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Tulamniu Project records

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology. Tulamniu Project  Search this
Walker, Edwin F.  Search this
Walker, Winslow M. (Winslow Metcalf), 1903-1996  Search this
Extent:
8.67 Linear feet (8 boxes and 9 map folders)
4 Volumes (4 albums of nitrate negatives)
Note:
The nitrate negative albums are located in nitrate cold storage.
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Volumes
Date:
1905-1953
bulk 1933-1934
Summary:
The Tulamniu C.W.A. Project SLF-76 excavated a group of large shell mounds near Taft, California, in the upper San Joaquin valley. The site had previously been located and tentatively identified as the village site of Tulamniu. The project was directed by Dr. William Duncan Strong, assisted by Winslow M. Walker. Two trained California archaeologists, W. R. Wedel, from the University of California, and E. F. Walker of the Southwest Museum, assisted. This collection includes field notes, records, specimen catalogues, correspondence, a scrapbook of newspaper clippings, reference articles, maps, and charts and tables generated by the expedition. There is material mentioned in reports which is not included in this collection.
Scope and Contents:
Included in this collection are the field notes of Winslow Walker, E. F. Walker and other technicians; records; specimen catalogues; correspondence; a scrapbook of newspaper clippings; reference articles; maps; and charts and tables generated by the expedition. Cartographic materials comprise more than half of this collection. Dates of materials range from a 1905 U.S. Geological Survey Map to correspondence dated 1937.

There are no official reports of the project in this collection. These may be found in the Explorations and Field-Work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1934 (1935) where there is an article by Winslow Walker, "Excavating Ancient Yokuts Shellmounds in California" and BAE Bulletin 130 (1941), which contains "Archaeological Investigations at Buena Vista Lake, Kern County, California," by T. Dale Stewart.

The collection is incomplete since there is material mentioned in the Wedel report, notable text and several tables, which is not on deposit. Also missing are administrative records.

The William Duncan Strong papers, also located in the National Anthropological Archives, do not contain material concerning this expedition.
Arrangement:
Arranged into the following series: (1) Winslow M. Walker's field notes, 1933-1934; (2) Notebooks of Field Notes, Burial and House Records, 1933-1934; (3) Catalogs of Specimens, circa 1933-1934; (4) Notes about Artifacts, circa 1933-1934; (5) Scrapbook of Newspaper Clippings, 1933-1934; (6) Correspondence, 1933-1937; (7) Reference Material, 1910-1937; (8) Photographic Records, 1920-1934; (9) Miscellaneous, 1934; (10) Maps, 1905-1934; (11) Charts and Tables, circa 1933-1934; (12) Cross Sections, Profiles, Stratigraphs, circa 1933-1934
Administrative History:
This collection is the result of the vast Civil Works Administration program under the supervision of the Smithsonian Institution. During the winter of 1933-1934, the Tulamniu C.W.A. Project SLF-76 excavated a group of large shell mounds near Taft, California, in the upper San Joaquin valley. The site had previously been located and tentatively identified as the village site of Tulamniu, "the place of the Tulamni, or Tule dwellers." The Tulamni were one of the lake tribes of Yokuts first visited in 1772 by Spaniards. Because the excavation would require the labor of a large force of men for a considerable period of time, it was a desirable location for the archaeological project allotted to the BAE in California, according to Winslow Walker's report.

More than 4000 artifacts and hundreds of Indian burials were excavated at the site of the Yokut Indian village near Taft, California, in 1933-34. Dr. William Duncan Strong, of the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE), headed the Tulamniu C.W.A. Project SLF-73 with Winslow Walker, also of the BAE, as assistant director. The excavations were one of a number of archaeological projects organized and financed by the Civil Works Administration as a means of reducing unemployment. Artifacts and skeletal materials were shipped to the United States National Museum for study after completion of the field work.

Work began December 20, 1933 under the direction of Dr. William Duncan Strong, assisted by Winslow M. Walker. Two trained California archaeologists, W. R. Wedel, from the University of California, and E. F. Walker of the Southwest Museum, assisted. The staff was augmented by technicians and graduate students: Engineer-Surveyor Lew Suverkrop; Supervising Foremen P. L. Stanley and H. I. McGrath; Photographer F. M. Boyd; Accountant-Timekeeper N. E. Taussig; Technicians Phillip Drucker, G. H. Denkel, H. E. Driver, Hans Fischel, H. G. Barnett, Paul McGrew, Milton O'Rourke, and M. P. Smith. Employment as laborers was given to about 175 unemployed men from the Taft region of Kern County. Large scale operations made possible the examination of two shell mounds on the slope of the hills at the western side of Buena Vista Lake and the uncovering of two large burial places on the hilltops just behind the mounds.

By combining the methods of trenching, screening and clearing large areas horizontally, a good idea of the internal structure and contents of the mounds was obtained. They had been used not only as places on which to build huts, but also as middens and burial spots. The mounds, more than 1000 feet long, 150 wide, and about 10 feet thick, were the result of accumulations of large amounts of shell, sand loam, ash and camp debris over long periods of occupation, perhaps conditioned by the rise and fall of the lake waters.

The burial hilltops yielded a large number of mortuary objects, including finely chipped flint points, knives, bone awls, shell beads and pendants. The bodies in these cemeteries had been buried in the flexed position, wrapped in soft woven fiber, and in some instances also encased in tule mats.

The picture in general is that of a primitive hunting and fishing people who had presumably followed up the course of the San Joaquin from the San Francisco Bay region and settled many hundreds of years ago around Buena Vista Lake.
Related Materials:
The National Museum of Natural History holds in its collection many of the items excavated during the Tulamniu CWA Project. However, some materials were repatriated to the Tule River Indian Tribe and the Santa Rosa Rancheria of Tachi Yokuts Indians. Details of these materials can be seen in the report "Inventory and Assessment of Human Remains and Funerary Objects Potentially Affiliated with Yokuts Tribes from Kern and Tulare Counties, California, in the Collections of the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution," available at https://naturalhistory.si.edu/research/anthropology/programs/repatriation-office
Provenance:
This collection of material was in storage in the Department of Anthropology until donated to the National Anthropological Archives on May 22, 1973.
Restrictions:
Literary property rights to unpublished material in the collection are in the public domain.

Access to the Tulamniu C.W.A. Project records requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Excavations (Archaeology) -- California  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Yokuts Indians  Search this
Citation:
Tulamniu C.W.A. Project records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.XXXX.0062
See more items in:
Tulamniu Project records
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-xxxx-0062

Latta, F. F. "Yokuts Indians"

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology. Tulamniu Project  Search this
Walker, Edwin F.  Search this
Walker, Winslow M. (Winslow Metcalf), 1903-1996  Search this
Container:
Box 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Literary property rights to unpublished material in the collection are in the public domain.

Access to the Tulamniu C.W.A. Project records requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Tulamniu C.W.A. Project records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Tulamniu Project records
Tulamniu Project records / Series 7: Reference Material / Reference Material
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0062-ref72

Marjorie W. Cummins photograph collection of Yokuts Indians

Collector:
Cummins, Marjorie W.  Search this
Extent:
33 Copy prints
Culture:
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Yokuts  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Copy prints
Photographs
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents note:
Copies of photographs depicting Tache Yokuts Indians, homes, churches, artifacts, and ceremonies, as well as images of Marjorie Cummins interviewing Yokuts. The photographs were collected for Cummin's book, "The Tache-Yokuts: Indians of the San Joaquin Valley."
Biographical/Historical note:
Marjorie W. Cummins is the author of two books about the Tache Yokuts: "The Tache-Yokuts: Indians of the San Joaquin Valley" and "How Coyote Stole the Sun," which is based on a manuscript by Carobeth Laird that Cummins found at the National Anthropological Archives.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot R81-75
Reproduction Note:
Copy prints made by Smithsonian Institution, 1980-1981.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs of Yokuts Indians can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 24 and Photo Lot 59 and the BAE historical negatives.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
This copy collection has been obtained for reference purposes only. Contact the repository for terms of use and access.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot R81-75, Marjorie W. Cummins photograph collection of Yokuts Indians, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.R81-75
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-r81-75

Songs of the Yokuts Indians

Collector:
Roberts, Helen H. (Helen Heffron), 1888-1985  Search this
Extent:
26 items (sheets transcriptions )
Culture:
Yokuts Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 1560
Topic:
Yokuts Indians  Search this
Music -- song transcriptions  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 1560, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS1560
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms1560

Dice For Game Basket

Collector:
Miss Ella F. Hubby  Search this
Donor Name:
Miss Ella F. Hubby  Search this
Culture:
Yokuts  Search this
Object Type:
Dice
Place:
Not Given, Tulare County / Tulare Reservation, California, United States, North America
Accession Date:
4 Feb 1925
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
085929
USNM Number:
E328026-1
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/398c2e555-05b3-4008-90b9-43602652ee02
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8395317
Online Media:

Basket jar

Culture/People:
Yokuts  Search this
Previous owner:
Frank M. Covert (F. M. Covert), Non-Indian, 1858-1929  Search this
Seller:
Frank M. Covert (F. M. Covert), Non-Indian, 1858-1929  Search this
Object Name:
Basket jar
Media/Materials:
Deer grass, bracken fern root, bird quills
Techniques:
Coiled
Dimensions:
17.5 x 17.5 x 18 cm
Object Type:
Containers and Vessels
Place:
Central California; California; USA (inferred)
Date created:
circa 1890
Catalog Number:
1/109
Barcode:
010109.000
See related items:
Yokuts
Containers and Vessels
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6999292b1-825b-482f-9919-43f4da530aad
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_10956
Online Media:

Basket bowl

Culture/People:
Yokuts  Search this
Presenter/funding source:
Thea Heye (Thea Kowne/Mrs. Dorothea Page/Mrs. George Gustav Heye), Non-Indian, 1888-1935  Search this
Object Name:
Basket bowl
Media/Materials:
Grass, sedge root, bracken fern root
Techniques:
Coiled
Object Type:
Containers and Vessels
Place:
Central California; California; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
11/5323
Barcode:
115323.000
See related items:
Yokuts
Containers and Vessels
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6273562a9-ad5f-4a18-8651-aeb2c34df301
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_123881
Online Media:

Basket

Culture/People:
Tachi Yokuts [Santa Rosa Rancheria]  Search this
Collector:
John Peabody Harrington (J.P. Harrington), Non-Indian, 1884-1961  Search this
Object Name:
Basket
Media/Materials:
Willow, sedge root, redbud, bracken fern stem
Techniques:
Coiled
Object Type:
Containers and Vessels
Place:
Santa Rosa Rancheria; Kings County; California; USA
Date created:
circa 1915
Catalog Number:
12/4406
Barcode:
124406.000
See related items:
Tachi Yokuts [Santa Rosa Rancheria]
Containers and Vessels
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws647076f01-dbdf-4cd8-88c9-a7b2db74f361
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_133991
Online Media:

Basket jar

Culture/People:
Yokuts  Search this
Previous owner:
Frederick W. Skiff (Frederick Woodward Skiff/F.W. Skiff), Non-Indian, 1868-1947  Search this
Seller:
Frederick W. Skiff (Frederick Woodward Skiff/F.W. Skiff), Non-Indian, 1868-1947  Search this
Object Name:
Basket jar
Media/Materials:
Grass, sedge root, bracken fern root, redbud, wool yarn, quail feather/feathers
Techniques:
Coiled
Object Type:
Containers and Vessels
Place:
Central California; California; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
15/6794
Barcode:
156794.000
See related items:
Yokuts
Containers and Vessels
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws675e52d77-45cd-4ee5-8c25-36984f446c27
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_168132
Online Media:

Basket bowl

Culture/People:
Yokuts  Search this
Previous owner:
Jay Noble Emley, Non-Indian, 1871-1939  Search this
Donor:
Jay Noble Emley, Non-Indian, 1871-1939  Search this
Object Name:
Basket bowl
Media/Materials:
Grass, sedge root, bracken fern root, redbud
Techniques:
Coiled
Object Type:
Containers and Vessels
Place:
Central California; California; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
18/2231
Barcode:
182231.000
See related items:
Yokuts
Containers and Vessels
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6989e1d6d-55b9-4dbf-83d8-8fd3273e9e1a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_194877
Online Media:

Basket with cover

Culture/People:
Yokuts  Search this
Previous owner:
Helen Breese Walcott Younger, Non-Indian, 1894-1965  Search this
Charles Doolittle Walcott, Non-Indian, 1850-1927  Search this
Mary Morris Vaux Walcott (Mrs. Charles Doolittle Walcott), Non-Indian, 1860-1940  Search this
Cole J. Younger (Cole Joseph Younger), Non-Indian, 1894-1987  Search this
Helen Pressprich Younger (Helen Elizabeth Pressprich/Mrs. Cole J. Younger), Non-Indian, 1905-1992  Search this
Possible collector:
Charles Doolittle Walcott, Non-Indian, 1850-1927  Search this
Mary Morris Vaux Walcott (Mrs. Charles Doolittle Walcott), Non-Indian, 1860-1940  Search this
Donor:
Cole J. Younger (Cole Joseph Younger), Non-Indian, 1894-1987  Search this
Object Name:
Basket with cover
Media/Materials:
Grass, sedge root, bracken fern root, redbud
Techniques:
Coiled
Object Type:
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Place:
Central California; California; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
24/7736
Barcode:
247736.000
See related items:
Yokuts
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws63bb24b67-e30f-4fb3-8610-10fe3734decc
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_263534
Online Media:

Basket jar

Culture/People:
probably Yokuts (attributed)  Search this
Previous owner:
Emlyn M. Hodge, Non-Indian, 1905-1999  Search this
Donor:
Emlyn M. Hodge, Non-Indian, 1905-1999  Search this
Object Name:
Basket jar
Media/Materials:
Grass, sedge root, bracken fern root, redbud
Techniques:
Coiled
Dimensions:
10 x 6.5 cm
Object Type:
Containers and Vessels
Place:
Central California; California; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
25/658
Barcode:
250658.000
See related items:
Yokuts
Containers and Vessels
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws60bd64a66-8dcd-4a4f-b314-9aaa685ac65a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_266570
Online Media:

Basket

Culture/People:
Yokuts  Search this
Previous owner:
Dr. Vladimir G. Simkhovitch (Vladimir Gregorievitch Simkhovitch), Non-Indian, 1874-1959  Search this
Dr. Paul Didisheim, Non-Indian  Search this
Donor:
Dr. Paul Didisheim, Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Basket
Media/Materials:
Grass, sedge root, bracken fern root
Techniques:
Coiled
Dimensions:
12.5 x 12.5 x 9.8 cm
Object Type:
Containers and Vessels
Place:
Central California; California; USA (inferred)
Date created:
1910-1930
Catalog Number:
25/4415
Barcode:
254415.000
See related items:
Yokuts
Containers and Vessels
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6b29266ed-304d-476d-b502-d2b72c8a0af1
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_270385
Online Media:

Basket

Culture/People:
Yokuts  Search this
Object Name:
Basket
Media/Materials:
Grass, cordage, sedge root, bracken fern root, redbud
Techniques:
Coiled
Object Type:
Containers and Vessels
Place:
Central California; California; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
5/1021
Barcode:
051021.000
See related items:
Yokuts
Containers and Vessels
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws65b802637-cf1d-42d1-b064-64a7259777c8
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_55101
Online Media:

Basket

Culture/People:
Yokuts  Search this
Previous owner:
Joseph W. Keppler (Udo Keppler/Gyantwaka), Non-Indian, 1872-1956  Search this
Lender:
Joseph W. Keppler (Udo Keppler/Gyantwaka), Non-Indian, 1872-1956  Search this
Seller:
Joseph W. Keppler (Udo Keppler/Gyantwaka), Non-Indian, 1872-1956  Search this
Object Name:
Basket
Media/Materials:
Grass, sedge root, bracken fern root, redbud
Techniques:
Coiled
Object Type:
Containers and Vessels
Place:
Central California; California; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
6/395
Barcode:
060395.000
See related items:
Yokuts
Containers and Vessels
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6041904bf-4223-4baf-82ec-b573a138fb8d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_64867
Online Media:

Basket bowl

Culture/People:
Yokuts  Search this
Object Name:
Basket bowl
Media/Materials:
Grass, sedge root, bracken fern root, redbud
Techniques:
Coiled
Object Type:
Containers and Vessels
Place:
Central California; California; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
9/697
Barcode:
090697.000
See related items:
Yokuts
Containers and Vessels
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws69dc2090d-8288-4959-b296-2da1c993069b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_97768
Online Media:

Mortar and mortar basket

Culture/People:
Yokuts  Search this
Object Name:
Mortar and mortar basket
Media/Materials:
Stone, vegetal fiber
Techniques:
Coiled
Object Type:
Food Gathering and Preparation
Place:
Central California; California; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
10/66
Barcode:
100066.000
See related items:
Yokuts
Food Gathering and Preparation
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6c4371666-3fbb-45a4-9226-5b74917912c8
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_107978
Online Media:

Basket bowl

Culture/People:
probably Yokuts (attributed)  Search this
Previous owner:
Indian Exhibits Company, Inc.  Search this
Object Name:
Basket bowl
Media/Materials:
Grass, sedge root, redbud
Techniques:
Coiled
Object Type:
Containers and Vessels
Place:
Central California; California; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
10/8132
Barcode:
108132.000
See related items:
Yokuts
Containers and Vessels
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws66ee24cf3-4b0e-42cc-aa3e-026d9508e095
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_116701
Online Media:

Basket bowl

Culture/People:
Yokuts  Search this
Previous owner:
Jay Noble Emley, Non-Indian, 1871-1939  Search this
Donor:
Jay Noble Emley, Non-Indian, 1871-1939  Search this
Object Name:
Basket bowl
Media/Materials:
Grass, sedge root, redbud
Techniques:
Coiled
Object Type:
Containers and Vessels
Place:
Central California; California; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
18/2228
Barcode:
182228.000
See related items:
Yokuts
Containers and Vessels
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws64404b1ff-95b1-4c59-a3a3-d12ae9fdfacd
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_194874
Online Media:

Basket bowl

Culture/People:
Yokuts  Search this
Previous owner:
Jay Noble Emley, Non-Indian, 1871-1939  Search this
Donor:
Jay Noble Emley, Non-Indian, 1871-1939  Search this
Object Name:
Basket bowl
Media/Materials:
Grass, sedge root, redbud
Techniques:
Coiled
Object Type:
Containers and Vessels
Place:
Central California; California; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
18/2238
Barcode:
182238.000
See related items:
Yokuts
Containers and Vessels
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6d20fcac7-05ed-4153-bbd2-5b9be06de1c5
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_194884
Online Media:

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