Skip to main content Smithsonian Institution

Search Results

Collections Search Center
222 documents - page 1 of 12

Photograph of Sgt. Henry James Lomax

Photograph by:
Unidentified  Search this
Subject of:
Henry James Lomax, American, 1917 - 1978  Search this
United States Army Air Force, American, 1941 - 1947  Search this
Owned by:
Louise Virginia Lomax, American, 1920 - 2011  Search this
Medium:
silver and photographic gelatin on photographic paper with tinting
Dimensions:
H x W x D (image): 6 3/8 × 4 7/8 in. (16.2 × 12.4 cm)
H x W (sheet): 6 13/16 × 4 7/8 in. (17.3 × 12.4 cm)
Type:
photographs
portraits
Date:
ca. 1945
Topic:
African American  Search this
Military  Search this
Photography  Search this
U.S. History, 1945-1953  Search this
World War II  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Pia Marie Winters Jordan in memory of her mother, First Lieutenant Louise Virginia Lomax Winters, Army Nurse Corps; and her uncle, Sgt. Henry James Lomax, U.S. Army
Object number:
2022.42.5
Restrictions & Rights:
Unknown - Restrictions Possible
Rights assessment and proper usage is the responsibility of the user.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Media Arts-Photography
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd52435d25b-05a2-41a5-a61b-7e5291fb1df9
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2022.42.5
Online Media:

World War Two Bomb Damage Photographs

Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet (1 box )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Negatives
Photographs
Place:
Manila (Philippines)
Nagasaki (Japan)
Date:
circa 1945
Summary:
Collection documents the destroyed city of Nagasaki, Japan and bombing in Manila, Philippines, 1945.
Content Description:
Collection contains lantern slides, negatives and print photography of the destroyed city of Nagasaki, Japan and bombing in Manila, Philippines. Images depict street scenes, destroyed buildings and people injured or killed.
Arrangement:
Collection is unarranged.
Provenance:
Collection donated byProgressive Architecture, through managing editor, Rita R. Robinson, 1973.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Atomic bomb  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Lantern slides -- 1900-1950
Negatives
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 20th century
Citation:
World War Two Bomb Damage Photographs, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1535
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep88cc16244-2688-4887-8a5a-621fddd7e46d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1535

Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Collection

Creator:
Davis, Benjamin O., Jr., 1912-  Search this
Names:
Air University (U.S.). Air War College  Search this
United States Military Academy  Search this
United States. Army Air Forces. 332nd Fighter Group  Search this
United States. Army Air Forces. 477th Bombardment Group  Search this
United States. Army Air Forces. 99th Fighter Squadron  Search this
Davis, Benjamin O., Jr., 1912-  Search this
Nixon, Richard M. (Richard Milhous), 1913-1994  Search this
Extent:
75.03 Cubic feet (168 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Publications
Correspondence
Programs
Place:
Tuskegee Army Air Field (Ala.)
Date:
1928-1990
Summary:
This collection consists of 72 linear feet of the papers of Benjamin O. Davis. Included are the following types of material: programs, invitations, certificates, correspondence, published material, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of material gathered by General and Mrs. Davis over the course of their lives to 1993. The bulk of this collection consists of correspondence, newsclippings, and photographs relating to or received by the Davises, especially after General Davis retired from the Air Force. The collection is particularly rich in materials from the black press of the 1940s, documenting the response of the black community to the activities of the 99th Fighter Squadron and 332d Fighter Group during and after World War II, and contains a small amount of material related to the controversy surrounding the units' combat performance and the morale issues raised by the segregated society of the 1940s. Most of the remainder of the material from Davis' military career centers on his own activities. Davis' tenure as the Director of Public Safety in Cleveland coincides with the activities of the Black Panther movement and the term of Mayor Carl Stokes, Cleveland's first mayor of African descent; the newclippings and correspondence from this period highlight police activities and public reaction in this racially-polarized atmosphere. Much of the material from Davis' early tenure at the Department of Transportation deals with civil aviation security, initially to counter the hijacking wave of the early 1970s and later to reduce cargo theft. The material from his later years, particularly during his years as a consultant, deals primarily with attempts to reduce gasoline consumption, especially his work promoting the 55mph National Maximum Speed Limit. The largest blocks of material from Davis' private life relate to his tenure on the President's Commission on Campus Unrest (1970) and the President's Commission on Military Compensation (1977-1978); these contain, respectively, materials on student protests, including the shootings at Kent State, and on issues surrounding military pay and retirement. There is also a significant body of material relating to his association with Tuskegee Airmen, Inc. and his speaking tours to increase public knowledge of the role of black servicemen during World War II.

Materials of a personal nature, particularly correspondence between General and Mrs. Davis, were retained by the Davises and therefore do not figure in this collection. Most official documents relating to Davis' activities in the military or civil service are held by the United States National Archives and Records Administration in Record Groups 18 (Records of the Army Air Forces), 341 (Records of Headquarters United States Air Force (Air Staff)), 342 (Records of United States Air Force Commands, Activities, and Organizations), and 398 (General Records of the Department of Transportation). Official materials remaining in the collection are primarily contemporary copies given to Mrs. Davis relating to General Davis' travel or public appearances.

Some of the early material (through approximately 1948) was organized by Mrs. Davis into a series of scrapbooks, each of which contains photographs, correspondence, and newsclippings. The rest of the items in the collection were organized into envelopes by the Davises before donation, with the material generally arranged by posting (duty station) and chronology. The items in any given envelope were generally not organized and neither were the envelopes themselves grouped in any particular manner. Additionally, some military records gathered by General Davis as reference material while writing his autobiography were identified by the period of his posting, although the material itself was generally created after that period. Items relating primarily to Mrs. Davis were not separated by the Davises in any manner; during processing such material was treated in a like manner, remaining interfiled with material relating primarily to General Davis, except as noted below.

The collection as a whole has been organized into four chronological groups: Civilian and Family Life (predating Davis' admission to the US Military Academy at West Point, NY), Military Service, Private Life (post-dating Davis' retirement from the USAF), and Autobiography. The second of these (Military Service) has been organized chronologically by posting, then alphabetically by subject; the remaining groups have been organized alphabetically by broad subject areas, then chronologically.

A number of broad subject areas recur in both the civilian and military sections of this collection. In cases where such broad areas can be applied individually to Davis, Mrs. Davis, or Davis Sr., they have been grouped in that order. The subject areas are as follows:

Awards and Honors -- materials relating to medals, citations, or other awards or honors given to Davis (or other members of his family)

Newclippings -- clippings from newspapers or magazines, or complete newspapers or magazines, except when such clippings were enclosures which had remained with their associated cover letter

Official Duties -- materials relating to Davis' activities connected to his official duties (used in Series II only)

Social -- materials relating to the Davises' activities which are not obviously connected to his official duties

Travel -- materials relating to trips by the Davises which do not appear to be duty-related trips

Other subject areas are generally self-explanatory.

The collection contained two videotapes, one relating to the 50th Anniversary of the Tuskegee Airmen and the other to the 1992 Clinton Campaign, both of which have been transferred to the NASM Film Archives. Cross references to these tapes have been placed in the finding aid in the series or subseries into which they would have fallen had they been documents. A large number of three-dimensional items, particularly plaques, have been transferred to curatorial control. For access to these items, please contact the NASM Aeronautics Department. Oversized items remaining in the collection have been placed in appropriate-sized containers at the end of the document collection; reference to such items occurs in the file lists as "see oversized..." or "see also oversized..." as appropriate.

Researchers should also consult Davis' autobiography, Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., American: An Autobiography (Washington, DC: Smithsonian, 1991).
Arrangement:
Series 1: Education and Civilian Life, to June 1932

Series 2: Military Career, June 1932 to January 1970

Series 3: Civilian Life, February 1970 to 1993

Series 4: Autobiography
Biographical / Historical:
Benjamin Oliver Davis, Jr. was born in Washington, DC on December 18, 1912, the second of three children born to Benjamin Oliver (Sr.) and Elnora Dickerson Davis. At that time Davis Sr.(1) was a First Lieutenant in the United States Army, having worked his way up from an enlisted cavalry trooper. Elnora Davis died from complications after giving birth to their third child (Elnora) in 1916 and three years later Davis Sr. married Sadie Overton, an English professor at Wilberforce University. Davis and his sisters lived with relatives in Washington while Davis Sr. completed his tour of duty in the Philippines with his new bride. The family was reunited in Tuskegee, AL when Davis Sr. taught military science and tactics at the Tuskegee Institute between 1920 and 1924. In 1924 Davis Sr. was assigned as an instructor to a federalized Ohio National Guard unit and the family moved to Cleveland, OH.

Davis finished his schooling in Cleveland, graduating from Central High School in 1929. He then attended Western Reserve University (1929-1930) and the University of Chicago (1930-1932) before gaining admission to the United States Military Academy at West Point, NY. He graduated in the Class of 1936 and was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the Infantry.(2) Upon graduation, he married Ms. Agatha Scott, whom he had met and dated while at the Academy.

After serving in the infantry for several years Davis was posted to the newly-established Tuskegee Army Air Field, AL for pilot training in 1942. He graduated in the first class from the new flying school and was officially transferred to the Army Air Corps. In August 1942 he assumed command of the 99th Fighter Squadron, leading it in combat in North Africa and Sicily. The 99th Fighter Squadron was the first unit of "Tuskegee Airmen," as black(3) units in the segregated Army Air Forces (AAF) have come to be called. Two units of Tuskegee Airmen saw combat during World War II: the 99th Fighter Squadron and the 332d Fighter Group (composed of the 100th, 301st, and 302d Fighter Squadrons). Davis, promoted to Colonel in 1944, commanded both of these units in turn, leading the 99th and 332d in combat in Europe and earning the Air Medal, Distinguished Flying Cross, Legion of Merit, and Silver Star for his own actions and a Distinguished Unit Citation for the 332d Fighter Group.

Davis returned to the United States in June 1945 to assume command of the 477th Bombardment Group (composed of the 616th, 617th, 618th, and 619th Bombardment Squadrons; later redesignated the 477th Composite Group), another segregated black unit, at Godman Field, KY. Davis was expected to prepare the unit for deployment to the Pacific Theater, although the unit's training was badly behind schedule due to racial tensions between the white staff and black operating personnel of the unit. Davis quickly brought the unit up to deployment requirements, but the war ended before the 477th left the United States. Returning elements of the 332d and 99th were merged into the 477th, which was redesignated the 332d Fighter Wing in 1947. As the only remaining black unit in the newly-established, but still segregated, United States Air Force (USAF), the 332d suffered from a surplus of qualified personnel while remaining USAF units were often under manned. The performance of the units under Davis' command had laid to rest questions regarding the abilities of the "negro race" and in 1948 the Air Force determined that the efficient use of its manpower required the integration of its units. As a result the Air Force rapidly complied with President Truman's order for the integration of the United States military. Davis acted as an advisor to the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force in relation to the integration of the armed forces. The integration procedure, however, resulted in the deactivation of Davis' command as its personnel were dispersed among the rest of the Air Force; Davis himself was assigned to attend classes at the Air War College at Maxwell AFB, AL.

After completing the course of study at the Air War College (1949-1950), Davis was posted to a variety of command and staff positions both within the United States and abroad. He served in a number of staff positions in Headquarters, USAF, at the Pentagon.(4) He held both command and staff positions abroad in Korea (5), Japan (6), Taiwan (7), Germany (8), and the Philippines.(9) His final assignment was as Deputy Commander in Chief of United States Strike Command at MacDill AFB, FL.

Davis was promoted to Brigadier General in October 1954 (10), after ten years as a Colonel. He was promoted to Major General in June 1959 and to Lieutenant General in April 1965. Despite persistent rumors of his impending promotion to full General (four stars), no such promotion was pending by the time of his retirement on January 31, 1970.

Throughout his military career Davis took great pains to insure good living conditions and fair treatment for the men under his command. He strove to create good relations between the US military forces and local military and civil authorities. In particular, he negotiated several Status of Forces Agreements and defused several antagonistic situations between US forces and local authorities while commanding units in Asia. In addition, he and Agatha established many personal relationships, which they maintained after their return to the United States.

After his retirement from the military, he served briefly as the Director of Public Safety for the City of Cleveland, OH (February-July 1970), leading the Cleveland Police and Fire Departments in the racially-polarized atmosphere in that city after the riots of the late 1960s. Following his resignation from Cleveland, he took a position as the Director of Civil Aviation Security for the United States Department of Transportation (November 1970-June 1971), where he was responsible for implementing measures to counter the first wave of aerial hijackings of the 1970s. In July 1971 he was appointed Assistant Secretary of Transportation for Safety and Consumer Affairs (July 1971-September 1975), serving both the Nixon and Ford Administrations in that position.

Following his retirement from the civil service, he worked as a consultant to the Department of Transportation in the Ford and Carter Administrations on a number of issues, but was particularly linked to the promotion of the 55mph National Maximum Speed Limit. He served on a number of boards and commissions, including the President's Commission on Campus Unrest, the American Battle Monuments Commission, The President's Commission on Military Compensation, and the Board of Directors of the Manhattan Life Insurance Co. He was also active in a number of clubs and organizations, particularly the Tuskegee Airmen Inc., which awarded him a lifetime membership in 1991.

In the late 1980s he began work on his autobiography, Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., American: An Autobiography (Washington, DC: Smithsonian, 1991). Following its publication, Davis pursued an active speaking career, crossing the country to talk to schools, clubs, and general audiences about his experiences. His book and

es, his contributions to the Black Wings exhibit at the National Air and Space Museum (opened 1983), and the work of Tuskegee Airmen, Inc. did much to lift the veil that had fallen over the activities of black Americans during World War II, both in the air and on the ground. For his contributions, both during and after World War II, he received many awards, including the Order of the Sword (presented by the Non-Commissioned Officers of USAF Tactical Air Command, awarded 1978), designation as an Elder Statesman of Aviation (National Aeronautic Association, awarded 1991), and the Langley Medal (Smithsonian Institution, awarded 1992), as well as numerous lifetime and distinguished achievement awards.

On December 9, 1998, Davis was promoted to General on the Retired List, receiving his fourth star from President William Clinton in a ceremony held in the Presidential Hall of the Old Executive Office Building in Washington, DC. The promotion came only after the Tuskegee Airmen approached Senator John McCain of Airzona, who agreed that the promotion was warranted by Davis' service. McCain added the necessary language to a defense-related bill, which was passed by Congress in September 1998.

Agatha died early in 2002 and General Davis, suffering from Alzheimer's Disease, followed shortly after, passing away on July 4, 2002 at Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, DC.

Endnotes 1. For the sake of brevity, "Davis" refers to Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. "Davis Sr." refers to his father, Benjamin O. Davis, Sr.

2. Davis had requested a commission in the Army Air Corps, but was refused due to his race. Davis was the fourth black American to graduate from West Point and the first in the twentieth century. In keeping with his sentiments, his ethnicity will only be mentioned when it has a direct bearing upon his career. See Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., American: An Autobiography (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991).

3. At the request of General and Mrs. Davis the term "black" or "black American" is used in preference to "African-American". Patricia Williams, Memorandum for the Record, August 21, 1992, NASM Accession File 1992 0023.

4. Staff Planning Officer, Operations and Planning Division/Commands Division, Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations (DCS/O; July 1950-January 1951); Chief, Air Defense Branch/Fighter Branch, DCS/O (January 1951-July 1953); Director of Manpower and Organizations, DCS/Programs and Requirements (August 1961-February 1965); Assistant Deputy Chief of Staff for Programs and Requirements (February-May 1965).

5. Commander, 51st Fighter Interceptor Wing (November 1953-July 1954); Chief of Staff, United Nations Command/US Forces Korea (May 1965-August 1967)

6. Director of Operations and Training, Headquarters, Far East Air Force, Tokyo (July 1954-April 1957)

7. Commanding Officer, Air Task Force 13 (Provisional) and Vice Commander, Thirteenth Air Force (June 1955-April 1957)

8. Chief of Staff, Twelfth Air Force (May-December 1957); Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations, USAF Europe (December 1957-July 1961)

9. Commander, Thirteenth Air Force (August 1967-July 1968)

10. Davis was the first black American to achieve flag rank in the United States Air Force. He was the second in the armed forces, the first being his father, who was promoted to Brigadier General in the United States Army in 1940.

1912 December 18 -- Davis born in Washington, DC to First Lieutenant Benjamin O. Davis (Sr.) and Elnora Dickerson Davis

1914 September 1 -- World War I begins

1915 February -- Davis Sr. begins duties as instructor at Wilberforce University, OH

1916 February 9 -- Elnora Dickerson Davis dies

1917 April 6 -- United States declares war on Germany; direct U.S. involvement in World War I begins

1917 (Summer) -- Davis Sr. assigned to 9th Cavalry Regiment, Camp Stotsenburg, Philippine Islands

1918 November 11 -- World War I armistice signed; end of combat operations in Europe

1919 -- Davis Sr. marries Sadie Overton

1920 July -- Family moves to Tuskegee, AL (Davis Sr. instructs at Tuskegee Institute)

1924 July -- Family moves to Cleveland, OH (Davis Sr. instructs 372d Infantry Regiment, OH National Guard)

1929 -- Davis graduates from Central High School, Cleveland, OH

1929 --1930 -- Davis attends Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH

1930 --1932 -- Davis attends University of Chicago, Chicago, IL

1931 March -- Davis appointed to United States Military Academy, West Point, NY (fails entrance exam)

1932 March -- Davis passes USMA entrance exam

1932 July 1 -- Davis reports to USMA, West Point, NY (attends July 1, 1932-June 12, 1936)

1936 June 12 -- Davis graduates from USMA, commissioned Second Lieutenant of Infantry

1936 June 20 -- Davis marries Agatha Josephine Scott

1936 September 12 -- Davis reports to Company F, 24th Infantry Regiment at Fort Benning, GA (Company Officer, September 12, 1936-August 27, 1937)

1937 July 7 -- Japanese forces invades China; World War II begins in Asia

1937 August 27 -- Davis reports to the Infantry School at Fort Benning, GA (attends normal course, August 27, 1937-June 18, 1938)

1938 June 18 -- Davis reports to Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, AL as Professor of Military Science (instructs June 18, 1938-February 14, 1941)

1939 June 12 -- Davis promoted to First Lieutenant

1939 September 1 -- German forces invade Poland; World War II begins in Europe

1940 October 9 -- Davis promoted to Captain (temporary promotion)

1940 October 25 -- Davis Sr. promoted to Brigadier General and placed in command of the 4th Cavalry Brigade at Fort Riley, KS

1941 February -- Davis assigned as Aide de Camp to Davis Sr. (serves February-May 1941)

1941 May 20 -- Davis reports to Flying School at Tuskegee Army Air Field, AL (student, May 20, 1941-March 7, 1942)

1941 December 7 -- Japanese aircraft attack Pearl Harbor, HI; direct U.S. involvement in World War II begins

1942 March 7 -- Davis is appointed Administrative Officer, Tuskegee AAF, AL (serves March 7-August 27, 1942)

1942 May -- Davis transferred from Infantry to Army Air Corps

1942 May 11 -- Davis promoted to Major (temporary promotion)

1942 May 21 -- Davis promoted to Lieutenant Colonel (temporary promotion)

1942 August 27 -- Davis assumes command of 99th Fighter Squadron, Tuskegee AAF, AL (Squadron Commander, August 27, 1942-October 4, 1943)

1943 April 24 -- 99th Fighter Squadron transferred to Casablanca, French Morocco

1943 April 29 -- 99th Fighter Squadron transferred to Oued N'ja, French Morocco

1943 June 7 -- 99th Fighter Squadron transferred to Fardjouna, Tunisia

1943 July 28 -- 99th Fighter Squadron transferred to Licata, Sicily

1943 September 4 -- 99th Fighter Squadron transferred to Termini, Sicily

1943 September 17 -- 99th Fighter Squadron transferred to Barcellona, Sicily

1943 September -- Davis returns to Continental United States

1943 October 8 -- Davis assumes command of 332d Fighter Group, Selfridge Field, MI (Group Commander, October 8, 1943-June 7, 1945)

1944 February 3 -- 332d Fighter Group transferred to Montecorvino, Italy

1944 April 15 -- 332d Fighter Group transferred to Capodichino, Italy

1944 May 28 -- 332d Fighter Group transferred to Ramitelli Airfield, Italy

1944 May 29 -- Davis promoted to Colonel (temporary promotion)

1945 May 4 -- 332d Fighter Group transferred to Cattolica, Italy

1945 May 7 -- Germany surrenders; World War II ends in Europe

1945 June 10 -- Davis returns to Continental United States

1945 June 21 -- Davis assumes command of 477th Composite Group (Group Commander, June 21-30, 1945)

1945 July 1 -- Davis assumes command of Godman Field, KY, and all tenant units, including 477th Composite Group (Base Commander, July 1, 1945-March 4, 1946)

1945 September 2 -- Japan surrenders; World War II ends in the Pacific

1946 March 4 -- Davis assumes command of Lockbourne AAB and all tenant units, including 477th Composite Group (Base Commander, March 4, 1946-September 15, 1947) All units at Godman Field transferred to Lockbourne Army Air Base, OH

1947 July 1 -- 477th Composite Group redesignated 332d Fighter Wing

1947 July-August -- Davis travels to Liberia with Davis Sr. as a special representative of the United States Government for the establishment of Liberian independence

1947 September 16 -- Davis assumes direct command of 332d Fighter Wing (Wing Commander, September 16, 1947-June 30, 1949)

1947 October 1 -- United States Air Force created as an independent service.

1948 July 2 -- Davis' promotion to Lieutenant Colonel made permanent.

1948 July 26 -- President Truman signs Executive Order 9981 ordering the full integration of the United States armed forces.

1949 May 11 -- USAF issues Air Force Letter 35-3 stating that Air Force policy is equal treatment and opportunity for all persons in the Air Force regardless of race, color, religion, or national origin.

1949 June 30 -- 332d Fighter Wing deactivated

1949 July 1 -- Davis assumes command of Lockbourne AFB, OH (Base Commander, July 1-August 16, 1949)

1949 August 16 -- Lockbourne AFB, OH transferred to Ohio Air National Guard

1949 August 17 -- Davis reports to Air War College, Maxwell AFB, AL (attends course, August 17, 1949-July 4, 1950)

1950 June 25 -- North Korean forces invade South Korea; Korean War begins

1950 July 19 -- Davis reports to Pentagon to serve as Staff Planning Officer, Operations and Planning Division, Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations (DCS/O), Headquarters, United States Air Force, Washington, DC (serves July 19, 1950-January 4, 1951)

1950 July 27 -- Davis' promotion to Colonel made permanent

1950 August 8 -- Davis awarded Croix de Guerre by the French government for his actions during World War II

1950 September 12 -- Operations and Planning Division redesignated Commands Division of DCS/O

1951 January 5 -- Davis begins duty as Branch Chief, Air Defense Branch, Commands Division, DCS/O. (serves January 5, 1951-July 15, 1953)

1951 April 16 -- Air Defense Branch redesignated Fighter Branch, Control Division, DCS/O

1953 February 5 -- Davis reports to Craig AFB, AL for Jet Indoctrination Course (February 5-March 2, 1953); returns to Fighter Branch on completion of course

1953 July 16 -- Davis reports to Nellis AFB, NV for Advanced Jet Fighter Gunnery School (July 16-November 16, 1953)

1953 July 27 -- Korean War armistice signed; end of combat operations in Korea

1953 November 25 -- Davis assumes command of 51st Fighter Interceptor Wing at Suwon, Korea (Wing Commander, November 25, 1953-July 6, 1954)

1954 July 7 -- Davis reports to Headquarters, Far East Air Force, Tokyo, Japan to serve a Director of Operations and Training (serves July 7, 1954-April 1957)

1954 October 27 -- Davis is promoted to Brigadier General (temporary promotion)

1955 June -- Davis reports to Taipei, Taiwan to establish Air Task Force 13 (Provisional) (Commander, June 1955-April 1957), with simultaneous duties as Vice Commander, Thirteenth Air Force and Director of Operations and Training, FEAF

1957 March -- Davis awarded Command Pilot Rating

1957 May -- Davis assigned to Twelfth Air Force

1957 June -- Davises travel from Taiwan to Europe via United States

1957 July -- Davis reports to Headquarters, Twelfth Air Force at Ramstein, Germany (Chief of Staff, May-December 1957)

1957 December -- Davis begins duties as Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations (ADVON) at Headquarters, USAF Europe, Wiesbaden, Germany (serves December 1957-July 1961)

1959 June 30 -- Davis is promoted to Major General (temporary rank)

1960 May 16 -- Davis' promotion to Brigadier General made permanent

1961 -- US military personnel sent to South Vietnam as advisors

1961 August -- Davis reports to Pentagon to serve as Director of Manpower and Organizations, Deputy Chief of Staff for Programs and Requirements, Headquarters, USAF (serves August 1961-February 1965)

1962 January 30 -- Davis' promotion to Major General is made permanent

1965 February -- Davis begins duty as Assistant Deputy Chief of Staff for Programs and Requirements, Headquarters, USAF (serves February-May 1965)

1965 April 30 -- Davis promoted to Lieutenant General

1965 March 2 -- USAF begins "Rolling Thunder" bombing campaign over North Vietnam

1965 May 13 -- Davis reports to Seoul, Korea to begin duties as Chief of Staff to the United Nations Command and United States Forces Korea (serves May 13, 1965-August 1, 1967)

1966 October 25 -- Sadie Overton Davis dies

1967 August -- Davis assumes command of Thirteenth Air Force, Clark Air Base, Philippines (Commanding Officer, August 1967-July 1968)

1968 August 1 -- Davis reports to MacDill AFB, FL to begin duties as Deputy Commander in Chief of United States Strike Command (serves August 1, 1968-January 31, 1970)

1968 January -- Tet Offensive begins in Vietnam

1968 October 31 -- "Rolling Thunder" ends on orders from President Johnson

1969 January 20 -- Richard M. Nixon inaugurated President of the United States

1970 -- USAF begins withdrawing units from South Vietnam

1970 January 31 -- Davis retires from United States Air Force

1970 February 1 -- Davis begins work as Director of Public Safety for the Cleveland, OH (works February 1, 1970-July 27, 1970)

1970 June 13 -- Davis joins President's Commission on Campus Unrest (report issued September 27, 1971)

1970 July 27 -- Davis resigns from Cleveland position, citing lack of support from Mayor Stokes

1970 September 20 -- Davis begins work as a consultant to the United States Secretary of Transportation on air transportation security (works September 20, 1970-November 4, 1970)

1970 November 4 -- Davis begins work a Director of Civil Aviation Security for the United States Department of Transportation (works November 4, 1970-July 1, 1971)

1970 November 26 -- Benjamin O. Davis, Sr. dies

1971 July 1 -- Davis becomes Acting Assistant Secretary of Transportation for Safety and Consumer Affairs (serves July 1, 1971-August 3, 1971)

1971 July 8 -- Nixon Administration nominates Davis to be Assistant Secretary of Transportation for Safety and Consumer Affairs

1971 July 29 -- Senate confirms Davis in Assistant Secretary position

1971 August 3 -- Davis sworn in a Assistant Secretary of Transportation for Safety and Consumer Affairs (serves August 3, 1970-September 20, 1975)

1973 March 28 -- Last US Military personnel leave South Vietnam

1974 August 9 -- Nixon resigns as President of the United States. Vice President Gerald R. Ford becomes President

1975 September 20 -- Davis retires from Civil Service

1976 April -- Davis begins work as Special Assistant to the Secretary of Transportation for the National Maximum Speed Limit

1977 January 20 -- James E. Carter inaugurated President of the United States

1977 June -- Davis joins President's Commission on Military Compensation (report issued March 1978)

1981 January 20 -- Ronald W. Reagan inaugurated President of the United States Davis leaves position as Special Assistant to the Secretary of Transportation

1989 January 20 -- George H. W. Bush inaugurated President of the United States

1991 -- Davis' autobiography – Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., American: An Autobiography – is published by Smithsonian Press

1991 June 30 -- Davis awarded a Lifetime Membership by Tuskegee Airmen Inc

1993 January 20 -- William J. Clinton inaugurated President of the United States

1998 December 9 -- Davis promoted to General (Retired) in a ceremony at the Old Executive Office Building

2001 January 20 -- George W. Bush inaugurated President of the United States

2002 July 4 -- Davis dies at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC

2002 July 17 -- Davis buried at Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, VA
Provenance:
Benjamin O. Davis and Agatha S. Davis, Gift, various, 1992-0023
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Fighter pilots  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Black people  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Aerial operations  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Black people -- United States  Search this
African American air pilots  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics and state  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Publications
Correspondence
Programs
Citation:
Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. Collection, Acc. 1992.0023, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1992.0023
See more items in:
Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2478d6822-702d-43c9-af06-8cc8d8b9fca3
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1992-0023
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Eleanor Sayre

Interviewee:
Sayre, Eleanor A.  Search this
Interviewer:
Brown, Robert F.  Search this
Names:
Ashmolean Museum  Search this
Bryn Mawr College -- Students  Search this
Fogg Art Museum  Search this
Harvard University -- Students  Search this
Lyman Allyn Museum  Search this
Museo del Prado  Search this
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston  Search this
Rhode Island School of Design. Museum of Art  Search this
Yale University. Art Gallery  Search this
Ames, Winslow  Search this
Constable, W. G. (William George), 1887-1976  Search this
Edgell, George Harold, b. 1887  Search this
Forbes, Edward Waldo, 1873-1969  Search this
Goya, Francisco, 1746-1828  Search this
Hofer, Philip, 1898-1984  Search this
Karolik, Maxim  Search this
King, Georgiana Goddard, 1871-1939  Search this
Rathbone, Perry Townsend, 1911-2000  Search this
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn, 1606-1669  Search this
Rosenberg, Jakob, 1893-  Search this
Rossiter, Henry P. (Henry Preston), b. 1885  Search this
Sachs, Paul J. (Paul Joseph), 1878-1965  Search this
Seybolt, George Crossan, 1914-1993  Search this
Sizer, Theodore, 1892-1967  Search this
Swarzenski, Hanns, 1903-1985  Search this
Washburn, Gordon B. (Gordon Bailey), 1904-1983  Search this
Wilson, Woodrow, 1856-1924  Search this
Extent:
213 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Place:
Spain -- History -- 1939-1975
Date:
1993 April 19-1997 January 10
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Eleanor Sayre conducted 1993 April 19-1997 January 10, by Robert F. Brown, for the Archives of American Art.
Sayre talks about her early childhood in Williamstown and Cambridge, Mass.; her family background; visits to the White House with her maternal grandfather, Woodrow Wilson; living abroad while her father was in government service in Bangkok, then Siam (now Thailand), Paris, and Switzerland, with extensive recollections of her brothers and schooling in Europe.
Attending Winsor School in Boston; her mother's death; her years at Bryn Mawr College, including her switch to art history from political science; Georgianna Goddard King as an influential teacher; an internship under Laura Dudley at the Fogg Art Museum's Print Room and the lasting effect of this experience.
Being a graduate student in fine arts at Harvard and the importance of Edward Forbes and Paul Sachs as teachers; her decision not to pursue a PhD; working with Jakob Rosenberg; helping to get young Jews out of Europe; her position as assistant for exhibitions at Yale University Art Gallery under Theodore Sizer; the trauma of her father's internment by the Japanese in the Philippines, where he was High Commissioner and his rescue; and her decision to turn down a military intelligence job in order to work with German Jewish refugees.
Her brief tenure at Lyman-Allyn Museum, Conn., under Winslow Ames; her years in the education department under Lydia "Ma" Powel at the Museum of Art of the Rhode Island School of Design with Gordon Washburn as director; and working closely with Heinrich Schwartz on prints and drawings.
The liberal tradition of her father's wealthy family; her father; being brought to the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston by its curator of prints, Henry Rossiter and on the charming collector and benefactor, Maxim Karolik; MFA curator of paintings, William George Constable; and George Harold Edgell, MFA director.
The collector, Philip Hofer, who by putting his Goya proofs on loan at the MFA, led to Sayre's life-long study of the artist; her research on Goya in Spain; raising of a large sum from Boston businesses to purchase Hofer's prints for the MFA, and the MFA's eminence by the 1960s in Goya's graphic work; the disgusting repression of dissent in Franco-era Spain; Goya's passionate self-assertion, which is what principally attracted Sayre to his work, and his conceptual process and method of work.
Earlier years at the MFA, Boston, including the accessibility of the print department's study rooms; Edwin J. Hipkiss, curator of American decorative arts; the Christmas poetry and prints exhibitions designed as profound learning experiences for a broad public; and being chosen as successor to Rossiter; and further comments on Maxim Karolik.
W.G. Russell Allen and other collectors who gave their collections to the MFA; her efforts to effectively present art to the broad public; her methods of appealing to the public coalescing at the MFA in 1989 with the "Goya and the Spirit of the Enlightenment" exhibition; and an exhibition of the work of Beatrix Potter.
Spain under the dictator, Francisco Franco; her first study in Spain of Goya's drawings and her urging the Prado Museum to conserve its drawings; the Prado's director, F. Sanchez-Canton; her research on prostitution at the Ministry of Justice; being decorated for her recommending the preservation of Goya's art and the marvelous private collections of Goya in Spain; and her obsession with interpreting the meaning of Goya's work.
The MFA, Boston, under the directorship of Perry Rathbone, who wanted many more people involved than had his predecessor, George Harold Edgell, who ran it like a Boston Brahmin Club; Rathbone's accomplishments; his downfall and that of his assistant (and curator of European decorative arts and sculpture) Hanns Swarzenski in bringing a so-called Raphael into this country by irregular means, which led to Rathbone and Swarzenski's firing by George Seybolt, the trustee president; Rathbone's reluctance to hire women curators and Sayre's finally becoming curator of prints and drawings in 1967; her philosophy as curator; on Hanns and Brigitte Swarzenski as dear friends; her exchange of positions with the curator of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, where she put their valuable but neglected print collection in order.
The exhibition and catalog, "Rembrandt: Experimental Etcher," (1969) in collaboration with the Pierpont Morgan Library; general views on exhibitions; co-authoring the exhibition catalog "Goya and the Spiris of Enlightenment" (1989); her contributions to Goya research; her current research and writing on Goya's Capaprichos print series; and her satisfaction in having spent her career in art museums.
Biographical / Historical:
Eleanor A. Sayre (1916-2001) was a curator and art historian from Boston, Mass.
General:
Originally recorded on 8 sound cassettes. Reformatted in 2010 as 15 digital wav files. Duration is 11 hrs., 21 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Occupation:
Art historians -- Interviews  Search this
Printmakers  Search this
Topic:
Jewish refugees -- Germany  Search this
Museum curators -- Massachusetts -- Boston -- Interviews  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.sayre93
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw94605f5ed-1c72-4e2f-92d1-4d6a22a3eaa2
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-sayre93
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Merryll Saylan

Interviewee:
Saylan, Merryll B., 1936-  Search this
Interviewer:
Adamson, Glenn  Search this
Creator:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Names:
American Association of Woodturners  Search this
California State University, Northridge -- Students  Search this
International Turned Objects Show (1988 : Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
University of California, Los Angeles -- Students  Search this
Wood Turning Center (Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Woodstock School of Painting  Search this
Blunk, J. B., 1926-2002  Search this
Cooper, Michael Jean  Search this
Evans, Ralph  Search this
Foy, George  Search this
Fredell, Gail  Search this
Glaser, Jerry  Search this
Lipofsky, Marvin, 1938-2016  Search this
Maruyama, Wendy, 1952-  Search this
Rapp, Joanne  Search this
Stocksdale, Bob, 1913-2003  Search this
Stubbs, Del  Search this
Weir-Quiton, Pamela  Search this
Extent:
7 Items (Sound recording: 7 compact discs (6 hr., 9 min.), digital, 2 5/8 in.)
116 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Sound recordings
Place:
England -- description and travel
France -- description and travel
Guatemala -- Description and Travel
Hong Kong -- Description and Travel
Japan -- Description and Travel
Philippines -- Description and Travel
Date:
2006 May 20-June 5
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Merryll Saylan conducted 2006 May 20-June 5, by Glenn Adamson, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, at the Victoria & Albert Museum, in London, England.
Saylan speaks of her childhood in Los Angeles, California; her early musical education in piano and viola; memories of World War II; her family's political views during the Cold War; meeting her first husband at UCLA; dropping out of school to move to Virginia and Georgia in fulfillment of her husband's military service; experiencing anti-Semitism in Georgia; the challenges of her eldest son's speech problems; traveling to France, Japan, Guatemala, Hong Kong and the Philippines; her interest in Japanese culture; completing her B.A. in design at UCLA and her M.A. in studio art at California State University, Northridge; anti-Vietnam sentiment on campus; early interests in environmental design; her second husband and his friends; her interest in furniture and woodworking; differing approaches to woodworking on the east and west coasts; her views on feminism and working women; her use of color and texture in woodworking; teaching experiences; popular perception of her work; receiving a grant to go to England and her involvement with English and German woodturners; the lack of collector interest in her work; forced absences from working because of illnesses; serving on the boards of the American Association of Woodturners and The Woodturning Center; her involvement in the International Turned Objects Show, the Sculpture Objects & Functional Art Biannual Exposition, and the International Turning Exchange; her thoughts on future work. Saylan also recalls George Foy, Bob Stocksdale, Michael Cooper, Pamela Weir-Quiton, Joanne Rapp, J.B. Blunk, Marvin Lipofsky, Gail Fredell, Wendy Maruyama, Ralph Evans, Del Stubbs, Jerry Glaser, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Merryll Saylan (1936- ) is a wood artist from San Rafael, California. Glenn Adamson (1972- ) is a museum professional, in London, England.
General:
Originally recorded on 7 sound discs. Reformatted in 2010 as 7 digital wav files. Duration is 6 hr., 9 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Occupation:
Woodworkers -- California  Search this
Topic:
Decorative arts  Search this
Environmental engineering  Search this
Feminism and art  Search this
Furniture making  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Woodwork  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Turning (Lathe work)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.saylan06
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw935cef910-0ce6-49cb-a74d-2d2735b3f08e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-saylan06
Online Media:

Stephen A. Douglas World War Two Envelopes

Creator:
Douglas, Stephen A., 1912- (World War II soldier)  Search this
Names:
Aviation Engineer Battalion.  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Paintings
Envelopes
Cachets (philately)
Watercolors
Place:
Oceania
Date:
1942-1945
Scope and Contents:
This collection is divided into two series.

Series 1: Illustrated Envelopes contains envelopes drawn by Stephen Douglas and mounted on mat boards. This type of painted envelope is also called "patriotic." See Lawrence Sherman, United States Patriotic Envelopes of World War II, 2006.

Series 2: Unit History, documents the engineers in the South West Pacific, The 864th Aviation Engineers in World War II by Bob George, a member of the unit. The history contains anecdotes and photographs of many of the locales Mr. Douglas drew.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
The Stephen Douglas Collection consists of eighty-one envelopes that Mr. Douglas mailed to his family from U.S. Army posts in the Pacific during World War II. Mr. Douglas decorated the front of the envelopes with watercolors depicting the life of a GI in the South Pacific.

Mr. Douglas grew up in Wewoka, Oklahoma and trained for one year at the Art Institute of Chicago. He then worked in the Oklahoma oil fields and sold paintings of scenes of oil production. He was drafted in the Army in 1942 and served as a corporal with the 864th Engineering Aviation Battalion, Army Corps of Engineers until war's end in 1945. After mustering out he worked thirty-three years in the Postal Service, retired and continued to paint.

Corporal Douglas began mailing the illustrated letters from Geiger Field, Washington, where his unit trained, then from Los Angeles where it shipped out. By the time the men arrived at Townsville, Australia in September 1943, US forces had already won the battle of Guadalcanal and were occupying much of the Solomon Islands. The rest of the Southwest Pacific including New Guinea had yet be taken before the Japanese could be driven out of the Pacific. His unit's mission was to build and maintain the airstrips and facilities that the allies would use as they advanced on Japan. The 864th moved through various bases in New Guinea then to Cape Gloucester in New Britain, and finally to Luzon in the Philippines.

Using a child's watercolor set, he captured both the deprivations of GI life at these bases and the romance of the islands with their colorful natives, lush foliage, lagoons and tropical moons. Some of the illustrations depict battle scenes involving aircraft and ships, others provide commentary on Army food, housing and recreation, or the lack thereof. They are all humorous or upbeat. The US aircraft or ships are always depicted on the envelopes defeating the enemy and one is a fanciful illustration of Hitler and Tojo on the run. But only fifteen of the eighty-one depict planes, ships, guns or fighting, and most of those are sketches of guard duty. The rest show GI's successfully coping with such mundane activities as laundry, showers, and latrines and overcoming boredom. Illustrating the envelopes was his way of escaping the tedium.
Related Materials:
Mauldin Cartoon Collection, 1946 1987. Believed to contain all of Bill Mauldin's published cartoons during those years; also periodical and newspaper articles about and by Mauldin, personal items, including his genealogy, and an original sketchbook used by Mauldin while he was in Vietnam, February 1965.

War posters, ca. 1914 1960s (mostly 1942 1945). Isadore Warshaw donated this collection of 350 items. Artists such as Howard Chandler Christy, James Montgomery Flagg and Norman Rockwell are represented. It is part of the Smithsonian's Warshaw Collection of Business Americana

Jes Wilhelm Schlaikjer Poster Collection, 1942 1952. Twenty posters designed by Schlaikjer during World War II and after.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History by Mr. Stephen A. Douglas, the artist, on January 7th, 2001.
This collection was donated to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History by Mr. Stephen A. Douglas, the artist, on January 7th, 2001.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Wit and humor  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
Postcards  Search this
Genre/Form:
Paintings
Envelopes
Cachets (Philately)
Watercolors
Citation:
Stephen A. Douglas World War Two Envelopes, 1942-1945, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of the artist.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0755
See more items in:
Stephen A. Douglas World War Two Envelopes
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep87223ea68-db5d-437a-896c-2820585ff073
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0755
Online Media:

Letters from the greatest generation writing home in WWII edited by Howard H. Peckham and Shirley A. Snyder ; foreword by James H. Madison

Editor:
Peckham, Howard H (Howard Henry) 1910-1995  Search this
Snyder, Shirley A  Search this
Physical description:
xi, 354 pages 23 cm
Type:
Personal narratives, American
Correspondence
Personal Narrative
Personal narratives
Personal correspondence
Récits personnels
Place:
United States
Europe
Date:
2016
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Soldiers  Search this
HISTORY--Eastern  Search this
HISTORY--Military--World War II  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1154266

2c José Rival official overprint single

Title:
Scott Catalogue Philippines O27
Associated Person:
Eric Norman McMillan, Irish American, 1938 - 2003  Search this
Medium:
paper; ink
Dimensions:
Height x Width: 1 x 7/8 in. (2.5 x 2.2 cm)
Type:
Postage Stamps
Place:
Philippines (U.S. administration)
Date:
1938-1940
Topic:
The Great Depression (1929-1939)  Search this
World War II (1939-1945)  Search this
Object number:
2005.2009.5
See more items in:
National Postal Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/hm84abcdb07-d0df-4965-aa79-7e6351d98709
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npm_2005.2009.5

Douglas MacArthur: The Life and Legend of the Old Soldier

Creator:
MacArthur, Douglas, 1880-1964  Search this
Names:
MacArthur, Douglas, 1880-1964  Search this
Collection Creator:
Asch, Moses  Search this
Distler, Marian, 1919-1964  Search this
Folkways Records  Search this
Extent:
1 Phonograph record (analog, 33 1/3 rpm, 12 in.)
Culture:
Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Phonograph records
Date:
1964
Contents:
Opening, Gen. MacArthur addresses Congress, 1951 --Tributes by Herbert Hoover, Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy --MacArthur enters West Point, 1899 -- Events of 1903, the year he graduated --Declaration of war, 1917 --Organization of the National Guard --Battlefield record in France --Back at West Point, as remembered by Earl Blaik --Sworn in as Chief-of-Staff, 1930 --Dispersing the Bonus Army, 1932 --Graduation Day address, West Point, 1933 --Retires as Chief-of-Staff, 1935 --MacArthur in the Philippines --Retirement from the Army, 1936 --Japan attacks the gunboat Panay --Recalled to duty, 1941 --First peacetime draft --Army-Navy game --Japanese Ambassador Normura --Announcement of Pearl Harbor --President Roosevelt declares war --Corregidor --"I have come through and I shall return" --America's darkest hour --MacArthur in Australia, 1944 --Carlos Romulo thanks MacArthur --The return to Corregidor --The atomic bomb --The Japanese surrender, 1945 --Aboard the Missouri, in Tokyo Bay --MacArthur appointed Supreme Commander --Occupation of Japan begins --Birthday serenade by Japanese children -- North Korea, 1950 --Named United Nations Commander-in-Chief --Inchon landing --Lord Alanbrooke's military evaluation --U.N. forces cross the 38th parallel --Criticism and concern --Wake Island meeting with President Truman -- Stalemate in Korea --Truman relieves MacArthur -- Truman's speech, April, 1951 --MacArthur's defense before Congress ("Fade away" speech) --Home to New york -- Wife, Jean Faircloth MacArthur --Son, Arthur MacArthur -- Visit with President Kennedy --Address to West Point Cadets, 1956 --"The long gray line."
Local Numbers:
FW-ASCH-LP-3064

MGM.4245
Publication, Distribution, Etc. (Imprint):
MGM 1964
General:
"Documentary compiled from Hearst Metrotone newsreels" ; narrated by Luis Van Rooten. Descriptive notes on container.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. No duplication allowed listening and viewing for research purposes only.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. Please visit our website to learn more about submitting a request. The Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections make no guarantees concerning copyright or other intellectual property restrictions. Other usage conditions may apply; please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for more information.
Topic:
United States -- History  Search this
Military  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Collection Citation:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.ASCH, Item FW-ASCH-LP-3064
See more items in:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection
Moses and Frances Asch Collection / Series 9: Audio Recordings / LP
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5624bce95-e96b-40de-b6ad-d195f0cf930d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-asch-ref17603

General Douglas MacArthur, the war years : a documentary

Creator:
MacArthur, Douglas, 1880-1964  Search this
Names:
MacArthur, Douglas, 1880-1964  Search this
Collection Creator:
Asch, Moses  Search this
Distler, Marian, 1919-1964  Search this
Folkways Records  Search this
Extent:
1 Phonograph record (analog, 33 1/3 rpm, 12 in.)
Culture:
Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Phonograph records
Contents:
April 1944, MacArthur in Australia.--November 1944, MacArthur returns to Philippines.--March 1945, Philippines resume self-government.--August 1945, MacArthur with G.I.'s after Japanese surrender.--September 1945, Japanese surrender ceremonies.--September 1945, Japanese sign surrender.--September 1945, Surrender ceremonies concluded.--April 1946, MacArthur addresses Allied Council.--July 1946, Philippines celebrate independence.--April 1951, MacArthur welcomed in San Francisco.--April 1951, New York hails MacArthur.--April 1951, MacArthur speaks at Waldorf.--April 1951, MacArthur addresses Congress.
Local Numbers:
FW-ASCH-LP-3066

Twentieth Century Fox.3148
Publication, Distribution, Etc. (Imprint):
Twentieth Century Fox
General:
From soundtracks of Fox Movietone News.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. No duplication allowed listening and viewing for research purposes only.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. Please visit our website to learn more about submitting a request. The Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections make no guarantees concerning copyright or other intellectual property restrictions. Other usage conditions may apply; please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for more information.
Topic:
United States -- History  Search this
Military  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Collection Citation:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.ASCH, Item FW-ASCH-LP-3066
See more items in:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection
Moses and Frances Asch Collection / Series 9: Audio Recordings / LP
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5b39f7519-09e6-46c1-9209-ee4587d6b2f3
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-asch-ref17605

George C. Marshall

Associated person:
Marshall, George C.  Search this
Artist:
Chase, Joseph Cummings  Search this
Physical Description:
oil (overall production method/technique)
illustration board (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 24 1/2 in x 18 1/2 in; 62.23 cm x 46.99 cm
Object Name:
Painting
Place made:
United States: Virginia, Arlington
Date made:
1945
Associated date:
1941 - 1945
Related event:
World War II  Search this
Credit Line:
Joseph Cummings Chase
ID Number:
AF.46977
Catalog number:
46977
Accession number:
166217
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Military
Military
Art
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a2-8b1d-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_447700

Luzon Area

Collection Creator:
Princeton University  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (1/8 size; Monochrome, 27.5 x 22 cm)
Container:
Box 40, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Handbills
Place:
Great Britain
Image:
Main Image: Map of the main cities and islands of the Northern Philippine Islands
Local numbers:
Princeton Poster# 8123
General:
Artist(s): Anon
Series:
GPD Phi. 1
Printing Info:
Printer: Crown Copyright [?]

Specimen of British War Literature
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Copyright status of items varies. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Education  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Handbills
Collection Citation:
Princeton University Posters Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Princeton University Poster Collection
Princeton University Poster Collection / Series 4: World War Two / Great Britain
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep84ab75406-d3c9-46c1-b1f4-24f881a12d6e
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0433-ref13492

Philippines General

Collection Creator:
Princeton University  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (1/8 size; Monochrome, 28.5 x 22 cm)
Container:
Box 40, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Handbills
Place:
Great Britain
Image:
Main Image: Map of the main cities and islands of the Philippines
Local numbers:
Princeton Poster# 8124
General:
Artist(s): Anon
Series:
GPD Phi. 3
Printing Info:
Printer: Crown Copyright [?]

Specimen of British War Literature
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Copyright status of items varies. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Education  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Handbills
Collection Citation:
Princeton University Posters Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Princeton University Poster Collection
Princeton University Poster Collection / Series 4: World War Two / Great Britain
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep844447ec2-5010-49fb-b0d7-980e57994b0c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0433-ref13757

Pearl Harbor revisited edited by Robert W. Love

Author:
Love, Robert William 1944-  Search this
Physical description:
viii, 200 pages 21 cm
Type:
Congresses
Congrès
Conference papers and proceedings
Actes de congrès
Place:
Hawaii
Date:
1995
Topic:
Pearl Harbor (Hawaii), Attack on, 1941  Search this
Pearl Harbor, Attaque sur, 1941  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Diplomatic history  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_486183

V-Mail Letter Sheet

Medium:
paper; ink; adhesive
Dimensions:
Overall: 27.9 x 21.6cm (11 x 8 1/2in.)
Type:
Covers & Associated Letters
Place:
United States of America
Date:
1944
Topic:
World War II (1939-1945)  Search this
Object number:
2002.2013.53
See more items in:
National Postal Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/hm84483da65-40d2-443a-a0cf-c7de96771411
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npm_2002.2013.53
Online Media:

V-Mail letter sheet

Medium:
paper; ink; adhesive
Dimensions:
Height x Width: 8 1/2 × 11 in. (21.59 × 27.94 cm)
Type:
Covers & Associated Letters
Place:
United States of America
Date:
November 14, 1944
Topic:
World War II (1939-1945)  Search this
Object number:
2002.2013.77
See more items in:
National Postal Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/hm8ebc8531e-79f8-4606-9e25-80caa6f62d29
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npm_2002.2013.77

Captain Eddie Rickenbacker signed World War II cover

Title:
Scott Catalogue USA 905
Signer:
Eddie Rickenbacker, American, 1890 - 1973  Search this
Medium:
paper; ink
Dimensions:
Height x Width: 3 9/16 × 6 1/16 in. (9.05 × 15.4 cm)
Type:
Covers & Associated Letters
Place of Destination:
Kentucky
Place of Origin:
PHILIPPINES (republic)
Date:
c. 1942
Topic:
World War II (1939-1945)  Search this
Credit line:
Gift of George Savage Brooks II and family
Object number:
2017.2011.2.49.1
See more items in:
National Postal Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/hm8b9051174-2954-498e-81a5-1d0f33b0e9b2
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npm_2017.2011.2.49.1

Grace F. Thorpe Collection

Creator:
Thorpe, Grace F.  Search this
Names:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
United States Indian School (Carlisle, Pa.)  Search this
Abourezk, James G., 1931-  Search this
Seely, Dagmar  Search this
Thorpe, Charlotte  Search this
Thorpe, Jim, 1887-1953  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Linear feet
2,175 Photographic prints
166 Negatives (photographic)
27 Nitrate negatives
113 Slides (photographs)
5 Contact sheets
Culture:
Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Negatives (photographic)
Nitrate negatives
Slides (photographs)
Contact sheets
Place:
Oklahoma
Arizona
Japan -- 1940-1950
Pearl River (N.Y.)
Jim Thorpe (Pa.)
Date:
1900-2008
Scope and Contents:
The Grace F. Thorpe Collection (1900-2008) includes documents, photographic prints, slides, negatives and other materials that encapsulate the breadth of Grace Thorpe's life and work as a WWII veteran, Native rights activist, and dedicated daughter, mother and family member. This includes material from her personal, military and professional life. Series 1: Early Life and Family History (1921-1940) includes materials related to the Thorpe family including photographs of Grace's parents, Jim and Iva at the Carlisle Indian School as well as letters and photographs from Grace as a young girl. Series 2: Military Career and Life in Japan (1943-1950) includes documents, photographic prints and negatives from Grace's time as a Corporal in the Women's Army Corps and her life as a wife and mother in Japan following the war. This series also includes the medals Grace received for her service in WWII. Series 3: Pearl River, New York and Business (1950-1967) contains documents and photographs from Grace's time as a mother and business woman in Pearl River, New York. Series 4: Working on Behalf of Native Americans and Activism (1968-1977) includes documents, photographic prints and negatives from Grace's work with various Native American organizations on economic and civil rights issues following her move to Arizona in 1967. Series 5: Jim Thorpe and His Legacy (1912-1984) includes documents, photographic prints and negatives regarding Jim Thorpe and the work by the Thorpe family to restore Jim's Olympic record and keep his legacy alive. Series 6: Later Years (1979-2007) includes documents, photographic prints and negatives from Grace's life in Oklahoma, her work as an environmental activist, and other activities later in her life.
Arrangement:
This collection has been arranged in six series chronologically based on how the collection was received with minor changes. The Series' include--Series 1: Early Life and Family History (1921-1940), Series 2: Military Career and Life in Japan (1943-1950), Series 3: Pearl River, New York and Business (1950-1967), Series 4: Working on Behalf of Native Americans and Activism (1968-1977), Series 5: Jim Thorpe and His Legacy (1912-1984), and Series 6: Later Years (1979-2007). There is some chronological crossover between Series 5: Jim Thorpe and His Legacy and the rest of the collection.

The physical arrangement of the materials was determined by storage needs.
Biographical / Historical:
Grace Frances Thorpe was born in Yale, Oklahoma on December 10, 1921 to parents James (Jim) Francis Thorpe (Sac and Fox (Sauk)) and Iva Margaret Miller Thorpe. Jim, already a famed athelete and olympic medalist, had met Iva as students at Carlisle Indian School and were married in 1913. Grace was the youngest of four, Gail Margaret, James and Charlotte Marie though her brother James died from polio at a young age. When Iva and Jim divorced in 1923, Iva and the girls moved to Chicago while Jim moved to California to pursue work in the movies. For school, Grace attended St. Mary's Academy, Sacred Heart, in Oklahoma and Haskell Institute in Kansas, which was where her father had attended school.

In 1943 Grace worked briefly at the Ford Motor Company before enlisting in the Women's Army Corps (WAC) during WWII. After attending training and graduating from the WAAC Training Center in Ft. Oglethorpe, Georgia, Thorpe attained the rank of Corporal, and served as a Recruiter for the Women's Army Corps stationed in Tucson and Camp White in Oregon before being assigned overseas to the New Guinea Campaign. From 1944-1945 Corporal Thorpe was stationed in New Guinea, Philippines and Japan. Following an Honorable Discharge in 1945, Grace remained in Japan during the occupation with her husband Lieutenant Fred W. Seely (1918-2008) whom she married in June 1946. She became employed at General MacArthur Headquarters as Chief of the Recruitment Section, Department of Army Civilians, Tokyo, Japan. Both of her children, Dagmar (1946-) and Paul Thorpe (1948-1964) were born during this time in Japan.

Grace and her children left Japan and arrived in San Francisco on April 20, 1950. They lived in Pearl River, New York from late 1950 to the mid 1960s. She first became employed as a Hostess with Welcome Wagon upon completing training in July of 1951 and later became a supervisor, business machine salesperson, and territorial account executive for the Yellow Pages with the Reuben H. Donnelly Corp. earning recognition in Distinguished Sales Performance. She completed a course in effective speaking and human relations conducted by the Dale Carnegie Institute and won a Best Speech Award. In 1967, Grace moved to Arizona where she became involved with American Indian tribes. Grace was appointed Economic Development Conference Coordinator for the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI)'s 1968 and 1969 conferences. In 1969-1970, Grace joined Native American Activists at the occupation of Alcatraz Island for three months and managed their publicity. She then served as a Congressional Intern from 1974-1975 for Senator James Abourezk. Grace was later appointed Legislative Assistant with the Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs and as a Task Force Program and Planning Analyst for the American Indian Policy Review Commission. During this time period she attended—The Antioch School of Law, Washington DC; Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Research Fellow), Boston, Massachusetts; University of Tennessee, Knoxville and Northeastern University, Tahlequah, Oklahoma. During this time she also began working on the restoration of her father's 1912 Olympic titles as well as other projects to recognize and honor her father.

After returning to her tribal homeland in Oklahoma she became active in tribal affairs and in 1983 successfully restored her father's Olympic record. She also conducted genealogical research on the Thorpe family. Her article "The Jim Thorpe Family' was published as a two-part series in the Chronicles of Oklahoma in 1981. In later years, Grace served her tribe as a tribal judge, health commissioner, and became an environmental activist opposing nuclear waste on tribal lands. She remained active in Native American issues, a matriarch of the Thorpe family, and involved with her granddaughter, Tena Malotte, and her great-grandchildren, Aspen and Huna.

Biographical note provided by Dagmar Seely, daughter to Grace Thorpe, with additions by Rachel Menyuk, Processing Archivist.
Separated Materials:
27 nitrate negatives have been moved offsite and are being housed at the National Anthropological Archives.
Provenance:
Donated by Dr. Dagmar Seely and Tena Malotte, 2015.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
Yellow pages  Search this
United States. Army. Women's Army Corps  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- New Guinea.  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Japan.  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Philippines.  Search this
Alcatraz Island (Calif.) -- History -- Indian occupation, 1969-1971.  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Grace F. Thorpe Collection, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.085
See more items in:
Grace F. Thorpe Collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv40c1b8318-3394-45f2-8ac1-45348543fb36
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-085
Online Media:

US Army Air Force Japanese Propaganda Leaflet

Creator:
United States. Office of War Information  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet (1 folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Leaflets
Biographies
Date:
1944
Summary:
Propaganda moved to the air during the Second World War. Leaflets bearing Japanese characters, like the one in this collection, were airdropped by US pilots in enemy-controlled territories of the Southwest Pacific with the intention to reduce the morale of their soldiers.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of a 4 by 6.5 inch airborne propaganda leaflet issued by the United States in 1944 and dropped over the Japanese-held territories in New Guinea and the Philippines. This leaflet is written in a traditional Japanese writing system - used by the privileged class at this time - and attempted to discourage enemy soldiers. Also included in this collection is the biography of Second Lieutenant Hubert J. Frank, a Consolidated B-24 Liberator pilot with the 65th Bombing Squadron assigned to the 43rd Bombardment Group of the Fifth Air Force, who helped scattered hundreds of these leaflets.
Arrangement:
Collection is in original order.
Biographical / Historical:
Military aircrafts released leaflets, flyers, and other smaller paper items to promote agendas and persuade audiences. This distribution, usually scattered in the air over conflict zones, reached combatants and civilians. Often these materials were also dropped in conjunction with air strikes. In the Second World War, both the Allies and Axis utilized airborne leaflet propaganda as a method of psychological warfare to demoralize their enemy, undermine their authority, and induce surrender. In the Southwest Pacific theatre, the US pilots airdropped hundreds of propaganda leaflets over Japan as well as other territories controlled by the Japanese.
Related Materials:
US Army Air Force Japanese Propaganda Leaflets [Sylvan], NASM.2016.0018.
Provenance:
Jon Frank, Gift, 2016, NASM.2016.0017
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Propaganda  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Leaflets
Biographies
Citation:
US Army Air Force Japanese Propaganda Leaflet, NASM.2016.0017, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2016.0017
See more items in:
US Army Air Force Japanese Propaganda Leaflet
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg222297fdb-3669-4bc4-80ff-4fbc7ccaef2e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2016-0017
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Merryll Saylan, 2006 May 20-June 5

Interviewee:
Saylan, Merryll B., 1936-  Search this
Interviewer:
Adamson, Glenn, 1972-  Search this
Subject:
Blunk, J. B.  Search this
Cooper, Michael Jean  Search this
Evans, Ralph  Search this
Foy, George  Search this
Fredell, Gail  Search this
Glaser, Jerry  Search this
Lipofsky, Marvin  Search this
Maruyama, Wendy  Search this
Rapp, Joanne  Search this
Stocksdale, Bob  Search this
Stubbs, Del  Search this
Weir-Quiton, Pamela  Search this
American Association of Woodturners  Search this
California State University, Northridge  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
University of California, Los Angeles  Search this
Wood Turning Center (Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Woodstock School of Painting  Search this
International Turned Objects Show (1988 : Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Place:
England -- description and travel
France -- description and travel
Guatemala -- description and travel
Hong Kong -- description and travel
Japan -- Description and Travel
Philippines -- description and travel
Citation:
Quotes and excerpts must be cited as follows: Oral history interview with Merryll Saylan, 2006 May 20-June 5. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Decorative arts  Search this
Environmental engineering  Search this
Feminism and art  Search this
Furniture making  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Woodwork  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Turning (Lathe work)  Search this
Theme:
Craft  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13576
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)260467
AAA_collcode_saylan06
Theme:
Craft
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_260467
Online Media:

Modify Your Search







or


Narrow By