr. who was then a dancer with the Will Master Trio which included his father and uncle. The Palace Burlesque was part of a 40-city circuit. Michaels was married in 1920 to Phyllis Boasberg. She died in 1969, leaving two sons and one daughter. On December 4, 1980, Michaels donated a backdrop, used in the theatre, to the Smithsonian. The backdrop had a musical theme with a clarinetist and notes rendered in extravagant art nouveau. Michaels was then 83 years old. Other backdrops were distributed to other theatres and collectors. They were 60-100 years old, painted in Diamond Dye, and worth about $1,000 apiece.
Related Materials:
Theatrical backdrops and director's chair located in the Division of Home and Community Life (now Division of Cultural and Community Life).
Provenance:
Collection donated by Mr. Dewey Michaels, January 31, 1981.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Glamour photography -- 1920-1970  Search this
Striptease -- 1920-1970  Search this
Stripteasers -- 1920-1970  Search this
Nudity in the performing arts  Search this
Theatrical producers and directors -- 1920-1970  Search this
Comedians -- 1920-1970  Search this
Entertainers -- 1920-1970  Search this
Musicians -- 20th century  Search this
Burlesque shows -- 1920-1970  Search this
Burlesque (Theater) -- 1920-1970  Search this
Entertainment -- Photographs -- 1920-1970  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 19th-20th century
Citation:
Dewey Michaels Burlesque Collection, circa 1920s-1967, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0065
See more items in:
Dewey Michaels Burlesque Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep896ac7af6-87c2-4acc-9b9c-9fc959e4fa84
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0065
Online Media:

Anthony W. Pendergast Collection

Creator:
Pendergast, Anthony W., 1879-  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Music, Sports and Entertainment  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Clippings
Photographs
Notes
Scrapbooks
Date:
1920s-1970.
Summary:
A Fairbury, Illinois, optometrist, Dr. Anthony W. Pendergast, (1879 -?) was a collector, author, antiquarian, dealer, and authority on the subject of cigar store figures. The collection includes correspondence; newspaper clippings on Pendergast and his various folk art collections; a scrapbook of photographs and miscellaneous materials relating to cigar store figures; and a large number of black and white photographs of figures from his personal collection, mostly for use in selling the figures.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents Dr. Pendergast's interest in and work with cigar store figures as well as some of his other folk art collections. Included among the materials are correspondence, photographs of cigar store figures, and books on the subject. There are also articles and clippings about Dr. Pendergast and his collections and about cigar store figures in general, a scrapbook of photographs of figures, miscellaneous clippings, advertisements, business cards, postcards, and an inventory list.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
A Fairbury, Illinois, optometrist, Dr. Anthony W. Pendergast, (1879-?) was a collector, author, antiquarian, dealer, and authority on the subject of cigar store figures. As a newsboy in his youth, Pendergast was fascinated by the cigar store "Indians" he saw all around the streets of his home town. In their book on the cigar store figure, Dr. Pendergast and co-author W. Porter Ware state that the earliest evidence of cigar store figures dates them to as early as 1600 in the city of Amsterdam, where a tobacconist's shop had a figure of an American black slave as his sign, because of the association between slaves and tobacco. The tradition was continued in England and the figures began to look more like American Indians, usually with feathered headdresses, often holding a pipe or a roll of tobacco leaves. Not all the figures were of Indians or of slaves. As their popularity spread, "Turks," "Moors," Scotsmen, jockeys, Roman figures, mythological figures, and others were used. Antiquarian John L. Morrison, cited by Mr. Pendergast in his 1953 book Cigar Store Figures, states that the first appearance of a cigar store "Indian" in America was in 1770 in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. By the latter half of the nineteenth century the cigar store figure (usually an Indian) was as much a symbol of the tobacco trade as the barber pole was of barber shops. Mr. Pendergast owned at least two hundred figures during his lifetime and was a noted expert on the genre. He sold many figures to other collectors and had a workshop where he repaired and reconditioned the figures.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Wood sculpture  Search this
Folk art  Search this
Figure sculpture -- United States  Search this
Cigar store Indians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Notes
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Citation:
Anthony W. Pendergast Collection, 1920s-1970, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0882
See more items in:
Anthony W. Pendergast Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8e4fd5ded-12d2-4e97-84f1-b0217a045384
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0882

Sioux City Ghosts Scrapbooks

Author:
Williams, Franklin  Search this
Collector:
Sioux City Ghosts  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Posters
Clippings
Photograph albums
Scrapbooks
Postcards
Place:
Sioux City (Iowa)
Iowa
Date:
1920s-1983
Scope and Contents:
A scrapbook and a photograph album detailing the day-to-day lives on the road of a barnstorming black softball team, five posters advertising appearances of the Ghosts, and a certificate. The scrapbook, kept by one of the players, Franklin Williams, contains his handwritten history of the team, a handwritten schedule, postcards from some of the cities they played in, greeting cards, restaurant menus, scorecards, and a large number of news clippings about games. The album contains photographs of the Ghosts playing, snapshots of cities they visited, street scenes, ballparks, families and friends, and tourist attractions.
Arrangement:
Divided into 2 series.
Biographical / Historical:
The Sioux City Ghosts were an all-black fast-pitch softball team that toured the country in the 1920s and 1930s. For their pranks and antics on the field, they were often compared to basketball's Harlem Globetrotters. The team formed in 1925 as a boys' club which gathered to play softball. In 1931 they began touring. They gained a reputation and quickly drew large crowds. The team also played in Mexico and Canada. The team disbanded when World War II began, and many members served in the armed forces. After the war, few members rejoined, but the team kept going unti 1956.
Provenance:
Franklin Williams, Gift, 1997.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Softball  Search this
African American athletes  Search this
Softball players  Search this
Genre/Form:
Posters -- 1930-1940
Clippings -- 1930-1950
Photograph albums -- 1920-1970
Scrapbooks
Postcards -- 1930-1940
Citation:
Sioux City Ghosts Scrapbooks, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0634
See more items in:
Sioux City Ghosts Scrapbooks
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep82a0b3b9a-2854-4135-b5e4-aa1b372941bb
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0634
Online Media:

who [sic] snags more stockings? / who wears out more shoes? [Booklet.]

Publisher:
Street & Smith Publications, Inc.  Search this
Charm (Magazine)  Search this
Advertiser:
Charm (Magazine)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Ellis, Estelle  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (9" X 13.5".)
Container:
Box 6, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Booklets
Advertisements
Date:
1953
Scope and Contents:
Illustrated booklet containing reproductions of staged photographs from Charm Magazine, with statistics about working women's buying habits for shoes and stockings.
Local Numbers:
AC0423-0000024a.tif - AC0423-0000024t.tif (AC Scans)
General:
In Box 6, Folder 2.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but negatives in Box 62 are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Clothing -- American  Search this
Hosiery  Search this
advertising -- 20th century  Search this
Women in marketing -- 1940-1990  Search this
Women in advertising  Search this
Shoes  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Reproductions
Booklets -- 1920-1970
Advertisements
Collection Citation:
Estelle Ellis Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Estelle Ellis Collection
Estelle Ellis Collection / Client Files / 1.11: Charm Magazine (Street and Smith/Condé Nast Publications, Incorporated) / Marketing studies
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8b9d06bf7-fb77-44f3-b331-e3b0647f8ccc
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0423-ref2133

More Money than Time... : [Booklet with reproductions of drawings.]

Creator:
Charm (Magazine)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Ellis, Estelle  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (ink on paper., 6" x 4.5".)
Container:
Box 4, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Drawings
Booklets
Date:
Ca. 1950-1960
Scope and Contents:
A booklet promoting Charm Magazine's "Shop Here" program. Tells how many articles of types of clothing a typical woman buys in a year.
Local Numbers:
AC0423-0000010a.tif (AC Scan)

AC0423-0000010b.tif (AC Scan)

AC0423-0000010c.tif (AC Scan)

AC0423-0000010d.tif (AC Scan)

AC0423-0000010e.tif (AC Scan)

AC0423-0000010f.tif (AC Scan)

AC0423-0000010g.tif (AC Scan)
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but negatives in Box 62 are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Clothing -- American  Search this
Women in marketing -- 1940-1990  Search this
Women in advertising  Search this
Women's periodicals -- 1940-1990  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings -- 1850-1860
Booklets -- 1920-1970
Collection Citation:
Estelle Ellis Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Estelle Ellis Collection
Estelle Ellis Collection / Client Files / 1.11: Charm Magazine (Street and Smith/Condé Nast Publications, Incorporated) / Marketing and promotional materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8e4f7bc79-575a-444e-bca3-38c7b36fb754
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0423-ref2134

Alan and Elaine Levitt Advertisement Collection

Topic:
Coca-Cola (Trademark)
Kodak (Brand name)
Collector:
Levitt, Alan  Search this
Levitt, Elaine  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Medical Sciences  Search this
Names:
Eastman Kodak Co.  Search this
Sherman Pharmacy (Sherman, N.Y.)  Search this
Extent:
5 Cubic feet (5 boxes, 3 oversized folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Booklets
Advertisements
Place:
Chautauqua County (N.Y.) -- 1920-1970
Date:
1920 - 1960s.
Summary:
Advertising materials relating to pharmaceutical and other supplies as part of the stock of retail pharmacies from 1920 to the early 1960s, mostly advertisements for cigars, cigarettes, Coca-Cola, Kodak, veterinary supplies, and patent medicines.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of advertising materials related to pharmaceutical and other supplies part of the stock of retail pharmacies during the period from the 1920s to the 1960s. Much of it was in the store when the Levitts purchased the Sherman Pharmacy.

The majority is advertisements for such items as cigars, cigarettes, Coca Cola, Kodak products, veterinary supplies, and patent medicines. There are a few photographs of local (Sherman) interest and a few booklets and pamphlets, including a high school yearbook.

The material is in excellent condition. It has been left in the boxes and folders in which it was received from the Division of Medical Sciences.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Organizational Files, 1922-1995

Subseries 1.1: Administration, 1923-1994

Subseries 1.2: Affiliates and Offices, 1922-1964

Series 2: Subject Files, 1851-1990
Biographical / Historical:
Alan Levitt, who owned and operated a pharmacy in Sherman (Chautauqua County), New York, and his wife Elaine, gave to the National Museum of American History a number of pharmaceutically related objects and a collection of archival graphic materials, primarily advertising in nature. The pharmacy from which the materials came was known as Sherman Pharmacy and was located at 105 West Main Street, Sherman, New York. It was opened by James Tuft on May 9, 1895. The Levitts' decision to sell and leave Sherman was made in 1983 after about ten years of operating the store. The correspondence with respect to making the gift to the Smithsonian indicates the move was related to a desire to be part of the Jewish culture in a larger community than Sherman, which has no synagogue, for example. The Levitts had one small child and a second was on the way. By early January 1986, the Levitts had sold the pharmacy and bought a house at 2551 East 26th Street, Brooklyn, New York, 11235. Mr. Levitt was employed as a pharmacist in a state institution in Manhattan.
Provenance:
The materials were given by Alan and Elaine Levitt, September 1984.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Patent medicines  Search this
Cigarettes -- advertising -- 1920-1970  Search this
advertising -- History -- 1920-1970  Search this
advertising -- Photography -- Apparatus and supplies -- 1920-1970  Search this
Cigars  Search this
Pharmaceutical industry -- 1920-1970  Search this
Pharmacology -- 1920-1970  Search this
Photography -- Apparatus and supplies  Search this
Pharmacists -- 1920-1970  Search this
Drugstores  Search this
Veterinary supplies industry -- 1920-1970  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 20th century
Booklets -- 1920-1970
Advertisements
Citation:
Alan and Elaine Levitt Advertisement Collection, 1920-early 1960s, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0303
See more items in:
Alan and Elaine Levitt Advertisement Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8368cbff7-e68a-43dd-857e-7101c20efff6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0303

Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection

Photographer:
Alland, Alexander, Sr. (Alexander Landschaft), 1902-1989  Search this
Author:
Kaslov, Steve, ca. 1888-1949 (King of the Red Bandanna Romany Gypsies )  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Community Life  Search this
Names:
Jura, Chaiko (Gypsy leader)  Search this
Kaslov, Pupa  Search this
Kaslov, Steve, ca. 1888-1949 (King of the Red Bandanna Romany Gypsies )  Search this
Extent:
4.3 Cubic feet (15 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Journals
Dissertations
Scrapbooks
Manuscripts
Place:
West Virginia -- 1930-1950
New Jersey -- 1930-1950
Maspeth (Queens, Long Island, N.Y.) -- 1930-1950
New York (N.Y.) -- photographs -- 1930-1950
Date:
circa 1920-1975
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 4.3 cubic feet of manuscript, print, and photographic materials created or collected by Carl de Wendler-Funaro (1898-1985) in pursuit of his interest in Gypsy life and culture. (Carlos de Wendler-Funaro used several forms of his name; he wrote mostly as Carl de Wendler-Funaro.) The -collection was brought to the attention of the Division of Community Life, National Museum of American History, by Matt T. Salo and donated to the Smithsonian by Dr. de Wendler-Funarol's widow, Cornelia de Funaro, in May 1985, through Richard E. Ahlborn, Curator.

The number and breadth of the photographic materials, especially, the accompanying documentation and their representation of many Gypsy groups in a single time period, make this collection an important resource for research.

Print and Manuscript Materials

The print and manuscript materials in the collection are organized-into six series: (1) materials for which Carl de Wendler-Funaro is author, co-author or editor; (2) materials about de Wendler-Funaro; (3) correspondence; (4) journals, books, or extracts from them, by various authors; (5) newspaper and magazine articles; (6) photomechanical images from newspapers, magazines, and books.

The manuscript materials include drafts of portions of planned books, reading notes, and Gypsy language notes and transcriptions. De Wendler-Funaro seems to have planned two books. One was to have been a book of his photographs, with accompanying essays describing his encounters with Gypsies, the other a work on Gypsies, especially those in the United States. The major element of the second book was to have been the history of the Rom in this country as told by Steve Kaslov. The second work was to have included the manuscripts, 'The Last Caravan,' on Romnichels in the United States; 'Romanian Gypsies in Maspeth Village,' on the Ludar; 'Hungarian Gypsies,' orx these musicians in the United States; and some folk tale materials. Several outlines for the two books are in the collection.

The draft materials written with Steve Kaslov include an account of the Gypsy leader Chaiko Jura. The account, which seems to approach legend at some points, describes his immigration to the United States, adventures in this country, and death. Also among the draft materials, and intended to follow in the proposed book, is what may be termed an official biography of Steve Kaslov (c. 1888-1949). Apparently tentatively entitled "The Ways of my People,' the manuscript recounts a few incidents, told at length, in the experiences of Kaslov's family and social network from about 1900 to about 1938.

De Wendler-Funaro's notes suggest that the Kaslov biography was dictated to an unnamed lawyer in the early 1930s and given to de Wendler-Funaro in 1934. Kaslov dictated the story of Chaiko to de Wendler-Funaro. (Perhaps this is the source of a statement in the New York Sun, June 20, 1941, that Kaslov had written two books.)

The okaslov manuscripts' are written mostly in a variety of American English common among American Rom. Parts of the biographical section are written in the first person, others in the third. Cultural material includes descriptions of weddings, funerary ritual, business transactions, conflicts and conflict resolution. As factual sources the manuscripts are unreliable: dates, for example, are only very approximate; birth places for Steve Kaslov and his family are incorrect.

Evidence in the manuscripts indicates that de Wendler-Funaro hoped, through 1976, to publish these texts in some form. Apparently Kaslov made a first attempt to publish in 1940, when he sent a draft to Eleanor Roosevelt. Mrs. Roosevelt sent the manuscript on to George Bye, a literary agent, who returned it in 1941 as unpublishable, calling it a Oterribly disorganized manuscript .... [Kaslov] is now working with a doctor (de Wendler-Funarol who claims to be an author but the results are very unhappy' (Correspondence in FDR Library).

Correspondence in the collection (series 3) includes letters to and from de Wendler-Funaro; drafts of letters by Steve Kaslov, soliciting aid for Gypsy education; and correspondence between the U.S. Consulate in Matamoros, Mexico, and the U.S. Department of State. According to Mrs. de Funaro, Carl de Wendler-Funaro destroyed his other correspondence before his death.

Many of the books, journals, articles, and extracts in the collection (series 4)- are materials upon which de Wendler-Funarol's dissertation is based. They include typed transcriptions of published articles as well as printed matter; dates of the materials range from 1554 to 1979.

The collection includes about 2,000 photoprints, including multiple copies, and 2,000 negatives. These materials are organized into eleven series: (7) photographs by de Wendler-Funaro: Gypsies in the United States; (8)photographs by de Wendler-Funaro: Gypsies outside the United States; (9) heirloom photographs'; (10) photographs by other creators; (11) photographs ;rom commercial agencies; (12) photographs of non-Gypsies; (13) photocopies, of numbered photos, in numerical order; (14) negatives; (15) contact sheets made from negatives from by the Smithsonian Office of Printing and Photographic Services, 1986; (16) scrapbook sheets; (17) slides made from negatives and prints by the Smithsonian Office of Printing and Photographic. services, 1986.

The original photographs by Carlos de Wendlet-Funaro span the,period 1922 to 1966, but the majority were taken from about 1932 to about 1942. More than half the photographs are of the Rom group of Gypsies in the United States, and most of these were taken in New York City from about 1938 to about 1942. Other original photos by de Wendler-Funaro are of other Gypsy groups in the United States -- Ludar, Romnichels, 'Black Dutch,w and Hungarian musicians -- as well as of Gypsies in Mexico, Holland, Germany, Austria, France, England, and Hungary. Photographs by other creators include copies of portraits collected from Gypsy families, photos by other photographers, and commercial news photographs collected by de Wendler-Funaro.

De Wendler-Funaro seems to have used the photographs to gain access to Gypsy families and communities (many photos show Gypsies examining albums and sets of pictures). Some photographs were published in his 1937 article, and in two articles by Victor Weybright (1938a, 1938b). De Wendler-Funaro apparently also used lantern slides made from these photographs in lectures on the subject of Gypsies; a handbill advertising his availability on the lecture circuit is part of the collection.

Manuscript drafts for book outlines, introductions, and accompanying essays show that de Wendler-Funaro long nurtured hopes of publishing a popular tool-, 'Incorporating his photographs. To this end he numbered and captioned more than a hundred of these; a partial list of captions is part of the manuscript files. For the most part, the captions are not very helpful in understanding Gypsy cultures. Photocopies of these pictures with captions, in numerical order, are in box 8. With some exceptions, most of the photographs can be used to study costume, personal ornament, and kinesics; these will not be listed separately as subjects in the inventory. The photos of the Rom in New York City show several types of traditional costume, contemporary modish dress, and a wide range of variations on both. Taken together with the "heirloom photos' collected from the same group, they show change and variety in men's and women's dress.

In the photographs of individuals and groups one may compare, for example, sitting positions of women with relation to costume and use (or non-use) of chairs.

Most of the photographs of Rom taken in New York City show Gypsies relaxing on stoops or in the street during the summer, a common pastime in their neighborhoods. They contain little culturally specific information other than that discussed above.

Information on housing is most clearly represented in photographs of camps, in which the type of tent and, to some extent, the relationships of tents, are visible. All the tents shown appear to be commercially made. Since it was the practice to raise the tent walls in good weather, many photos also show tent interiors, with wooden platform floors used on non-grassy sites (Rom) or linoleum as a ground cloth (Romnichel). The use of featherbeds; either alone (Rom) or with bedsteads (Romnichel) is documented.

There are few photographs showing the use of interior space in urban storefront or apartment dwellings (Rom). The photographs taken in the Maspeth, Long Island, 'Gypsy village' show exteriors of the shacks built@by the Ludar.

Of cooking and heating equipment, the cast-iron or sheet-metal stoves of the Romnichels are most evident. The Rom are shown using a variety of equipment, the traditional trivet (Mexico), the Coleman-type camp stove (U.S), and the pot-bellied coal stove (New York City).

Photographs of autos and trucks, auto-drawn luggage trailers (Romnichels in the North), and horse-drawn wagons (by the horse and mule trading Romnichels in the South) reveal something of the transport of people and goods.

A few photographs show subjects at work, but most work pictures are static demonstrations or mere associations with productive enterprise. There are demonstrations of coppersmithing and fender repair work (Rom), and manufacture of rustic furniture (Romnichels), as well as posed demonstrations of palm-reading. Romnichels in the South are shown posing with horses and mules. The business that appears most frequently is fortune-telling, through photographs of roadside business tents (Romnichel); amusement, fair, and resort-area tents and stands (Rom); and canvas facades, banners and signs carrying the fortune-teller's message.

Ritual life is poorly represented in the photographs. There are some photos of a funeral procession, and one interior shot of a funeral; two photos of a saint's-day feast; one of a memorial feast; and one set taken in preparation for Christmas festivities. Curiously, there are no photographs of Rom weddings. The dearth of pictures of rituals and celebrations, which form so important a part of Rom life, may be due to difficulties with interior lighting.

Because of internal and other inconsistencies, exact dating of the photographs is often difficult. Discrepancies of as much as ten year occur in some of the dates in de Wendler-Funaro's notes.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into seventeen series.
Biographical / Historical:
According to information supplied by Mrs. de Funaro, Carl de Wendler-Funaro was born in Brooklyn, New York, on October 12, 1898. After attending Boys' High School and Erasmus Hall High School in Brooklyn, he attended the University of Illinois and Cornell University, receiving a bachelor's degree in entolomology from Cornell in 1923. Subsequently he taught foreign languages at New York University, the McBurney School of the YMCA in New York City, Newark Academy and Wagner College. He began graduate work in the late 1930s, and in 1958 earned a doctorate from Columbia University with a dissertation on 'The Gitano in Spanish Literature' (a copy is in the collection, Box 1, folders 2 and 3). De Wendler-Funaro retired from teaching in 1963; he died in Tucson, Arizona on February 15, 1985.

Carl de Wendler-Funaro was an avid amateur collector of insects, especially Coleoptera, as well as shells, minerals, stamps and coins; his insect collections were donated to the American Museum of Natural History in New York.

De Wendler-Funaro's interest in Gypsies, according to his manuscripts, began in childhood. The manuscripts and one published article indicate that this interest continued to be personal, rather than professional,,,,apd @hat,,he, did not pursue his contacts with Gypsies systematically. (it was, not, 'until' the late 1940s that anthropologists began systematic studies of GYPSY.@ cultures.) It appears that de Wendler-Funaro sought out Gypsies in fairgrounds, amusement parks and urban storefronts, collecting specimens of language and taking photographs. Irving Brown's letter to de Wendler-Funaro (1929), and de Wendler-Funarol's article in Leisure (1937) refer to his visits to amusement parks. Some of his Romnichel (English Gypsy) subjects recall him as the man who drove along the roads, stopping to take pictures wherever he saw a tent. About 1938 de Wendler-Funaro became involved with a Committee on Gypsy Problems of the Welfare Council, a social service agency of New York City. This involvement may have been an outgrowth of his association with Steve Kaslov, styled by some a Gypsy king. De Wendler-Funaro seems to have served as Kaslov's amanuensis.
Gypsies in the United States:
Several groups, all known to outsiders as "Gypsies," live today in the United Sates. In their native languages, each of the groups refers to itself by a specific name, but all translate their self-designations as 'Gypsy' when speaking English. Each had its own cultural, linguistic, and historical tradition before coming to this country, and each maintains social distance from the others. An overview of these groups and their interethnic relations is presented in "Gypsy Ethnicity: Implications of Native Categories and Interaction for Ethnic Classification," by Matt T. Salo.

Rom

The Rom arrived in the United States from Serbia, Russia and Austria-Hungary beginning in the 1880s, part of the larger wave of immigration from southern and eastern Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Primary immigration ' ended, for the most part, in 1914, with the beginning of the First World War and subsequent tightening of immigration restrictions (Salo and Salo 1986). Many people in this group specialized in coppersmith work, mainly the repair and retinning of industrial equipment used in bakeries, laundries, confectionaries, and other businesses. The Rom, too, developed the fortune-telling business in urban areas.

Two subgroups of the Rom, the Kalderash ('coppersmiths') and, Machwaya natives of machva,' a county in Serbia) appear in the photographs iiv, this collection. De Wendler-Funaro identified some, but not all, Kalderash as, 'Russian Gypsies.' Another group he identified as "Russian Gypsies' seem, to,, be the Rusniakuria ('Ruthenians'), who in New York are known as musicians and singers.

Ludar

The Ludar, or "Romanian Gypsies,' also immigrated to the United States during the great immigration from southern and eastern Europe between 1880 and 1914. Most of the Ludar came from northwestern Bosnia. Upon their arrival in the United States they specialized as animal trainers and show people, and indeed passenger manifests show bears and monkeys as a major part of their baggage. Most of de Wendler-Funarols photographs of this group were taken in Maspeth, a section of the borough of Queens in New York City, where the Ludar created a village of home-made shacks that existed from about 1925 to 1939, when it was razed. A similar settlement stood in the Chicago suburbs during the same period. One of de Wendler-Funarols manuscripts, "Romanian Gypsies at Maspeth Village,' (box 1, folder 9), and a letter from Ammiee Ellis, a social worker (box 2, folder 2), refer to this settlement.

Romnichels

The Romnichels, or English Gypsies, began to come to the United States from England in 1850. Their arrival coincided with an increase in the demand for draft horses in agriculture and then in urbanization, and many Romnichels worked as horse-traders. After the rapid decline in the horse trade following the First World War, most Romnichels relied on previously secondary enterprises, 'basket-making,* including the manufacture and sale of rustic furniture, and fortune-telling. Horse and mule trading continued to some extent in southern states where poverty and terrain slowed the adoption of tractor power (Salo and Salo 1982).

Photoprints in box 6, folders 2 through 10, correspond with de Wendler-Funarols trip described in his manuscript 'In Search of the Last Caravan' (box 1, folder 10). Discrepancies between this manuscript and the photos should be noted. De Wendler-Funarols notes date this trip variously between 1931 and 1945. I have dated it about 1940. Although one man appears as a frequent subject in the largest set of photos (box 6, folders 22 and 23), in the manuscript, de Funaro mentions having missed meeting him.

'Black Dutch'

Gypsies from Germany, whom de Wendler-Funaro refers to 'as Chikkeners (Pennsylvania German, from the German Zigeuner), sometimes refer to themselves as wblack Dutch.w They are few in number and claim to have largely assimilated to Romnichel culture. They are represented in de Wendler-Punarols photographs by a few portraits of one old man and briefly referred to in the manuscript mIn Search of the Last Caravan.*

Hungarian Gypsies

The Hungarian musicians also came to this country with the eastern European immigration. In the U.S. they continued as musicians to the Hungarian and Slovak immigrant settlements.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Mrs. Cornelia de Funaro, June 26, 1985.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Photographs by de Wendler-Funaro are available for reproduction. Fees for commercial use. Permission to reproduce photographs by Alexander Alland must be granted by the photographer's estate; other photographs may have copyright restrictions.
Topic:
Funeral rites and ceremonies -- manuscripts -- Gypsies  Search this
Wagons, Gypsy -- 1920-1980  Search this
Weddings -- manuscripts -- Gypsies  Search this
Orthodox Eastern Church -- Photographs -- 1920-1980  Search this
Tents -- Photographs -- 1920-1980  Search this
Housing -- Photographs -- Wagons -- 1920-1980  Search this
Bears -- performing -- 1920-1980 -- Maspeth (N.Y.)  Search this
Housing -- Photographs -- Tents -- 1920-1980  Search this
Labor and laboring classes -- Photographs -- 1920-1980  Search this
Coppersmiths -- 1930-1950  Search this
Musicians -- 1930-1950  Search this
Furniture-making -- 1930-1950  Search this
Horse-trading -- 1930-1950  Search this
Fortune-telling -- 1930-1950  Search this
Training -- Animals -- 1930-1950  Search this
Collectors and collecting  Search this
Gypsies -- 1920-1980 -- United States  Search this
Costume -- Gypsies -- 1920-1980  Search this
Portraits -- Gypsies  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1900-1950
Journals -- 1930-1950
Dissertations
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film -- 1930-1950
Manuscripts -- 1920-1970
Citation:
Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0161
See more items in:
Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep81652b515-d673-490f-aca9-f85fdc91a42f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0161
Online Media:

Evan Rangeloff Collection of Punchboards and Liggett & Myers Tobacco Sales Materials

Manufacturer:
Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company.  Search this
Collector:
Rangeloff, Evan  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Cubic feet (9 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Photographs
Correspondence
Date:
circa 1910-1991
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes thirty-eight punchboards, all unpunched and in very good to excellent condition, and featuring a range of products and imagery. The collection also includes two punchboard manufacturers' catalogs from the 1940s, which detail the money-making opportunities for jobbers and retailers.

The collection also contains correspondence, employment forms, promotional literature, photographs and sales training literature from Evan "Ding" Rangeloff=s early career as a sales representative and regional sales manager for Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company. Of particular interest are sales training manuals which explore the psychology of selling in the 1950s, manuals which detail sales cigarette marketing strategies at military bases and on Indian reservations, and materials relating to Liggett & Myers sponsorship of Formula One car racing in the 1970s.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Business Records, circa 1954-1991

Series 2: Photographs, circa 1920-1970

Series 3: Sales Training Literature, circa 1955-1957, 1974, 1979

Series 4: Punchboards, circa 1910-1970
Historical:
During and after his employment as a salesman and regional sales manager with Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company in Duluth, Minnesota, Mr. Rangeloff began collecting the gambling and sales promotion devices known as punchboards. In 1999-2000, he donated a large and representative selection of punchboards to the Archives Center. The term "punchboard" (or in some cases "punch board," "push board," "punchcard," or "pushcard") refers to a gambling device popular in the United States from roughly 1910 until 1970. Punchboards could be used for fundraising, sales promotion and gambling--sometimes all at once. Punchboards were typically found in places where men gathered socially, such as bars, pool halls, barber shops, and men's clubs. Punchboards also could be found in beauty parlors, drug stores, and other small retail establishments. With their promise of easy money, punchboards enjoyed great success during the Depression, and continued to enjoy popularity during and after World War II. According to Scarne's Complete Guide to Gambling (New York, N.Y.: Simon and Schuster, 1961), approximately 30 million punchboards were sold between 1910 and 1915. Scarne estimated that 50 million punchboards were sold in 1939 alone, at the peak of their popularity. Punchboard sales declined significantly after WWII, and by the mid-1970s the boards had been outlawed in most states.

Punchboards trace their lineage to 18th century lottery game boards. These handmade boards, with the winning ticket placed by the operator, offered no safeguards against corruption, however, and their misuse may have contributed to the game=s waning popularity. In 1905, C.A. Brewer and C.G. Scannell patented a new version of the traditional game. By 1910, modern manufacturing techniques, including the invention of board stuffing machines and ticket folding machines, contributed to the reinvigoration of the punchboard. The new punchboards were constructed out of cardboard, with a sheet of paper or foil covering both front and back of the board. This covering was intended to prevent the operator from discovering where the winning tickets were or otherwise tampering with the board. Cheap, portable, disposable, and offering a ready vehicle for advertising, punchboards are an exuberant, if ephemeral, expression of 20th century mass culture.

A modern punchboard typically consists of a square or rectangular piece of pressed wood or cardboard (from 2 inch to one inch in thickness) in which hundreds or thousands of holes have been drilled in a regular pattern, then loaded with tiny slips of rolled or folded paper. Each slip of paper had a number or symbol printed on it. Both front and back of the board were covered with a foil or paper seal. The front of the board typically featured some form of attention-getting commercial imagery and a chart listing the winning number or combination of numbers and symbols, along with the prizes or cash amounts to be awarded to the winners. The boards were sold with a metal stylus or "punch" for the players to use.

A player paid the punchboard's operator a set amount of money (typically a nickel, dime, or quarter) for a chance to use a metal stylus to break the seal on the hole of his choice, and punch one of the slips of paper out of the board. If the number or symbols found on the slip of paper matched one of the pre determined winning combinations, the player was awarded the corresponding prize.

Punchboard manufacturers sold the boards blank or preprinted. Blank boards were sold to "jobbers" or salesmen who then added their own imagery or advertisement, and many surviving punchboards feature advertisements for products that were inexpensive and had mass appeal, such as peanuts, candy and cigarettes. Some of these boards offered the advertised product as the prize; these came to be known as prizeboards. Some prizeboards were constructed with a shadow box meant to contain prizes such as rhinestone sunglasses, wristwatches, Bowie knives, or even handguns. Punchboard manufacturers also sold the board pre-printed with various kinds of commercial imagery--sports, gambling, and patriotic imagery were well-represented, as were folk figures, racial and ethnic stereotypes, and the ubiquitous pin-up girls. Most of these boards were played for cash.
Provenance:
Gift of Evan Rangeloff, October 1999.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Probable copyright and trademark restrictions.
Topic:
Cigarettes -- 1950-2000  Search this
Tobacco -- Marketing -- 1950-2000  Search this
Sales personnel -- 1950-2000  Search this
Gambling  Search this
Cigarette industry -- 20th century  Search this
Punchboards  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 1950-2000
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Evan Rangeloff Collection of Punchboards and Liggett & Myers Tobacco Sales Materials, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0716
See more items in:
Evan Rangeloff Collection of Punchboards and Liggett & Myers Tobacco Sales Materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8c0980e0f-1683-4c83-be04-48056ef47bab
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0716

Norwich Eaton Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Records

Creator:
Norwich Eaton Pharmaceuticals, Inc.  Search this
Orr, Craig  Search this
Extent:
18 Cubic feet (37 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Date:
1900-1985
bulk 1920-1950
Summary:
The Norwich Eaton Pharmaceutical, Inc., Collection includes advertisements, company histories, equipment purchasing proposals, batch orders, finishing production orders, packaging orders and records documenting the creation and advertising of several products, including Furacin, Asogen, Paracin, Unguentine, Necta Sweet, and Chloraseptic Pepto Bismo, a popular liquid still used to relieve various digestive ailments. Founded in 1885, Norwich Eaton was acquired in 1982 by Proctor and Gamble.
Scope and Contents:
The Norwich Eaton Pharmaceutical, Inc., Collection includes advertisements, company histories, equipment purchasing proposals, batch orders, finishing production orders, packaging orders and records documenting the creation and advertising of several products. The bulk of the material consists of company advertising records such as Unguentine and Pepto Bismol; but there are also several posters and advertisements devoted to other products such as Norforms and Zemacol. The advertisement records range in period from the mid 1920s to 1966, with the majority from the 1940s. Thus, it is possible to examine the marketing of these products over a 40 year period and view the changes in style, format, and content of the advertisements. There are several advertising campaign items (brochures and packets) referring to strategies or motifs for which examples exist within this collection. Some of the posters in the collection, such as the early ones with a surface textured to simulate paint, or several of the later silk screens, can be regarded as works of art. Some were signed by the artist. Batch orders, finishing orders, and package orders relate to quality control.

The Division of Medical Sciences still retains manufacturing records (1921 1950), photographs (1920 1970s), and twelve catalogues and price lists (1906 1932).
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into seven series.

Series 1, Company History, 1940; 1980

Series 2, Company Publications, 1939-1982

Series 3, Advertising Records, 1923-1982

Series 4, Trade Literature, 1900-1980, undated

Series 5, Batch Records, 1920s-1940s

Series 6, Finishing Production Orders, 1920s-1940s

Series 7, Package Orders, 1920s to 1940s
Biographical / Historical:
Norwich Eaton was founded in 1885 by a Baptist minister, the Reverend Lafayette F. Moore, who, with some rudimentary pill making machinery and a few proprietary formulas, set up shop as "L.F. Moore, Pill Manufacturer." Financial problems from the start forced Reverend Moore into a partnership with Oscar G. Bell, an employee of T.D. Miller's drugstore, to which Moore was heavily indebted. The company adopted a new name, "Moore and Bell."

In 1887, without warning or explanation, Moore left Norwich and eventually returned to the ministry. Bell quickly found two new associates and continued to manufacture medicines under the name of the Norwich Pharmacal Company. They became the world's largest producers of aloin from aloes, and resin of podophyllum from mandrake root, as well as a leader in the development of vitamin products. They brought to the market such well known products as Unguentine and Pepto Bismol. By the 1920's, Norwich listed approximately 4,000 elixirs, tinctures, syrups, pills, tablets, extracts, suppositories, dressings, and even surgical instruments in its sales catalog.

In 1982 the company was acquired by Proctor and Gamble and continues to be a research-based manufacturer and marketer of prescription drugs and special dietary foods.
Provenance:
In February, 1986 Norwich Eaton Pharmaceuticals, Inc. donated pharmaceutical products, manufacturing records, and advertising materials to the Division Medical Sciences, now known as the Division of Science and Medicine. On April 7, 1989 publications and advertising material were transferred to Archives Center.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Pharmaceutical industry -- 1920-1990  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 20th century
Citation:
Norwich Eaton Pharmaceutical, Inc. Collection, 1920-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0329
See more items in:
Norwich Eaton Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d22f6f30-fbec-4a2b-8f0a-39d45aa5eae2
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0329
Online Media:

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