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Aeliani De historia animalium libri XVII / quos ex integro ac veteri exemplari Graeco, Petrus Gillius vertit ; vnà cum elephantorum descriptione ; item Demitrij De cura accipitrum, & De cura & medicina canum, eodem Petro Gillio interprete ..

Title:
De historia animalium
De natura animalium
Author:
Aelian active 3rd century  Search this
Translator:
Gilles, Pierre 1490-1555  Search this
Writer of supplementary textual content:
Demetrius Pepagomenus active 1260  Search this
Publisher:
Rouillé, Guillaume 1518?-1589  Search this
Physical description:
[16], 239, 230-613, 612-668, [40] pages ; 18 cm (8vo)
Type:
Pre-Linnean works
Nomenclature (Popular)
Early works to 1800
Date:
1562
Topic:
Zoology  Search this
Fishes  Search this
Call number:
QL41 .A35 1562
QL41.A35 1562
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_166535

Comments on the proposed conservation of the specific names of Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 and Logio vulgaris Lamarack, 1798 (Mollusca, Gastropoda). (Case 2922; see BZN 52:24-26.)

Author:
Vecchione, Michael  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
1995
Topic:
Invertebrates  Search this
Animals  Search this
Zoology  Search this
Natural History  Search this
See others in:
Invertebrate Zoology
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_15962

Three Hundred Years of Linnaean Taxonomy [Part 1 of 5]

Creator:
National Museum of Natural History  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2008-04-17T21:43:48.000Z
YouTube Category:
Science & Technology  Search this
Topic:
Natural History  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianNMNH
Data Source:
National Museum of Natural History
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianNMNH
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_jbVG2Cs-Tvo

Three Hundred Years of Linnaean Taxonomy [Part 2 of 5]

Creator:
National Museum of Natural History  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2008-04-17T22:42:57.000Z
YouTube Category:
Science & Technology  Search this
Topic:
Natural History  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianNMNH
Data Source:
National Museum of Natural History
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianNMNH
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_upszkumyvUM

Three Hundred Years of Linnaean Taxonomy [Part 5 of 5]

Creator:
National Museum of Natural History  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2008-04-18T01:01:38.000Z
YouTube Category:
Science & Technology  Search this
Topic:
Natural History  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianNMNH
Data Source:
National Museum of Natural History
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianNMNH
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_NX1qnGQw418

Three Hundred Years of Linnaean Taxonomy [Part 3 of 5]

Creator:
National Museum of Natural History  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2008-04-17T23:17:08.000Z
YouTube Category:
Science & Technology  Search this
Topic:
Natural History  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianNMNH
Data Source:
National Museum of Natural History
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianNMNH
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_bAI9gzkvtms

Three Hundred Years of Linnaean Taxonomy [Part 4 of 5]

Creator:
National Museum of Natural History  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2008-04-18T01:26:06.000Z
YouTube Category:
Science & Technology  Search this
Topic:
Natural History  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianNMNH
Data Source:
National Museum of Natural History
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianNMNH
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_rlVOXKEGBHU

Sceloporus occidentalis

Preparation:
Ethanol
Stage:
Juvenile
Type Citation:
Anonymous. 2003. Opinion 2024. Sceloporus occidentalis Baird & Girard, 1852 (Reptilia, Sauria): rediscovered syntypes replace by a neotype. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 60 (1): 76.
Baird, S. F. & Girard, C. 1852. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 6: 175.
Type Status:
Syntype
Place:
Upper Willamette Valley, Clackamas, Oregon, United States, North America
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Reptilia, Squamata, Sauria, Phrynosomatinae
Published Name:
Sceloporus occidentalis
Accession Number:
000000
Other Numbers:
Field Number : No Field Number
USNM Number:
500125
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Amphibians & Reptiles
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Herpetology Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3d5f042d3-55a1-4b91-9e3b-4747181094ff
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_6237168

Curtis W. Sabrosky Oral History Interviews

Creator::
Sabrosky, Curtis W. (Curtis Williams), 1910- , interviewee  Search this
Extent:
5 audiotapes (Reference copies).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Transcripts
Date:
1988
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Institution Archives began its Oral History Program in 1973. The purpose of the program is to supplement the written documentation of the Archives' record and manuscript collections with an Oral History Collection, focusing on the history of the Institution, research by its scholars, and contributions of its staff. Program staff conduct interviews with current and retired Smithsonian staff and others who have made significant contributions to the Institution. There are also interviews conducted by researchers or student on topics related to the history of the Smithsonian or the holdings of the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

Curtis W. Sabrosky was interviewed for the Oral History Collection because of his long and distinguished career as Research Entomologist, and because of his memories of work and colleagues in the National Museum of Natural History.
Descriptive Entry:
The Sabrosky interviews were conducted by Pamela M. Henson, historian, Smithsonian Institution Archives, in March of 1988. The interviews cover his education; career at the USDA; work with the National Entomological Collection maintained by the NMNH; interests in issues of taxonomic nomenclature, development of International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (the Code), especially his work with the ICZN; work with the Entomological Society of America (ESA); and reminiscences of colleagues, notably J. Chester Bradley, Roland W. Brown, J. F. Gates Clarke, and Carl F. W. Muesebeck. This collection is comprised of three interview sessions, totaling 5.0 hours and 217 pages of transcript.
Historical Note:
Curtis W. Sabrosky (1910-1997), was born on April 3, 1910, in Sturgis, Michigan, and became an Entomologist specializing in Diptera. He received the A.B. in biology from Kalamazoo College in 1931, the M.S. in zoology from Kansas State College (KSC), later Kansas State University, in 1933, and the Sc.D. from Kalamazoo College in 1966. From 1936 to 1944, he taught at Michigan State College (MSC), and served in the Public Health Service during World War II. In 1946, he joined the staff of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), first with the Bureau of Entomology and later with its Systematic Entomology Laboratory (SEL) as a Research Entomologist, and serving as Research Director from 1967 to 1973. From 1980 to 1988, he was a Cooperating Scientist at SEL, as well as a Research Associate of the Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History (NMNH). A specialist on issues of taxonomic nomenclature, from 1963 to 1985, he served as a member of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN).
Topic:
Museum curators -- United States -- Interviews  Search this
Entomology  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Biology -- Classification  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes
Transcripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9583, Curtis W. Sabrosky Oral History Interviews
Identifier:
Record Unit 9583
See more items in:
Curtis W. Sabrosky Oral History Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9583

Discusses his childhood in Sturgis, Michigan; education; early employment at MSC; fieldwork; publications; experiences during the Great Depression; interest in taxonomy; career at USDA; creation and development of the Code, including: Childhood interes...

Collection Creator::
Sabrosky, Curtis W. (Curtis Williams), 1910- , interviewee  Search this
Container:
Interviews
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9583, Curtis W. Sabrosky Oral History Interviews
See more items in:
Curtis W. Sabrosky Oral History Interviews
Curtis W. Sabrosky Oral History Interviews / Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru9583-refidd1e249

Covers USDA and NMNH staff; the formulation and evolution of the first and second Code; growth of the Diptera collections of Smithsonian and USDA; and involvement in the ESA, including: Reminiscences about Roland Wilbur Brown and the book he wrote on p...

Collection Creator::
Sabrosky, Curtis W. (Curtis Williams), 1910- , interviewee  Search this
Container:
Interviews
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9583, Curtis W. Sabrosky Oral History Interviews
See more items in:
Curtis W. Sabrosky Oral History Interviews
Curtis W. Sabrosky Oral History Interviews / Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru9583-refidd1e312

F. Raymond Fosberg Oral History Interviews

Creator::
Fosberg, F. Raymond (Francis Raymond), 1908-1993, interviewee  Search this
Extent:
22 audiotapes (Reference copies).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Transcripts
Place:
Marshall Islands
Micronesia
Date:
1993
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Institution Archives began its Oral History Program in 1973. The purpose of the program is to supplement the written documentation of the Archives' record and manuscript collections with an Oral History Collection, focusing on the history of the Institution, research by its scholars, and contributions of its staff. Program staff conduct interviews with current and retired Smithsonian staff and others who have made significant contributions to the Institution. There are also interviews conducted by researchers or students on topics related to the history of the Smithsonian or the holdings of the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

Fosberg was interviewed for the Oral History Collection because of his distinguished scientific career, contributions to the field of Pacific science, and career as a botanist at the National Museum of Natural History. Additional information about Fosberg can be found in the F. Raymond Fosberg Papers, which are also housed in Smithsonian Insitution Archives.
Descriptive Entry:
The F. Raymond Fosberg Interviews were conducted by Smithsonian Institution Archives Historian, Pamela M. Henson, during six sessions in 1993. Fosberg discusses his early life and influences; education and reminiscences of William Atwood Hilton and Philip Alexander Munz at Pomona, Harold St. John at Hawaii, and Jack Fogg at Pennsylvania; work on the Mangareva Expedition; his career at the USGS and USDA and work on the Colombian Cinchona Mission and the Marshall Islands and Micronesia surveys; work on Cinchona while on a Guggenheim Fellowship; career at the NMNH and reminiscences of Sachet; work in the international systematics community specifically on plant taxonomy and nomenclature, and work on the Pacific Science Congress; and his multidisciplinary, ecological view of science. The collection consists of 11 hours of audiotape recordings and c. 250 pages of transcript.
Historical Note:
Francis Raymond Fosberg (1908-1993) was born in Spokane, Washington, and grew up in Turlock, California, with an early interest in natural history. He received his B.A. in botany from Pomona College in 1930. After graduation, he took a position at the Los Angeles County Museum researching plants of the desert Southwest and islands off the coast of California. This research led to his interests in island ecosystems, and in 1932 he moved to Honolulu to accept a position as a research assistant at the University of Hawaii. While in Hawaii, he was invited to participate in the Mangareva Expedition. He received his M.S. in botany from the University of Hawaii in 1937 and his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1939. Fosberg accepted a position at the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and was sent to Colombia to identify stands of Cinchona for quinine production for the war effort. After World War II, he participated in a survey of economic resources in the Micronesian Islands. Upon his return to the United States, he and his new assistant, Marie-Helene Sachet, began vegetation work for the newly formed Pacific Science Board under the National Research Council. Fosberg was also involved in the development of a joint program of the South Pacific Commission and the Pacific Science Board called the Coral Atoll Program, publishing papers twice a year.

Fosberg began his fifteen-year career at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) in 1951, mapping the military geology of islands in the Pacific. During his years there he also participated in many conferences, congresses, and scientific organizations such as the Pacific Science Association; United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization; the Pacific Science Board; and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In 1966, Fosberg took a position at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) in the tropical biology branch of the Ecology Program. Sachet was also appointed to the Program, allowing a continuation of their joint research. In 1968, with the demise of the Program, he and Sachet transferred to the Department of Botany, where Fosberg became Curator. He became Senior Botanist in 1976 and continued his career as Botanist Emeritus from 1978 to 1993.
Rights:
Restricted. Contact SIHistory@si.edu to request permission.
Topic:
Zoology -- Nomenclature  Search this
Cinchona  Search this
Quinine  Search this
Ecology  Search this
Botany  Search this
Geology  Search this
Records of meetings, organizations, and professional societies  Search this
Museum curators -- United States -- Interviews  Search this
Botanists  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes
Transcripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9572, F. Raymond Fosberg Oral History Interviews
Identifier:
Record Unit 9572
See more items in:
F. Raymond Fosberg Oral History Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9572

Alexander Wetmore Papers

Topic:
Birds of the Republic of Panama (Monograph : 1965)
Creator::
Wetmore, Alexander, 1886-1978  Search this
Extent:
116.34 cu. ft. (206 document boxes) (10 half document boxes) (1 12x17 box) (2 16x20 boxes) (29 3x5 boxes) (13 5x8 boxes) (oversize materials)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Motion pictures (visual works)
Manuscripts
Black-and-white photographs
Lantern slides
Color transparencies
Drawings
Date:
circa 1848-1983 and undated
Introduction:
The papers of Alexander Wetmore were received in the Smithsonian Archives in several different accessions between 1978 and 1987.

The Archives would like to thank Mrs. Beatrice T. Wetmore for her help in transferring her husband's papers to the Archives. We also appreciate the assistance of the staff of the Division of Birds, National Museum of Natural History. The authors thank Susan Glenn and Pamela Henson for their thorough review of the manuscript.
Descriptive Entry:
The papers of Alexander Wetmore provide comprehensive documentation of his professional career and personal life. The collection is especially valuable in illustrating his research career in systematic ornithology and avian paleontology; his many collecting trips and field expeditions; his involvement in professional organizations, scientific societies, and social groups; his education and the development of his interest in ornithology; his administrative career at the United States National Museum (USNM) and the Smithsonian Institution; his family history; and personal matters. Less well represented in the collection is material concerning his brief tenure as Superintendent of the National Zoological Park, 1924-1925. Interested researchers should consult Smithsonian Archives Record Unit 74, National Zoological Park, Records, 1887-1965, and undated.

Wetmore was a prolific correspondent and nearly a third of this collection is made up of letters written and received between 1901 and 1977. The correspondence documents most aspects of his career and is particularly valuable in illustrating his research on recent and fossil birds. Wetmore exchanged letters with many of the prominent ornithologists and avian paleontologists of his day, and the correspondence is an important source of information on the history of both disciplines during the twentieth century. It is also helpful in documenting USNM and Smithsonian history from the mid-1920s to the early 1950s. Especially valuable are letters exchanged with USNM curators which concern field work, research programs, and exhibits. Wetmore corresponded with many foreign specialists, and several letters from British and European ornithologists contain descriptions of World War II and its effects on society and science. Also included are countless letters written by Wetmore giving information and advice to amateur ornithologists, bird watchers, and youngsters interested in birds.

A large file of correspondence, reports, fiscal records, publications, and related materials documents Wetmore's constant involvement in professional activities and national and international scientific affairs. His seventy-year membership in the American Ornithologists' Union is thoroughly illustrated. Included are files concerning Wetmore's work with the AOU Committee on Classification and Nomenclature, and his role in the preparation of the fifth edition of the Check-list of North American Birds. Also included are files concerning Wetmore's work as a delegate and President of meetings of the International Ornithological Congress. Records concerning his work as Secretary-General of the Eighth American Scientific Congress, and as United States Representative to the Inter-American Committee of Experts on Nature Protection and Wildlife Preservation provide documentation of initial inter-American cooperation on conservation issues. Also found are substantial records documenting his associations with the National Geographic Society; the Gorgas Memorial Institute for Tropical and Preventive Medicine; the Washington Biologists' Field Club; the Cosmos Club; and the Explorers Club. Contained in a separate series are records dealing with his work as Chairman of the National Academy of Sciences Daniel Giraud Elliot Award Committee.

Wetmore's work as a field ornithologist and scientific expedition member is documented from his first recorded observation of a Florida pelican in 1894 through his last collecting trip to Panama in 1966. The majority of records concerning his field work are found in three series. The first documents Wetmore's work prior to his appointment to the U.S. Biological Survey in 1910 and includes field notes, migration records, and lists made during his boyhood in Wisconsin; similar materials compiled during his college days in Lawrence, Kansas, and on trips to the western United States; and catalogues of his ornithological and natural history collections. The second series consists of correspondence, field notes, diaries, reports, expense records, and related materials documenting field work carried out for the U.S. Biological Survey and the Smithsonian Institution (with the exception of trips to Panama). Also included are records created during trips to professional meetings, trips to study museum specimens, and other official travel. The third series contains records concerning his field trips to Panama, 1944, 1946-1966. Also included is a file of permits used during his field investigations, as well as expense accounts from his official travel.

Photographic documentation of Wetmore's life and career is a major strength of the collection. Included are voluminous photographs, albums, lantern slides, 35mm color slides, motion pictures, and negatives documenting his field work and other official travel. Also included are portraits of Wetmore; photographs of Wetmore with family, friends, and colleagues; photographs from his boyhood; photographs of Smithsonian events, scientific meetings, and social gatherings; and photographs of professional colleagues.

The papers contain a file of collected materials documenting Wetmore's personal life and family history. The file includes correspondence with his immediate family and other relatives; various biographical information; genealogical data on his family; school and college records; papers and drawings from his early work on birds; congratulatory correspondence and letters of introduction and recommendation; transcripts of an oral history interview; and personnel records from his service in the federal government. Of special interest is Wetmore's "private zoo" - a card catalogue of species and subspecies named in his honor. A series of daily diaries and appointment books helps to illustrate his day-to-day activities.

Wetmore's twenty-eight-year administrative career at the USNM and Smithsonian is partially documented in the collection. Most of the records consist of routine correspondence inquiring about employment at the USNM. Also included are various files concerning Smithsonian activities, offices, and administrative matters.

The remainder of the collection primarily consists of materials relating to his research in ornithology and avian paleontology. Included is a large group of unpublished manuscripts, speeches, and radio talks prepared by Wetmore. Also included are numerous letters; specimen lists; notes; published manuscripts; field records; and publications relating to his research. Of special interest are original journals, lists, and correspondence from field work in Haiti by William Louis Abbott, 1916-1928, and Watson M. Perrygo, 1928-1929. The collection also contains a sample of original illustrations used in his publications on fossil birds; and manuscripts, proofs, drawings, and other materials from his magnum opus, The Birds of the Republic of Panama.

Also included in the collection are diplomas, certificates, and awards received by Wetmore, and typescript copies of correspondence between John Xantus and Spencer F. Baird.

Additional records documenting Wetmore's professional career can be found in the Smithsonian Archives. Researchers interested in Wetmore's career as Assistant Secretary in charge of the USNM and Secretary of the Smithsonian should consult Smithsonian Archives Record Units 192 and 46. Field reports written during several investigations he conducted for the U.S. Biological Survey can be found in Record Unit 7176, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Field Reports, 1860-1961. Records dealing with Wetmore's work on the fifth edition of the AOU Check-list of North American Birds are a part of record unit 7050, American Ornithologists' Union Collection, 1883-1977. An oral history interview (record unit 9504) conducted by the Archives in 1974 provides insight to all aspects of Wetmore's career. Record unit 9516, the Watson M. Perrygo oral history interviews, include many reflections on Wetmore by his long-time field companion.

A voluminous collection of Wetmore's field catalogues, field notes, lists, and other specimen-related records are housed in the Division of Birds, National Museum of Natural History.
Historical Note:
(Frank) Alexander Wetmore (1886-1978), ornithologist, avian paleontologist, and science administrator, was the sixth Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, serving from 1945 to 1952. He was born in North Freedom, Wisconsin, the son of Nelson Franklin and Emma Amelia (Woodworth) Wetmore. He developed an early interest in birds and at the age of eight made his first field journal entry - an observation on the pelican recorded on a family vacation to Florida in 1894. His first published paper, "My Experience with a Red-headed Woodpecker," appeared in Bird-Lore in 1900. By the time he entered the University of Kansas in 1905, Wetmore had made extensive natural history collections around his Wisconsin home and in Independence, Kansas.

Shortly after his arrival in Lawrence, Kansas, Wetmore received his first museum job as Assistant at the University Museum under Charles D. Bunker. His undergraduate career was interrupted on several occasions as he took jobs in Arizona, California, and Colorado to finance his education. He also used these opportunities to study and collect the native avifauna. Wetmore received the Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Kansas in 1912. Wetmore continued his education in Washington, D.C., receiving the Master of Science degree in 1916 and the Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1920 - both from George Washington University. He would later receive honorary doctorates from the University of Wisconsin, George Washington University, Centre College, and Ripon College.

Wetmore's career in the federal government began in 1910 when he was appointed an Agent for the Biological Survey, a bureau of the United States Department of Agriculture. During the summers of 1910-1911 he assisted on field investigations in Wyoming and Alaska. He traveled to Puerto Rico in late 1911 and spent nearly a year surveying the bird life of that and adjacent islands. In 1913, Wetmore was promoted to Assistant Biologist with the Biological Survey, and he moved to Washington to begin work in the program on the food habits of North American birds. His career with the Biological Survey was highlighted by constant field investigations which took him to most of the United States, as well as Canada, Mexico, and South America. Among his more important investigations were a study of the causes of waterfowl mortality around the Great Salt Lake, Utah, 1914-1916; a survey of North American birds that migrated to the southern part of South America, 1920-1921; and the leadership of the Tanager Exploring Expedition to the islands of the mid-Pacific, 1923. Wetmore was promoted to the rank of Biologist with the Survey in 1924.

As his professional status grew, Wetmore received offers of curatorial and research positions from several of the leading museums in America. Perhaps the most interesting came in 1920 when the American Museum of Natural History asked him to join the Roy Chapman Andrews Asiatic Expedition and take charge of the zoological collections. Wetmore declined this and several other offers. Finally, in November 1924, he accepted appointment as Superintendent of the National Zoological Park (NZP). He remained at the NZP until March 1925 when he was appointed Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian in charge of the United States National Museum (USNM). Wetmore held this position for nearly twenty years, when, in 1945, he was elected the sixth Secretary of the Smithsonian. He retired in 1952 and became a Research Associate of the Institution where he continued his research on recent and fossil birds.

Wetmore's administration of the USNM and Smithsonian during the era of the Great Depression and World War II faced many constraints. However, he managed to continue the Institution's basic research aims, while instituting improvements in its administrative operations and exhibits program. Among his most important accomplishments was a move toward professional management of the Institution by hiring specialists such as John E. Graf and John L. Keddy to assist with federal budgetary procedures and other administrative matters. He also steered the Smithsonian toward a period of exhibit modernization which was realized after his retirement. Two new bureaus were added to the Smithsonian during Wetmore's tenure as Secretary - the National Air Museum (now the National Air and Space Museum) and the Canal Zone Biological Area (now the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute).

Despite his administrative responsibilities at the Smithsonian, Wetmore continued an active research program in the field and the laboratory. He conducted several collecting expeditions to the American tropics between 1927 and 1940. When the outbreak of World War II restricted travel outside the country, he undertook a study of the birds of Shenandoah National Park in nearby Virginia. In the mid-1940s, Wetmore began a research program that would occupy his energies for the remainder of his life. Between 1946 and 1966 he took annual trips to Panama - making an exhaustive survey of the birds of the isthmus. This work culminated in the publication of his magnum opus, The Birds of the Republic of Panama. Three volumes of the work appeared during his life. The final volume was completed by his Smithsonian colleagues and published posthumously.

Wetmore was widely recognized as the dean of American ornithologists, and he worked extensively in the field of avian paleontology and as a systematic specialist. His bibliography contained over seven hundred entries; including 150 papers and monographs on fossil birds. He described 189 species and subspecies of birds new to science. Wetmore made enormous natural history collections, which were eventually donated to the Smithsonian. Included were 26,058 bird and mammal skins from North America, South America, Central America, and the Caribbean area; 4,363 skeletal and anatomical specimens; and 201 clutches of birds eggs. Fifty-six new genera, species, and subspecies of birds (both recent and fossil), mammals, amphibians, insects, mollusks, and plants were named in his honor - an assemblage which Wetmore called his "private zoo." Also named in his honor was the "Wetmore Glacier" in the Antarctic and the "Alexander Wetmore Bridge," a canopy bridge in the Bayano River Basin in Panama.

Wetmore was a member of countless professional organizations, scientific committees, conservation groups, and social clubs. He served many of the groups in elected or appointed capacities. He was a member of the American Ornithologists' Union (AOU) for seventy years and served as President from 1926 to 1929. For many years he was Chairman of the AOU Committee on Classification and Nomenclature and was instrumental in the publication of the fifth edition of the Check-list of North American Birds. Wetmore also had a long-term association with the National Geographic Society, serving as a Trustee, 1933-1976, and as Vice-Chairman of the Committee on Research and Exploration. He also authored several popular publications on birds for the Society.

Wetmore served as President of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 1927; the Washington Biologists' Field Club, 1928-1931; the Biological Society of Washington, 1929-1931; the Cosmos Club, 1938; the Explorers Club, 1944-1946; and the X International Ornithological Congress held at Uppsala, Sweden, 1950. He was Home Secretary of the National Academy of Sciences, 1951-1955, and a Trustee (or Director) of the Textile Museum of Washington, 1928-1952; the George Washington University, 1945-1962; and the Gorgas Memorial Institute for Tropical and Preventive Medicine, 1949-1976.

During his career at the Smithsonian, Wetmore was named to several national and international scientific committees. He was Secretary-General of the Eighth American Scientific Congress, 1940; United States Representative to the Inter-American Commission of Experts on Nature Protection and Wildlife Preservation, 1940; Vice-Chairman of the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics, 1945-1952; and Chairman of the Interdepartmental Committee on Research and Development, 1946.

His contributions to science resulted in many honors and awards. He was the recipient of the Otto Herman Medal of the Hungarian Ornithological Society, 1931; the Hubbard Medal of the National Geographic Society, 1957; the Brewster Medal, 1959, and the Elliott Coues Award, 1972, of the American Ornithologists' Union; the Explorers Club Medal, 1962; the Bartsch Award of the Audubon Naturalist Society, 1964; and the Arthur Allen Award of the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, 1970. Wetmore married Fay Holloway in 1912, and a daughter, Margaret Fenwick, was born in 1916. After a long illness, his wife died in 1953. That same year he married Annie Beatrice Thielen. Wetmore died at his home in Glen Echo, Maryland, on December 7, 1978.

For more detailed biographical information on Wetmore, see Paul H. Oehser, "In Memoriam: Alexander Wetmore," The Auk, July 1980, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 608-615; S. Dillon Ripley and James A. Steed, "Alexander Wetmore, June 18, 1886-December 7, 1978," Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 56, pp. 597-626, 1987; and John Sherwood, "His Field Notebook Was Started in 1894; It Is Not Yet Complete," The Washington Star, Thursday, 13 January 1977. A discussion of his contributions to paleornithology is found in Storrs L. Olson's "Alexander Wetmore and the Study of Fossil Birds" in "Collected Papers in Avian Paleontology Honoring the 90th Birthday of Alexander Wetmore," Storrs L. Olson, editor, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, 1976, no. 27, pp. xi-xvi.
Chronology:
June 18, 1886 -- Born in North Freedom, Wisconsin

1900 -- Wrote first published paper, "My experience with a Red-headed Woodpecker" (Bird-Lore, vol. II, pp. 155-156)

1905-1908, 1910 -- Assistant, University of Kansas Museum

1909 -- Assistant, Colorado Museum of Natural History

1910-1912 -- Agent, United States Bureau of Biological Survey

1910 -- Field work, Wyoming

1911 -- Field work, Alaska

1911-1912 -- Field work, Porto Rico

1912 -- Bachelor of Science, University of Kansas

October 13, 1912 -- Married Fay Holloway

1913-1923 -- Assistant Biologist, United States Bureau of Biological Survey

1914 -- Field work, Utah and California

1914-1915 -- Field work, Utah and Montana

1916 -- Master of Science, George Washington University

1916 -- Birth of daughter, Margaret Fenwick

1916 -- Field work, Utah

1916 -- Birds of Porto Rico (U.S. Dept. Agric. Bull. 326, pp. 1-140)

1917 -- Field work, North Carolina

1917-1918 -- Field work, Arkansas and Texas

1918 -- Field work, Western United States

1919 -- Field work, Florida; Arizona

1920 -- Doctor of Philosophy, George Washington University

1920-1921 -- Field work, South America

1921 -- Field work, Georgia

1922 -- Field work, South Carolina; Minnesota; North Dakota; Pennsylvania; Maryland

1923 -- In charge of the Tanager Exploring Expedition to the mid-Pacific islands

1924 -- Biologist, U.S. Bureau of Biological Survey

1924-1925 -- Superintendent, National Zoological Park

1925-1944 -- Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution (in charge of the U.S. National Museum)

1926 -- Observations on the Birds of Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and Chile (U.S. National Museum, Bull. 133, pp.1-448)

1926 -- The Migration of Birds (Harvard University Press)

1926-1929 -- President, American Ornithologists' Union

1927 -- Field work, Haiti and Dominican Republic

1927 -- President, Washington Academy of Sciences

1927 -- Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire Medal, Societe Nationale d'Acclimitation de France

1928 -- Trip to study bird collections of museums in the western United States

1928-1931 -- President, Washington Biologists' Field Club

1928-1952 -- Trustee, Textile Museum of Washington

1929-1931 -- President, Biological Society of Washington

1930 -- A Systematic Classification for the Birds of the World (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 76, art. 24, pp. 1-8). Revised and reprinted in 1934, 1940, 1948, 1951, and 1960.

1930 -- U.S. Delegate, VII International Ornithological Congress, Amsterdam; field work, Spain

1931 -- The Birds of Haiti and the Dominican Republic, by Wetmore and B. H. Swales (U.S. National Museum Bull. 155, pp. 1-483)

1931 -- Field work, Haiti

1931 -- Otto Herman Medal, Hungarian Ornithological Society

1931-1957 -- Chairman, American Ornithologists' Union Committee on Classification and Nomenclature of North American Birds

1932 -- Honorary D.Sc., George Washington University

1932 -- Field work, western United States

1933-1976 -- Trustee, National Geographic Society

1934 -- U.S. Delegate, VIII International Ornithological Congress, Oxford

1936 -- Field work, Guatemala

1937 -- Field work, Venezuela

1937-1978 -- Vice Chairman, Acting Chairman, and Chairman Emeritus, Committee on Research and Exploration, National Geographic Society

1938 -- President, Cosmos Club

1938 -- Chairman of U.S. delegation, IX International Ornithological Congress, Rouen, France

1939 -- Field work, Mexico

1940 -- A Check-list of the fossil birds of North America (Smiths. Misc. Coll., vol. 99, no. 4, pp. 1-81)

1940 -- Secretary-General, Eighth American Scientific Congress

1940 -- U.S. Representative, Inter-American Commission of Experts on Nature Protection and Wildlife Preservation

1940 -- Field work, Costa Rica

1941 -- Field work, Colombia

1941 -- Distinguished Service Award, University of Kansas

1944-1946 -- President, Explorers Club

1944, 1946-1966 -- Field work, Panama

1945 -- Alumni Award for Achievement in Science, George Washington University

1945-1952 -- Secretary, Smithsonian Institution

1945-1952 -- Vice-Chairman, National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics

1945-1962 -- Trustee, George Washington University

1946 -- Honorary D.Sc., University of Wisconsin

1947 -- Honorary D.Sc., Centre College of Kentucky

1947-1963 -- Chairman, Daniel Giraud Elliot Fund Award Committee, National Academy of Sciences

1948 -- Chairman, Interdepartmental Committee on Scientific Research and Development

1948 -- Orden de Merito, Carlos Manuel de Cespedes, Cuba

1949-1976 -- Member, Board of Directors, Gorgas Memorial Institute for Tropical and Preventive Medicine

1950 -- President, Academy of Medicine of Washington, D.C.

1950 -- President, X International Ornithological Congress, Uppsala, Sweden

1951-1955 -- Home Secretary, National Academy of Sciences

February 14, 1953 -- Death of Fay Holloway Wetmore

December 16, 1953 -- Married Annie Beatrice Thielen

1953-1978 -- Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution

1954 -- Field work, Venezuela

1957 -- Hubbard Medal, National Geographic Society

1959 -- Honorary D.Sc., Ripon College

1959 -- Brewster Medal, American Ornithologists' Union

1962 -- Explorers Club Medal

1963 -- Treasurer, XVI International Congress of Zoology

1964 -- Bartsch Award, Audubon Naturalist Society

1965 -- The Birds of the Republic of Panama, vol. 1 (Smiths. Misc. Coll., vol. 150, pp. 1-483)

1968 -- The Birds of the Republic of Panama, vol. 2 (Smiths. Misc. Coll., vol. 150, pt. 2, pp. 1-605)

1969 -- Field work, Netherlands Antilles

1970 -- Arthur Allen Medal, Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology

1972 -- The Birds of the Republic of Panama, vol. 3 (Smiths. Misc. Coll., vol. 150, pt. 3, pp. 1-631)

1972 -- Elliott Coues Award, American Ornithologists' Union

1973 -- "Alexander Wetmore Bridge" dedicated in Panama

1975-1978 -- Honorary President, American Ornithologists' Union

1976 -- Collected Papers in Avian Paleontology Honoring the 90th Birthday of Alexander Wetmore, Storrs L. Olson, editor (Smiths. Contrib. to Paleobio., no. 27)

December 7, 1978 -- Death, Glen Echo, Maryland

1984 -- The Birds of the Republic of Panama, vol. 4 (Smiths. Misc. Coll., vol. 150, pt. 4, pp. 1-670)
Topic:
Ornithology  Search this
Paleontology  Search this
Conservation of natural resources  Search this
Genre/Form:
Motion pictures (visual works)
Manuscripts
Black-and-white photographs
Lantern slides
Color transparencies
Drawings
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7006, Alexander Wetmore Papers
Identifier:
Record Unit 7006
See more items in:
Alexander Wetmore Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru7006

Folders 4-5 Mayr, Ernst, 1930-1934, 1937-1941, 1944-1968, and undated. Mayr, an ornithologist and evolutionary biologist, was Curator of Birds at the American Museum of Natural History, 1932-1953, before moving to Harvard University where he served as ...

Collection Creator::
Wetmore, Alexander, 1886-1978  Search this
Container:
Box 39 of 253
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7006, Alexander Wetmore Papers
See more items in:
Alexander Wetmore Papers
Alexander Wetmore Papers / Series 1: General Correspondence, 1901-1977, and undated, with Related Materials from 1879. / Box 39
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7006-refidd1e5457

Folders 5-7 Van Tyne, Josselyn, 1929-1936, 1939-1959, 1968. Van Tyne, a prominent ornithologist, spent his entire career at the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. His correspondence with Wetmore concerns the AOU; zoological nomenclature; and the...

Collection Creator::
Wetmore, Alexander, 1886-1978  Search this
Container:
Box 71 of 253
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7006, Alexander Wetmore Papers
See more items in:
Alexander Wetmore Papers
Alexander Wetmore Papers / Series 1: General Correspondence, 1901-1977, and undated, with Related Materials from 1879. / Box 71
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7006-refidd1e8469

Richard E. Blackwelder Oral History Interview

Creator::
Blackwelder, Richard E., interviewee  Search this
Extent:
2 audiotapes (Reference copies).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Transcripts
Date:
1978
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Institution Archives began its Oral History Program in 1973. The purpose of the program is to supplement the written documentation of the Archives' record and manuscript collections with an Oral History Collection, focusing on the history of the Institution, research by its scholars, and contributions of its staff. Program staff conduct interviews with current and retired Smithsonian staff and others who have made significant contributions to the Institution. There are also interviews conducted by researchers or student on topics related to the history of the Smithsonian or the holdings of the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

Blackwelder was interviewed for the Oral History Collection to document his career in entomology and his role in the founding of the Society of Systematic Zoology.
Descriptive Entry:
Blackwelder was interviewed by Pamela M. Henson on January 17, 1978. The interview covers Blackwelder's education; field work in the West Indies; his career with the USDA, American Museum of Natural History, USNM, St. John Fisher College, and Southern Illinois University; his research interests; the SSZ; and his colleagues. The interview focuses on his years in the Division of Insects, USNM, his curatorial duties, research on Staphylinidae, his colleagues, relations with the USDA staff, and USNM administration. Blackwelder discusses the founding of the SSZ, his role in its development, and relations between the SSZ and the American Association for the Advancement of Science and other zoological societies. Blackwelder reminisces extensively about his friend and colleague, Waldo LaSalle Schmitt, Head Curator of Biology in the USNM and a founder of the SSZ.
Historical Note:
Richard Eliot Blackwelder (1909-2001), received the B.A. (1931) and Ph.D. (1934) in zoology from Stanford University. From 1935 to 1938, he conducted entomological field work in the West Indies with the Smithsonian's Walter Rathbone Bacon Traveling Scholarship. He then worked briefly for the White-Fringed Beetle Identification Unit, Bureau of Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) before accepting an Assistant Curatorship in Entomology at the American Museum of Natural History in 1938.

In 1940 Blackwelder joined the staff of the United States National Museum (USNM) as an Assistant Curator in the Division of Insects and in 1942 advanced to Associate Curator. His research specialty was the morphology, classification, and nomenclature of the family Staphylinidae. During World War II, Blackwelder worked in electronics research and development while on leave from the museum. After the war he returned to the Division of Insects and was active in the development of the Society of Systematic Zoology (SSZ), as Secretary-Treasurer from 1949 to 1960, President in 1961, and Editor of its journal, Systematic Zoology.

In 1954 Blackwelder left the USNM and pursued his broader research interests in the principles of zoology. From 1956 to 1958 he was an Associate Professor at St. John Fisher College, and from 1965 until his retirement in 1977 was Professor of Zoology at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.
Topic:
Entomology  Search this
Zoology  Search this
Biology -- Classification  Search this
Records of meetings, organizations, and professional societies  Search this
Museum curators -- Interviews  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes
Transcripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9517, Richard E. Blackwelder Oral History Interview
Identifier:
Record Unit 9517
See more items in:
Richard E. Blackwelder Oral History Interview
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9517

MS 2841 Fox word lists and ethnological and linguistic notes by Alfred Kiyana

Collector:
Michelson, Truman, 1879-1938  Search this
Creator:
Kiyana, Alfred, 1877-1918  Search this
Extent:
58 Pages
Culture:
Fox Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Field notes
Place:
Tama (Iowa)
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Primarily Meskwaki (Fox) word lists handwritten by Alfred Kiyana and other ethnological and linguistic notes. Topics include medicines; foods fed to sick people; laxatives; names of dogs and horses; ethno-etymology; and ethno-ichthyology. There are also lists of founders of ceremonies and rules governing membership in tribal dual division appropriate to various gentes. Some notes are in Truman Michelson's hand. These materials were collected by Michelson in Tama, Iowa.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2841
Local Note:
Title changed from "Texts" 4/30/2014.
Topic:
Fox language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Medicine  Search this
Food  Search this
Zoology -- nomenclature  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Meskwaki; Sauk & Fox  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Citation:
Manuscript 2841, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2841
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2841
Online Media:

A. Myra Keen Oral History Interview

Creator::
Keen, A. Myra (Angeline Myra), 1905-1986, interviewee  Search this
Extent:
1 audiotape (Reference copy).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Transcripts
Audiotapes
Date:
1983
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Institution Archives began its Oral History Program in 1973. The purpose of the program is to supplement the written documentation of the Archives' record and manuscript collections with an Oral History Collection, focusing on the history of the Institution, research by its scholars, and contributions of its staff. Program staff conduct interviews with current and retired Smithsonian staff and others who have made significant contributions to the Institution. There are also interviews conducted by researchers or student on topics related to the history of the Smithsonian or the holdings of the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

The Keen interview was donated to the Oral History Collection because of her long career and many contributions to the field of American malacology.
Descriptive Entry:
Keen was interviewed by Eugene V. Coan, malacologist and former student of Keen's, because of her long career and many contributions to the field of American malacology. The interview includes her reminiscences about her education, research interests, fieldwork, colleagues, and students. The interview complements the A. Myra Keen papers, also located in the Smithsonian Institution Archives.
Historical Note:
Angeline Myra Keen (1905-1986), an invertebrate paleontologist and malacologist, was an international expert on the systematics of marine mollusks. She influenced her profession as a researcher and fieldworker, teacher and advisor, curator and exhibitor, author and public speaker. Her work was of interest both to academic scholars and to shell collectors.

Raised in Colorado, Keen became an amateur naturalist and photographer in her teens, and pursued her research interests in birds and insects at Colorado College, graduating with an A.B. in 1930. She earned an M.A. in psychology from Stanford University the following year, and then a doctorate in psychology from the University of California at Berkeley. Finding herself with no employment prospects, graduating in the depression year of 1934, she volunteered to help identify shells in the Stanford geology department's collection. This was the beginning of Keen's serious study of shells and her thirty-eight year association with Stanford. She had some coursework in biology, geology, and statistics, but was self-taught in malacology.

In 1936 Keen was appointed Curator of paleontology in the department of geology, and began teaching there during the Second World War. She was appointed Assistant Professor of paleontology in 1954 and Curator of malacology in 1957. Despite her stature, Keen waited until 1960 for appointment as a tenured Associate Professor and until 1965 for a full professorship, becoming one of three women professors in the sciences at Stanford. Upon her retirement in 1970, she was made Professor of Paleontology Emeritus and Curator of Malacology Emeritus, and taught two more years.

Keen's research focused on molluscan systematics, but ranged widely within the field to include recent marine mollusk fauna of the Panamic Province and marine molluscan Cenozoic paleontology, neontology, and zoogeography of western North America. Keen was particularly interested in bivalve systematics and nomenclature. She spent many years adding to, cataloging, and systematically arranging the Cenozoic mollusk collection at Stanford. She also wrote fourteen books and sixty-four papers in the field of malacology.

Keen was the primary teacher of students in malacology at Stanford, advising advanced degree candidates in geology and biology. She also taught courses in advanced paleontology, biological oceanography, and curatorial methods.

Keen's professional honors included Phi Beta Kappa, a 1964 Guggenheim Fellowship, and appointment as Fellow of the Geological Society of America and as fellow of the Paleontological Society. She received the Fellows Medal from the California Academy of Sciences in 1979, becoming the first woman to do so. She served as President of both the American Malacological Union and the Western Society for Malacology, and chaired the Committee on Nomenclature of the Society of Systematic Zoology.
Topic:
Invertebrate zoology  Search this
Paleontology  Search this
Mollusks  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Genre/Form:
Transcripts
Audiotapes
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9527, A. Myra Keen Oral History Interview
Identifier:
Record Unit 9527
See more items in:
A. Myra Keen Oral History Interview
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9527

Folder 18 International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature

Collection Creator::
Society of Systematic Zoology  Search this
Container:
Box 2 of 2
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 86-053, Society of Systematic Zoology, Records
See more items in:
Records
Records / Box 2
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa86-053-refidd1e401

Western Union Telegraph Expedition Collection

Creator::
Western Union Telegraph Expedition (1865-1867)  Search this
Extent:
0.75 cu. ft. (1 document box) (1 half document box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Field notes
Manuscripts
Place:
Alaska
Date:
1865-1867
Descriptive Entry:
This collection includes correspondence, mostly to Spencer F. Baird, from members of the Scientific Corps of the Western Union Telegraph Expedition, including Kennicott, Dall, Bannister, and Elliott; copies of reports submitted to divisional chiefs from expedition staff members; newspaper clippings concerning the expedition; copies of notes on natural history taken by Robert Kennicott; and a journal containing meteorological data recorded by Henry M. Bannister from March to August, 1866.
Historical Note:
The Western Union Telegraph Expedition, 1865-1867, also known as the Russian-American Telegraph Expedition, was undertaken to study the possibility of setting up a communications system with Europe by way of Alaska, the Bering Straits, and Asia. The expedition was organized in three divisions, working in Canada, Russian-America (Alaska), and Asia. Robert Kennicott, the veteran Alaskan explorer, was placed in charge of the Russian-American division. Under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution and the Chicago Academy of Sciences, a Scientific Corps was established, with Kennicott in command, to accompany the Russian-American division and make collections in natural history. Naturalists William H. Dall, Henry M. Bannister, and Henry W. Elliott served as members of the Scientific Corps. On the death of Kennicott on May 13, 1866, Dall became chief of the Scientific Corps until the expedition was terminated in July 1867 due to the successful laying of the Atlantic Cable.
Restrictions:
It appears that some of the material in this collection was removed from the official correspondence files of the Smithsonian.
Topic:
Natural history  Search this
Scientific expeditions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7213, Western Union Telegraph Expedition Collection
Identifier:
Record Unit 7213
See more items in:
Western Union Telegraph Expedition Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru7213
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