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Hiroshima

Artist:
Jimmy Tsutomu Mirikitani, born Sacramento, CA 1920-died New York City 2012  Search this
Medium:
mixed media on paper
Dimensions:
image and sheet: 28 x 22 in. (71.1 x 55.9 cm)
Type:
Drawing
Date:
2001
Topic:
History\United States\World War II  Search this
State of being\evil\war  Search this
History\Japan\Hiroshima  Search this
Object\weapon\nuclear bomb  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Museum purchase made possible by the Ford Motor Company
Object number:
2008.32.3
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk717981e3d-5cdd-467a-9415-14ee3d91c396
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_2008.32.3

Colonel Paul W. Tibbetts Jr.

Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 5 3/4 in x 4 1/2 in; 14.605 cm x 11.43 cm
Object Name:
gelatin silver print
Associated place:
Japan: Hiroshima, Hiroshima
Date made:
ca 1945
Subject:
Nuclear weapons  Search this
World War II  Search this
Related event:
Bombing of Hiroshima  Search this
ID Number:
2013.0327.1038
Catalog number:
2013.0327.1038
Accession number:
2013.0327
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Photographic History
Photography
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b3-12b0-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1814119

Oral history interview with Thomas Adrian Fransioli, 1981 April 21

Interviewee:
Fransioli, Thomas Adrian, 1906-1997  Search this
Fransioli, Thomas Adrian, 1906-1997  Search this
Interviewer:
Brown, Robert F  Search this
Subject:
Brown, Margaret E.  Search this
Eggers, O. R. (Otto Reinhold)  Search this
Feiss, Carl  Search this
Finley, David E. (David Edward)  Search this
Pope, John Russell  Search this
Klauder, Charles Z. (Charles Zeller)  Search this
Walker, John  Search this
Art Students League (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
National Gallery of Art (U.S.)  Search this
University of Pennsylvania  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Topic:
Architects -- Massachusetts -- Interviews  Search this
Architecture -- Study and teaching  Search this
Interior decorators -- Massachusetts -- Interviews  Search this
Painters -- Massachusetts -- Interviews  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Japan -- Hiroshima  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Photography  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13152
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212087
AAA_collcode_fransi81
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_212087
Online Media:

US Army Air Corps Japanese Propaganda Leaflets [Sylvan]

Creator:
United States. Office of War Information  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet (1 folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Leaflets
Date:
1945
Summary:
Before the atomic bombing missions of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, leaflets bearing illustrations and Japanese characters were dropped from the air by the US Army Air Corps to warn the Japanese populace. This collection consists of three bombing leaflets as well as a snapshot of Seymour Sylvan with his crew in front of his Boeing B-29 Superfortress.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of three bombing leaflets; two are 5.5 by 8.25 inches and the other is 4.25 by 5.25. The two larger leaflets contain messages in Japanese, accompanied with either images of Japanese leaders or of US Bombers dropping bombs, while the smaller leaflet contains only a message in Japanese. This collection also includes a snapshot of Seymour Sylvan with his crew in front of his Boeing B-29 Superfortress.
Arrangement:
Collection is in original order.
Biographical / Historical:
Before the atomic bombing missions of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, leaflets bearing illustrations and Japanese characters were dropped from the air by the US Army Air Corps to warn the Japanese populace.
Provenance:
Lenore Sylvan, Gift, 2016, NASM.2016.0018
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Propaganda  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Leaflets
Citation:
US Army Air Corps Japanese Propaganda Leaflets [Sylvan], NASM.2016.0018, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2016.0018
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg26f77f377-7c97-46c6-8255-52dad4e6333f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2016-0018
Online Media:

George Caron Family Photographs

Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet (1 folder, 3 photographs)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1945
Summary:
This collection consists of three photographs of his wife and infant daughter carried by Staff Sergeant George Robert "Bob" Caron aboard the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay during the bomber's mission to Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, 1945.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of three photographs carried aboard the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay by Staff Sergeant George Robert "Bob" Caron during the bomber's mission to Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, 1945; Caron carried the photographs tucked inside the clear plastic sleeve of his pressurized oxygen duration chart [Oxygen Placard, Enola Gay, A20200329000]. Two black and white photographs are of Caron's wife, Katherine Marie "Kay" (Younger) Caron (1924-2001). A third hand-colored photograph is of Kay Caron holding their baby daughter, Judy Kay Caron; inscribed on the reverse: "Sept. 5, 1945 / Judy Kay 3 mo. / To Daddy Love Kay & Judy Kay."
Arrangement:
No arrangement.
Biographical / Historical:
Boeing's B-29 Superfortress was the most sophisticated propeller-driven bomber of World War II, and the first bomber to house its crew in pressurized compartments. Although designed to fight in the European theater, the B-29 found its niche on the other side of the globe. In the Pacific, B-29s delivered a variety of aerial weapons: conventional bombs, incendiary bombs, mines, and two nuclear weapons. On August 6, 1945, the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay dropped the first atomic weapon used in combat on Hiroshima, Japan.

US Army Air Forces Staff Sergeant George Robert "Bob" Caron (1919-1995) was the tail gunner aboard the Enola Gay during its mission to Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. His rear-facing position in the aircraft enabled him to take what became the official USAAF photograph of a mushroom cloud rising from the city following the detonation of the atomic bomb nicknamed Little Boy.
Provenance:
Randall M. Holder, gift, 2008, NASM.2008.0037
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Boeing B-29 Superfortress, Silverplate "Enola Gay"  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Citation:
George Caron Family Photographs, Acc. NASM.2008.0037, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2008.0037
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2c09588ff-3635-4d8f-859b-715ad40b187f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2008-0037
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Thomas Adrian Fransioli

Interviewee:
Fransioli, Thomas Adrian, 1906-1997  Search this
Interviewer:
Brown, Robert F.  Search this
Names:
Art Students League (New York, N.Y.) -- Students  Search this
National Gallery of Art (U.S.)  Search this
University of Pennsylvania -- Students  Search this
Brown, Margaret E., d. 1957  Search this
Eggers, O. R. (Otto Reinhold), 1882-1964  Search this
Feiss, Carl  Search this
Finley, David E. (David Edward)  Search this
Klauder, Charles Z. (Charles Zeller), 1872-1938  Search this
Pope, John Russell, 1874-1937  Search this
Walker, John, 1906-1995  Search this
Extent:
2 Items (Sound recording: 2 sound files, digital, wav file)
37 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Sound recordings
Date:
1981 April 21
Scope and Contents:
Interview of Thomas Adrian Fransioli, conducted April 21, 1981, by Robert F. Brown for the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, in Wenham, Massachusetts.
Fransioli speaks of his upbringing in Seattle, Washington; training and friendships at architectural school at the University of Pennsylvania; working in North Carolina, Virginia, Philadelphia, and Cleveland as an architect, interior designer, and draftsman; his commission for a grand country house in Virginia, 1932-1934; his work for John Russell Pope on the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.; work in photographic reconnaissance for the U.S. Army during World War II; visiting Hiroshima after the atomic bomb; his training at the Art Students League; his paintings of cityscapes and houses; the promotion of his career by Margaret Brown of Boston; and influences upon him. Fransioli also recalls Charles Klauder, Margaret Brown, Carl Feiss, Otto Eggers, John Walker, David Finley; and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Thomas Adrian Fransioli (1906- 1997) was an architect and painter from Massachusetts. He was born in Seattle, Washington.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Topic:
Architects -- Massachusetts -- Interviews  Search this
Architecture -- Study and teaching  Search this
Interior decorators -- Massachusetts -- Interviews  Search this
Painters -- Massachusetts -- Interviews  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Japan -- Hiroshima  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Photography  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.fransi81
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9624d6571-740e-4d07-882e-0c7715355229
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-fransi81
Online Media:

The war beat, Pacific : the American media at war against Japan / Steven Casey

Title:
American media at war against Japan
Author:
Casey, Steven  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource (395 pages)
Type:
Electronic resources
Electronic books
History
Place:
United States
Japan
Pacific Area
Date:
2021
20th century
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945--Press coverage  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Public opinion  Search this
Mass media--Political aspects--History  Search this
War correspondents--History  Search this
Censorship--History  Search this
Civil-military relations--History  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Campaigns  Search this
Public opinion--History  Search this
Censorship  Search this
Civil-military relations  Search this
Mass media--Political aspects  Search this
Military campaigns  Search this
Press coverage  Search this
Public opinion  Search this
War correspondents  Search this
Call number:
D799.U6 C385 2021 (Internet)
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1151317

Enola Gay on Display

Subject:
Enola Gay (Bomber)  Search this
National Air and Space Museum  Search this
Enola Gay (Exhibition) (1995: Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Physical description:
Number of Images: 1 ; Color: Color ; Size: 6.55w x 10h ; Type of Image: Object; Exhibit; Interior ; Medium: Photographic Print
Type:
Object
Interior
Exhibit
Place:
Hiroshima-shi (Japan)
Japan
Date:
c. 1995
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
B-29 bomber  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Exhibitions  Search this
Controversies  Search this
Standard number:
95-4624
Restrictions & Rights:
No restrictions
Data Source:
Smithsonian Archives - History Div
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sic_12856

509th Composite Group Aircraft Photography

Extent:
0.01 Cubic feet (8 photographs)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1945
Summary:
This collection consists of eight photographs of United States military aircraft taken sometime during 1945, probably at one of the US Army Air Forces fields on Tinian, in the Mariana Islands.
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes four photographs of Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber aircraft assigned to the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) 509th Composite Group: "Enola Gay" (which dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan), "Bockscar" (which dropped the atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan), and "The Great Artiste" (which flew as on observation aircraft on both atomic missions). Also included are photographs showing the aircraft nose art on two US Navy Consolidated PB4Y Liberators ("Lady Luck" and "Impatient Virgin") and views of two USAAF fighters (North American P-51 "Snortin Phyllie" and the burnt-out remains of a crashed Republic P-47 Thunderbolt). All photographs are believed to have been taken on Tinian in the Mariana Islands sometime during 1945, most likely at North Field.
Arrangement:
The original photographs were copied in 1988 and assigned Smithsonian Institution negative numbers 88-547 through 88-554; images are presented online in negative number order. Original prints are stored by subject in the National Air and Space Museum Technical Reference Files, NASM.XXXX.1183.
Biographical / Historical:
In 1944, donor Ed Mahaffey was sent to Tinian, Mariana Islands, with the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) 77th Air Services Group as ground support for the Twentieth Air Force's Boeing B-29 Superfortress Program. The eight photographs in this collection (taken sometime in 1945) were sent to Mahaffey after his return to the U.S. in January 1946 by a friend in the 77th Air Services Group.
Provenance:
Ed Mahaffey, gift, 1988, NASM.1988.0027
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Citation:
509th Composite Group Aircraft Photography, Acc. NASM.1988.0027, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1988.0027
See more items in:
509th Composite Group Aircraft Photography
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg254c51f62-0ea9-422a-83bd-ce0d853d6e21
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1988-0027
Online Media:

Lee Ya-Ching Papers

Creator:
Ya-Ching, Lee  Search this
Extent:
11.9 Cubic feet (22 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scripts (documents)
Photographs
Maps
Scrapbooks
Date:
1938-1970
Summary:
This collection consists of 11.9 cubic feet of material chronicling Lee Ya-Ching's role as a pilot trying to raise funds for China during World War II. The collection contains the following types of material: correspondence, both official and personal; maps; publications; newspapers; invitation; programs from events; lecture notes; scripts from radio shows; photographs, both official and snapshots; trip schedules and agendas; address books; scrapbooks; and official paperwork and licenses.
Scope and Content note:
This collection consists of 11.9 cubic feet of material chronicling Lee Ya-Ching's role as a pilot trying to raise funds for China during World War II. The collection contains the following types of material: correspondence, both official and personal; maps; publications; newspapers; invitations; programs from events; lecture notes; scripts from radio shows; photographs, both official and snapshots; trip schedules and agendas; address books; scrapbooks; and official paperwork and licenses.

Note: The digital images shown for this collection were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product which did not reproduce all materials found in this collection; some items have not been scanned. In addition, some materials have been excluded from display due to copyright, trademark, or patent restrictions.
Arrangement:
This collection of materials listed in the finding aid is arranged into two series, Ms Lee's personal papers and her professional papers. Within each series, items are arranged by material type then chronologically. No attempt was made to translate foreign language material in the collection.
Biographical/Historical note:
Lee Ya-Ching was born in Canton, China in 1912. As an only child who lost her mother at a young age, Ya-Ching was raised by her father and grandmother. Under her father's guidance she learned many skills, including martial arts, some previously restricted to male children. Ya-Ching attended English schools in Hong Kong and Shanghai and at the age of 16 was sent to London to attend finishing school.

In 1929 at the age of 17, Ya-Ching went to Geneva, Switzerland. It is there that she took her first ride in an airplane and vowed to learn how to fly. She enrolled in Ecole Aero Club de Suisse and, in 1934, became the first woman to receive a pilot's license from the school. Determined to continue her education, Ya-Ching went to the United States and attended the Boeing School of Aeronautics in Oakland, California in 1935. In November of that year she became the first woman licensed through the Boeing School. Upon completion of her training at the Boeing school Ya-Ching returned to China and began campaigning for a Chinese pilot's license, eventually obtaining the license in 1936. Seeing a need to train new pilots, Ya-Ching and some fellow pilots opened a civilian flying school in Shanghai in 1936.

When Japan invaded China in 1937, Ya-Ching volunteered to fly for her country, but was refused. Undeterred, she served her country by establishing hospitals. Leaving Shanghai for Hong Kong just before the city fell, she was finally given the opportunity to fly for China by piloting Red Cross planes ferrying supplies from Hong Kong to Canton. Realizing that China needed aid and supplies, Ya-Ching embarked on a Goodwill Tour of the United States and Canada in 1938. When the war prevented her return to China, Ya-Ching continued the tour expanding her appearances into South America.

Not much is known of Ya-Ching's life after the war. She returned to Hong Kong for a number of years. In the 1960's she returned to California, where she died in 1998 at the age of 86.

Time Line of Lee Ya-Ching

xxxx -- The following timeline covers key events in Ya-Ching's life, as well world events. Events involving Ya-Ching are shown in normal type world events are shown in italics.

1909 -- M. Vallon flies first plane in China

1911 -- China ousts the 2000 year old Imperial System for a Republic

April 16, 1912 -- Lee Ya-Ching is born in Canton, China

1916 -- Ya-Ching's mother dies of tuberculosis

1917 -- China enters World War 1 on the side of the Allies

1926 -- Begins career as a movie actress

1928 -- Leaves the film industry and goes to school in England

1929 -- The CCP (Chinese Communist Party) is ousted from China Goes to Switzerland

September 1931 -- Japan seizes control of Manchuria

November 1931 -- CCP resurfaces in China and forms the Chinese Soviet Republic in Jiangxi Province

May 1932 -- Amelia Earhart becomes first woman to solo across the Atlantic

1933 -- Begins flying lessons at Geneva's Cointrin-Ecole d'Aviation

1934 -- Receives her pilot's license from Ecole AĆ©ro Club de Suisse

1935 -- Attends and receives license from the Boeing School of Aeronautics in Oakland, California

1935 -- Falls out of an aerobatic plane, earning her membership in the Caterpillar Club

1936 -- Receives her pilot's license from the Chinese Government First domestic airline established in China Opens a civilian flying school in Shanghai

1937 -- Flies for the Red Cross ferrying supplies from Hong Kong to Canton Japan invades China Earns Hong Kong commercial pilot's license Helps establish hospitals in Shanghai

1938 -- Begins goodwill tour of United States and Canada

1939 -- Appears in US film Disputed Passage with Dorothy Lamour

1940 -- Flies "Estrella China" to Caribbean, Central and South America Aids Ruth Nichols in raising money for Relief Wings

1941 -- Begins working for United China Relief

December 7, 1941 -- Bombing of Pearl Harbor forces American entry into World War II

1944 -- Begins Goodwill and Fund Raising tour of South America and Caribbean

August 1945 -- Atom bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, followed by Japanese surrender and end of World War II

1946 -- Returns to China and retires

1946 -- Fighting between CCP and KMT (Nationalist party) resumes

October 1949 -- KMT retreats to Taiwan Mao Zedong establishes the People's Republic of China

1950 -- Receives Hong Kong private pilot's license

1963 -- Receives Hong Kong Special Purpose Pilot's license

1971 -- Permanently moves to the United States

1997 -- British rule ends in Hong Kong

January 28, 1998 -- Dies at the age of 86
Provenance:
Pax Cheng and Mary Wolfson, Gift, 2007, NASM.2008.0009.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945 -- Civilian relief  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- China  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Women air pilots  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scripts (documents)
Photographs
Maps
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers, NASM.2008.0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2008.0009
See more items in:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg27416a506-87bb-4344-94a5-144163ec40fe
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2008-0009
Online Media:

The Atomic Bomb [Knudsen]

Extent:
0.53 Cubic feet (20 by 24 by 1 inch flat box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1945
Summary:
This collection consists of an 18 inch by 21 inch spiral book, entitled, The Atomic Bomb, which was created by the United States Army Air Forces in 1945 to commemorate the success of the atomic bombs and the end of World War II.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of an 18 inch by 21 inch spiral book, entitled, The Atomic Bomb, which was created by the United States Army Air Forces in 1945 to commemorate the success of the atomic bombs and the end of World War II. This 17 page publication includes text, maps, and strike photography of the two atomic bomb sites, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, 1945. This copy was given to Captain Roy F. Knudsen.
Arrangement:
No arrangement as collection is just one item.
Biographical / Historical:
Boeing's B-29 Superfortress was the most sophisticated propeller-driven bomber of World War II, and the first bomber to house its crew in pressurized compartments. Although designed to fight in the European theater, the B-29 found its niche on the other side of the globe. In the Pacific, B-29s delivered a variety of aerial weapons: conventional bombs, incendiary bombs, mines, and two nuclear weapons. On August 6, 1945, the Boeing B-29 Superfortress, Silverplate, "Enola Gay" dropped the first atomic weapon used in combat on Hiroshima, Japan. On August 9, 1945, the Boeing B-29 Superfortress, Silverplate, "Bockscar" dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan.
Captain Roy F. Knudsen (1918 - 2011), graduated from the 10th Class of the Aviation Cadet Detachment at Scott Field, Illinois in August, 1942. Initially assigned to the 1st Mapping Group at Bolling Field, Washington, DC, Knudsen was later rassigned to the 2nd Photo Charting Squadron at Felts Field, WA. In August, 1944, Knudson was assigned to the 1st Photo Charting Group while later in October of that year he was assigned to the 3rd Photo Reconnaissance Squadron, both located at Buckley Field, CO. In April, 1945, he was sent to Smoky Hill Army Air Field in Salina, KS, for training on communications equipment installation for B-29 aircraft. He was then deployed to the Pacific Theater, based on Guam where his squadron was responsible for the aerial reconnaissance leading up to and following the atomic bomb attacks in August of 1945 and the end of the war. He left active duty upon his arrival home in February 1946.
Provenance:
Gary Knudsen, Gift, 2020, NASM.2020.0029
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Boeing B-29 Superfortress, Silverplate "Bocks Car"  Search this
Boeing B-29 Superfortress, Silverplate "Enola Gay"  Search this
Atomic bomb  Search this
Citation:
The Atomic Bomb [Knudsen], NASM.2020.0029, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2020.0029
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2d00f8450-ffe8-4619-acf5-e39ce2495ab8
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2020-0029

World War II Propaganda Leaflets

Creator:
United States. Army. Air Corps  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet ((1 folder))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Leaflets
Date:
1945
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of three 5.5 x 8.5 inch leaflets, printed on both sides. They contain text in Japanese as well as images. Caption information from an unknown source is provided for some of the leaflets. Leaflet No. 2101 reads, "This is a message from the President of the United States, Harry Truman, to the people of Japan. The only way to avoid complete destruction of your family, home, economy, and nation is to immediately cease all military activities and surrender unconditionally. If you continue your futile resistance, we will be forced to bring unnecessary destruction upon the nation. This damage will be far greater than those received by Germany." This leaflet has an image of Harry Truman, one of a Japanese woman holding a baby, and another of Japanese fishermen in boats. The leaflet also has an image of bombed buildings with the caption, "Save your nation from destruction" and an image of a B-29 in flight captioned "Superfortress above Tokyo." Leaflet No. 2097 has an image of an emaciated man and a body of water on one side and reads, "A year after the supplies were cut off to an isolated island in the souther [sic] sea...This soldier and the floating debris speak the truth about this war." Leaflet No. 2094 has an image of President Truman and various military equipment on one side and reads, "In his message to the Japanese people, the President of the United States, Harry Truman says 'The term "unconditional surrender" is strictly a military term. We only demand the military to surrender its weapons. We do not intend to enslave or exterminate the people of Japan. The former Prime Minister Gen. Koiso gave a false interpretation of this term in order to forcefully continue the war that cannot be won.'" The reverse of this pamphlet reads, "Unconditional surrender means the surrender of all weapons" and features an image of an unidentified military officer signing papers and a second image of a group of civilians standing by military personnel.
Biographical / Historical:
Shortly before the crew of the B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay completed their mission to bomb Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, U.S. pilots dropped leaflets over Japan warning citizens of coming destruction. The leaflets warned Japanese citizens that their government was leading them to death and that the US government had no wish to kill civilians.
Provenance:
Unknown, Gift, Unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Aerial operations  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Propaganda  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Leaflets
Citation:
World War II Propaganda Leaflets, Accession XXXX-0846, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0846
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2ff10b163-6776-469f-8452-11b1ddc51cbc
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0846

World War II Propaganda Leaflet Slides

Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet (1 folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Date:
1945
Summary:
Shortly before the crew of the B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay completed their mission to bomb Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, U.S. pilots dropped leaflets over Japan warning citizens to evacuate the cities. This collection consists of four original leaflets, as well as 15 color slides taken by the National Air and Space Museum photo lab of the propaganda leaflets
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of four original leaflets, printed on both sides that range in size from 5.5 by 7.5 inches up to 10.75 by 8 inches. The collection also includes 15 color slides taken by the National Air and Space Museum photo lab of the propaganda leaflets, some of which appear to be duplicates.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged by type of material.
Biographical / Historical:
Shortly before the crew of the B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay completed their mission to bomb Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, U.S. pilots dropped leaflets over Japan warning citizens to evacuate the cities. The leaflets warned Japanese citizens that their government was leading them to death and that the U. S. government had no wish to kill civilians. I.A. Kurzman was a machinist mate, 2nd class stationed in the Pacific aboard the USS Wasp (CV-18) from which the aircraft carried the leaflets.
Provenance:
I.A. Kurzman, Gift, 1985, NASM.2008.0018
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945 -- Propaganda  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Aerial operations  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Slides (photographs)
Citation:
World War II Propaganda Leaflet Slides, NASM.2008.0018, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2008.0018
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2e44cb1b0-1176-4a9b-ac06-99b0e2b6a3c6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2008-0018

William Jones World War II Scrapbook

Creator:
Jones, William  Search this
Extent:
0.49 Cubic feet (1 box.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Digital images
Place:
Nagasaki (Japan)
Date:
bulk 1943 - 1946
Summary:
This collection consists of William Jones' World War II scrapbook.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of William Jones' World War II scrapbook. The scrapbook measures 10.125 by 12.5 by 4.25 inches and contains 215 pages plus inserted pockets holding additional documents and photos. The scrapbook includes maps; patches and images of insignia; Jones' military records; news clippings; foreign currency; drawings; a technical drawing of a Boeing B-17G Flying Fortress; fabric from a Japanese aircraft; a typewritten narrative by Jones of his time in the U.S. Army Air Corps; a piece of paper autographed by Harry S. Truman; an Office of Civilian Personnel Recreational Guide to the Tokyo area; vectographs and two pairs of viewing glasses; information on Jones' donations to other museums; and numerous photographs, many of which were taken by Jones. Subjects of the photographs include daily life in the U.S. Army Air Corps; portraits of various military personnel; scenes in various parts of the Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan; views of bombing damage in Japan; prints from gun camera film of Japanese aircraft being shot down; and aerial views of Itazuke Airfield and Nagasaki and Hiroshima after the atomic bombing took place. The aerial photos of Nagasaki are signed by Fred J. Olivi (co-pilot of the Boeing B-29 Superfortress, Silverplate Bocks Car) and the aerial photographs of Hiroshima are signed by Paul Warfield Tibbets, Theodore J. "Dutch" Van Kirk, and Thomas Wilson Ferebee (pilot, navigator, and bombardier respectively of the Boeing B-29, Silverplate Enola Gay). Aircraft depicted in the photographs include the North American P-51 Mustang; Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress; Douglas C-54 Skymaster; Consolidated B-24 Liberator; Stinson (Aircraft) L-5 Sentinel; Noorduyn Norseman; Mitsubishi A6M5 Reisen (Zero Fighter) Zeke; and Nakajima J1N1-S Gekko (Moonlight) Irving (Night Fighter Model 11). The collection also includes the publication, How to Make Polaroid Vectographs, published by the Polaroid Corporation in November 1943, as well as four CDs containing high resolution scans of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki aerial views and scans of other pages in the scrapbook.
Arrangement:
No arrangement, single item.
Biographical / Historical:
William Jones was an aerial photographer in the Army Air Corps during World War II. During the occupation of Japan, Jones photographed the atomic bomb damage of both Hiroshima and Nagasaki at low altitude. After his discharge he continued in his photography career, owning and operating a studio, Jones Photos, in Columbia City, Indiana, for over 43 years.
Provenance:
William Jones, Gift, 2006, NASM.2006.0067
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Atomic bomb  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Japan -- Hiroshima  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Genre/Form:
Digital images
Citation:
William Jones World War II Scrapbook, NASM.2006.0067, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2006.0067
See more items in:
William Jones World War II Scrapbook
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg22440bdb0-7661-4899-a70f-14c4127dec5a
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2006-0067
Online Media:

Sea Air Operations Gallery Collection

Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.). Division of Aeronautics  Search this
Names:
Enterprise (Aircraft carrier : CV-6)  Search this
Midway (Aircraft carrier : CV-41)  Search this
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.). Division of Aeronautics  Search this
Extent:
2.93 Cubic feet ((6 legal document boxes) (1 slim document box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives
Photographs
Place:
Hiroshima-shi (Japan) -- History -- Bombardment, 1945
Date:
[ca. 1940s, 1980s]
Scope and Contents:
Series I of this collection consists of the following: seven folders containing almost 200 photographs and negatives on display in the exhibit, four series of slides (two detailing the U.S.S. Midway used for background research, one detailing documents and photos of the Philippine Sea battle, and of the finished museum exhibit) and the exhibit script. Series II is a collection of images that were collected for the Sea Air Operations Gallery but were not used in the exhibit itself. It consists of 17 folders of photographs and negatives dealing with the following subjects: Pearl Harbor, Pacific battleship battles of 1942-1945, US and Japanese commanders, aircraft carriers, aces, the USS Enterprise, Guadalcanal, USMC air operations, Grumman workers, Manila atrocities, miscellaneous aircraft and miscellaneous photos. In Series I, 33 of the photograph negatives have no corresponding prints in the folders but are on display downstairs. Seven of the photos of a more graphic nature have no accompanying print nor are they on display. Series III consists of research material gathered in support of the Sea Air Operation Gallery. Series IV consists of slide images taken by Lt. William G. Lotz, USN, aboard the USS Midway circa 1989-1990. Series III and IV were merged with the exiting collection in 1998.
Biographical / Historical:
The National Air and Space Museum's Sea Air Operations Gallery details the operations of carriers and their aircraft, both of the World War II era and the present day. Featured are panels focusing on carrier-verses-carrier battles fought by the U.S. and Japanese navies during World War II: the Battle of the Coral Sea, the Battle of Midway, the Battle of the Eastern Solomons, the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, the Battle of the Philippine Sea, and the Battle for Leyte Gulf. The exhibit also highlights other Pacific missions, from Pearl Harbor, through Midway, to the dropping of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
NASM generated, transfer, 1995, 1995-0040, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Pearl Harbor (Hawaii), Attack on, 1941  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Atrocities  Search this
Midway, Battle of, 1942  Search this
Coral Sea, Battle of the, 1942  Search this
Philippine Sea, Battles of the, 1944  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Japan -- Hiroshima  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Campaigns -- Pacific Ocean  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Aerial operations  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Aircraft carriers  Search this
Naval aviation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Photographs
Identifier:
NASM.1995.0040
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2ff2a6f50-7c15-4707-b8fa-5bc0fad13f14
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1995-0040

World War II Japanese Bombing Collection

Extent:
0.1 Cubic feet ((1 folder))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Reports
Place:
Hiroshima-shi (Japan) -- History -- Bombardment, 1945
Date:
1945
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes leaflets, photos and reports relating to the United States bombing missions, both conventional and atomic, against Japan during 1945. Included are propaganda leaflets dropped by the United States over Japanese cities warning of bombings, including English translations of the leaflets. There is also a formerly restricted comment on engine pressure ratios, and a copy of eight congratulatory telegrams to the bombers. The photographs include aerial photos and negatives of bombings of Japanese cities of Kobe, Kyushu, Tokyo, Kure, and Nakajima, as well as the Mitsubishi Engine Plant; Boeing B-29s over Fujiyama and Yokohama; and two photographs of Hiroshima before and after the atomic bomb was dropped. There are formerly confidential bombing reports by the 499th Bombardment Group from March, 1945, for the cities of Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka, Kobe, and the Tachiarai Machine Works; and a report, "Incendiary Raids by B-29s," from the 73rd Bombardment Wing dated 6/15/45.'
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
David Dibelius, Gift, 1995, 1995-0037, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945 -- Aerial operations  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Japan -- Hiroshima  Search this
Boeing B-29 Superfortress  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Propaganda  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Airplanes, Military  Search this
Atomic bomb  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Reports
Identifier:
NASM.1995.0037
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2d4e07a80-2cca-4069-ae65-259ad750b334
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1995-0037

Boeing B-29 Superfortress, Silverplate "Enola Gay" and Radio Press News Collection

Creator:
Rittko, Raymond N.  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet (2 folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Press releases
Date:
bulk 1945
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains two photographs of the Boeing B-29 Superfortress, Silverplate "Enola Gay" on the island of Tinian, taken by Raymond N. Rittko.

There are also two Radio Press News releases for the "U.S.S. Guilford", dated December 12 and December 19, 1945. The releases detail post-war news stories from around the world.
Biographical / Historical:
Tinian Island, part of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, fell to the Japanese after World War I. It was captured by the United States on June 15, 1944. From December 1944 until the end of World War II, the island served as an airbase for Boeing B-29s. It was the loading point for atomic weapons onto the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Silverplate "Enola Gay".

Boeing's B-29 Superfortress was the most sophisticated propeller-driven bomber of World War II, and the first bomber to house its crew in pressurized compartments. Although designed to fight in the European theater, the B-29 found its niche on the other side of the globe. In the Pacific, B-29s delivered a variety of aerial weapons: conventional bombs, incendiary bombs, mines, and two nuclear weapons. On August 6, 1945, the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay dropped the first atomic weapon used in combat on Hiroshima, Japan.

The "U.S.S Guildford" (APA-112) was a Bayfield-class attack transport. The vessel assisted in Operation "Magic Carpet", which facilitated the return of of troops from the Pacific theatre and the supplying of troops for the occupation of Japan.
Provenance:
R. Damian Mycka, Gift, 1991, NASM.1991.0095.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Press releases
Citation:
Boeing B-29 Superfortress, Silverplate "Enola Gay" and Radio Press News Collection, Acc. NASM.1991.0095, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1991.0095
See more items in:
Boeing B-29 Superfortress, Silverplate "Enola Gay" and Radio Press News Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg209c15fb8-b15e-4056-a442-64dc61573b03
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1991-0095
Online Media:

Anthony Lanza World War II Letters and Photographs

Creator:
Lanza, Kenneth  Search this
Lanza, Anthony, 1925-1995  Search this
Extent:
1.33 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Diaries
Letters (correspondence)
Photographs
Place:
Japan -- World War, 1939-1945
Hiroshima-shi (Japan) -- History -- Bombardment, 1945
Date:
1925-1946
undated
bulk 1940-1946
Summary:
World War II personal papers, photographs, and printed material of Anthony R. Lanza, who served in the U.S. Army in Japan between 1944 and 1946.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents Anthony Lanza's United States Army service in Japan during World War II, mostly through letters and photographs. Also included are miscellaneous items such as newsletters, clippings, drawings, Japanese travel and language guides, and official military papers. Particular research value lies in the photographic documentation of Hiroshima shortly after the atomic bomb was dropped, photographs of the Enola Gay, and an eyewitness account by a survivor.

Series 1, Photographs, 1925, 1944, 1945, 1946, undated, contains documentation of Lanza's time in Japan during World War II, divided by subject matter. Many of the photographs are annotated on the reverse side. Included in the collection are photographs of the Enola Gay, Hiroshima shortly after the atomic bomb was dropped, and the 308th General Hospital in Japan. There are also several photographs of landscapes and Japanese citizens. The folder containing street scenes includes one formal portrait of a Japanese family Lanza encountered in his travels. There are also photographs not taken in Japan, including images of Niagara Falls.

Series 2, Personal Papers, 1940s, undated, contains various papers that belonged to Lanza, including his diary, several letters to his mother written from Japan, a scrapbook, a first person account of the Hiroshima bombing written by Reverend John A. Siemes, military papers (special orders, immunization records, payroll information, and discharge papers), military newsletters, newspaper and magazine clippings, and various sketches and notes. The newspaper and magazine subjects contain information regarding a relative, a blurb about a DDT insecticide experiment, and information regarding musical performances.

Series 3, Materials Related to Japan, 1945, undated, contains two Japanese language books, a tourist magazine, and a book created for tourism about Japan dated 1945.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in three series.

Series 1, Photographs, 1925, 1944, 1945, 1946, undated

Series 2, Personal Papers, 1940s, undated

Series 3, Materials Related to Japan, 1945, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. Anthony R. Lanza was born July 20, 1925, in New York City. He was inducted into the United States Army in March of 1944, worked at the 308th General Hospital in Japan, and received an honorable discharge in May of 1946. He attained the rank of Master Sergeant and received the American Campaign Medal, Good Conduct Medal, Asiatic Pacific Campaign Medal, and World War II Victory Medal. Lanza later worked as a public school teacher in Union, New Jersey, and Valley Stream, New York, as well as a faculty member of the School of Education at New York University. He also served as Chief of the NESA Education Branch in AID/Washington, as an Education Advisor in Turkey for nine years, and as a USAID Chief Education Officer in Guatemala, Afghanistan, and Pakistan for twelve years. He went on to work as Regional Education Officer for Africa for the Office of Overseas Schools in the U.S. State Department.
Related Materials:
World War II Bomb Damage Photographs contains photographs of the aftermath of the bombings in Nagasaki, Japan, and Manila in the Philippines. Emilio Segre Collection documents research relating to the development of the atomic bomb.
Provenance:
Anthony Lanza's son, Kenneth Lanza, donated this collection in 2005 and additional materials were donated in 2007.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Atomic bomb  Search this
Japanese language -- 1940-1950  Search this
Nuclear warfare  Search this
Military occupation -- Japan  Search this
Travel -- Japan  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings -- 1940-1950
Diaries -- 1940-1950
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1940-1950
Citation:
Anthony Lanza World War II Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0910
See more items in:
Anthony Lanza World War II Letters and Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep89becc5b3-fb32-4904-8c51-4647468a7677
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0910
Online Media:

History and the Culture Wars: The Case of the Smithsonian Institution's Enola Gay Exhibition

Author:
Kohn, Richard H  Search this
Subject:
Crouch, Tom D  Search this
Adams, Robert McCormick 1926-2018  Search this
Harwit, Martin 1931-  Search this
Heyman, Ira Michael 5/30/1930-11/19/2011  Search this
Neufeld, Michael J. 1951-  Search this
Gayler, Noel 1914-  Search this
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.) Dept. of Astronautics  Search this
United States Congress  Search this
Enola Gay (Bomber)  Search this
National Air and Space Museum  Search this
National Air and Space Museum Research Advisory Committee  Search this
Commission on the Future of the Smithsonian Institution 1993-1995  Search this
Board of Regents  Search this
Air Force Association  Search this
Enola Gay (Exhibition) (1995: Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Crossroads: The End of World War II, the Atomic Bomb, and the Origins of the Cold War, The (Exhibition)  Search this
Physical description:
Number of pages : 28; Page numbers : 1036-1063
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Hiroshima-shi (Japan)
Nagasaki-shi (Japan)
Date:
December 1995
Topic:
Museum directors  Search this
Museums--Educational aspects  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Museum techniques  Search this
B-29 bomber  Search this
Secretaries  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Museum curators  Search this
Politics and culture  Search this
Learned institutions and societies  Search this
Federal Government, Relations with SI  Search this
Veterans  Search this
Lobbying  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Atomic bomb  Search this
Exhibitions  Search this
Controversies  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Archives - History Div
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sic_11850

The Manhattan Project Videohistory Collection

Creator::
Manhattan Project (U.S.)  Search this
Extent:
29 videotapes (Reference copies). 75 digital .wmv files and .rm files (Reference copies).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Transcripts
Place:
Trinity Test Site (N.M.)
Hiroshima-shi (Japan) -- History -- Bombardment, 1945
Nagasaki (Japan)
Nagasaki-shi (Japan) -- History -- Bombardment, 1945
Date:
1987-1990
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.

Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were taped in offices, factories, quarries, laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education, and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.
Descriptive Entry:
Stanley Goldberg, consulting historian for the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History (NMAH), recorded eighteen video sessions with fifty-five participants involved in the engineering, physics, and culmination of the Manhattan Project. Goldberg examined the research and technologies necessary to realize the uranium and plutonium bombs. He supplemented interviews with visual documentation of the industrial plants that refined and separated the isotopes, and of the machinery that delivered and dropped the bombs. Interviewees explained the other steps of designing, building, testing and detonating an atomic bomb. Discussions with participants also elicited a social history of the Project as recalled by various men and women responsible for different duties in different locales. Between January 1987 and June 1990 the sessions were recorded on-site or in-studio in Hanford, Washington; Boston, Massachusetts; Oak Ridge and Louisville, Tennessee; Alamogordo and Los Alamos, New Mexico; Washington, D.C.; and Suitland, Maryland. The sessions are divided into five series: Hanford, Oak Ridge, Cambridge, Los Alamos, and Alberta.

This collection consists of eighteen interview sessions, separated into five series, totaling approximately 47:00 hours of recordings, and 1188 pages of transcript.

Please note that Sessions 14 and 15 in Series Four are comprised of dual sets of tape from two cameras positioned at different angles.
Historical Note:
The United States government began underwriting investigations of the feasibility of atomic weapons in October 1941. Within a year, promising research at several universities, particularly at the Metallurgical Laboratory of the University of Chicago, showed that it was possible to produce atomic bombs based on the chain-reacting fission of uranium 235 isotope or of plutonium. This led to the reorganization of the Manhattan District, or "Project," of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to make these bombs a reality. Brigadier General Leslie R. Groves directed and coordinated the Project from 1942 to 1945, spending 2.3 billion dollars on nuclear reactors and chemical separation plants at Hanford, Washington, and Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and on the weapon research and design laboratory at Los Alamos, New Mexico. The first plutonium bomb was successfully detonated at Alamogordo, New Mexico, on July 16, 1945. The B-29 bomber Enola Gay exploded the first uranium bomb, "Little Boy," over Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, 1945; the B-29 Bock's Car exploded the second plutonium bomb, "Fat Man," over Nagasaki, Japan, two days later.
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Atomic bomb  Search this
Women -- History  Search this
Science -- History  Search this
Technology -- History  Search this
Military history  Search this
Physics  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Transcripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9531, The Manhattan Project Videohistory Collection
Identifier:
Record Unit 9531
See more items in:
The Manhattan Project Videohistory Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9531

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