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Rockwell Kent papers, circa 1840-1993, bulk 1935-1961

Creator:
Kent, Rockwell, 1882-1971  Search this
Kent, Rockwell, 1882-1971  Search this
Subject:
Wildenstein, Felix  Search this
Phillips, Duncan  Search this
Hays, Lee  Search this
Untermeyer, Louis  Search this
Zigrosser, Carl  Search this
Robeson, Paul  Search this
DuBois, W.E.B. (William Edward Burghardt)  Search this
Roosevelt, Franklin D. (Franklin Delano)  Search this
Ruggles, Carl  Search this
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur  Search this
Nearing, Helen  Search this
Nearing, Scott  Search this
Pach, Walter  Search this
Rasmussen, Knud  Search this
Reeves, Ruth  Search this
Seeger, Pete  Search this
Daniel, Charles  Search this
Cleland, T. M. (Thomas Maitland)  Search this
Davies, Arthur B. (Arthur Bowen)  Search this
Chamberlain, J. E.  Search this
Boyesen, Bayard  Search this
Chase, William Merritt  Search this
Freuchen, Peter  Search this
Gellert, Hugo  Search this
Gottlieb, Harry  Search this
Hartley, Marsden  Search this
FitzGerald, James  Search this
Keller, Charles  Search this
Miller, Kenneth Hayes  Search this
Henri, Robert  Search this
Jones, Dan Burne  Search this
United American Artists  Search this
United Office and Professional Workers of America  Search this
United Scenic Artists  Search this
National Farmers' Union (U.S.)  Search this
National Maritime Union of America  Search this
American Artists' Congress  Search this
Artists' Union (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Artists League of America  Search this
Citizens' Committee for Government Arts Projects  Search this
Farmers Union of the New York Milk Shed  Search this
Federal Art Project  Search this
Federal Writers' Project  Search this
Macbeth Gallery  Search this
International Workers Order  Search this
Type:
Poems
Sketches
Business records
Photographs
Drawings
Topic:
Designers -- New York (State)  Search this
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Politics and culture  Search this
Authors -- New York  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- United States -- Political aspects  Search this
Dairy farms  Search this
Federal aid to the arts  Search this
Illustrators -- New York (State)  Search this
Illustration of books  Search this
Works of art  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Civilian relief  Search this
Art and war  Search this
Commercial art  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
Theme:
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9557
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211757
AAA_collcode_kentrock
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211757
Online Media:

Medal of Honor of Joe M. Nishimoto

Maker:
Congress of the United States  Search this
Physical Description:
silk (part: ribbon material)
metal (part: medal material)
Measurements:
medal ribbon: 1 1/2 in x 8 in; 3.81 cm x 20.32 cm
medal: 2 in x 2 1/2 in; 5.08 cm x 6.35 cm
case: 13 in x 11 in x 2 1/2 in; 33.02 cm x 27.94 cm x 6.35 cm
Object Name:
Medal
medal
Place made:
United States: District of Columbia
Date made:
June 21, 2000
Subject:
World War II  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Sharon Logan
ID Number:
2016.0154.01
Accession number:
2016.0154
Catalog number:
2016.0154.01
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Japanese American
Executive Order 9066
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b2-76e6-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1811141
Online Media:

World War I Western Front Maps

Extent:
0.2 Cubic feet (Slim letter box.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1916 - 1918
Summary:
This is a collection of 11 cloth-backed military maps and one paper map of the Western Front in Belgium and France during World War I.
Scope and Contents:
This is a collection of 11 cloth-backed military maps and one paper map of the Western Front in Belgium and France during World War I. Many of the maps are annotated with the movement of the fronts, as well as what appears to be the sites of Battalion Aid Stations for the 28th Infantry Division and its corresponding regiments, including the 105,107, 108, and 109.
Arrangement:
No arrangement.
Provenance:
David Fox, Gift, 1974, NASM.XXXX.1210
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Maps, Military  Search this
28th Infantry Division  Search this
Citation:
World War I Western Front Maps, NASM.XXXX.1210, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.1210
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-1210

Albert K. McCutcheon Collection

Creator:
McCutcheon, Albert K.  Search this
Extent:
0.36 Cubic feet ((1 box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Maps
Technical manuals
Pamphlets
Date:
bulk 1940-1949
Summary:
The Albert K. McCutcheon Collection consists of the following technical manuals and pamphlets: Identification and Tactical Functions of Naval Vessels: Student's Workbook, November 1943; Naval Vessels: Identification and Tactical Functions, July 1943; "Instrument Flying, August 1943; Pilots' Information File, November 1944; Instrument Flying: Basic and Advanced, January 1944; Aircraft Recognition Manual"; German Language Guide; Pocket Guide of Uniform Insignia; Handbook for Army Air Forces Officers; Going Back to Civilian Life, August 1945; Pocket Guide to The Cities of Southern France; Digest of Civil Air Regulations for Pilots; Identification and Tactical Functions of Aircraft Germany Student's Workbook, November 1943; When You Are Overseas These Facts are Vital, July 1943; related worksheets and charts, including one for Chemical Warfare Agents. There is also a January 1945 target map of Northern Germany which shows Allied and enemy air base numbers.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the following technical manuals and pamphlets: Identification and Tactical Functions of Naval Vessels: Student's Workbook, November 1943; Naval Vessels: Identification and Tactical Functions, July 1943; Instrument Flying, August 1943; Pilots' Information File, November 1944; Instrument Flying: Basic and Advanced, January 1944; Aircraft Recognition Manual; German Language Guide; Pocket Guide of Uniform Insignia; Handbook for Army Air Forces Officers; Going Back to Civilian Life, August 1945; Pocket Guide to The Cities of Southern France; Digest of Civil Air Regulations for Pilots; Identification and Tactical Functions of Aircraft Germany Student's Workbook, November 1943; When You Are Overseas These Facts are Vital, July 1943; related worksheets and charts, including one for Chemical Warfare Agents. There is also a January 1945 target map of Northern Germany which shows Allied and enemy air base numbers.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
The Albert K. McCutcheon Collection- is arranged by content type.
Biographical / Historical:
Albert K. McCutcheon served as a fighter pilot in the 362nd Flight Group, 378th Fighter Squadron during World War II. After the war, McCutcheon was a Personnel Training Officer with the 10th Depot Group in Germany.
Provenance:
Albert K. McCutcheon, Gift, 1976.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945 -- Aerial operations  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Fighter pilots  Search this
Genre/Form:
Maps
Technical manuals -- 20th century
Pamphlets
Citation:
Albert K. McCutcheon Collection, Accession XXXX-1121, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.1121
See more items in:
Albert K. McCutcheon Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-1121
Online Media:

Hans Groenhoff Photographic Collection

Creator:
Groenhoff, Hans  Search this
Names:
Groenhoff, Hans  Search this
Extent:
5.27 Cubic feet (41 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Aerial photographs
Date:
1933-1975
Summary:
Hans Groenhoff (1906-1985) was a celebrated American aviation photographer from the 1930s through the 1960s, also working as a pilot, journalist, editor, correspondent, and—in his retirement years—as an aviation tourism publicist for the Bahamas. This collection of 25,550 images consists of Groenhoff's collection of negatives and transparencies, spanning his career from 1933 to 1975.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of Groenhoff's collection of negatives and transparencies, spanning his career from 1933 to 1975, and includes images of military and civilian aircraft and events, glider and sailplane activities, air shows and races, airlines and airports, weather (clouds) and aerial images.
Arrangement:
Series 1: 1962 Acquisition, approximately 24,250 images; photography made by Groenhoff in the period 1933 to 1962, consists of mixed medium format black-and-white negative single-sheet or cut-frame roll film (Subseries 1, HGA), 35mm black-and-white roll film (Subseries 2, HGD), and mixed medium format color transparency (positive) film (Subseries 3, HGC), as well as black-and-white print enlargements made by the Smithsonian of selected images. Also included in this series are a small number of posed portraits of Groenhoff at work.

Series 2: 1984 Acquisition (HGB), approximately 1,300 images; photography made by Groenhoff in the 1960s and 1970s, primarily during his employment with the Bahamas Ministry of Tourism, consists of mixed format black-and-white and color roll film and a small number of 35mm color slides.

Series 3: "Focus On Flight" Exhibit and Book Materials. This small series consists of mixed materials (copy photography and documents) used in the creation of the NASM exhibit, Focus on Flight: Four Decades of Aerial Photography (Rudy Arnold and Hans Groenhoff) (November 1984 through September 1985), and the related book by curator E. T. (Tim) Wooldridge, Focus on Flight: The Aviation Photography of Hans Groenhoff, published for the National Air and Space Museum by Smithsonian Institution Press (Washington, D.C.), 1985.
Biographical/Historical note:
Hans Groenhoff (1906-1985) was born and educated in Germany, but emigrated to the United States in 1927. Residing in New York City, Groenhoff pursued his interest in aviation and photography. Following in the footsteps of his brother Günther, a famous aviator and pioneer glider pilot in Germany, Hans Groenhoff became an active glider pilot in the nearby Elmira, New York, area, nurturing a lifelong fascination with clouds and aerial photography. Groenhoff's photography career took off when he inherited two cameras following the death of his brother in a glider accident in 1932; he went on to work as a photographer, journalist, editor, and correspondent, with his photographs and articles published in mainstream magazines such as Life, Colliers, Esquire, National Geographic, and The Saturday Evening Post, as well as aviation publications such as Air Trails Pictorial, Sportsman Pilot, Aero Digest, and especially Flying and Popular Aviation, for whom he was a regular correspondent. Groenhoff also shot advertising and publicity photography for aircraft manufacturers and the U.S. Army Air Forces. Following the death of his first wife, Fridel Barth, in 1954, Groenhoff moved to the Miami, Florida, area to take advantage of better weather for photographing aircraft. In 1956, Groenhoff married Frances Semman, who assisted him in his work. In his retirement years, Groenhoff was employed by the Bahamas Government to promote the Islands as a tourist destination for private and sport aviation, founding their popular "Bahamas Flying Treasure Hunt" events which ran annually for several years.

Hans Groenhoff's aviation photography career is documented in the book Focus on Flight: The Aviation Photography of Hans Groenhoff by E. T. Woodridge (Smithsonian Institution, 1985).
Provenance:
Hans Groenhoff, Purchase, 1962, 1984, NASM.XXXX.0359, NASM
Restrictions:
Physical access to film originals (negatives, transparencies, and slides) requires notice a minimum of two business days in advance of visit to allow for retrieval of materials from cold storage.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Gliders  Search this
Airlines  Search this
Airports  Search this
Aeronautics -- Competitions  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Women air pilots  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Seaplanes  Search this
Airships  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Aerial Photographs
Citation:
Hans Groenhoff Photographic Collection, Acc. XXXX.0359, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0359
See more items in:
Hans Groenhoff Photographic Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0359
Online Media:

Ann Wood-Kelly Photographs

Names:
British Air Transport Auxiliary  Search this
Wood-Kelly, Ann  Search this
Extent:
0.01 Cubic feet (1 legal folder.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1942 - 1945
Summary:
This collection consists of six black and white prints of Ann Wood-Kelly during her career in the British Air Transport Auxiliary (ATA), 1942 to 1945.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of six black and white prints of Ann Wood-Kelly during her career in the British Air Transport Auxiliary (ATA), 1942 to 1945.
Arrangement:
No arrangment.
Biographical / Historical:
Ann Wood-Kelly (1918 - 2006) was educated in Philadelphia, Belgium, and at D'Youville College in Buffalo, New York. She took up flying and attended ground school through the Federal Government's Civilian Pilot Training Program (CPTP). Initially rejected for the all-male Bowdoin College flight training program, Wood-Kelly was accepted when the twelve-person program failed to locate a twelfth male applicant. She received her pilot's license in 1939, and in a short time she became a flight instructor herself in the Bowdoin program. In 1942 Wood-Kelly was recruited by Jacqueline Cochran to become one of the twenty-four American women flyers to serve in the British Air Transport Auxiliary (ATA). From 1942 to 1945, she ferried more than 900 planes of 75 different models to destinations in England and France. In recognition of her wartime service to the United Kingdom, Wood-Kelly was awarded the King's Medal by King George IV. After the war, she served as the First Assistant to America's first Civil Air Attaché, based at the US Embassy in London. Later Wood-Kelly returned to the United States where she held management positions for several airlines including Northeast Airlines, Pan American Airways, and Air New England. In 1964, she was appointed to the Women's Advisory Committee on Aviation by Lyndon B. Johnson. Throughout her aviation career Wood-Kelly was active in a variety of aviation organizations, including the National Aeronautic Association, the Aero Club of New England, and the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA).
Provenance:
Vince Czaplyski, Gift, 2009, NASM.2019.0044
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Citation:
Ann Wood-Kelly Photographs, NASM.2019.0044, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2019.0044
See more items in:
Ann Wood-Kelly Photographs
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2019-0044
Online Media:

34th Bombardment Group Diary and Photograph [McKeon]

Creator:
McKeon, Patrick  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet ((1 folder))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Diaries
Photographic prints
Date:
bulk 1944-1945
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the target bomb run diary (three typewritten pages) of Patrick McKeon, a bombardier for the 8th Air Force, 34th Bombardment Group from May 24, 1944 to January 2, 1945. The collection also contains one 8 by 10 inch black and white photograph of the 34th Bombardment group's Belchin' Bessie Consolidated B-24 Liberator with five of its crew posed by the nose art, including McKeon on far right.
Biographical / Historical:
The 34th Bombardment Group was assigned to the Eighth Air Force in April 1944 and entered combat in May 1944. The Group helped with the preparation for the Normandy invasion by bombing airfields and coastal defenses in France, and continued to support ground forces as they moved eastwards.
Provenance:
Karen McKeon, Gift, 2017
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945 -- Aerial operations  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Consolidated B-24 Liberator  Search this
34th Bombardment Group  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries -- 20th century
Photographic prints
Citation:
34th Bombardment Group Diary and Photograph [McKeon], Accession 2017-0040, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2017.0040
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2017-0040

Northrop P-61 Black Widow Photographic Material [Bost]

Creator:
Bost, Louis L.  Search this
Extent:
Enter vol amt Boxes (.47 (3 boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
bulk 1940s to 2000s
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains approximately 0.47cubic feet of material relating to Louis L. Bost's service in the 422nd Night Fighter Squadron during World War II. A large portion of the collection consists of photographs, mostly black and white and mostly dating to the World War II era. Prints range in size from 2.5 by 2.5 inches up to 8 by 10 inches and there is also one panoramic photograph which measures approximately 31 by 8 inches. The photographs were taken at various stations of the unit including Chateaudun Airfield, France; Florennes Airfield, Belgium; Strassfeld Airfield/Euskirchen, Germany; Langansala Airfield, Germany; and Kassel, Germany. The photographs show many members of the squadron as well as numerous aircraft including the Northrop P-61 Black Widow; Lockheed P-38 Lightning; Douglas A-20 Havoc; Douglas A-26 (B-26) Invader; Douglas P-70; Messerschmitt Bf 110; Heinkel He 111; Junkers Ju 87 Stuka; Junkers Ju 88; Messerschmitt Bf 109; Focke-Wulf Fw 190; and the Heinkel He 162 Spatz (Sparrow), Volksjäger (People's Fighter). Named aircraft shown in the collection include the Lockheed P-38J Lightning Les Vin, Les Femmes, et Les Chansons and the following Northrop P-61 Black Widow aircraft: Double Trouble; Little Audrey; Midnight Menace; Tactless Texan; Lady Gen; Little Linda; Moonlight Wreck-Wizishun; Sleepy Time Gal; No Love! No Nothing!; No Love No Nothin' II; Shoo-Shoo Baby; Borrowed Time; Wacky Wabbit; Impatient Widow; Laura Lil; and Tennessee Ridge Runner. The collection also contains a spiral bound copy and copies on CD of the history of the unit entitled "422nd Night Fighter Squadron WWII" by Charles McEwen, Jr., as well as a folder of photographs and a certificate of appreciation relating to the Mid-Atlantic Air Museum's restoration of a Northrop P-61B Black Widow aircraft. Finally included in the collection is a reproduction map showing a "kill" made by Bost and Leonard Koehler.
Biographical / Historical:
The Northrop P-61 Black Widow was the first U.S. aircraft designed to locate and destroy enemy aircraft at night and in bad weather, a feat made possible by the use of on-board radar. The prototype first flew in 1942. P-61 combat operations began just after D-Day, June 6, 1944, when Black Widows flew deep into German airspace, bombing and strafing trains and road traffic. Operations in the Pacific began at about the same time. By the end of World War II, Black Widows had seen combat in every theater and had destroyed 127 enemy aircraft and 18 German V-1 buzz bombs. Louis L. Bost served with the 422nd Night Fighter Squadron as a radar operator/navigator on P-61 aircraft in the European Theater during World War II and was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for valor. After World War II, Bost went on to serve a total of nearly 21 years in the United States Air Force, including serving as aircrew for Lockheed F-94 Starfires, before retiring at the rank of major. Bost was also deeply involved in the restoration of a P-61B at the Mid-Atlantic Air Museum in Reading, Pennsylvania, a project that began in the early 1990s. Bost died in February 2015 at the age of 93.
Provenance:
James L. Bost, Gift, 2015
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Northrop P-61A Black Widow  Search this
422nd Night Fighter Squadron  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Northrop P-61 Black Widow Photographic Material [Bost], Accession 2015-0017, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2015.0017
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2015-0017

Harold F. Pierce Aviation Medicine Collection

Creator:
Pierce, Harold Fisher, 1889-1963  Search this
Names:
Henderson, Yandell, 1873-1944  Search this
Extent:
3.27 Cubic feet (4 legal document boxes; 1 legal half-size document box; 3 flat boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1909-1985
Summary:
The Harold F. Pierce collection consists of documents relating to Pierce's career in aviation medicine, particularly his service as a flight surgeon in World War I and World War II and his work on the Henderson Pierce rebreathing apparatus. Materials include correspondence, photographs, military records, certificates, technical drawings, and news clippings.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of approximately three cubic feet of material relating to Harold F. Pierce's career in aviation medicine including correspondence; photographs; military records; certificates; technical drawings; and news clippings. The collection also contains a scrapbook which covers Pierce's service in World War I, his experiments at Oxford University and Columbia University, the Wilmer Institute, and World War II. Notable figures found in the collection include John Paul Stapp; David Goodman Simons; James A. Healy; Albert William Stevens; Sir William Osler; Merritte Weber Ireland; William H. Wilmer and others. The collection also contains personal letters from Pierce to his family written during his time in service during both World Wars. Large format drawings include maps of the Second and Third Aviation Instruction Centers, France, during World War I, and technical drawings for his rebreathing apparatus.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series: Professional Materials and Personal Materials.

Series 1 contains documents related to Harold F. Pierce's career in aviation medicine, particularly his service as a flight surgeon during World War I and World War I.

Series 2 contains Harold F. Pierce's personal documents, including letters of appointment, resumes, news clippings (both biographical and on subjects of interest), photos and portraits, and family materials.

Some of the materials were organized by L. Pierce (the donor, Pierce's daughter) into categories, particularly those related to aviation, the Henderson-Pierce rebreathing apparatus, and inventions. Select paragraphs of correspondence were clipped from the original document and placed under these categories. These materials frequently were kept in the category in which they were found. Numerous notes (underlining, checkmarks, dates, etc.) made by L. Pierce can be found on documents throughout the collection.
Biographical / Historical:
Harold F. Pierce (1889-1963) received his degree from Clark University in 1912, having previously served in the Navy. He then worked in the electrical engineering and testing laboratory of the General Electric Company. After entering academia, he was an instructor of chemistry at Dartmouth College and transferred to Harvard Medical School.

When the United States entered World War I, Pierce was working on gas mask technology for the Bureau of Mines. In 1917, he joined the American Expeditionary Forces, U.S. Army Air Service, Sanitary Corps in World War I as a flight surgeon. During his time in service, Pierce helped to develop the Henderson-Pierce rebreathing apparatus, based on his prewar work with Yale University's Professor Yandell Henderson. He was instrumental in establishing medical research laboratories, first at Hazelhurst Field, Mineola, Long Island, and then in France at the 2nd Aviation Instruction Center, Tours, and the 3rd Aviation Instruction Center, Issoudun.

After leaving the military in 1919, Pierce continued his studies and work with rebreathing equipment at Oxford University as a tutor and demonstrator of physiology, including involvement with British Mount Everest reconnaissance expeditions. In 1922, he earned a BSc (OXON) Degree in pathology.

He returned to the United States to serve as Associate Physiologist at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University, earning his Ph.D. in colloidal chemistry in 1927. From 1927 to 1935, he served as Associate Professor of research ophthalmology at Wilmer Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. (He had served with founder William H. Wilmer in WWI.) In 1935, he received his M.D. and served as Assistant Resident in medicine at Bellevue Hospital, New York City. He also assisted in the design of the capsule for the Explorer II manned high-altitude balloon launch.

Pierce rejoined the U.S. Army Air Forces in 1942 serving as a flight surgeon and altitude physiologist at the School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas. In 1945, he was transferred to the Avon Old Farms Convalescent Hospital in his home state of Connecticut.

After World War II, Pierce served as medical director of the Connecticut State Welfare Department and as a consultant in aero-physiology at Hartford Hospital until retiring in 1960. He is recognized as a pioneer in the field of aviation medicine.
Provenance:
Ms. L. Pierce, Gift, 2014.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aviation medicine  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Aviation Instruction Center, 3rd (France)  Search this
Explorer II (Balloon)  Search this
Hazelhurst Field, Mineola, N.Y. Medical Research Laboratory  Search this
Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute  Search this
Citation:
Harold F. Pierce Aviation Medicine Collection, Acc. 2014.0044, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2014.0044
See more items in:
Harold F. Pierce Aviation Medicine Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2014-0044
Online Media:

94th Fighter Squadron Collection [Bertoglio]

Creator:
Bertoglio, James  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet ((1 box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Date:
1944-1993
bulk 1944-1945
Scope and Contents:
The 94th Fighter Squadron Collection includes photographs taken by James Bertoglio, including twenty-five 8x10 inch black and white prints; twenty-one 4x5 inch black and white contact prints; fifty-three 4x5 inch black and white negatives, some of which are copy negatives; six black and white negatives in various sizes, and six color copy negatives. Subjects include the aircraft and personnel of the 94th Fighter Squadron, preparations for missions, and recreation. There are several photographs of the ruins of Monte Cassino following its bombing in 1944. There are several photographs of Lockheed YP-80A Shooting Star jet fighters, part of Project Extraversion - the first U.S. jet fighters in operational service. Portraits of notables include Generals Carl Spaatz, Nathan Twining, Ira Eaker, and Pope Pius XII. Also included in the collection are a unit history of the 94th, "Hello Spacebar This is Springcap" by John D. Mullins; a poster, booklet, announcement and reviews of the exhibit of Bertoglio's photographs by the Litwin Gallery, 1993; and a small group of letters including a letter to Bertoglio from Irving Berlin, dated 1986.
Biographical / Historical:
The 94th Aero Squadron was activated at Kelly Field, San Antonio, Texas on August 20, 1917. Commanded by Major Raoul Lufberry, the 94th was the first American squadron at the front. Known, for of its distinctive squadron insignia as the "Hat in the Ring" squadron, the 94th's most famous member was Lieutenant (later Major) Edward V. "Eddie" Rickenbacker, America's top-scoring ace during World War I. The 94th was redesignated the 94th Pursuit Squadron in 1923. On March 12, 1941, it was redesignated the 94th Pursuit Squadron (Fighter). Equipped with Lockheed P-38 Lightnings (and later with North American P-51 Mustangs), the 94th deployed to Great Britain in the summer of 1942, and, in November 1942, entered combat in North Africa as part of Operation Torch. Later based in Italy, Corsica and France, the 94th Fighter Squadron was awarded three Distinguished Unit Citations and fourteen campaign honors; squadron pilots recorded 124 aerial victories over Axis aircraft. Born in 1925 in Garden City, Kansas, Albert James "Jim" Bertoglio was raised in Los Angeles and was studying photography under Ansel Adams at the Art Center School when he was drafted into the U.S. Army Air Services in 1943. After training at Fort Leavenworth, Lincoln Air Force Base, and at the Command Photo School at Lowry Field, California, Bertoglio, promoted to sergeant, joined the 94th Fighter Squadron in Foggia, Italy. Conditions were primitive - Bertoglio commandeered a captured German field kitchen to serve as a darkroom, and swapped whiskey with an RAF unit for an enlarger. Bertoglio documented the personnel and the activities of the 94th through its campaigns, including air support during the August 1944 invasion of southern France, Operation Dragoon. Following the war, Bertoglio attended the University of Colorado at Boulder and worked as a photographer at a guest ranch in Estes Park. In 1949, he joined his family's General Motors dealership in Medicine Lodge, Kansas. Bertoglio's photographs of the 94th Fighter Squadron were exhibited at the Litwin Gallery, Wichita, Kansas in 1993, and at the Deaf Smith County Historical Society, Hereford, Texas, in 2004. The Kansas Memory project of the Kansas Historical Society conducted a video interview with Bertoglio (http://www.kansasmemory.org/item/211299) in 2006. James Bertoglio died on October 26, 2012, in Pratt, Kansas.
Provenance:
Chris Bertoglio, Gift, 2014
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Citation:
94th Fighter Squadron Collection [Bertoglio], Accession 2014-0034, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2014.0034
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2014-0034

Lewis Selwyn Webster Collection

Creator:
Webster, Lewis Selwyn, 1892-1957  Search this
Names:
Mitchell, William, 1879-1936  Search this
Webster, Lewis Frazer, 1920-1952  Search this
Extent:
0.79 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1917-1952
Summary:
This collection consists of material relating to the long military career (1918-1948) of aviator Lewis Selwyn Webster, including five of Webster's pilot's log books as well as numerous photographs, letters, news clippings, and other documents. A small section of the collection pertains to Webster's son, Lewis Frazer Webster, who served with the U.S. Air Force and was killed in action in Korea in 1952.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of material relating to the military career of Lewis Selwyn Webster, including five of Webster's pilot's log books, covering the dates 1918-1932, as well as numerous photographs (including two panoramic photographs), letters, and news clippings, and other documents gathered into a scrapbook binder. One of the panoramic photographs is 19 by 7.75 inches and shows the Station Supply Department at Duncan Field, San Antonio Texas, 1929. The second panoramic photograph is 40 by 8 inches and shows the commissioned officers of the 1st Provisional Air Brigade, who were gathered to take part in the Bombing Maneuvers at Langley Field, June 1921. The scrapbook binder contains photographs of Webster during flight training and subsequent military service; Webster's military records; photographs of various U.S. Army facilities; aerial photographs of various locations; a copy of the rules and regulations, Webster's flight log, and Webster's report pertaining to the 1919 Transcontinental Reliability and Endurance Test; news clippings; numerous photographs of the 1921 German battleship bombing trials; photographs and correspondence pertaining to the Panama Canal Zone, a 1924 memo from Mason M. Patrick to Commanding Officers regarding aircraft accidents; a program for the dedication of Randolph Field; and news clippings pertaining to Webster's participation in an aerial search for a gang of kidnappers. Aircraft depicted in the photographs include Dayton Wright DH-4, Curtiss JN-4D Jenny, de Havilland (Airco) D.H.9, Martin (Glenn L.) MB-2, Curtiss F-5L (PN-5), Curtiss O-1E Falcon, Douglas O-38, Douglas O-2, Boeing P-12, and the Handley Page H.P.42. Other photograph subjects include General William "Billy" Mitchell and aerial views of the 1933 Century of Progress exposition (World's Fair) in Chicago, Illinois. The collection also contains a copy of the publication A List of Airplane Pilot Officers of the United States Army Air Service Commissioned Prior to November 12, 1918.

A small portion of the collection pertains to Lewis Selwyn Webster's son, Lewis Frazer Webster, who served with the U.S. Air Force and was killed in action in Korea in 1952. This series contains military records of Lewis Frazer Webster, photographs, and news clippings. Aircraft depicted in the photographs in this series include Republic P-47 (F-47) Thunderbolt, Lockheed (F-80) P-80A Shooting Star, North American F-86 Sabre, and the Gloster Meteor.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into two series.

A small number of items in the collection have been digitized and attached to this finding aid.
Biographical / Historical:
Lewis Selwyn Webster was born in 1892. After graduating from high school, Webster enrolled in the University of Illinois but left college to join the U.S. Army Air Service during World War I. Webster completed Ground School at the University of Illinois in January 1918 and then went to flight training at Rich Field in Texas which he completed in June of that year. Webster then completed a flying instructor's course at Brooks Field, Texas before being ordered to Call Field, Texas and subsequently to Langley Field, Virginia. In October 1919, Webster participated in the first mass transcontinental air race, dubbed by the Air Service the "Transcontinental Reliability and Endurance Test," which was organized by General William "Billy" Mitchell. Webster finished seventh. Webster served under Mitchell with the 1st Provisional Air Brigade and, in June and July of 1921, participated in the sinking of German battleships in an area off the Chesapeake Bay under a program of aerial bombing tests operated jointly by the U.S. Army and the U.S. Navy. Under this same program, Webster participated in the sinking of the USS Alabama (BB-8) in September of that year. From 1922 to 1925, Webster served at France Field in the Panama Canal Zone in the capacity of engineering officer of the 7th Observation Squadron. Webster returned to Langley Field in November 1925 and completed Air Corps Tactical School there in 1939. From 1942 to 1944, Webster was the Commanding Officer of the 36th Fighter Squadron in Australia and New Guinea, and from 1945 to 1948 he commanded the 4832nd Specialized Depot in Topeka, Kansas. In 1948, Webster retired from military service as a Colonel and was active in civic and social service organizations in Lakeland, Florida until his death in 1957.

A small portion of the collection pertains to Lewis Selwyn Webster's son, Lewis Frazer Webster, who served with the U.S. Air Force and was killed in action in Korea in 1952.
Provenance:
Eric Webster, Gift, 2010, NASM.2010.0041.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Korean War, 1950-1953  Search this
Boeing P-12 (Model 102)  Search this
Curtiss F-5L (PN-5)  Search this
Curtiss JN-4 Jenny Family  Search this
Curtiss O-1E Falcon  Search this
Dayton Wright DH-4  Search this
Douglas O-2  Search this
de Havilland (Airco) D.H.9A  Search this
Douglas O-38  Search this
Gloster Meteor Family  Search this
Handley Page H.P.42  Search this
Lockheed (F-80) P-80A Shooting Star  Search this
Martin (Glenn L.) MB-2  Search this
North American F-86 Sabre Family  Search this
Republic P-47 (F-47) Thunderbolt Family  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Citation:
Lewis Selwyn Webster Collection, Acc. NASM.2010.0041, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2010.0041
See more items in:
Lewis Selwyn Webster Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2010-0041
Online Media:

Colonel William B. Hawkins Scrapbook Collection

Creator:
Hawkins, Williams B.  Search this
Names:
Great Britain. Royal Air Force  Search this
Extent:
0.63 Cubic feet ((2 boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Maps
Articles
Short snorter
Date:
bulk 1940-1949
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the following four scrapbooks chronicling the aviation career of Colonel William B. Hawkins, especially his service with the 2nd Air Commandos Group during World War II: one 12 by 15 inch cream colored scrapbook, entitled "China 1942-1944" and "RAF 1949," containing newspaper clippings regarding World War II in China and snapshots from Hawkins' time with the Royal Air Force in 1949; one 10 by 14 inch brown photograph album mostly relating to Hawkins' career during the 1940s including snapshots, newspaper articles, foreign currency, maps and a short snorter; one 12 by 15 inch red photograph album entitled, "2nd Air Commando GP," and "Burma 1944-45 Bill Operations Officer," which contains captioned 3.5. by 4.5 inch black and white prints of the 2nd Air Commando Group; and one 9 by 11 inch photograph album 2nd Air Commando History of Operations, 1945 which consists of a report "Historical Record of 2nd Air Commando Group" and contains snapshots and captioned 3.5. by 4.5 inch black and white prints of the 2nd Air Commando Unit.
Biographical / Historical:
Colonel William B. Hawkins, Jr., (1920 - ) joined the US Army in 1935, at the age of 15. After finishing high school and junior college he went to flying school, and he was commissioned in the US Army Air Corps on December 7, 1941. Hawkins trained at Maybre Field in Florida and was assigned to the China-Burma-India Theater with the 74th Fighter Squadron, 23rd Fighter Group. Following his tour, Hawkins returned to America and was asked to join the 2nd Air Commandos with a return to the China-Burma-India Theater. After the war, Hawkins attended UCLA and received a BA in psychology. He was then sent to England to serve with the Royal Air Force as an exchange duty. He also had a tour of duty during the Korean War serving in Japan with the 508th Fighter Wing, and went on to tours in France with the 48th Tactical Fighter Command and to Germany, where he was Chief of Safety for the USAF. He was in the United States serving at Norton AFB when the Vietnam War began, and he volunteered for service. Hawkins sent to first to Clark AFB (Philippines), then to Taklee (Thailand) and finally to Tonsan Nuht (Vietnam), where he was again an operations officer and also flew a few bombing missions. After completing two tours of duty in Vietnam, Hawkins retired in 1966; at his retirement he had over 600 hours of flying time, mostly in jets.
Provenance:
Merrill S. Hawkins, Gift, 2006
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Aerial operations  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Burma  Search this
2nd Air Commandos Group  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- China  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Maps
Articles
short snorter
Citation:
Colonel William B. Hawkins Scrapbook Collection, Accession number 2006-0023, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2006.0023
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2006-0023

Robert S. Sanford Collection

Creator:
Sanford, Robert S., 1897-1981  Search this
Names:
United States. Army. Air Service. 2d Pursuit Group. 139th Aero Squadron  Search this
United States. Bureau of Mines  Search this
Extent:
0.55 Cubic feet (1 box, 1 folder in oversized box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Diaries
Photographs
Negatives
Certificates
Calendars
Place:
Alaska
Date:
bulk 1917-1970
Summary:
This collection consists of material relating to both Robert S. Sanford's World War I service and his work in Alaska with the US Bureau of Mines. The material relating to his service with the 139th Aero Squadron includes the following: a series of over 100 letters from Sanford to his family from 1917-1919, chronicling his entry into the military, training stateside, his overseas deployment and service in the Toul sector; nine photographs of Sanford in uniform or of aircraft in France; a May 4, 1918 copy of "Plane News"; and a small brown diary with entries written by Sanford from 1917 to 1918.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of material relating to both Robert Sanford's World War I service and his work in Alaska with the US Bureau of Mines. The material relating to his service with the 139th Aero Squadron includes the following: a series of over 100 letters from Sanford to his family from 1917-1919, chronicling his entry into the military, training stateside, his overseas deployment and service in the Toul sector; nine photographs of Sanford in uniform or of aircraft in France; a May 4, 1918 copy of Plane News; and a small brown diary with entries written by Sanford from 1917 to 1918. The material relating to his work with the United States Bureau of Mines includes the following: two brown notebooks containing Sanford's notes on his work in Alaska, including flying information; one notebook containing photographs of Alaska, mostly of hunting and fishing; a few letters from Sanford in Alaska to his family; negatives from Alaska; newspaper articles about Sanford's contributions to finding the Alaskan oil fields; a certificate given to Sanford for crossing the Arctic Circle as a passenger of Wien Alaska Airlines in 1945; and a 1947 Wien Alaska Airlines, Inc. calendar.
Arrangement:
The Robert S. Sanford Collection is arranged by content type.
Biographical / Historical:
Robert S. Sanford (1897-1981) served as an airplane mechanic for the 139th Aero Squadron during World War I. The 139th was assigned to the First Army on June 12, 1918 and engaged in the Toul Sector. They ceased operations on December 11, 1918. After the war, Sanford was employed by various private mining companies in South America, Mexico, Nevada, Colorado, Oregon, Canada and Oklahoma. He joined the US Bureau of Mines in 1940, and in 1943 was the district engineer in charge of the mineral development program in Alaska. While there, he found large oil areas on the Arctic slope. In the early 1950s, Sanford served with the State Department, on loan from the Bureau of Mines, as a mining consultant to Afghanistan, India, and Nepal. He resigned from the Bureau of Mines in 1966.
Provenance:
Bonnie Gitlin, Gift, 2004, NASM.2004.0063
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Mining  Search this
Oil wells -- United States  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Aerial operations, American -- France  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Diaries
Photographs
Negatives
Certificates
Calendars
Citation:
Robert S. Sanford Collection, NASM.2004.0063, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2004.0063
See more items in:
Robert S. Sanford Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2004-0063
Online Media:

Helmut von Zborowski Photo Album

Creator:
von Zborowski, Helmut Philip  Search this
Names:
Bayerische Motoren Werke  Search this
Bureau Technique Zborowski  Search this
Societe d'Etudes de la Propulsion par Reaction (SEPR)  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet ((1 flatbox))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Photographs
Albums
Date:
1939-1960
Scope and Contents:
This album 10 x 7 inches and contains 88 original photographs, taken from 1939 to 1960, of many of Zborowski's rocket, jet and coleopter projects, as well as 6 printed drawings.
Biographical / Historical:
Helmut Philip von Zborowski was a significant figure in early rocket and jet engine development. A contemporary of Werner von Braun, Zborowski worked on rocket and jet development for BMW during World War II, afterwards going to France and serving as a research engineer for the Société d'Etudes de la Propulsion par Réaction (SEPR). Zborowski later founded his own company, Bureau Technique Zborowski.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Stefan and Sylvia Eihhorn, Purchase, 2001, 2001-0060, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Coanda effect  Search this
Vertically rising aircraft  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics -- Research  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Airplanes -- Rocket engines  Search this
Airplanes -- Jet propulsion  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Photographs
Albums
Identifier:
NASM.2001.0060
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2001-0060

31st Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron (Smith) Collection

Creator:
Smith, James  Search this
Names:
United States. Army Air Forces. 31st Photographic Reconnaissance Squadron  Search this
Smith, James  Search this
Extent:
0.29 Cubic feet ((1 flatbox))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Publications
Date:
1943-1945
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes the following material gathered by James Smith: photo album containing Smith's handwritten diary, photographs, postcards, currency, and maps; a printed copy of Smith's diary; a song, "Ballad of Thirty First;" and the booklet "The Story of the Thirty First Photo Reconnaissance Squadron."
Biographical / Historical:
The Thirty First Photo Reconnaissance Squadron was activated in August of 1943 and deactivated in November 1945. The Squadron's campaigns included the following: Air Offensive, Europe; Normandy; Northern France; Rhineland; Ardennes-Alsace; and Central Europe. The Squadron won a Distinguished Unit Citation in 1944. James Smith was an enlisted man for this unit.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Earl F. Miller, gift, 1999, 1999-0018, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aerial photography  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Publications
Identifier:
NASM.1999.0018
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1999-0018

Admiral Alfred M. Pride Papers

Creator:
Pride, Alfred Melville, 1897-1988  Search this
Names:
Lexington (Aircraft carrier : 1927-1942)  Search this
Saratoga (Aircraft carrier : CV-3)  Search this
USS Langley (warship)  Search this
United States. Navy -- Aviation  Search this
United States. Navy -- Reserve fleets  Search this
United States. Navy -- Reserve fleets -- Flying Corps  Search this
United States. Navy. Anacostia Naval Air Station  Search this
United States. Navy. Bureau of Aeronautics [BuAer]  Search this
Extent:
6.54 Cubic feet ((6 records center boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Clippings
Date:
[ca. 1910s-1970s]
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the following types of material relating to Pride's illustrious naval aviation career: correspondence, photographs: official documents, such as Naval orders newsclippings; and certificates.
Biographical / Historical:
Admiral Alfred Melville Pride (1897-1988) was a retired four-star admiral who was a pioneer in Navy aviation. Born in Somerville, Massachusetts, Pride attended the Engineering School at Tuft's College before enlisting in the US Naval Reserve Force in 1917. In September 1917, Pride was appointed Ensign in the Naval Reserve Flying Corp where he served in England and France during World War I. Pride was designated a naval aviator in 1918 and was transferred to the regular Navy in November of 1921 and was commissioned a Lieutenant. In September 1921 Pride reported for duty with the aviation detachment of the USS Langley, where he developed the arresting gear to be installed on the Langley and where he carried out experimental take-offs and landings on the aircraft carrier. The Navy sent him to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to study aeronautical engineering. He later served with the original crews on the Navy's next two carriers --the Saratoga and the Lexington, Pride made the first landing of a helicopter on an aircraft carrier in 1931 and from 1934-1936 he was commander of the flight test section at the Anacostia Naval Air Station in Washington, D.C. During World War II, Pride commanded the aircraft carrier Belleau Wood in the South Pacific, conducting air strikes against the Japanese in the following campaigns: Tarawa, Wake and Makin Islands, Kwajalein, Truk, Sampan and Tinian. Pride also commanded the Naval Air Center at Pearl Harbor, directing air support for amphibious landings and played a major role in planning for the invasion of Okinawa and the Japanese home islands. After World War II Pride headed the Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics in Washington, DC, and in 1953 he was selected to command the Seventh Fleet. He retired in 1959.
General:
Additional materials: Uniform and flight were transferred to the National Air and Space Museum Aeronautics Division.
NASMrev
Provenance:
Carol P. Lemeshewsky, Gift, 1989, 1997-0010, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945 -- Campaigns -- Pacific Ocean  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Aerial operations  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Aircraft carriers  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Naval operations, American  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Photographs
Clippings
Identifier:
NASM.1997.0010
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1997-0010

Glenn L. Martin Nebraska Company Scrapbooks (Brown Collection)

Creator:
Brown, Julie  Search this
Names:
Glenn L. Martin Company  Search this
Brown, Julie  Search this
Extent:
0.7 Cubic feet (2 flatboxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Newsletters
Articles
Clippings
Date:
1943-1945
Summary:
This collection consists of two scrapbooks. The smaller scrapbook contains certificates, newsletters, photographs, silhouettes, small paintings, correspondence, and articles regarding both Brown and the Martin-Nebraska plant. The larger scrapbook contains oversized photographs and drawings of the B-29. The drawings were drawn by Brown.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of two scrapbooks. The smaller scrapbook contains certificates, newsletters, photographs, silhouettes, small paintings, correspondence, and articles regarding both Brown and the Martin-Nebraska plant. The larger scrapbook contains oversized photographs and drawings of the B-29. The drawings were drawn by Brown.
Arrangement:
Each album is in its own box which has been selected based on size so that it can be safely housed.
Biographical / Historical:
Julie Brown was one of the artists in the Photo-Art Department at the Glenn L. Martin - Nebraska Company during World War II. Brown studied at both the Rhode Island School of Design and the Art Students' League in New York. During World War I, she worked in the American Red Cross' Hospital Hut Service in France. In this capacity, Brown made silhouettes of soldiers in the various hospitals. After returning to the United States, her art appeared in magazines, newspapers, shows and exhibitions. After World War II started, Brown completed engineering drawing courses at Omaha University and began work at the Martin-Nebraska Company in 1943 as a production illustrator. The Martin-Nebraska Company produced Martin B-26 and Boeing B-29 aircraft during the war.
Provenance:
Natalie Keller, Milford Sprecher, Gift, 1993, NASM.1993.0064
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Martin B-26 Marauder Family  Search this
Boeing B-29 Superfortress  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics in art  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aircraft industry -- United States  Search this
Aircraft industry  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Photographs
Newsletters
Articles
Clippings
Photographs
Citation:
Glenn L. Martin Nebraska Company Scrapbooks (Brown Collection), NASM.1993.0064, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1993.0064
See more items in:
Glenn L. Martin Nebraska Company Scrapbooks (Brown Collection)
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1993-0064
Online Media:

World War II Aerial Reconnaissance Photographs [Hedgpeth]

Creator:
Hedgpeth, James A.  Search this
Names:
Hedgpeth, James A.  Search this
Extent:
0.23 Cubic feet ((1 slim legal document box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Aerial photographs
Photographs
Date:
1944
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes 75 photographs of Word War II bombings of France, specifically of Cologne. Aerial reconnaissance photographs make up the majority of the collection, although there are also photographs of a mapping room as well as a few pictures taken on the ground of the bombing damage. This collection also includes two prints of a Lockheed P-38 in flight.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
James A Hedgpeth, Jr., Gift, 1989, 1989-0078, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945 -- Aerial operations  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Aerial operations, American -- France  Search this
Aerial reconnaissance  Search this
Photographic reconnaissance systems  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Lockheed P-38 Lightning Family  Search this
Genre/Form:
Aerial Photographs
Photographs
Identifier:
NASM.1989.0078
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1989-0078

Jacques Seligmann & Co. records

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Names:
De Hauke & Co., Inc.  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co.  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Gersel  Search this
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
Hauke, Cesar M. de (Cesar Mange), d. 1965  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold, 1870-1932  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques, 1858-1923  Search this
Seligmann, René  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Extent:
203.1 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gallery records
Date:
1904-1978
bulk 1913-1974
Summary:
The records of Jacques Seligmann & Co. measure approximately 203.1 linear feet and date from 1904 to 1978, with bulk dates from 1913 to 1974. The collection includes extensive correspondence files, reference material on American and European collectors and their collections, inventory and stock records, financial records, exhibition files, auction files, and the records of subsidiary companies. The collection is an invaluable resource in tracing the provenance of particular works of art and provides a comprehensive view of the activities of collectors and art dealers in the years leading up to and following World War II.
Scope and Contents note:
The Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., records measure approximately 203.1 linear feet and date from between 1904 and 1978, with bulk dates of 1913-1974. The records include extensive correspondence files, reference material on American and European collectors and their collections, inventory and stock records, financial records, exhibition files, auction files, and the records of subsidiary companies, including de Hauke & Co., Inc., and Modern Paintings, Inc.

Historians and researchers will find the collection an invaluable resource in tracing the provenance of particular works of art. Although in the early 1940s many records in the Paris office were destroyed by Seligmann staff to keep them from falling into the hands of the occupying German military forces, many records survive, as much of the firm's business had previously come to center in the New York office. In all, the remaining records provide a comprehensive view of the activities and transactions of collectors and art dealers in the years leading up to and following World War II.

Correspondence (Series 1) is the largest series of the collection (80 linear feet) and is comprised of extensive correspondence files, primarily between Germain Seligman and his New York office staff with domestic and foreign private clients, collectors, dealers, individuals representing public museums and collections, and international scholars. The New York Office Correspondence (Series 1.1) concerns a wide variety of topics, including routine business matters, but focuses primarily on potential and realized sales and purchases and provenance documentation. Also found is detailed information on financial transactions, commissions, stock inventory, and the travel of Germain Seligman and other staff. Paris Office Correspondence (Series 1.2) is separated into a small subseries and contains correspondence written primarily by Jacques Seligmann from Paris. The subseries General Correspondence (Series 1.3) is the largest subsection of the Correspondence series and contains letters written to and received from clients and other business associates concerning business transactions and inquiries. The subseries Museum Correspondence (Series 1.4) contains letters between the firm and art institutions and museums. The subseries Germain Seligman's Correspondence (Series 1.5), contains not only personal letters but a wealth of information concerning the affairs of the firm. Much personal correspondence was marked "private."

Also of note in the Correspondence series are the Legal Correspondence Files (Series 1.6) and the Inter-Office Correspondence (Series 1.9) and Inter-Office Memoranda (Series 1.13). The Legal Correspondence Files subseries houses correspondence with both U.S. and Paris attorneys and concerns legal affairs and specific lawsuits. Of particular interest are Germain Seligman's attempts to recover Seligmann family and Paris gallery artwork and other assets stolen or confiscated by the Germans in World War II. This small subseries also contains limited information on the stock and inventory holdings of several of the firm's and Germain Seligman's subsidiary corporations, family legal affairs and lawsuits, and other related legal matters. The subseries Inter-Office Correspondence and Inter-Office Memoranda (called fiches by Seligmann staff) include memos between Germain Seligman and his staff about clients, collectors, sales, acquisitions, and other matters. These offer interesting commentary clearly intended to be read by staff only.

Also prominent is Collectors Files (Series 2), which contains numerous reference files documenting the collections of existing and potential clients with whom Seligmann & Co. maintained contacts. The files are arranged by either individual name or institution and reflect the wide scope of collector references maintained by the firm throughout its operating years. The files contain a variety of reference materials, such as photographs, provenance notes, and sales, purchase, and inventory information in cases where the collector purchased from the firm or the firm purchased from the collector. Researchers will find that many of the private and public names that appear in General Correspondence (Series 1.3) appear in the Collectors Files as well. Also found in this series are specific files relating to the Duc d'Arenberg Collection, the Clarence H. Mackay Collection, the Mortimer L. Schiff Collection, and the Prince of Liechtenstein Collection. The firm either handled substantial estate sales for these collections or purchased and sold important pieces from these collections.

Auction Files (Series 3) and Exhibition files (Series 4) trace the sales and exhibition activities undertaken by Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc. In the Auction files, researchers will find documentation of auctions of individual works of art owned by the firm and handled by Christie's, Parke-Bernet, and other auction houses. Of particular interest is the 1948-1949 Parke-Bernet auction of the C. S. Wadsworth Trust, a "dummy" trust set up by the firm to dispose of a portion of its unsold inventory. The Exhibition Files house a variety of documentation, such as catalogs and correspondence, concerning the firm's active exhibition history. Many of the exhibitions featured works of art recently acquired by the firm, such as the 1937 exhibition, Twenty Years in the Evolution of Picasso, which included a number of Picassos the firm acquired from Madame Jacques Doucet that year.

Reference Files (Series 5) includes a card catalog to books and catalogs in the library maintained by Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., and a photograph reference index of works of art. Inventory and Stock Files (Series 6) tracks the firm's inventory through a series of stock books and supporting documentation that include sales and provenance information.

Financial Files and Shipping Records (Series 7) consists primarily of records of the New York office, but some Paris office documents can be found scattered throughout. Found in this series is a wide variety of financial records including purchase receipt files, credit notes, invoices, consignment invoices and books, invoices, consular invoices, sales and purchase account books, ledgers, and tax records. The records appear to be quite complete and date from 1910 to 1977. Of particular interest are the purchase receipts and credit notes and memoranda that contain detailed documentation on acquisitions and sales. The consignment invoices provide information about works of art sold on behalf of other galleries and dealers, as well as which galleries and dealers were handling works of art for Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc. Although quite large and complex, the financial records offer a comprehensive overview of the firm's business and financial transactions.

The records of subsidiary companies that were part of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., such as Contemporary American Department, de Hauke & Co., Inc., Modern Paintings, Inc., and Gersel Corp. are arranged in their own series. In 1935, the firm established the Contemporary American Department to represent young American artists. Under the direction of Theresa D. Parker, a longtime gallery employee, the department initiated an exhibition and loan program. Contemporary American Department (Series 8) includes mostly correspondence files and exhibition files.

The largest subsidiary company to operate under Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., was de Hauke & Co., Inc. De Hauke & Co., Inc., Records (Series 9) dates from 1925 through 1949 and contains domestic and foreign correspondence with clients, collectors, and dealers; inter-office correspondence and memoranda with Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc.; administrative and legal files; and financial records. Modern Paintings, Inc., records (Series 10) contains the legal and financial files of this subsidiary company, which was established in 1930 to incorporate most of the stock of the liquidated de Hauke & Co., Inc. Gersel Corp. Records (Series 11) contains a small amount of material from this company.

Researchers should note that a scattering of records from most of the subsidiary companies may also be found throughout additional series, particularly Inventory and Stock Files (Series 6) and Financial Files and Shipping Records (Series 7). Records for the firms Tessa Corp. and Georges Haardt & Co., which were also owned by Germain Seligman, are not part of the Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., Records, although scattered references to these two firms may be encountered throughout the collection.

German Seligman's Personal papers (Series 12) includes scattered family and biographical materials, his research and writings files, and documentation of his personal art collection. Found in Family and Biographical Material (Series 12.1) are photographs of family members, including Jacques Seligmann, and of the Paris gallery. Also found is a limited amount of correspondence concerning Germain Seligman's residency status and his desire to obtain an army commission during World War II. Germain Seligman's research and writing files are found in this series and include material for his books: Roger de La Fresnaye, with a Catalogue Raisonné (1969); Merchants of Art, 1880-1960: Eighty Years of Professional Collecting (1961); The Drawings of Georges Seurat (1947); and Oh! Fickle Taste; or, Objectivity in Art (1952). Documentation of Germain Seligman's private art collection is arranged in this series and includes provenance and research files and correspondence concerning his art collection.

Overall, the historical records of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., offer researchers a comprehensive and detailed resource for studying one of the most active dealers in decorative arts, Renaissance, and European contemporary art. The records clearly document the firm's numerous acquisitions and sales of important works of art to well-known European and American collectors and museums as well as Germain Seligman's extensive client contacts and references. The collection offers an insightful, intriguing, and often fascinating view into the complex field of art sales, trading, and acquisition during the first half of the twentieth century, when many major collections in the United States were formed.

Researchers interested in tracing the provenance of individual works of art should carefully check each series of the collection for information to obtain a complete history for any work. Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., staff set up many different files to cross-reference works of art from various angles, such as artist or creator; collector or collection; most recent owner or repository location; stock inventory number, if owned by Seligmann & Co.; and photographic reference files. The task is made somewhat more difficult by the number of commission sales and joint ownership of works of art, often documented solely in the Inventory and Stock Files (Series 6) or the Financial Files and Shipping Records (Series 7). Only by tracing a name or date through the various series can one find all of the information relating to a particular work of art and its provenance.
Arrangement note:
Following is an outline of the arrangement of the collection by series and corresponding box numbers and extent. More detailed information for each series and subseries, along with a box and folder inventory, is found in the Series Descriptions/Container Listings, which can be found by following the series links below. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.

Series 1: Correspondence, 1913-1978 (1-174, 80 linear feet)

Series 2: Collectors Files, 1875, 1892-1977, undated (Boxes 175-252, 35 linear feet)

Series 3: Auction Files, 1948-1975, undated (Boxes 253-259, 2.75 linear feet)

Series 4: Exhibition Files, 1925-1977, undated (Boxes 260-272, 5.5 linear feet)

Series 5: Reference Files, 1877-1977, undated (Boxes 273-278, 2.25 linear feet)

Series 6: Inventory and Stock Files, 1923-1971, undated (Boxes 279-289, 4.5 linear feet)

Series 7: Financial Files and Shipping Records, 1910-1977 (Boxes 290-357, 30.5 linear feet)

Series 8: Contemporary American Department, 1932-1978 (Boxes 358-381, 10 linear feet)

Series 9: De Hauke & Co., Inc., Records, 1925-1949, undated (Boxes 382-416; 16 linear feet)

Series 10: Modern Paintings, Inc., Records, 1927-1950 (Boxes 417-420, 1.25 linear feet)

Series 11: Gersel Corp. Records, 1946-1969 (Box 421, 0.25 linear feet)

Series 12: Germain Seligman's Personal Papers, 1882, circa 1905-1984, undated (Boxes 422-459, OV 460, 17 linear feet)
Biographical/Historical note:
Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., was counted among the foremost French and American art dealers in antiquities and decorative arts and was among the first to foster and support the growth and appreciation for collecting in the field of contemporary European art. The company's clients included most of the major American and European art collectors of the era, and the art that passed through its galleries often ended up in the collections of prominent American and European museums through the donations of the wealthy benefactors who purchased them from the company. Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., took an active part in promoting such donations as well as providing its own donations and selling paintings, sculpture, and decorative arts directly to many museums.

The company was first established as Jacques Seligmann & Cie. in 1880 on the Rue des Mathurins in Paris by Jacques Seligmann (1858-1923), a German émigré who came to France in 1874 and soon thereafter became a French citizen. The company experienced so much success that in 1900 a new, larger Galerie Seligmann was opened on the Place Vendôme, and Jacques's two brothers, Simon and Arnold, joined the business as partners. Simon served as the company's accountant, and Arnold was in charge of correspondence with the firm's many clients. Jacques remained as the manager and was in charge of all purchases for the firm.

Prominent clients of the company included Baron Edmond de Rothschild of France, the Stroganoff family of Russia, Sir Philip Sassoon of England, and American collectors Benjamin Altman, William Randolph Hearst, J. P. Morgan, Henry Walters, and Joseph Widener. As American clients increasingly came to dominate the company's sales activities, a New York office at 7 West Thirty-sixth Street was opened in 1904. Five years later, Jacques purchased the Hôtel de Sagan (also called the Palais de Sagan by the Seligmann family) in Paris as a location where Jacques Seligmann & Cie. could stage larger exhibitions and receive its most distinguished clients.

In 1912 a family quarrel resulted in a lawsuit that split the company. Arnold remained at the Place Vendôme location, reorganized under the name Arnold Seligmann & Cie., while Jacques consolidated his operations and moved the headquarters for Jacques Seligmann & Cie. to the Hôtel de Sagan. Jacques also opened an additional gallery at 17 Place Vendôme to retain a presence near the company's original location, but this branch soon relocated to 9 Rue de la Paix. The New York office, which formerly had operated out of a single room, was upgraded to larger office space and a gallery at 705 Fifth Avenue.

Jacques's son, Germain Seligman (1893-1978), showed an interest in art connoisseurship from his early years and often accompanied his father to work in the galleries. (In 1943, when Germain Seligman became an American citizen, he dropped the second "n" from his surname, and for clarity his name appears with this spelling throughout this finding aid.) His father taught him how to deal with clients and often assigned him tasks to help in the completion of sales. Germain accompanied Jacques on many business trips and in 1910 was sent to St. Peterburg, Russia, to secure information about the selling price of the Swenigorodskoi enamels owned by the Russian collector M. P. Botkine.

Germain continued to work informally in the firm's galleries until the outbreak of World War I. Within hours of the mobilization order in 1914, Germain joined the French army as a second lieutenant in the 132nd Infantry Regiment of Rheims. By 1916 he was promoted to first lieutenant in the Twenty-fourth Infantry Brigade and in the following year achieved the rank of captain in the Fifty-sixth Infantry Division. Also in the same year, he was assigned as the first French liaison officer to the First Division of the American Expeditionary Force in France, serving as translator for Major George C. Marshall. Seligman was discharged from the French army in 1919 and was awarded the French Croix de Guerre with six citations. (In 1938 Seligman also was awarded the Office of the Legion of Honor from France, and in 1939 he was decorated by General John Joseph Pershing with the Distinguished Service Medal of the United States, in recognition for his service during World War I.)

After his discharge from military service, Germain Seligman actively joined his father's company as a partner in 1920. Jacques Seligmann & Cie. was changed to Jacques Seligmann et Fils, and Germain was placed in charge as the president of the New York office. The strong American art market necessitated Germain's making numerous cross-Atlantic trips each year. Upon the death of his father in 1923, Germain took over as president of both the Paris and New York offices, and the company was once again renamed Jacques Seligmann & Cie.

In the early years of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., the firm carried few paintings, as collectors focused their interest mostly on small objects, enamels, ivories, and other decorative pieces from the Byzantine to the Renaissance eras. Stone and bronze sculptures, medieval and Renaissance tapestries, and eighteenth-century French furniture were the most avidly collected pieces of the era. The galleries of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., reflected its clients' tastes, but soon after the turn of the century art trends began to change.

The 1913 Armory Show introduced many Americans to contemporary European art, and collectors in the United States began to show marked interest in it. The advent of World War I brought much of the art market to a standstill in Europe, but interest in the Impressionists continued in the United States, and it quickly resumed in Europe, as well, after the war. Both collectors and dealers began buying modern art, led by such progressive American collectors as Walter Arensberg, Albert C. Barnes, A. E. Gallatin, Mrs. Horace O. Havemeyer, Mrs. Potter Palmer, Duncan Phillips, and John Quinn, among others.

Under Germain's leadership, Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., began acquiring works by Pierre Bonnard, Paul Cézanne, Honoré Daumier, Edgar Degas, Pablo Picasso, Henri Rousseau, and Vincent van Gogh. While Germain promoted this trend for modern art in the New York gallery, other family partners did not approve as this was a new direction for the firm. For this reason Germain Seligman looked to establish a new, independent business venture in the evolving field of modern art. He selected as his partner César Mange de Hauke.

César Mange de Hauke was born on March 8, 1900, the son of a French engineer and a Polish mother. After completing academic and art studies in England and France in the years following World War I, de Hauke arrived in the United States in 1926. While in New York City, he was introduced to Germain Seligman by Germain's cousin, René Seligmann, and by 1927 de Hauke had joined Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., as a sales representative.

With their shared interest in modern French painting, Seligman and de Hauke decided to explore the feasibility of sales in this area by forming a subsidiary to Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., that would specialize in contemporary European artists. In 1926 Seligman personally financed the fledgling company, first called International Contemporary Art Company, Inc., and he appointed de Hauke its director, but even before the legal documents setting up the company were completed the name was changed to de Hauke & Co., Inc. Although the bulk of the new company's art purchases took place in Paris and London, the majority of its sales occurred in the United States.

Seligman and de Hauke worked out an agreement allowing de Hauke to purchase works of art that could then be sold as stock inventory of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., or privately under de Hauke's own name. Ownership of paintings was often shared among various art dealers, involving complicated commission transactions upon completion of sale. Seligman provided display space for de Hauke & Co., Inc., at the new, larger gallery of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., now located at 3 East Fifty-first Street. The two businesses were deeply intertwined, as evidenced by the facts that Seligman's financial records include a great deal of de Hauke material and many of de Hauke's records are written on the stationery of Jacques Seligmann Co., Inc.

During the second half of the 1920s, de Hauke showed the work of modern French School artists in New York City. He exhibited works by Pierre Bonnard, Amedeo Modigliani, Odilon Redon, Ker-Xavier Roussel, Edouard Vuillard, and many others. De Hauke was equally interested in French School drawings and watercolors, and the scope of his exhibitions also included works by nineteenth-century masters such as Paul Cézanne, Jacques-Louis David, Eugè00E8;ne Delacroix, Jean Ingres, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, and Georges Seurat.

Among the exhibitions held at the New York gallery were two highly successful shows featuring the works of Pablo Picasso. The first one, held in 1936, displayed paintings from the Blue and Rose Periods and was soon followed by the 1937 exhibition, Twenty Years in the Evolution of Picasso. The star of this exhibition was Les Demoiselles d'Avignon which Germain had recently acquired from the Jacques Doucet Estate sale.

Despite the bleak economic conditions of the 1930s, the new business venture proved so successful that the other family members of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., withdrew their opposition to expanding into the field of modern art, and de Hauke & Co., Inc., was dissolved and re-formed under the new name, Modern Paintings, Inc. César M. de Hauke was appointed its director, but tensions had crept into the relationship between the former partners, and by 1931, de Hauke had resigned and returned to Paris.

The mid-1930s appear to have been a period of reorganization for the company. By 1934 Modern Paintings, Inc., was also dissolved, and it assets were assumed by Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., and by Tessa Corp., another subsidiary of the firm. In 1935, however, the firm established a new subsidiary, the Contemporary American Department, to represent young American artists. Theresa D. Parker, a longtime gallery employee, was selected to head the department, and she initiated an exhibition and loan program. Soon thereafter, the City of Paris offered to buy the company's building at the Hôtel de Sagan as part of a complicated negotiation for a site for the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la vie Modern 1937. The Paris office of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., reestablished itself at 9 Rue de la Paix, but Germain selected the New York office as the headquarters for Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc. Subsequently he filed his legal residence as New York City. Germain's half-brother, François-Gerard, was left in charge of the Paris office operations, although Germain continued to commute between the two offices until the summer of 1939.

During the New York World's Fair of 1939, Germain served as a member of the Exhibition Committee, which coordinated the art section. When the fair was extended for an additional year, Seligman was asked to take responsibility for planning the French art section. World political events intruded, however, and rumors of impending war affected both the European and American economies as well as the international art world. Speculative sales, particularly in Europe, made for a chaotic and unpredictable market. In June 1940 German forces invaded France and occupied Paris. Business for Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., took a dramatic downturn. In the summer of 1940 the Seligmann galleries and family holdings were seized by the Vichy government, along with Germain's private art collection. The family house and its contents, along with almost the entire stock of the Paris firm, was sold at public auction. Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., staff burned the Paris office archives in an effort to keep the records relating to works of art from falling into the hands of the Nazi occupiers, who were looting and shipping art to Germany.

Family members also experienced the pains and changes brought on by the war. Jean Seligmann, a cousin of Germain and the head of Arnold Seligmann & Cie., was captured and shot in Vincennes, France. François-Gerard, a half-brother, was drafted into the army and subsequently joined the French Resistance. Another brother, André, fled France in September 1940 and arrived in New York City, where he opened his own gallery. (He would later return to Paris after the war, but died shortly thereafter from a heart attack.)

Germain applied for a commission in the United States Army in 1942, but his application was initially turned down due to his noncitizen status. Soon thereafter, however, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the second War Power Act, which stipulated that naturalization could be expedited if the individual served in the military during the war. This act prompted Germain to further press his application for a post overseas, citing his citizenship status as fairly inconsequential or at least no longer a grave hindrance. Despite numerous letters exchanged with the War Department, however, his application was eventually rejected due to changes in military personnel policy.

During the war years, the Seligmann company in New York moved from its 3 East Fifty-first Street location to smaller quarters at 5 East Fifty-seventh Street. The first exhibition in this space was held in the spring of 1944. By 1945 the Contemporary American Department was reactivated, with Theresa D. Parker as its head.

In the years following the war, a rapprochement occurred among the family members who had been split since the family quarrel between Jacques and Arnold Seligmann. With the death of Jean Seligmann during the war, Arnold Seligmann & Co. had been left without a director. Germain consolidated the two family businesses, but made separate financial and administrative entities of the Paris and New York offices. Henceforth they were affiliated "only by ties of affection."

During the early to mid-1950s, many of the activities involving Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., centered upon the recovery of looted artwork and property as well as resolving outstanding issues from the consolidation of the various family businesses. The firm was also involved in the sale of several significant collections.

In 1951 Germain was commissioned by the family of the Duc d'Arenberg to sell the family's collection of important illuminated manuscripts, engravings, and select paintings. Jan Vermeer's Portrait of a Young Girl was purchased for over a quarter million dollars.

Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., also handled the 1953 sale of works from the Prince of Liechtenstein's collection and negotiated the purchase of seven Italian marble sculptures that were eventually sold to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation in 1954. From the late 1950s up until the closing of the company in 1977-1978, the exhibitions mounted by the firm seem to indicate a gradual focus back toward drawings and more traditional art. Contemporary American artists continued to be shown as well, but the firm no longer maintained its leading edge in the art market.

Germain, who during the 1940s had written several works, among them a monograph on Roger de La Fresnaye in 1945 and The Drawings of Georges Seurat in 1947, devoted himself more and more to writing. In Oh! Fickle Taste; or, Objectivity in Art, published in 1952, Seligman addressed the importance of political and social climates in understanding the evolution of art collecting in the United States. He followed this book with the 1961 publication of Merchants of Art, 1880-1960: Eighty Years of Professional Collecting which memorialized his father and traced the history of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc. Germain's most significant work, Roger de La Fresnaye, with a Catalogue Raisonné (1969), was lauded by art critics and listed among the 1969 "Best Ten Books of the Year" by the New York Times.

With the death of Germain Seligman in 1978, the firm doors closed, leaving behind a legacy of collecting that helped to establish American collectors and museums in the forefront of the international art world. A survey of the major art museums and collections in the United States reveals the significant number of works that were acquired either by sales or through donation from Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc. The influence the company wielded is also demonstrated through the network of relationships it built with collectors, art museums and institutions, and other dealers, such as Dr. Albert C. Barnes, Bernheim-Jeune, George Blumenthal, Sen. William A. Clark, the Detroit Institute of Arts, M. Knoedler & Co., Inc., the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the National Gallery of Art, Marjorie Merriweather Post, Henry Walters, and Wildenstein & Co., among others.

1858, September 18 -- Jacques Seligmann born in Frankfurt, Germany.

1874 -- Jacques Seligmann leaves Germany to work in Paris, France, as an assistant at Maître Paul Chevallier, a leading Paris auctioneer. Soon after he leaves to work for Charles Mannheim, an expert in medieval art.

1880 -- Jacques Seligmann opens his own shop at the Rue des Mathurins. An early client is Baron Edmond de Rothschild.

1893, February 25 -- Germain Seligman is born in Paris, France. His mother's maiden name is Blanche Falkenberg (d. 1902).

1900 -- Jacques Seligmann & Cie. is formed when Jacques's brothers, Arnold and Simon, join him as partners and the business moves to the Place Vendôme.

1904 -- The New York City office of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., is established, with Eugene Glaenzer as the manager. Beginning in 1905, Seligmann begins yearly visits to the New York office.

1907 -- Jacques Seligmann is elected a Fellow for Life of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

1909 -- Jacques Seligmann & Cie. acquires the Hôtel de Sagan on the Rue Saint Dominique. Jacques moves the headquarters for the company to this location and reserves its use for the most exclusive and important clients, but his brother Arnold continues to oversee the general operations of the company at the Place Vendôme.

1912 -- A lawsuit between Jacques Seligmann and his brother, Arnold, results in a split in the family company. Arnold remains at Place Vendôme under the name Arnold Seligmann & Cie. Jacques consolidates his activities at the Hôtel de Sagan. He also opens another gallery at 17 Place Vendôme, but this is soon moved to 9 Rue de la Paix.

1914 -- As a result of the split in the family business, a new office and gallery are opened at 705 Fifth Avenue, and Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., is incorporated within the State of New York.

1914-1919 -- Germain Seligmann serves in the French army as a second lieutenant in the 132nd Infantry Regiment of Rheims. Later he is assigned as the first French liaison officer to the First Division of the American Expeditionary Force in France. He is discharged from active service in 1919.

1920 -- Germain Seligman becomes a partner with his father and formally joins Jacques Seligmann & Fils as the president of the New York office.

1923, October -- Jacques Seligman dies.

1924 -- Germain Seligman becomes the president of both the Paris and New York offices. Several of his brothers and sisters become partners in the firm. Theresa D. Parker joins the New York office.

1926 -- The New York office moves to 3 East Fifty-first Street. Germain Seligman, with César Mange de Hauke, sets up de Hauke & Co., Inc., to sell modern European paintings to American clients.

1930 -- De Hauke & Co., Inc., becomes Modern Paintings, Inc.

1931 -- De Hauke resigns as head of Modern Paintings, Inc., and returns to Paris.

1934 -- Modern Paintings, Inc., is dissolved, and its assets are assumed by Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., and by Tessa Corp., another subsidiary of the parent company.

1935 -- The Contemporary American Department is created as a part of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., and Theresa D. Parker directs its operations.

1936-1937 -- Jacques Seligmann et Fils moves out of its gallery space at the Hôtel de Sagan and briefly reestablishes its headquarters at 9 Rue de la Paix. By 1937, however, the company headquarters moves to New York City. Germain Seligman establishes his legal residence there.

1939 -- World War II begins.

1940 -- During the summer, the Seligmann family house and its contents (at Rue de Constantine) are seized and sold by order of the Vichy government, along with Germain's private art collection and the gallery's stock. The Paris archives of Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., is destroyed by the Seligmann staff in order to keep the records from falling into the hands of the Nazis. René Seligmann dies in a New York hospital in June; François-Gerard, Germain's half-brother, is called up to serve in the army and joins the French Resistance. Another brother, André, escapes to the United States and opens a gallery in New York. Jean Seligmann, a cousin of Germain and the head of Arnold Seligmann & Cie., is captured and shot at Vincennes, France.

1943 -- Germain Seligman becomes an American citizen (and drops the second "n" from his original surname).

1944, Spring -- The New York gallery holds its first exhibition in the new 5 East Fifty-seventh Street location in New York City. During the war years, the firm had moved from its Fifty-first Street location to smaller quarters.

1945 -- The Contemporary American Department is reactivated.

1946 -- After the war, Arnold Seligmann & Cie. is left without a director, although it remains at the Rue de la Paix location. Germain consolidates the two firms but organizes the Paris and New York offices as separate financial and administrative entities.

1969 -- Germain Seligman publishes Roger de La Fresnaye, with a Catalogue Raisonné. The book receives acclaim and is listed on the 1969 New York Times "Ten Best Books of the Year."

1978, March 27 -- Germain Seligman dies.
Provenance:
The records of the Paris and New York art dealer Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., were donated to the Archives of American Art in 1978 by Mrs. Ethlyne Seligman, widow of Germain Seligman. A small addition of 19 linear feet was donated in 1994.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Art dealers -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford, 1874-1938 -- Art collections  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L. -- Art collections  Search this
Arenberg, duc d' -- Art collections  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of -- Art collections  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de, 1885-1925  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State)
Art galleries, Commercial -- France
Genre/Form:
Gallery records
Citation:
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.jacqself
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Jacques Seligmann & Co. records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-jacqself
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George Leslie Stout papers

Creator:
Stout, George L. (George Leslie)  Search this
Names:
Allied Forces. Supreme Headquarters. Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Section  Search this
Fogg Art Museum  Search this
Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum  Search this
Worcester Art Museum  Search this
Correspondent:
Buck, Richard D.  Search this
Constable, W. G. (William George), 1887-1976  Search this
Gardner, G. Peabody (George Peabody)  Search this
Hall, Ardelia Ripley  Search this
Howe, Thomas Carr, 1904-1994  Search this
Ivins, William Mills, 1881-1961  Search this
Marceau, Henri, 1896-1969  Search this
Moore, Lamont  Search this
Sachs, Paul J. (Paul Joseph), 1878-1965  Search this
Sizer, Theodore, 1892-1967  Search this
Warner, Langdon (1881-1955)  Search this
Extent:
6.4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Sketches
Sketchbooks
Date:
1897-1978
1855
Summary:
The papers of conservator and museum director George Leslie Stout measure 6.4 linear feet and date from 1855, 1897-1978. Stout was head of the conservation department at Harvard University's Fogg Art Museum, director of the Worcester Art Museum and Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Massachusetts, and a member of the Monuments, Fine Art and Archives (MFAA) Section of the U.S. Army during World War II. The bulk of the collection consists of correspondence with family, friends, colleagues and professional associations. There are letters from fellow Monuments Men who served in the MFAA section such as Thomas Carr Howe, Ardelia Hall, Lamont Moore, Theodore Sizer, Langdon Warner and several other prominent arts administrators. The papers also contain biographical materials, writings, sketches and one sketchbook, military records, printed materials, and photographs. There is a 0.2 linear foot addition to this collection acquired in 2020 that includes four diaries, 1944-1946, kept by George Stout as a member of the Monuments, Fine Arts & Archives Section (MFAA) of the U.S. Army (known as the Monuments Men). The diaries describe Stout's experiences surveying war-caused damages in France, Germany, and Japan, and the recovery of Nazi impounded art works. Also included is a hand-made booklet that includes a "Glossary of Cha-no-yu Terms," which consists of quotes about Japanese art and tea drinking.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of conservator and museum director George Leslie Stout measure 6.4 linear feet and date from 1855, 1897-1978. Stout was head of the conservation department at Harvard University's Fogg Art Museum, director of the Worcester Art Museum and Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Massachusetts, and a member of the Monuments, Fine Art and Archives (MFAA) Section of the U.S. Army during World War II. The bulk of the collection consists of correspondence with family, friends, colleagues and professional associations. There are letters from fellow Monuments Men who served in the MFAA section such as Thomas Carr Howe, Ardelia Hall, Lamont Moore, Theodore Sizer, Langdon Warner and several other prominent arts administrators. The papers also contain biographical materials, writings, sketches and one sketchbook, military records, printed materials, and photographs. There is a 0.2 linear foot addition to this collection acquired in 2020 that includes four diaries, 1944-1946, kept by George Stout as a member of the Monuments, Fine Arts & Archives Section (MFAA) of the U.S. Army (known as the Monuments Men). The diaries describe Stout's experiences surveying war-caused damages in France, Germany, and Japan, and the recovery of Nazi impounded art works. Also included is a hand-made booklet that includes a "Glossary of Cha-no-yu Terms," which consists of quotes about Japanese art and tea drinking.

Biographical materials include college and graduate school transcripts, various certificates, four small appointment books and passports.

Correspondence is between George Leslie Stout and family, friends, colleagues, professional associations and fellow Monuments Men. Family correspondence is with Stout's immediate and extended family, the bulk of which is from Stout to his wife Margaret and his son Thomas. Correspondents in the Monuments Men correspondence include Thomas Carr Howe, Ardelia Hall, Lamont Moore, Theodore Sizer, Langdon Warner, and many others. There is also substantial correspondence with friends and professional colleagues in the museum and art world, such as Walter Beck, Richard D. Buck, William George Constable, Earl of Crawford, George Peabody Gardner, Jr., William Ivins, Jr., Henri Marceau, and Paul Sachs, among many others.

Writings by Stout consist of typescript drafts and published articles, speeches, and miscellaneous notes. Most of the writings concern art conservation and the speeches are memorials for two of Stout's colleagues. Notes consists of drafts for the texts of holiday cards Stout designed, biographical notes, and images and captions for The Care of Pictures. There are also three conference papers on art conservation written by other people.

Subject files document Stout's conservation projects as a consultant for museums, universities, galleries and other organizations. Also found in this series are documents relating to Stout's work after retiring from the Isabella Gardner Museum and his membership or participation in various arts programs and organizations.

A separate series contains files relating to Stout's World War II service in the Monuments, Fine Arts & Archives (MFAA) Section. Found here are official military records, publications by Monuments Men, and a few scattered photographs. Military records include directives, reports, certificates and a bronze star medal. There are articles and books written by various Monuments Men such as Langdon Warner, Lincoln Kirstein and Theodore Sizer. There are also scattered photographs, only two of which depict tout (including one group photograph with Lamont Moore, Walker Hancock and other Monuments Men.) There are also 12 negatives with 4 prints depicting La Gleize Church and the town of Ambleve, Belgium in 1945. There are also four diaries documenting Stout's experiences in the MFAA Section in Europe and Japan from 1944-1946.

Personal business records include assorted legal and estate papers as well as financial papers such as receipts, travel expenses and donations.

Printed materials consists of news clippings, bulletins, brochures, press releases, conference papers, and magazine and journal articles, most of it related to art conservation.

Artwork includes pencil and ink drawings and sketches, mostly of travel scenes, people, and animals. There is one sketchbook of the human figure. Many sketches were loosely grouped together by Stout with titles such as "Pool Doodles" or "Park and Zoo." The is also one caricature of Eric Brown by Murray Pease.

The papers include photographs and negatives, mostly personal photographs of friends, family, relatives and colleagues. There are also photographs of art conservation conferences and travel photographs. Additional scattered photographs are located in the series containing the Monuments Men files.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 9 series.

Series 1: Biographical Materials, circa 1919-1977 (0.1 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1922-1978 (2.5 linear feet; Box 1-3, OV 8)

Series 3: Writings, 1927-1978 (0.5 linear feet; Box 3-4)

Series 4: Subject Files, 1918, 1943-1978 (1 linear feet; Box 4, OV 8-9)

Series 5: Monuments, Fine Arts & Archives Section Files, 1918, 1942-1955, 1972-1975 (0.5 linear feet; Box 5, 10)

Series 6: Personal Business Records, 1938-1978 (0.1 linear feet; Box 5)

Series 7: Printed Materials, 1926-1977 (0.8 linear feet; Box 5-6, OV 9)

Series 8: Sketchbooks, circa 1924-circa 1938, 1970-1977 (0.1 linear feet; Box 6)

Series 9: Photographic Materials, circa 1855, 1897-1978 (0.2 linear feet; Box 6-7)
Biographical / Historical:
George Leslie Stout (1897-1978) was a museum director and prominent art conservator in Massachusetts. Stout was head of the conservation department at Harvard University's Fogg Art Museum, and director of the Worcester Art Museum and Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Massachusetts. During World War II, Stout served in the U.S. Army Monuments, Fine Art and Archives (MFAA) and played a leading role in the protection, location, and recovery of art work stolen by the Nazis.

Born in Winterset, Iowa in 1897, George Leslie Stout was the oldest of six children and attended Winterset High School and served in the U.S. army during World War I. Following the war, Stout studied at the State University of Iowa, received his B.A. in 1921, worked for a few years, and married Margaret Hayes in 1924 with whom he had two sons, Robert and Thomas. He attended Harvard graduate school in 1926 and graduated with a Master of Art in 1929. Stout began working as a lecturer and conservator at Harvard's Fogg Art Museum, later becoming the head of the conservation department in 1933, a position he held until 1947.

During World War II, Stout re-enlisted in the U.S. Navy, having served in the reserves since World War I. Stout was one of the first members of the Monuments, Fine Arts & Archives (MFAA) Section of the U.S. army. He was appointed to the MFAA Section for the Twelfth Army Group in 1944 and was one of the first Monuments Men to arrive at Normandy, France. He was later appointed Lieutenant Commander of the MFAA Section. Many of the Monuments Men's stolen art recovery achievements were directed by George Leslie Stout. Stout supervised the inventory and removal of looted art hidden by the Nazis in the salt mines of Merkers and Ransbach in Thuringia, Germany. Stout oversaw the organization, packing, and shipping of several thousand objects including paintings by Rubens and Goya, along with precious antiquities. At the Altaussee salt mines in Austria, he was in charge of the unit that recovered a large cache of stolen artwork that included Michelangelo's Madonna and Child and the Ghent Altarpiece or The Adoration of the Mystic Lamb by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. There, he also worked very closely with fellow Monuments Men Thomas Carr Howe. Stout went on to locate and recover looted artwork in other repositories in Germany, France, and the Netherlands. He maintained a relationship with many of his fellow Monuments Men after the war.

Stout left Europe in the latter half of 1945, then went to Japan where he served as the Chief of the Arts and Monuments Division at Headquarters of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, Tokyo until the middle of 1946. After the war Stout received the Bronze Star and the Army Commendation Medal for his army service and work as a Monuments Man in Europe.

Stout resumed his position as the head of the conservation department at the Fogg Art Museum when he returned to America. In 1947 he became the director of the Worcester Art Museum in Massachusetts where he stayed until 1955, when he became the director of the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston where he worked until his retirement in 1970. Stout wrote numerous articles about art conservation and wrote two books: Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia (1942), co-authored with Harvard colleage R. J. Gettens, and Care of Pictures (1948). Stout died in Menlo Park, California in 1978 and was widely recognized as a distinguished art conservator.
Related Materials:
Also found in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with George Stout conducted by Paul Karlstrom in 1978.
Provenance:
George Leslie Stout donated his papers to the Archives of American Art in 1978. In that same year, Robert Stout, son of George Leslie Stout, loaned four diaries to the Archives of American Art for microfilming. The four diaries were acquired at auction by the Archives in 2020 with generous donations from Paul Neely, David Copperfield in memory of Kelly Asbury, Deborah Lehr and John Rogers, Ambassador Nicholas F. Taubman, The Whitney and Elizabeth MacMillan Foundation, Jeffrey P. Cunard and Mariko Ikehara, The Elbrun and Peter Kimmelman Family Foundation, Inc., Peter and Paula Lunder, William and Christine Ragland in memory of William McKenzie Ragland Lt. JG, U.S. Navy, Pacific Theater, WWII, The Kurin Family in honor of WWII Veteran Saul Kurin, Paul and Corine Wegener, and Judy and Bob Huret.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.

The Stout diaries are currently closed for conservation.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Conservators -- California  Search this
Arts administrators  Search this
Topic:
Museum directors -- United States  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
Art -- Conservation and restoration  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sketches
Sketchbooks
Citation:
George Leslie Stout papers, 1855, 1897-1978. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.stougeor
See more items in:
George Leslie Stout papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-stougeor
Online Media:

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