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Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection

Creator:
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Names:
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
United States. Department of the Interior  Search this
Extent:
3,710 Photographic prints (29 photograph albums)
3 Linear feet
1430 Negatives (photographic) (acetate)
325 Lantern slides (colored)
Culture:
Oklahoma Cherokee  Search this
Oklahoma Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Osage  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Sioux [Crow Creek]  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Oklahoma Seminole  Search this
Quapaw  Search this
Miami [Oklahoma]  Search this
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Oto  Search this
Sioux [Crow Creek]  Search this
Chickasaw  Search this
Modoc  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Kaw (Kansa)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Cahuilla  Search this
Chemehuevi  Search this
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Isleta Pueblo  Search this
K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo)  Search this
Kumeyaay (Diegueño)  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Payómkawichum (Luiseño)  Search this
Mescalero Apache  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo)  Search this
Picuris Pueblo  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Puye Pueblo  Search this
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
San Carlos Apache  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Minnesota Chippewa  Search this
Lake Superior Chippewa  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Menominee (Menomini)  Search this
Pechanga Band Luiseño  Search this
Rincon Band Luiseño  Search this
Santa Ysabel (Santa Isabela) Diegueño  Search this
Pala Band Luiseño (Agua Caliente)  Search this
Yuit (Siberian Yup'ik)  Search this
Inupiaq (Alaskan Inupiat Eskimo)  Search this
Bering Strait Inupiaq  Search this
Alutiiq (Pacific Eskimo)  Search this
Tlingit  Search this
Eastern Band of Cherokee  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Wahpetonwan Dakota (Wahpeton Sioux)  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Negatives (photographic)
Lantern slides
Photographs
Photograph albums
Place:
Utah
Alaska
Oklahoma
Washington
Florida
Montana
Arizona
Arkansas
Missouri
North Carolina
Minnesota
New Mexico
California
Date:
1880-1928
bulk 1899-1909
Summary:
The Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection includes photographic negatives, photo albums, lantern slides, journals, scrapbooks and other documents created and compiled by the Churchills over the course of Frank's career as a special agent and Indian Inspector for the Department of the Interior between 1899 and 1909. Initially assigned as a revenue collector to the Cherokee Nation and later as an Indian Inspector reviewing boarding schools, Frank's assignments took him all over the United States including Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), Missouri, Texas, Nebraska, Kansas, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, California, Florida, North Carolina and Alaska. During this time the Churchills visited over 80 different Native communities shooting photographs and taking notes.
Scope and Contents:
The Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection includes 1430 photographic negatives, 29 photo albums containing 3710 photographic prints, 325 lantern slides, and 3 linear feet of journals, scrapbooks, and other documents created and compiled by the Churchills over the course of Frank's career as a special agent and Indian Inspector for the Department of the Interior between 1899 and 1909.

Series 1: Photographs in Indian Territory (Oklahoma): Muskogee, Tahlequah, Sulphur Springs and Other Assignments, 1899-1903, includes 11 photo albums and 357 negatives from Frank Churchill's original assignment as revenue collector to the Cherokee Nation. Locations include Indian Territory (Oklahoma) [bulk], Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, South Dakota, Arkansas, and Missouri. The Native communities visited and photographed in this series include— Oklahoma Cherokee, Oklahoma Muskogee (Creek), Quapaw, Osage, Miami, Wyandotte [Oklahoma], Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne), Winnebago [Nebraska], Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma], Ponca, Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee), Oto, Sioux [Crow Creek], Kaw (Kansa), Chickasaw, Modoc, Kiowa, Choctaw.

Series 2: Photographs in the Southwest and Midwest: Arizona, New Mexico, Califonia, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 1903-1907, includes 9 photo albums and 832 negatives from Frank Churchill's assignment as an Indian Inspector. Because the Churchills visited some of the same locations on multiple occasions, it has been hard to date some of the negatives. For that reason, all the negatives made in the Southwest have been included in this series, though there are two photo albums with Southwest photographs included in Series 4. Locations in this series includes Arizona, New Mexico, California, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The Native Communities visited and photographed in this series include—A:shiwi (Zuni), Diné (Navajo), Acoma Pueblo, Akimel O'odham (Pima), Cahuilla, Chemehuevi, Cochiti Pueblo, Hopi Pueblo, Isleta Pueblo, K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo), Kumeyaay (Diegueño), Laguna Pueblo, Luiseño (Luiseno), Mescalero Apache, Mojave (Mohave), Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo), Picuris Pueblo, Piipaash (Maricopa), Puye Pueblo, Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), San Carlos Apache, Taos Pueblo, Tohono O'odham (Papago).

Series 3: Photographs in Alaska and Oregon, 1905-1910 (bulk 1905), includes four photograph albums and 71 negatives from Frank Churchill's appointment as special agent, by President Roosevelt, to investigate the condition of the school & reindeer service and other affairs in Alaska in the summer and fall of 1905. Two of the albums were not made by the Churchills. The first of these (Box 20) includes photographs by William Hamilton and the second (Box 21) includes photographs by W. T. Lopp. Locations in Alaska include St. Lawrence Island, Nuwukmiut/Point Barrow, Teller, Diomedes Islands, Nome, Kotzebue, Wrangell, Port Clarence Bay, Unalaska Island and Baranof Island. There are a number of photographs aboard the U.S. Cutter "Bear" and aboard the mailboat "Georgia." Native communities photographed include—Yuit (Siberian Yup'ik), Inupiaq (Alaskan Inupiat Eskimo), Bering Strait Inupiaq [Diomedes], Alutiiq (Pacific Eskimo), Tlingit.

Series 4: Photographs in Arizona, Utah, North Carolina, Montana, North Dakota, Florida and Miscellaneous, 1907-1909, includes five photograph albums and 163 negatives from Frank Churchill's assignment at Indian Inspector. Because the Churchills visited some of the same locations in the Southwest (Arizona and Utah) on multiple occasions, it has been hard to date some of the negatives. For that reason, all the negatives made in the Southwest have been included in Series 3. Locations include Arizona, Utah, North Carolina, Montana, North Dakota and Florida. Native communities visited and photographed include-Diné (Navajo), Hopi Pueblo, Kaibab Paiute, Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), Eastern Band of Cherokee, Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan), Wahpetonwan Dakota [Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe], Turtle Mountain Chippewa, Seminole. There is restricted material in Box 23 (Album P23380).

Series 5: Non-Native Photographs: Colorado Vacation, Lebanon, New Hampshire, and other Materials, 1898-1913, includes four photograph albums from vacations and other visits made by the Churchills unrelated to Frank's activities as Indian Inspector.

Series 6: Manuscripts: Journals, Documents and Scrapbooks, 1880-1928 (bulk 1899-1909), includes three linear feet of materials arranged in three subseries. Subseries 6.1, Clara Churchill, includes 16 journals, 12 scrapbooks and various other manuscript materials written and accumulated by Clara Churchill during their travels. Many of the journals include personal writings as well as several photographs that are duplicated in the photograph albums. The journals and scrapbooks encompass the full range of the Churchills' travels and include notes from Indian Territory, Southwest, Midwest, Southeast, Plains and Alaska. Subseries 6.2, Colonel Frank C. Churchill, includes official documents around Churchill's assignments as well as the reports Frank submitted back to the Secretary of the Interior (Box 41 and 42). Subseries 6.3, Churchill Museum and Miscellaneous, includes catalogs and other notes related to the large collection of Native American objects amassed by Frank and Clara. Clara also collected other items such as shells, minerals, and sand.

Series 7: Lantern Slides for Lectures, 1899-1909, includes 325 hand colored glass lantern slides. These were made by the Churchills from existing negatives and used for lectures. Lantern slides #1-#121 include views photographed in Alaska in 1905. Sldes #122-#325 include an assortment of views from Oklahoma (Indian Territory), Nebraska, Montana, Minnesota, California, Arizona and New Mexico photographed between 1900 and 1909.
Arrangement:
The Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection has been arranged in seven series by material type and then chronologically. The first five series are then divided into subseries by "Photo Albums" and "Negatives." These include--Series 1: Photographs in Indian Territory (Oklahoma): Muskogee, Tahlequah, Sulphur Springs and Other Assignments, 1899-1903; Series 2: Photographs in the Southwest and Midwest: Arizona, New Mexico, California, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 1907-1907; Series 3: Photographs in Alaska and Oregon, 1905-1910 (bulk 1905-1905); Series 4: Photographs in Arizona, Utah, North Carolina, Montana, North Dakota, Florida and Miscellaneous, 1907-1909; Series 5: Non-Native Photographs: Colorado Vaction, Lebanon, New Hampshire, and other Materials.

Series 6: Manuscripts: Journals, Documents and Scrapbooks, 1880-1928, is arranged in three subseries. Subseries 6.1: Clara G. Churchill, Subseries 6.2: Frank C. Churchill, and Subseries 6.3: Churchill Museum and Miscellaneous. Series 7: Lantern Slides for Lectures, 1899-1909, is arranged in orginal number order from the Hood Museum at Dartmouth College.
Biographical / Historical:
Frank Carroll Churchill was born August 2, 1850 to Benjamin P. Churchill and Susanna Thompson in West Fairlee, Vermont. Frank was educated at Thetford Academy in Thetford, VT and worked as a clerk for D.C. Churchill & Co. in Lyme, NH between 1869-1870. Between 1870 and 1877, Churchill was employed by H.W. Carter as a wholesale merchant in Lebanon, New Hampshire. During this time, Churchill met Clara Corser Turner and they were married on June 11, 1874.

Clara G. (Turner) Churchill was born December 16, 1851, to Colonel Francis H. Corser and Sarah Hook (Perkins) Corser. Colonel Corser and his wife died young, and Clara was adopted by George and Abby H. Turner of Concord, New Hampshire. In 1877, in association with William S. Carter, Frank Churchill opened the business "Carter & Churchill" which was in this business for 21 years. Churchill held various political offices from 1879-91. He served as chairman of the Republican town committee of Lebanon and of the Republican State committee in 1890 and 1891. He served on the staff of Governor Natt Head in 1879 and 1880, with the rank of Colonel. He was chairman of the New Hampshire delegation at the Republican National Convention which nominated President Harrison and represented the Fourth District in the Executive Council in 1889-1890 during the administration of Governor David. H. Goodell.

In 1899 Frank was appointed revenue inspector for the Cherokee Nation in Indian Territory and was later appointed a special agent for the Interior Department to formulate a system of public schools in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) and across the Southwest. In 1905, he was appointed special agent, by President Roosevelt, to investigate the condition of the school & reindeer service and other affairs in Alaska and was reappointed Indian Inspector between 1905-1909. In 1909, Churchill resigned due to failing health and died November 5, 1912. Clara accompanied Frank on all his travels between 1899 and 1909 (see below chronology for full details) maintaining journals and writing articles for publication in "WHAT." Clara was also a painter, producing watercolors and hand-painting many of the photographs she and Frank made on their travels. Following Frank's death, Clara maintained their collection of Native artifacts and photographs in their home in Lebanon, New Hampshire. Clara died April 16, 1945, bequeathing the full collection to Dartmouth College.
Frank Churchill's assignments as Special agent and Indian Inspector from 1899-1909 took him all over the United States including Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), Missouri, Texas, Nebraska, Kansas, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, California, Florida, North Carolina and Alaska. During this time the Churchills visited over 80 different Native communities. For more details, see the chronology below.

Travels in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) and other assignments, 1899-1903

1899, June 29 -- Churchills arrive in Muskogee, Indian Territory (Oklahoma).

1899, July-October -- Visit to Fort Gibson, Tahlequah, Sallisaw, and Vinita (Indian Territory/Oklahoma). Visit to Noel and South west City, Missouri. Visit to Chelsea and Coffeyville, Kansas. Visit to Fort Smith, Arkansas.

1899, November -- Visit Tahlequah while the Cherokee Nation legislature was in session.

1899, December -- Travel in Colorado.

1900, March -- Return to Muskogee and Fort Gibson.

1900, Sept 17-Oct 5 -- Dawes Commission in Vinita.

1901, Mar-Apr 3 -- Visit to the Quapaw Agency, Wyandotte Reservation and school, Modoc reservation and the town of Miami.

1901, April -- Visit to Denison, Texas. Visit to Checotah, Eufaula, South McAlester (Choctaw nation).

1901, Summer -- Visit to Pawhuska, Osage Nation.

1901, October -- Visit to Tishomingo, seat of government of the Chickasaws.

1902, January -- Trip to the Chickasaw Nation Visit to Anadarko, Indian Agency of the Kiowa, Comanche and Apache, Fort Sill, Wichita Mountains, and Lawton.

1902, May -- Frank is dispatched to Sioux City, Iowa.

1902, May-June -- Visit to Winnebago Agency, Omaha Agency, Santee Agency.

1902, July -- Visit to St. Paul, Minnesota and Eau Claire, Wisconsin, (Chippewa Falls). Frank is sent to Sulphur Springs, Texas, to author a report.

1902, August -- Churchills return to Muskogee, IT.

1902, September-October -- Trip to White Eagle, Ponca Agency for a month. Visit to Otoe school, Pawnee School, Shawnee, Sac and Fox reservations.

1902, November-December -- Visit to Crow Creek Agency.

1903, January -- Return to Sulpher Springs, Texas.

1903, March -- Visit to Pawhuska, Osage Nation.

1903, April -- Visit to Colorado.

1903, May-October -- Visit to 23 towns in Oklahoma (IT) with the Secretary of the Interior.

Travels in New Mexico, Arizona and California, 1903-1905

1903, November -- Frank receives orders to proceed to Zuni Pueblo, New Mexico.

1903, December 9 -- Visit to Zuni, followed by Canyon de Chelly, Hubbell's Ranch, Keams Canyon.

1903, December 21 -- Visit to Hopi Pueblo. Walpi, Polacca Day School, Oraibi, Shumopavi (Shungopavi/Songoopavi), Shipaulovi (Supawlavi) and Mishongnovi (Musungnuvi).

1903, December 28 -- Visit to Fort Defiance.

1904, January -- Travel in New Mexico. Visit to Gallup, Laguna Pueblo, Acomita, Paraje, Acoma, Albuquerque, Isleta Pueblo, Santa Fe, Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo), K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo).

1904, February -- Visit to Sacaton, Akimel O'odham (Pima) Reservation and Casa Grande ruins in Arizona.

1904, March -- Visit to Lehi Day School, Salt River Day School, Phoenix Indian School, Gila River Crossing Day School and Maricopa Day School, Arizona.

1904, March 10-26 -- Visit to Fort Mojave and Chemehuevi.

1904, March 30-April -- Visit to Riverside, California, Sherman Institute and Perris School. Side trip to Yuma, Arizona.

1905, January-February -- Visit to Sulphur, IT.

1905, March -- Visit to Mescalero Apache Agency, San Carlos Apache Agency, Geronimo Settlement, Rice Station School at Talkalai.

1905, April 10-20 -- Return to Sherman Institute in Riverside, California. Visit to San Jacinto, Perris, Saboba, Cahuilla, San Manuella (Band of Mission Indians), Coachella, Torres Reservation, Martinez Reservation Day School, Cabazon Reservation, Protrero Reservation and Day School.

1905, April 22-May -- Visit to Temecula, Pechanga Day School, Pala Mission, Campo Reservation, Mission of San Luis Rey, Rincon Day School, Mesa Grande School, Santa Ysabel (Diegueno), Volcan Mountain Day School.

Travels in Alaska, 1905

1905, June -- Frank receives an assignment in Alaska.

1905, July -- Board the U.S. Revenue Cutter "Bear" in Nome. Visit to Reindeer Station in Teller, Cape Prince of Wales, Kotzebue Sound, Cape Thompson, Point Hope and Point Barrow.

1905, August -- Visit to Wainwright Inlet, return to Nome. Visit to Anvil Creek, Gologin (Golovin) Bay, St. Lawrence Island, Pribilof Islands (Seal Islands), St. George, Dutch Harbor and Unalaska.

1905, September -- Board the "Dora" anchored near Belkofski, Cold Bay, Karluk, Afgonak, and Kodiak. Stop in Homer, Seldovia and Seward. Visit to Sitka.

1905, September 28 -- Board the steamer "Georgia" to Juneau and Skagway via Hoonah.

1905, October -- Return to Lebanon, NH.

Travels in Arizona, New Mexico, Minnesota, Wisconsin, California and Utah, 1906-1907

1906, March-April -- Re-assigned to Southwest and arrive in Tucson, Arizona. Visit to San Xavier Mission, Tohono O'odham (Papago) reservation, Casa Grande, Sacaton, Maricopa, Gila Crossing, Salt River and Phoenix schools.

1906, May -- Return to New Mexico to visit Gallup and Zuni Day School.

1906, June -- Visit to St, Paul, Minnesota and the White Earth (Ojibwe) reservation and Wild Rice River School in Boliere.

1906, July -- Visit to Ashland, Wisconsin, Lac Courte Oreilles, Hayward, and Lac de Flambeau (La Pointe Agency.

1906, July-September -- Return to Lebanon, New Hampshire.

1906, September -- Visit to Fond du Lac (Winnebago Lake), Wabeno, and Carter, Wisconsin.

1906, October -- Visit to Phlox, Wausau, Minocqua, Star Lake, Bark River and Wausaukee, Wisconsin.

1906, November-December -- Visit to Keshena (Green Bay Indian School), Menominee Reservation and Ashland, Wisconsin.

1906, December-January -- Stay in Washington, DC.

1907, February -- Return to Albuquerque, New Mexico.

1907, March -- Visit to Santa Fe and various Pueblos (Cochiti, Tesuque, San Ildefonso, Ohkay Owingeh [San Juan], Toas and Picuris).

1907, April -- Return to Albuquerque, visit to Pueblos (Isleta, Laguna, Mesita, Acomita, Paraje, Acoma, Seama).

1907, April -- Visit to Phoenix, Arizona (Phoenix Indian School), Fort McDowell and Salt River Day School.

1907, May -- Visit to Sacaton, Maricopa, Casa Grande, and Yuma, Arizona.

1907, June -- Visit to Riverside (Sherman Institute), and Pomona, California.

1907, June-July -- Travel to Salt Lake City, Utah. Visit Panguitch, Orton, Kanab, Escalante and Marysvale, Utah.

1907, July-August -- Return to Arizona. Visit Flagstaff, Tuba Indian School, as well as Hopi Pueblo (Walpi, Moencopi, and Oraibi).

1907, September-October -- Return to Lebanon, NH.

Travels in North Carolina, Montana and Florida, 1907-1909

1907, October 22 -- Assigned to Cherokee, North Carolina, to make a new roll of the Eastern Band of Cherokee.

1907, November -- Arrive in Cherokee, North Caolina.

1908, February -- Visit to Robbinsville and Big Cove

1908, April -- Cherokee council meeting regarding Churchill's new roll.

1908, May -- Completes assignment in North Carolina.

1908, June-September -- Return to Washington, DC and Lebanon, New Hampshire.

1908, September-October -- Trip to Montana. Visit to Browning, Blackfeet Reservation, Harlem, Fort Belknap and Fort Peck.

1908, November -- Visit to Spirit Lake (Devil's Lake) and Wahpeton, and Fort Totten, North Dakota.

1908, December -- Visit to Morris, Minnesota.

1909, January -- Trip to Washington, DC for the inauguration of President Taft.

1909, February -- Visit to Carlisle, Pennsylvania.

1909, March-April -- Trip to Florida. Visit to Miami, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Gainesville, and St. Augustine.

1909, May -- Visit to Soco Creek and Cherokee, North Carolina.

1909, July -- Return to Lebanon, New Hampshire.

1909, August -- Resignation as Indian Inspector.
Related Materials:
A large collection of Native American cultural objects and archaeology bequeathed by Clara Churchill can still be found at the Hood Museum at Dartmouth College.
Provenance:
Frederick Dockstader, former director of the Museum of the American Indian (MAI), Heye Foundation, illegally removed the majority of the photographs (photo albums, negatives) and manuscript material (journals, reports) from the Hood Museum of Art at Dartmouth College in 1955, before depositing them at the MAI. Those materials were officially gifted to NMAI in 2018 by the Hood Museum. Additional materials from the Churchill collection that remained at the Hood Museum (lantern slides, photographs, scrapbooks, journals) were donated in 2020. These materials have been noted in the finding aid.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Boarding schools  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Photographic prints
Photograph albums
Negatives (photographic)
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection, NMAI.AC.058, National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.058
See more items in:
Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv45e31a2d8-afd7-4320-96c7-1f596f51c142
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-058
Online Media:

Photographs in Indian Territory (Oklahoma): Muskogee, Tahlequah, Sulphur Springs and Other Assignments

Collection Creator:
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Extent:
11 Photograph albums
357 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Oklahoma Cherokee  Search this
Oklahoma Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Oklahoma Seminole  Search this
Quapaw  Search this
Osage  Search this
Miami [Oklahoma]  Search this
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Oto  Search this
Sioux [Crow Creek]  Search this
Chickasaw  Search this
Modoc  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Kaw (Kansa)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
1899-1903
Scope and Contents:
Between 1899 and 1903 Frank Churchill was assigned to various locations in what was then called Indian Territory. Starting in June 1899, Churchill was appointed by President McKinley as Revenue Inspector to the Cherokee Nation. Under President Roosevelt, he was appointed as a Special Agent to plan a system of taxation for public schools in Indian Territory. Though based in Muskogee for a majority of their time in Indian Territory, the Churchills traveled quite a bit and the photographs reflect many of the different locations and tribal communities they visited. The negatives have been organized (where possible) chronologically. The albums, most likely put together at a later date by Mrs. Churchill, are not in any particular order although they tend to have date ranges.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection, NMAI.AC.058, National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.058, Series 1
See more items in:
Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4c842f557-a16b-4450-b216-39d7df2dfb4e
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-058-ref13

Pawhuska (Osage), Wyandotte, Quapaw and other Views in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) and Nebraska

Collection Creator:
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Extent:
126 Photographic prints
Container:
Box 6
Culture:
Quapaw  Search this
Osage  Search this
Oklahoma Cherokee  Search this
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Miami  Search this
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Date:
1899-1902
bulk 1901-1901
Scope and Contents:
This album contains 126 photographic prints taken by Frank Churchill from 1899 to 1902 and later compiled by Clara Churchill. The majority of the photographs were taken in Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) and Nebraska in 1901-1902 at Various Indian agencies and reservations including—Quapaw, Wyandotte, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Osage, Miami, Cherokee, Winnebago and Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne). The photographs are not arranged in chronological order (see the chronology for a timeline).

The largest number of photographs in this album are from Pawhuska on the Osage reservation in June 1901 around quarterly payments (see also Album 7, P23374). These images include—Osage men, women and children; White Hair and his son with interpreter; Saucy Chief; Mrs. Churchill with a baby on a cradleboard; tents and camp scenes. Other photographs of note include—Wyandotte students at the Seneca Training School; Cherokee Seminaries near Tahlequah; Choctaw Council house; Chief Pleasant Porter (Muskogee Creek); Omaha graves [RESTRICTED]; and photographs of Frank and Clara Churchill. Additional views include—Arkansas River, M.K.T. railroad, Verdigris River, Spring River, Grand River and Neosha River.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection, NMAI.AC.058, National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.058, File P23358
See more items in:
Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection
Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection / Series 1: Photographs in Indian Territory (Oklahoma): Muskogee, Tahlequah, Sulphur Springs and Other Assignments / 1.1: Photograph Albums
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv492a6681b-e92f-456b-a3ed-499e06c16c3f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-058-ref27

Pawhuska (Osage), Wyandotte, Quapaw, Sulphur Springs and Other Views in Indian Territory (Oklahoma)

Collection Creator:
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Extent:
1 Photograph album
150 Photographic prints
Container:
Box 7
Culture:
Osage  Search this
Quapaw  Search this
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photograph albums
Photographic prints
Date:
1901-1903
Scope and Contents:
This album contains 105 photographic prints taken by Frank Churchill from 1901to 1903 and later compiled by Clara Churchill. The majority of the photographs were taken in Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) in 1901 at the Osage, Wyandotte and Quapaw agencies and in 1902-1903 in Sulpher Springs, Platt National Park. The photographs are not arranged in chronological order (see the chronology for a timeline). The largest number of photographs in this album are from Pawhuska on the Osage reservation in June 1901 around quarterly payments (see also Album 6, P23358). These images include—Osage agency buildings, camp grounds, and street shots during quarterly payments. Other photographs of note include—Wyandotte students at the Seneca Training school and views at the Quapaw Agency. Additional views include—Spring River, Lost Creek, Grand Creek, Neosha River, Peoria and Baxter Springs (KS).
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection, NMAI.AC.058, National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.058, File P23374
See more items in:
Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection
Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection / Series 1: Photographs in Indian Territory (Oklahoma): Muskogee, Tahlequah, Sulphur Springs and Other Assignments / 1.1: Photograph Albums
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv44cbc929a-c5c3-4026-8063-e7ee78476697
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-058-ref29

Oral history interview with Richard Zane Smith, 2010 August 26

Interviewee:
Smith, Richard Zane, 1955-  Search this
Interviewer:
Sioui, Linda, 1960-  Search this
Subject:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Citation:
Quotes and excerpts must be cited as follows: Oral history interview with Richard Zane Smith, 2010 August 26. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Potters -- Interviews  Search this
Theme:
Native American  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)15914
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)296901
AAA_collcode_smithr10
Theme:
Native American
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_296901
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Richard Zane Smith

Interviewee:
Smith, Richard Zane, 1955-  Search this
Interviewer:
Sioui, Linda, 1960-  Search this
Creator:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Names:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Extent:
59 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
2010 August 26
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Richard Zane Smith conducted 2010 August 26, by Linda Sioui, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, at Smith's home, in Wyandotte, Oklahoma.
Biographical / Historical:
Richard Zane Smith (1955-) is an artist and craftsman in Wyandotte, Oklahoma. Linda Sioui (1960-) is an anthropologist in Wendake, Quebec, Canada.
General:
Originally recorded on 2 memory cards. Reformatted in 2010 as 4 digital sound files. Duration is 3 hr., 2 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Topic:
Potters -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.smithr10
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw98cfb265c-95b7-4a1a-a207-ce4d655c1432
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-smithr10
Online Media:

Bandolier/Shoulder sash part/fragment

Culture/People:
Wendat (Huron); collected from the Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Collector:
Mark Raymond Harrington (M. R. Harrington/MRH), Non-Indian, 1882-1971  Search this
Object Name:
Bandolier/Shoulder sash part/fragment
Media/Materials:
Hide, glass bead/beads, porcupine quills, hide thong/babiche
Techniques:
Quill-netted, quill-wrapped (flat), loom beadwork
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Accessories
Place:
Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
2/8776
Barcode:
028776.000
See related items:
Wendat (Huron)
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]
Clothing/Garments: Accessories
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6e2c1893d-65b7-4e04-93ff-76e7fc26129b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_30800
Online Media:

Handbag/Purse

Culture/People:
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Collector:
Chief William M. Skye (Bill Skye), Peoria, 1868-1923  Search this
Mark Raymond Harrington (M. R. Harrington/MRH), Non-Indian, 1882-1971  Search this
Object Name:
Handbag/Purse
Media/Materials:
Cotton cloth, silk cloth, glass bead/beads
Techniques:
Overlay beadwork, sewn
Object Type:
Bags/Pouches (and parts)
Place:
Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
3/3700
Barcode:
033700.000
See related items:
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]
Bags/Pouches (and parts)
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws64114495e-3652-4140-adf7-06e18ab504c9
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_36108
Online Media:

Bow

Culture/People:
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Possible collector:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Previous owner:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Seller:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Object Name:
Bow
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare
Place:
Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
10/2746
Barcode:
102746.000
See related items:
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws60f46af89-2abb-4828-a9e6-23fbc06f8ad5
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_111070
Online Media:

Arrow

Culture/People:
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Possible collector:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Previous owner:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Seller:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Object Name:
Arrow
Media/Materials:
Wood, feather/feathers
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare
Place:
Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
10/2764
Barcode:
102764.000
See related items:
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6139030e4-dba0-4d8d-88dd-5d0d3fd4b460
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_111090
Online Media:

Bowl/Dish

Culture/People:
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Previous owner:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Seller:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Object Name:
Bowl/Dish
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Containers and Vessels
Place:
Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
16/9097
Barcode:
169097.000
See related items:
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]
Containers and Vessels
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6be7ccd49-0c8b-4138-b9e3-1b10bda362de
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_180823
Online Media:

Male doll

Culture/People:
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Previous owner:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Seller:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Object Name:
Male doll
Media/Materials:
Cotton cloth, hide, silk ribbon, glass bead/beads, feather/feathers, unknown stuffing
Techniques:
Sewn, edge beaded, appliquéd, fringed, stuffed, tied
Dimensions:
39.6 x 21.5 x 4.5 cm
Object Type:
Games, Toys, Gambling: Dolls
Place:
Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
16/9309
Barcode:
169309.000
See related items:
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]
Games, Toys, Gambling: Dolls
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6c572fb1b-dfd9-410e-965c-9fbf510dc209
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_181436
Online Media:

Female doll

Culture/People:
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Previous owner:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Seller:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Object Name:
Female doll
Media/Materials:
Cotton cloth, hide, glass bead/beads, wool yarn, graphite, unknown stuffing
Techniques:
Sewn, edge beaded, strung, stuffed, drawn
Dimensions:
39 x 15 x 6 cm
Object Type:
Games, Toys, Gambling: Dolls
Place:
Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
16/9310
Barcode:
169310.000
See related items:
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]
Games, Toys, Gambling: Dolls
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6b83037f7-1395-4e0d-ba5b-21223bbedf5c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_181437
Online Media:

Brooch

Culture/People:
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Seller:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Previous owner:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Object Name:
Brooch
Media/Materials:
Silver
Techniques:
Hammered, cutout, stamped
Object Type:
Adornment/Jewelry
Place:
Oklahoma; USA
Date created:
1880-1920
Catalog Number:
16/9311
Barcode:
169311.000
See related items:
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]
Adornment/Jewelry
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6a23f54fb-369d-491e-9eeb-ab301a9bc6a5
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_181438
Online Media:

Brooch

Culture/People:
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Seller:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Previous owner:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Object Name:
Brooch
Media/Materials:
Silver
Techniques:
Hammered, cutout, stamped
Object Type:
Adornment/Jewelry
Place:
Oklahoma; USA
Date created:
1880-1920
Catalog Number:
16/9312
Barcode:
169312.000
See related items:
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]
Adornment/Jewelry
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws638bbeb49-d8b6-4fc4-a9e8-f779a20ba473
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_181439
Online Media:

Awl

Culture/People:
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Previous owner:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Seller:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Object Name:
Awl
Media/Materials:
Animal bone, iron point
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Tools and Equipment (General)
Place:
Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
16/9313
Barcode:
169313.000
See related items:
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]
Tools and Equipment (General)
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws69b11b701-5e0e-4610-9fc1-46aa5b627adc
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_181440
Online Media:

Pipe tomahawk

Culture/People:
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Previous owner:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Seller:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Object Name:
Pipe tomahawk
Media/Materials:
Metal head, wood
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Personal items
Place:
Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
16/9314
Barcode:
169314.000
See related items:
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]
Personal items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws62e3220e8-e4e6-4ba0-9907-7e525dd020dc
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_181441
Online Media:

Woman's robe

Culture/People:
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Previous owner:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Seller:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Object Name:
Woman's robe
Media/Materials:
Wool cloth, silk ribbon
Techniques:
Sewn, ribbonwork appliqué
Dimensions:
132.00 x 191.50 cm
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Outerwear (flat)
Place:
Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
16/9315
Barcode:
169315.000
See related items:
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]
Clothing/Garments: Outerwear (flat)
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6cd37bb49-4cbd-4ddb-aff2-aa58fbf73e1b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_181442
Online Media:

Spoon

Culture/People:
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Previous owner:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Seller:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Object Name:
Spoon
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Food/Beverage Serving
Place:
Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
16/9504
Barcode:
169504.000
See related items:
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]
Food/Beverage Serving
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws638c3f715-8aee-4901-9061-473fa7972e17
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_181604
Online Media:

Moccasin part/fragment (No image available)

Culture/People:
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Previous owner:
Mrs. Andrew Dushane, Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Collector:
Mark Raymond Harrington (M. R. Harrington/MRH), Non-Indian, 1882-1971  Search this
Object Name:
Moccasin part/fragment (No image available)
Media/Materials:
Wool cloth, glass bead/beads
Techniques:
Sewn
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Footwear
Native Term:
a' ca' ra
Place:
Quapaw Agency; Ottawa County; Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
1/9847
Barcode:
019847.000
See related items:
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]
Clothing/Garments: Footwear
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws66b8e3ca6-f4bf-48f8-a651-e01ad8b503b8
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_20770

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