The collection consists of photographs relating to Native Americans, which were submitted to the copyright office of the Library of Congress in and around the early 20th century. Many of the photographs are studio portraits as well as photographs made as part of expeditions and railroad surveys. It includes images of people, dwellings and other structures, agriculture, arts and crafts, burials, ceremonies and dances, games, food preparation, transportation, and scenic views. Some of the photographs were posed to illustrate literary works, including Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's Hiawatha, while others depict paintings or other artwork.
Collection is organized alphabetically by copyright claimant.
The collection was formed from submissions made to the Library of Congress as part of the copyright registration process. In 1949, arrangements were made to allow the Bureau of American Ethnology to copy the collection and some negatives were made at that time, largely from the Heyn and Matzen photographs. The project was soon abandoned, however, as too large an undertaking for the facilities of the BAE. In 1957-1958, arrangements were begun by William C. Sturtevant of the BAE to transfer a set of the photographs from the Library of Congress to the BAE.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 59
In 1965, the Bureau merged with the Smithsonian's Department of Anthropology to form the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology, and in 1968 the Office of Anthropology Archives transformed into the National Anthropological Archives.
The collection is open for research.
Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Photo Lot 59, Library of Congress Copyright Office photograph collection of Native Americans, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
According to Dr. Thomas Blackburn (10/15/2001), the existing Indians referred to are Yurok and Hupa, although the author sometimes refers to them as "Klamaths." Pencil and ink drawings in the text include drawings of artifacts, and sketch entitled, "Method of Wearing Nose Ornament of bone. ̀Gabrielʹ a Mak-nea-te-ny-seen at Alseya Reserve, Oregon, 1868." The 7 photographs and 18 original color drawings referred to on an earlier catalog card are not present; marginal notes in the manuscript refer to plates "in Professor Bairdʹs hands."
Photographs documenting Native American Public Programs events, including images of American Indian artists and examples of their work during demonstrations and lectures at the National Museum of Natural History. Photographs were mostly made by Smithsonian photographers, including Carl C. Hansen, Richard Strauss, Chip Clark, Laurie Minor-Penland, Eric Long, Alan Hart, Rick Vargas, Dane Penland, and Christina Taccone. Included are a large number of photographs of Don Tenoso (Hunkpapa), an artist-in-residence at the National Museum of Natural History, and performances by James Luna (Luiseno/Digueno), Guillermo Gomez-Pena (Chicano), and Coco Fusco. Crafts and arts depicted include beadwork, basket weaving, dollmaking, peyote fanmaking, weaving, hand games, quilting, clothing making, leatherwork, woodcarving, saddlemaking, sculpture, painting, story-telling, and performance art. There are also images of Dolores Lewis Garcia and Emma Lewis Garcia (daughters of Acoma potter Lucy M. Lewis) and their pottery, Joallyn Archambault with artists, and the 1990 American Indian Theater Company reception.
Other depicted artists include Maynard White Owl Lavadour (Cayuse/Nez Perce), Evangeline Talshaftewa (Hopi), Lisa Fritzler (Crow), Marian Hanssen, Vanessa Morgan (Kiowa/Pima), Marty Good Bear (Mandan/Hidatsa), Katie Henio and Sarah Adeky (Navajo), Geneva Lofton and Lee Dixon (Luiseno), Chris Devers (Luiseno), Mary Good Bear (Mandan), Robert and Alice Little Man (Kiowa), Lisa Watt (Seneca), Jay McGirt (Creek), Bill Crouse (Seneca), Kevin Johnny-John (Onondaga), Rose Anderson (Pomo), Francys Sherman and Margaret Hill (Mono), Thelene Albert and Annie Bourke (White Mountain Apache), Bob Tenequer (Laguna), Jimmy Abeyeta (Navajo), Lou Ann Reed (Acoma), Melissa Peterson (Makah), Jennifer and Kallie Keams Musial (Navajo), Joyce Growing Thunder-Fogarty and Juanita Fogarty (Assiniboine/Sioux), David Neel (Kwakiutal), Mervin Ringlero (Pima), Jhon Goes-In-Center (Oglala), D. Montour (Delaware/Mohawk), Rikki Francisco (Pima), Annie Antone (Papago), Angie Reano-Owen (Santo Domingo Pueblo), Carol Vigil (Jemez), Gregg Baurland (Miniconjou), Greg Colfax (Makah), Lydia Whirlwind-Soldier (Sicangu Dakota), Martin Red Bear (Oglala), Michael Rogers (Paiute), Alta Rogers (Yurok/Paiute), Dorothy Stanley (Miwok), Lisa Little Chief (Dakota), Tom Haukaas (Sicangu Dakota), Nora Navanjo-Morsie (Santa Clara Tewa), Seneca Women's Singing Society, Molly Blankenship and Martha Ross (Eastern Cherokee), Julia Parker (Miwok/Pomo), Candy and Claudia Cellicion (Zuni), Sally and Lorraine Black (Navajo), Carmen Quinto-Plunkett (Tlingit), Ina McNeil (Hunkpapa), and Ellen and Faye Quandelancy (Zuni), and Rikki Francisco (Pima).
Native American Public Programs was founded in 1989 as a part of the Department of Education in the National Museum of Natural History. Under the directorship of Aleta Ringlero, its main activity was the arranging of demonstrations by American Indian artists and craftsmen in the exhibition areas of the museum.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 91-26
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Audio of James Luna's lecture for the Native American Public Programs office held in National Anthropological Archives in MS 7514.
Dolls made by Don Tenoso for the Native American Public Programs office held in Department of Anthropology collections in accession 390905.
Additional photographs of Tenoso held in the Smithsonian Institution Archives in SIA2009-2222 and 90-13726.
Comments by Arnold Pilling, February, 1969: Village locations are presumably as they were between 1857 and 1862; Kau-weh was destroyed in 1862 by a mud slide. Spellings of vliiage names appear to be same as those used by Gibbs in his published report of 1861.
The Homer Garner Barnett papers, 1934-1973, consist of papers, photographs, slides, maps, and periodicals primarily documenting his ethnological work among American Indians, Palauans, and the people of Netherlands New Guinea (Irian Jaya).
Scope and Contents:
The Homer Garner Barnett papers, 1934-1973, contain papers, photographs, slides, maps, periodicals, field notes and copies of studies done by others. Dr. Barnett, an ethnologist, anthropologist, author and teacher spent his early professional years, 1934-1943, studying Northwest Coast Indians. After the second World War, her focused on Micronesia, especially Palau, and later Netherlands New Guinea, now known as West Irian. It was during this time that he observed at close hand and became an expert in cultural change.
Between 1947 and 1970, years of drastic change for natives of Oceania, Dr. Barnett made three long stays and many shorter ones in the islands. He used his research in writing, teaching, and consulting.
His early study of Yurok, Hupa, Karok, Nuqually, Oakville and Skopomish Indians is contained in research notebooks, field notebooks and photographs. There is an interesting section on Indian Shakerism (not related to the Shaker Movement of the East). One notebook records his experience while conducting a class at Berkeley in 1943 on inter-cultural exchange of information. The later field notebooks record his observations while on Palau and New Guinea. There are also approximately 900 slides that he used in class lectures.
Dr. Barnett amassed a large collection of scholarly papers and periodicals dealing with the South Pacific area, especially during the years 1952-1960. There are a few publications in Japanese reflecting the interests of the prior trustees of Palau. There are significant numbers of scientific papers in Dutch on natives of New Guinea. He also preserved interesting examples of literature in Palauan, pidgin English and Papuan.
There is no personal correspondence other than that pertaining to setting up a study of displaced communities in the South Pacific. This study was funded over a 5-year period by the National Science Foundation. The resulting papers are on deposit at the University of Oregon.
Dr. Barnett spent 2 years (1944-1946) as Senior Fellow in ethnogeography at the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE). There are no papers in this collection dating from those years, but the BAE Correspondence files contain letters to and from Barnett during this period.
The Homer Garner Barnett papers are arranged in the following series:
(1) Material relating to the "Displaced Communities" Study, 1963-1970;
(2) Writings, 1938-1959;
(3) Field notebooks, 1934-circa 1955;
(4) Dissertation notebooks, undated;
(5) Linguistic material, 1941-1965;
(6) Scholarly serials and periodicals, 1950-1971;
(7) Processed and printed items, 1942-1974;
(8) Photographs, 1895-1955;
(9) Micronesian Monthly/Reporter, 1951-1963;
(10) Quarterly Bulletin of the South Pacific Commission, 1953-1963;
(11) Photographic slides, 1947-1953;
(12) Maps, 1887-1959
Homer G. Barnett trained at the University of California at Berkeley and practiced as an ethnologist and archeologist. He specialized in culture change and applied anthropology.
Barnett's earliest field work was among American Indians of Oregon, Washington, and northwestern California--particularly the Yurok, Hupa, Yakima, and several small groups of the Oregon coast. Some of his research concerned diverse ethnological matters but much of it focused primarily on the Indian Shaker religion and the potlatch, the latter being the subject of his doctoral dissertation.
In 1939, while he was on the faculty of the University of New Mexico, Barnett served as field director of the Jemez Archeological Field School and was in charge of a project in the Santa Fe National Forest in New Mexico. Later in the same year, he joined the faculty of the University of Oregon and has been chiefly identified with that institution since then. In the summer of 1943, however, he participated in a World War II Far Eastern Language and Area Training Program of the University of California at Berkeley. There he helped train voluteer service men in techniques of eliciting cultural information from native informants.
In the following year, he joined the staff of the Bureau of American Ethnology and became a researcher associated with the Ethnogeographic Board, the World War II agency formed to provide scientific information about human and natural resources of the world. He served as the executive secretary of the Board's Pacific Survey Project and, later, undertook a War Document Survey concerning the Pacific to determine and advise on the disposition of documents that had been accumulated by the government.
Returning to the University of Oregon after the war, Barnett continued to work with Pacific cultures. He carried out field work in the Palau Islands under the sponsorship of the National Research Council, served as staff anthropologist for the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and was a consultant for the government of Netherlands New Guinea. In the 1960s, he directed a program of research among communities of the Pacific displaced because of natural disasters and atomic bomb tests.
In 1939, Dr. Barnett was the director of an archeological excavation in the Santa Fe National Forest in New Mexico. The report of this dig is NAA MS 4070. Another paper Barnett wrote, Yakima Indians in 1942 is NAA MS 4867.
Dr. Homer G. Barnett donated this collection to the National Anthropological Archives in 1975.
The Homer Garner Barnett papers are open for research.
Access to the Homer Garner Barnett papers requires an appointment.
With "Note" and "Key to pronunciation" by A.C. Anderson. The Hupa column contains entries on only two pages, a total of 17 words; these do not correspond with the Hupa in Bureau of American Ethnology Manuscript 85, by Crook.
NAA MS 209
The outline, including title, "Note," "Key," English words, and native names used as column headings, is all written in one hand, presumably Anderson's; words in the three Indian languages are in another hand, verified as Crook's "from material written by General Crook in War College Library," according to note by M.W. Tucker on old Manuscript envelope; note at top of title page, "By Lieut. now Gen. George Crook," is in hand of George Gibbs. Date supplied from information quoted by Pilling, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 14, 1892, page 21, indicating that Lieutenant Crook's first assignment was with the Fourth Infantry in California, 1852-61.
Manuscript 209, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
With copy of the Hopah vocabulary. Trinity River, Calif. 1852. Autograph document. 5 pages. Includes a few notes on the "Redwood Indians" [Chilula] and "Mad River Indians and Bay Indians" [Wiyot] and a house count for Yurok and Hupa villages. Manuscript notes by A. R. Pilling, 1 slip, filed with the Manuscript, 8/1970.
Images included in Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 78 ("Handbook of the Indians of California") and photographs of spoons and acorn gruel stirrers, some of which were also published in the volume. Among the photographs included as plates are the interior of a Yurok sweat house (plate 10), a Chilula sweat house (plate 13), a Yurok boat (plate 13), a view of the Karok center of the world (plate 22), and a Wintun cradle (plate 35).
Alfred Louis Kroeber (1876-1960) was born in Hoboken, New Jersey, but his family moved to New York City shortly afterward. He received his BA (1896) and MA (1897) from Columbia University and worked as a teaching assistant there from 1897-1898. During this time, he took courses from Franz Boas who introduced him to the university's newly established Department of Anthropology. Kroeber received his PhD in Anthropology in 1901 and then accepted a position at the University of California at Berkeley, where he founded the Department of Anthropology. Kroeber conducted extensive research into California tribes and collected artifacts for museums. His "Handbook of the Indians of California," submitted in 1919, was published in the Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin in 1925. In 1923, Kroeber published "Anthropology," considered among the first general textbooks on the subject.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 66E
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Papers and notes by Kroeber can be found in National Anthropological Archives MS 2108, MS 2622, MS 2560, and MS 3134.
Correspondence from Kroeber held in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 7116, MS 4365-a, MS 1897-a, MS 4623, NAA MS 4372(4), American Ethnological Society records, Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Handbook of South American Indians Records, and collections of personal papers.
Vocabulary recorded in Smithsonian Institution Comparative Vocabulary.
Also letter of transmittal to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. Camp Gaston, California. August 14, 1870. Autograph letter signed. 3 pages.
Baird, Sprncer F. Letter to George Gibbs, forwarding the vocabulary and the letter of transmittal. Washington, D. C. September 3, 1870. Autograph letter signed. 1 page.
NAA MS 83
On the reverse of S. F. Baird's letter to George Gibbs there is an A. note S.: D. Leech, requesting instructions about sending the "Doctor"'s papers to him. It is not clear who the "doctor" is, or whether the papers are related to the present Manuscript.
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Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.