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German World War II Ace Collection [Schulze]

Creator:
Schulze, Kurt  Search this
Names:
Boehm, Hans Otto  Search this
Elder, Georg  Search this
Garland, Adolf  Search this
Hartmann, Erich  Search this
Hermann, Hajo  Search this
Hrabak, Dietrich  Search this
Molder, Jagerblatt  Search this
Neumann, Edward  Search this
Rall, Guenther  Search this
Rudel, Hans-Ulrich  Search this
Schuck, Walter  Search this
Spate, Wolfgang  Search this
Steinoff, Johannes  Search this
Toliver, Raymond  Search this
Extent:
6 Cubic feet ((12 boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
bulk 1940s-2000s
Summary:
The German World War II Ace Collection consists of 6 linear feet of correspondence and photographs of German aces and pilots of World War II collected by Kurt Schulze and Raymond Toliver.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 6 linear feet of mostly correspondence and photographs gathered by Schulze or Toliver, of German aces and pilots, including the following: Hans Otto Boehm, Erich Hartmann, Adolf Garland, Gunther Rall, Dietrich Hrabak, Edward Neumann, Hajo Herrmann, Georg Elder, Johannes Steinnoff, Hans-Ulrich Rudel, Jagerblatt Molder, Walter Schuck and Wolfgang Spate. There are also German combat reports, accounts by German test pilots on World War II captured aircraft, information on the Tirpitz raid, photographs of Knights' Cross and Oak Leaves recipients, and material relating to the JG5 and JG51 Squadrons. Besides the correspondence and photography, the collection consists of obituaries, programs, publications and over 70 videos.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
The German World War II Ace Collection [Schulze] is arranged by content type.
Biographical / Historical:
Kurt Schulze (b. 1921) began his German military service in 1939 as a cadet with the Air Service Corps. He started out as a wireless operator and air traffic controller before becoming a navigation officer. As a Navigator, he flew 23 night missions in Dornier Do 217s over England. In September of 1943, he received his wings as a pilot and in March 1944 he started fighter pilot training. From then until May 1945, Schulze flew 103 missions. Sixty-five of those missions were in Messerschmitt BF-109 on the Russo-Finnish border. When Finland signed a peace agreement with Russia, Schulze's unit was moved to Northern Norway. Schulze's last nine missions were in command of the first JG-51 squadron. After the war, he was turned over to the American Forces and then to the French. In 1951 he moved to California and in 1958 he became a US citizen. Schulze had a strong friendship with Colonel Raymond Toliver, author of books on German World War II pilots, and he translated German correspondence and documents for Toliver's research, as the author did not speak or write German.
Provenance:
Kurt Schulze, Gift, 2012
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945 -- Germany -- Refugees  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Aerial operations  Search this
Citation:
German World War II Ace Collection [Schulze], Accession 2012-0025, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2012.0025
See more items in:
German World War II Ace Collection [Schulze]
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2732e99ae-8d93-4230-9066-4f2207476454
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2012-0025
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Eleanor Sayre, 1993 April 19-1997 January 10

Interviewee:
Sayre, Eleanor A. (Eleanor Axson), 1916-2001  Search this
Sayre, Eleanor A. (Eleanor Axson), 1916-2001  Search this
Interviewer:
Brown, Robert F  Search this
Subject:
Ames, Winslow  Search this
Constable, W. G. (William George)  Search this
Edgell, George Harold  Search this
Forbes, Edward Waldo  Search this
Goya, Francisco  Search this
Hofer, Philip  Search this
Karolik, Maxim  Search this
King, Georgiana Goddard  Search this
Rathbone, Perry Townsend  Search this
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn  Search this
Rosenberg, Jakob  Search this
Rossiter, Henry P. (Henry Preston)  Search this
Sachs, Paul J. (Paul Joseph)  Search this
Seybolt, George Crossan  Search this
Sizer, Theodore  Search this
Swarzenski, Hanns  Search this
Washburn, Gordon B. (Gordon Bailey)  Search this
Wilson, Woodrow  Search this
Ashmolean Museum  Search this
Bryn Mawr College  Search this
Fogg Art Museum  Search this
Harvard University  Search this
Lyman Allyn Museum  Search this
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston  Search this
Museo del Prado  Search this
Rhode Island School of Design. Museum of Art  Search this
Yale University. Art Gallery  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Place:
Spain -- History -- 1939-1975
Topic:
Jewish refugees -- Germany  Search this
Museum curators -- Massachusetts -- Boston -- Interviews  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13089
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)215869
AAA_collcode_sayre93
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_215869
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Eleanor Sayre

Interviewee:
Sayre, Eleanor A.  Search this
Interviewer:
Brown, Robert F.  Search this
Names:
Ashmolean Museum  Search this
Bryn Mawr College -- Students  Search this
Fogg Art Museum  Search this
Harvard University -- Students  Search this
Lyman Allyn Museum  Search this
Museo del Prado  Search this
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston  Search this
Rhode Island School of Design. Museum of Art  Search this
Yale University. Art Gallery  Search this
Ames, Winslow  Search this
Constable, W. G. (William George), 1887-1976  Search this
Edgell, George Harold, b. 1887  Search this
Forbes, Edward Waldo, 1873-1969  Search this
Goya, Francisco, 1746-1828  Search this
Hofer, Philip, 1898-1984  Search this
Karolik, Maxim  Search this
King, Georgiana Goddard, 1871-1939  Search this
Rathbone, Perry Townsend, 1911-2000  Search this
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn, 1606-1669  Search this
Rosenberg, Jakob, 1893-  Search this
Rossiter, Henry P. (Henry Preston), b. 1885  Search this
Sachs, Paul J. (Paul Joseph), 1878-1965  Search this
Seybolt, George Crossan, 1914-1993  Search this
Sizer, Theodore, 1892-1967  Search this
Swarzenski, Hanns, 1903-1985  Search this
Washburn, Gordon B. (Gordon Bailey), 1904-1983  Search this
Wilson, Woodrow, 1856-1924  Search this
Extent:
213 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Place:
Spain -- History -- 1939-1975
Date:
1993 April 19-1997 January 10
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Eleanor Sayre conducted 1993 April 19-1997 January 10, by Robert F. Brown, for the Archives of American Art.
Sayre talks about her early childhood in Williamstown and Cambridge, Mass.; her family background; visits to the White House with her maternal grandfather, Woodrow Wilson; living abroad while her father was in government service in Bangkok, then Siam (now Thailand), Paris, and Switzerland, with extensive recollections of her brothers and schooling in Europe.
Attending Winsor School in Boston; her mother's death; her years at Bryn Mawr College, including her switch to art history from political science; Georgianna Goddard King as an influential teacher; an internship under Laura Dudley at the Fogg Art Museum's Print Room and the lasting effect of this experience.
Being a graduate student in fine arts at Harvard and the importance of Edward Forbes and Paul Sachs as teachers; her decision not to pursue a PhD; working with Jakob Rosenberg; helping to get young Jews out of Europe; her position as assistant for exhibitions at Yale University Art Gallery under Theodore Sizer; the trauma of her father's internment by the Japanese in the Philippines, where he was High Commissioner and his rescue; and her decision to turn down a military intelligence job in order to work with German Jewish refugees.
Her brief tenure at Lyman-Allyn Museum, Conn., under Winslow Ames; her years in the education department under Lydia "Ma" Powel at the Museum of Art of the Rhode Island School of Design with Gordon Washburn as director; and working closely with Heinrich Schwartz on prints and drawings.
The liberal tradition of her father's wealthy family; her father; being brought to the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston by its curator of prints, Henry Rossiter and on the charming collector and benefactor, Maxim Karolik; MFA curator of paintings, William George Constable; and George Harold Edgell, MFA director.
The collector, Philip Hofer, who by putting his Goya proofs on loan at the MFA, led to Sayre's life-long study of the artist; her research on Goya in Spain; raising of a large sum from Boston businesses to purchase Hofer's prints for the MFA, and the MFA's eminence by the 1960s in Goya's graphic work; the disgusting repression of dissent in Franco-era Spain; Goya's passionate self-assertion, which is what principally attracted Sayre to his work, and his conceptual process and method of work.
Earlier years at the MFA, Boston, including the accessibility of the print department's study rooms; Edwin J. Hipkiss, curator of American decorative arts; the Christmas poetry and prints exhibitions designed as profound learning experiences for a broad public; and being chosen as successor to Rossiter; and further comments on Maxim Karolik.
W.G. Russell Allen and other collectors who gave their collections to the MFA; her efforts to effectively present art to the broad public; her methods of appealing to the public coalescing at the MFA in 1989 with the "Goya and the Spirit of the Enlightenment" exhibition; and an exhibition of the work of Beatrix Potter.
Spain under the dictator, Francisco Franco; her first study in Spain of Goya's drawings and her urging the Prado Museum to conserve its drawings; the Prado's director, F. Sanchez-Canton; her research on prostitution at the Ministry of Justice; being decorated for her recommending the preservation of Goya's art and the marvelous private collections of Goya in Spain; and her obsession with interpreting the meaning of Goya's work.
The MFA, Boston, under the directorship of Perry Rathbone, who wanted many more people involved than had his predecessor, George Harold Edgell, who ran it like a Boston Brahmin Club; Rathbone's accomplishments; his downfall and that of his assistant (and curator of European decorative arts and sculpture) Hanns Swarzenski in bringing a so-called Raphael into this country by irregular means, which led to Rathbone and Swarzenski's firing by George Seybolt, the trustee president; Rathbone's reluctance to hire women curators and Sayre's finally becoming curator of prints and drawings in 1967; her philosophy as curator; on Hanns and Brigitte Swarzenski as dear friends; her exchange of positions with the curator of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, where she put their valuable but neglected print collection in order.
The exhibition and catalog, "Rembrandt: Experimental Etcher," (1969) in collaboration with the Pierpont Morgan Library; general views on exhibitions; co-authoring the exhibition catalog "Goya and the Spiris of Enlightenment" (1989); her contributions to Goya research; her current research and writing on Goya's Capaprichos print series; and her satisfaction in having spent her career in art museums.
Biographical / Historical:
Eleanor A. Sayre (1916-2001) was a curator and art historian from Boston, Mass.
General:
Originally recorded on 8 sound cassettes. Reformatted in 2010 as 15 digital wav files. Duration is 11 hrs., 21 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Occupation:
Art historians -- Interviews  Search this
Printmakers  Search this
Topic:
Jewish refugees -- Germany  Search this
Museum curators -- Massachusetts -- Boston -- Interviews  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.sayre93
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw94605f5ed-1c72-4e2f-92d1-4d6a22a3eaa2
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-sayre93
Online Media:

Expelling the Germans : British opinion and post-1945 population transfer in context / Matthew Frank

Author:
Frank, Matthew James 1973-  Search this
Oxford University Press  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource (x, 320 pages)
Type:
Electronic resources
Electronic books
Place:
Germany
Great Britain
Poland
Czechoslovakia
Date:
2007
1945-
Topic:
Population transfers--Germans  Search this
Population transfers--Germans--Public opinion  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Refugees  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Refugees--Public opinion  Search this
Public opinion  Search this
Germans  Search this
HISTORY--Military--World War II  Search this
Diplomatic relations  Search this
Refugees  Search this
Refugees--Public opinion  Search this
Tyska flyktingar  Search this
Foreign relations  Search this
Call number:
D820.P72
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1149630

Walter and Reimar Horten Interviews [Myhra]

Creator:
Myhra, David  Search this
Names:
Horten, Reimar, 1915-1993  Search this
Horten, Walter, 1912-1988  Search this
Extent:
7.91 Linear feet (20 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1913 -1998
bulk 1982-1988
Summary:
This collection contains interviews with Reimar and Walter Horten that were recorded by David Myhra.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains interviews with Reimar and Walter Horten taped by David Myhra, author of The Horten Brothers and Their All-winged Aircraft. It includes various topics relating to the Hortens, and comprises sixty original tapes donated by Myhra, as well as two copies made by NASM, one consisting of sixty-one master reel-to-reels, and another of 120 reference CD-Rs. A box of "transcripts" for some of the tapes is also included in the collection, although it is unclear which transcripts go with which tapes.
Arrangement:
This finding aid was generated from the original recording labels. Mr. Myhra labeled most of the tapes, but each group of tapes is labeled differently. Dates are included when provided but the list does not follow a chronological order, which is irrelevant anyway considering the wandering nature of Mr. Myhra's interviews. The finding aid is arranged in groups, which roughly correspond to each set of interviews. In addition, NASM has given each tape a new number which runs consecutively from one through sixty. The original number given by David Myhra is listed in the description of each tape. The new NASM numbers for the original tapes correspond to the NASM reel numbers and the NASM CD-R numbers as to make locating each copy more convenient.
Biographical / Historical:
Reimar Horten and his brother Walter, two largely self-taught aircraft designers, were born in Bonn, Germany; Walter on March 3, 1912, and Reimar on March 12, 1915. Their interest in aircraft began as early as 1925 when they joined a fliers' club in Bonn. In 1932 Reimar and Walter commenced work on their first piloted all-wing sailplane the Ho I. The basic concept of the flying wing dates from the dawn of aviation, but the Horten brothers became the virtuosos of this aircraft. The Horten all-wing sailplanes were gliders without a fuselage or tail section. Because the fuselage and the tail section of a regular plane produced 30% to 50% of an airplane's drag, the benefit of the sailplanes was clear. During the time preceding World War II the brothers improved upon the Ho I glider, creating other models including the Ho II, Ho III, and the Ho IV--none of which had any engines. Reimar and Walter joined the Luftwaffe (German Air Force) during the course of the war where Walter flew Messerschmitt Bf-109s for six months and Reimar worked for Operation Sea Lion, whose objective was the invasion of England. Upon the cancellation of this operation the Horten brothers went on to continue their projects, developing many enhanced versions of their original flying-wing. In 1942 Reimar began working on the Ho VII at the Luftwaffe's request, a machine equipped with two pusher-type propellers and a pulse jet engine. However, the Ho VII was not strong enough to fly safely at the greater speeds made possible by the jet, so the brothers began work on the new Ho IX (code named "Go 229"), the first functional jet propelled flying wing. The arrival of the American army in 1945 ended the construction of this type of aircraft. After the war, Reimar moved to Argentina where he continued to develop his unorthodox aircraft designs; Walter stayed in Germany. Walter died in 1988 and Reimar died in 1994.
Provenance:
David Myhra, Gift, 1998
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945 -- Germany -- Refugees  Search this
Gliders (Aeronautics)  Search this
Horten IV  Search this
Horten III (108-250)  Search this
Horten II (1935)  Search this
Horten I Glider (1931)  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Citation:
Walter and Reimar Horten Interviews [Myhra], Acc. 1999-0065, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1999.0065
See more items in:
Walter and Reimar Horten Interviews [Myhra]
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2c29479ec-35d5-43f0-9aa3-1949318566a5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1999-0065
Online Media:

World War II Patriotic cover

Artist:
Jacques Minkus  Search this
Medium:
paper; ink; adhesive
Dimensions:
8.9 x 16.5 cm (3.5 x 6.5 in.)
Type:
Covers & Associated Letters
Place of Destination:
Indiana
Place of Origin:
New York
Date:
April 27, 1945
Topic:
World War II (1939-1945)  Search this
Covers & Letters  Search this
Object number:
2002.2035.93
See more items in:
National Postal Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/hm83bf8483a-bd1c-4b62-a15e-eb0fa6cee5d7
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npm_2002.2035.93

Postcards to a little boy a Kindertransport story Henry Foner - Heinz Lichtwitz ; language and production editor, Ita Shapiro Haber

Title:
Kindertransport story
Author:
Foner, Henry 1932-  Search this
Lichtwitz, Max -1942  Search this
Physical description:
124 pages illustrations (chiefly color), facsimiles 25 x 22 cm
Type:
Biography
Correspondence
Postcards
Biographies
Personal correspondence
Place:
Germany
Berlin
Great Britain
Wales
Swansea
Israel
Großbritannien
Date:
2013
1933-1945
Topic:
Jewish children  Search this
Jewish children in the Holocaust  Search this
Kindertransports (Rescue operations)  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Jews--Rescue  Search this
Jewish refugees  Search this
Jews  Search this
Exil  Search this
Kind  Search this
Juden  Search this
Postkarte  Search this
Postcards  Search this
Jews--History  Search this
Refugee children  Search this
Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)--Rescue  Search this
Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1117821

Fleeing from the Führer : a postal history of refugees from the Nazis / Charmian Brinson & William Kaczynski ; [Foreword by David Beech]

Author:
Brinson, Charmian  Search this
Kaczynski, William  Search this
Physical description:
191 pages : color illustrations ; 26 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
2011
Topic:
Jewish refugees--Correspondence  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Refugees--Correspondence  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1109221

Buried by the Times : the Holocaust and America's most important newspaper / Laurel Leff

Author:
Leff, Laurel 1957-  Search this
Subject:
New York Times Company  Search this
Physical description:
xii, 426 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
2005
Topic:
Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)--Press coverage  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Press coverage  Search this
Journalism--Social aspects  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_763902

Special report of Civilian Defense Division field team no. 82 covering the organization, administration, and operation of reception areas in Bavaria, Germany : dates of survey: 28 June 1945-11 July 1945

Author:
United States Strategic Bombing Survey Civilian Defense Division  Search this
Physical description:
9, [3] leaves ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Germany
Bavaria
Date:
1945
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945--Evacuation of civilians  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Refugees  Search this
Call number:
D809.G3 U58 1945
D809.G3U58 1945
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_335588

German boy : a child in war / Wolfgang W.E. Samuel ; with a foreword by Stephen E. Ambrose

Author:
Samuel, Wolfgang W. E  Search this
Samuel, Wolfgang W. E Coming to Colorado  Search this
Subject:
Samuel, Wolfgang W. E Childhood and youth  Search this
Physical description:
xxi, 424 p. : ill., maps ; 21 cm
Type:
Personal narratives, German
Biography
Place:
Germany
Date:
2001
2000
1945-1955
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Children  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Refugees  Search this
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1014905

The conquerors : Roosevelt, Truman, and the destruction of Hitler's Germany, 1941-1945 / Michael Beschloss

Author:
Beschloss, Michael R  Search this
Subject:
Roosevelt, Franklin D (Franklin Delano) 1882-1945  Search this
Truman, Harry S. 1884-1972  Search this
Morgenthau, Henry 1891-1967  Search this
Physical description:
xiv, 377 p., [16] p. of plates : ill. ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Germany
United States
Date:
2002
C2002
1933-1945
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Reconstruction (1939-1951)  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Diplomatic history  Search this
Foreign relations  Search this
Politics and government  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1020046

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