Skip to main content Smithsonian Institution

Search Results

Collections Search Center
157 documents - page 1 of 8

Oral history interview with Charles Duback, 2004 December 15-2005 May 18

Interviewee:
DuBack, Charles S. (Charles Steven), 1926-  Search this
DuBack, Charles S. (Charles Steven), 1926-  Search this
Interviewer:
Larsen, Susan C., 1946-  Search this
Subject:
Pinette, Dennis  Search this
Grooms, Red  Search this
Ortman, George  Search this
Stout, Myron  Search this
Katz, Alex  Search this
Poor, Henry Varnum  Search this
Langlais, Bernard  Search this
Grillo, John  Search this
Dugmore, Edward  Search this
McNeil, George  Search this
Landmark Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Newark School of Fine and Industrial Arts  Search this
Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Collage  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)11927
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)254273
AAA_collcode_duback04
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_254273
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Victor D. Spark, 1975 August 5

Interviewee:
Spark, Victor D. (Victor David), 1898-1991  Search this
Spark, Victor D. (Victor David), 1898-1991  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul, 1933-1997  Search this
Subject:
Duveen, Albert  Search this
Duveen, Joseph Duveen, Baron  Search this
Halpert, Edith Gregor  Search this
Karolik, Maxim  Search this
Knoedler, Roland F.  Search this
Wildenstein, Felix  Search this
Duveen-Graham (Gallery)  Search this
M. Knoedler & Co.  Search this
New York University  Search this
United States. Marine Corps  Search this
Wildenstein Galleries  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Depressions -- 1929  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13237
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213108
AAA_collcode_spark75
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_213108
Online Media:

Frank Perls papers and Frank Perls Gallery records, circa 1920-1983, bulk 1949-1975

Creator:
Perls, Frank, 1910-1975  Search this
Perls, Frank  Search this
Perls, Frank, 1910-1975  Search this
Perls, Frank  Search this
Subject:
Chuey, Robert  Search this
Brice, William  Search this
Lebrun, Rico  Search this
Lipchitz, Jacques  Search this
Matisse, Henri  Search this
McGarrell, James  Search this
Peake, Channing  Search this
Amato, Sam  Search this
Warsaw, Howard  Search this
Strombotne, James  Search this
Ray, Man  Search this
Picasso, Pablo  Search this
Perls, Klaus  Search this
Curt Valentin Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
M. Knoedler & Co.  Search this
Type:
Short stories
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Sales records
Gallery records
Topic:
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- California -- Beverly Hills  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Curators -- California  Search this
Art -- Forgeries  Search this
Theme:
Art Market  Search this
Art Gallery Records  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9601
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211805
AAA_collcode_perlfran
Theme:
Art Market
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211805
Online Media:

Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records, 1883-1962, bulk 1885-1962

Creator:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art  Search this
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art  Search this
Subject:
East, Alfred, Sir  Search this
Church, Samuel Harden  Search this
Chase, William Merritt  Search this
Homer, Winslow  Search this
Hassam, Childe  Search this
Saint-Gaudens, Homer  Search this
Thayer, Abbott Handerson  Search this
Beatty, John W. (John Wesley)  Search this
Alexander, John White  Search this
Beaux, Cecilia  Search this
Brush, George de Forest  Search this
M. Knoedler & Co.  Search this
Gallery of William Macbeth  Search this
Corcoran Gallery of Art  Search this
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
Buffalo Fine Arts Academy  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Letterpress books
Museum records
Place:
Spain -- History -- Civil War, 1936-1939
Topic:
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Depressions -- 1929  Search this
Art, Modern -- Exhibitions  Search this
Fascism  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Museum directors  Search this
Theme:
Communities, Organizations, Museums  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7343
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209496
AAA_collcode_carninst
Theme:
Communities, Organizations, Museums
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209496
Online Media:

Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records

Creator:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art  Search this
Names:
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
Buffalo Fine Arts Academy  Search this
Corcoran Gallery of Art  Search this
Gallery of William Macbeth  Search this
M. Knoedler & Co.  Search this
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Alexander, John White, 1856-1915  Search this
Beatty, John W. (John Wesley), 1851-1924  Search this
Beaux, Cecilia, 1855-1942  Search this
Brush, George de Forest, 1855-1941  Search this
Chase, William Merritt, 1849-1916  Search this
Church, Samuel Harden  Search this
East, Alfred, Sir, 1849-1913  Search this
Hassam, Childe, 1859-1935  Search this
Homer, Winslow, 1836-1910  Search this
Saint-Gaudens, Homer, b. 1880  Search this
Thayer, Abbott Handerson, 1849-1921  Search this
Extent:
265.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Letterpress books
Museum records
Place:
Spain -- History -- Civil War, 1936-1939
Date:
1883-1962
bulk 1885-1962
Summary:
The records of the Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art measure 265.8 linear feet and date from 1883-1962, with the bulk of the material dating from 1885-1940. The collection includes extensive correspondence between the museum's founding director, John Beatty, and his successor, Homer Saint-Gaudens, with artists, dealers, galleries, collectors, museum directors, representatives abroad, shipping and insurance agents, and museum trustees. The collection also includes Department of Fine Arts interoffice memoranda and reports; loan exhibition files; Carnegie International planning, jury, shipping, and sale records; Department of Fine Arts letterpress copy books, and a copy of the original card catalog index to these records.
Scope and Contents:
The records of the Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art measure 265.8 linear feet and date from 1883-1962, with the bulk of the material dating from 1885-1940. The collection includes extensive correspondence between the museum's founding director, John Beatty, and his successor, Homer Saint-Gaudens, with artists, dealers, galleries, collectors, museum directors, representatives abroad, shipping and insurance agents, and museum trustees. The collection also includes Department of Fine Arts interoffice memoranda and reports; loan exhibition files; Carnegie International planning, jury, shipping, and sale records; Department of Fine Arts letterpress copy books, and a copy of the original card catalog index to these records.

This collection is a complete record of the museum's work, starting with the planning of the first loan exhibition in 1885 and ending with the cancellation of the International at the start of World War II in 1940. The museum's day-to-day relationships with all aspects of the contemporary art world are documented within the historical context of artists' reactions to World War I; the economic repercussions of the Great Depression on art sales and museum budgets; the ramifications of fascism on German, Italian, and European art; the impact of civil war on Spanish art; and the tensions introduced by the rise of 'radical' modernist art in Europe.

Correspondence (Series 1) is the largest series in the collection (152.5 linear feet) and is comprised of extensive correspondence between the Museum of Art and over 8700 correspondents, with over 3600 correspondents specifically related to art and artists.

Correspondents related to the art world include museum staff, artists, collectors, museums, galleries, dealers, shippers, insurance agencies, art directors, associations, societies, clubs, critics, press, and governments. These exchanges include general requests for information; requests related to the museum's exhibitions, including the International; letters regarding the museum's involvement in the events of other art organizations; loan, sales, and provenance information for specific works of art; and information regarding the events of other art organizations.

The correspondence of the museum's staff provides the greatest insight into understanding the museum's evolution into an international cultural institution. Both directors' correspondence touch on their personal opinions on art, their rationale behind policy decisions, and their understanding of the extent to which the museum's work was dependent on the good relations they maintained in the art world. Additionally, the extensive, opinionated correspondence between Saint-Gaudens' European agents and museum staff during the 1920s and 1930s provide a unique perspective on emerging art trends and the skill, growth, and personalities of individual artists.

The most prolific of the museum staff correspondents include museum directors John Beatty and Homer Saint-Gaudens, Board of Trustees president Samuel Harden Church, assistant director Edward Balken, and European agents Guillaume Lerolle , Ilario Neri, Arnold Palmer, Margaret Palmer, and Charlotte Weidler. Additional prominent staff members include Helen Beatty, Robert Harshe, Caroline Lapsley, Henry Jack Nash, John O'Connor, Charles Ramsey, George Shaw, George Sheers, August Zeller, and Fine Arts Committee members John Caldwell, William Frew, William Hyett, and John Porter.

The most prolific artist correspondents include John White Alexander, George Grey Barnard, Cecilia Beaux, Frank Benson, George de Forest Brush, William Merritt Chase, William Coffin, Bruce Crane, Andre Dauchez, Charles H. Davis, Alfred East, Ben Foster, Daniel Garber, Charles P. Gruppe, John Johansen, Johanna Hailman, John McLure Hamilton, Birge Harrison, Childe Hassam, Winslow Homer, Laura Knight, John la Farge, Gaston la Touche, John Lavery, Henri le Sidaner, Jonas Lie, Hermon A. MacNeil, Antonio Mancini, Gari Melchers, Emile Menard, Henry R. Poore, Edward Redfield, W. Elmer Schofield, Leopold Seyffert, Lucien Simon, Eugene Speicher, Abbott Handerson Thayer, Robert Vonnoh, J. Alden Weir, Irving R. Wiles, and Ignacio Zuloaga. Other artists of note include: Edwin Austen Abbey, George Bellows, Edwin Blashfield, Frank Brangwyn, Mary Cassatt, Kenyon Cox, Thomas Wilmer Dewing, Thomas Eakins, William Glackens, Robert Henri, Eastman Johnson, Rockwell Kent, Paul Manship, Henry Ranger, John Singer Sargent, Edward Steichen, Alfred Stieglitz, Edmund Tarbell, James McNeil Whistler, N.C. Wyeth, and Charles Morris Young.

Frequent museum collaborators include the Art Institute of Chicago, Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Brooklyn Museum, Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, Cleveland Museum of Art, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Detroit Institute of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Museum of Modern Art, Saint Louis Museum of Fine Arts, Toledo Museum of Art, and Worcester Art Museum.

Other prolific correspondents include collectors Chauncey Blair, Andrew Carnegie, Charles Lang Freer, George Hearn, Alexander Humphreys, Roy Hunt, Mrs. B.F. Jones, Burton Mansfield, Frank Nicola, Duncan Phillips, John Stevenson, and William Stimmel; dealers and galleries M. Knoedler, William Macbeth, Central Art Gallery, Charles A. Walker, C.W. Kraushaar Art Galleries, Downtown Gallery, Durand-Ruel and Sons, Ehrich Galleries, Ferargil Galleries, Frank Rehn, Frederick Keppel, Haseltine Art Gallery, R.C. Vose Galleries, and W. Scott Thurber Fine Arts; insurance agent Macomber Co.; and shippers Dicksee and Co., J.W. Hampton, P. Navel/R. Lerondelle, Stedman and Wilder, and W.S. Budworth and Son.

Correspondents not specifically related to the contemporary art world include businesses, educational institutions, libraries, and the general public. These exchanges detail the daily work of the museum, including the estimates and work orders of office suppliers, contractors, printers, and etc.; programming and research inquiries of k-12 and college/university institutions; acknowledgements of the receipt of Museum of Art publications; and general public inquiries regarding museum policies, exhibitions, and the permanent collection. Companies and institutions who worked particularly closely with the museum include Alden and Harlow (architects), Detroit Publishing Co., and Tiffany and Co.

Department of Fine Arts (Series 2) consists of art and artist lists, correspondence, memoranda, notes, and reports. These files were begun under John Beatty's tenure and streamlined under Homer Saint-Gaudens' directorship to track activities directly related to the museum's interoffice affairs. File headings continued under Saint-Gaudens focus on art considered and purchased for the permanent collection, employee records, exhibition proposals and loans, Fine Arts Committee minutes, museum programming, museum publications, press releases, requests for images, and requests for general information.

Under Saint-Gaudens, the Fine Arts Committee files contain voluminous impressions of contemporary European artists, which he composed during his annual studio tours of the continent in the early 1920s and late 1930s. These informal reports provide insight into the shaping of the International and include a running commentary on historical events of the time. The Fine Arts Committee files also document the artistic and budgetary compromises that were struck, particularly during the Great Depression and early run-up to World War II.

Exhibitions (Series 3) includes correspondence with collectors, museums, galleries, dealers, shippers, and many of the artists themselves. Additional documents include catalogs, lists, planning notes, and telegrams related to 185 traveling and loan exhibitions held at the Museum of Art from 1901 to 1940. Of these, over 100 are one-artist shows and 82 are group, survey, regional, or topical shows. The one-artist exhibitions tend to showcase contemporary artists of the time. Regional shows focused on American and European art, with two shows featuring the art of Canada and Mexico. Survey themes focused on animals, children, cities, gardens, landscapes, Old Masters, and portraitures. Many of the genre shows venture into art not typically collected by the Museum of Art, including architecture, crafts, engravings, figure studies, graphic arts, illustrations, miniatures, mural decorations, oriental rugs, prints, printed books, sculpture, small reliefs, stained glass, theater models, watercolors, and wood engravings.

The most important shows organized and curated by Museum of Art staff include the Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1915), American Sculpture Show (1915, 1920), Applied Arts Show (1917), Original Illustrations Show (1921), Mexican Art Show (1929), Garden Club Show (1922), Industrial Art Show (1924), Pittsburgh Artists Show (1935), French Survey Show (1936), English Painting Survey Show (1937), American Paintings, Royal Academy Show (1938), and Survey of American Painting Show (1940).

Important one-artist shows include Abbot Handerson Thayer (1919), George de Forest Brush (1922), Frank W. Benson (1923), Rockwell Kent (1923, 1939), Anders Zorn (1924), John Lavery (1925), Paul Manship (1925), Mary Cassatt (1925), Laura Knight (1925), Edouard Manet (1932), Edward Hopper (1936), Winslow Homer (1922, 1936), Paul Cezanne (1936), Charles Burchfield (1937), and William Glackens (1938).

International (Series 4) is comprised of catalogs, correspondence, art and artist lists, itineraries, jury selection ballots, minutes, notes, and reports related to the planning, logistics, and promotion of the International Exhibition from 1895 to 1940. These documents were originally grouped and filed separately under John Beatty and were more rigorously streamlined under Homer Saint-Gaudens. The folder headings continued under Saint-Gaudens focus on art purchases, artists' invitations, artists' request for information, general exhibition planning, Foreign Advisory Committees, foreign governments, jury reception planning, loan requests, and touring logistics.

Letterpress books (Series 5) consist of 75 volumes that chronologically collect all of the Museum of Art's outgoing correspondence from 1896 to 1917. Volumes 1-8 contain the only copy of outgoing correspondence from 1896 to 1900. Duplicate copies of all outgoing correspondence dating from 1901 to 1917 were filed in Correspondence (Series 1) by museum staff.

Card catalogs (Series 6) also include three sets of catalogs created by the Museum of Art to track the outgoing and incoming correspondence contained in this collection. Set 1 (1895-1906) consists of the original cards. Set 2 (1907-1917) and Set 3 (1918-1940) consists of photocopies of the original cards that were merged together into one contiguous set.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Correspondence, 1883-1962, (Boxes 1-153, OV 267; 152.5 linear feet)

Series 2: Department of Fine Arts, 1896-1940, (Boxes 153-184, OV 268; 31.6 linear feet)

Series 3: Exhibitions, 1901-1940, (Boxes 184-204; 20 linear feet)

Series 4: International, 1895-1940, (Boxes 204-234, 265-266; 30.2 linear feet)

Series 5: Letterpress Books, 1900-1917, (Boxes 235-251; 17 linear feet)

Series 6: Card Catalogs, 1895-1940, (Box 252-264; 11 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
The Carnegie Institute Museum of Art was established in 1895 by industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. One of the first modern contemporary art museums in the United States, its flagship exhibition, the Carnegie International, is recognized as the longest running contemporary exhibition of international art in North America and is the second oldest in the world.

Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) was born in Dumfermline, Scotland and migrated to America with his family in 1848. Often regarded as the second-richest man in history behind John D. Rockerfeller, Carnegie built his industrialist fortunes in the steel industry and spent the remainder of his life in support of major philanthropic projects. By the age of 33, he had developed his personal philosophy of philanthropy, which saw it as the responsibility of the wealthy to foster educational opportunities and disseminate the ideals of high culture among all levels of society. In addition to establishing over 2500 free public libraries, in 1895, he provided the funds to build the Carnegie Institute, located in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Carnegie Institute originally maintained three separate departments under the auspices of the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, and the Carnegie Museum of Art.

The Carnegie Institute was administered by a Board of Trustees selected by Carnegie, all prominent professional men of Pittsburgh. Within this group, eight men were selected to serve on the Museum of Art's Fine Arts Committee, which was initially granted the final say on gallery affairs. The first Fine Arts Committee was composed of two artists, Alfred Bryan Wall and Joseph Ryan Woodwell, and six businessmen. Among the latter group, John Caldwell, Henry Clay Frick, William Nimick Frew, and David Thompson Watson were also knowledgeable art patrons and collectors. Over time, the Fine Arts Committee's sway over gallery affairs would be measured by the dedication of its various members and tempered by the vision and authority of the Museum's directors, John Beatty and Homer Saint-Gaudens, and the Carnegie Institute Board of Trustees president, Samuel Harden Church.

From 1896 to 1921, John Wesley Beatty (1851-1924) served as the first director of the Museum of Art. A native Pittsburgher and an accomplished silver engraver, illustrator, and painter, Beatty attended the Royal Bavarian Academy in Munich and upon his return to America, made a living as an artist. He also taught at the Pittsburgh School of Design for Women and co-founded a small school of art with fellow local artist George Hetzel. In 1890, while serving as the secretary of the Pittsburgh Art Society, he became the primary organizer of a loan exhibition to be displayed at the opening of the Carnegie Free Library in Allegheny, Pennsylvania. In 1895, when the Carnegie Institute trustees began discussing the possibility of a similar loan exhibition for the opening of their new institution, Beatty was contacted and eventually enlisted to take on the task. Upon the success of that exhibition, he was invited to direct the gallery's affairs and served as the Museum of Art's director until his retirement.

Beatty was an enthusiastic supporter of Impressionism, Realism, Tonalism, Symbolism, and the critically acclaimed contemporary art of the 1890s. He also shared Carnegie's vision for the Museum of Art and believed in the educational and uplifting role aesthetic beauty could provide to the general public. Pursuant to the stated goals of Andrew Carnegie, under Beatty's direction the museum began to purchase important contemporary works to add to its chronological collection of "Old Masters of tomorrow" and almost immediately began planning the first of its Internationals.

The Internationals were viewed as the primary means of showcasing the Museum of Art's selection of the best in contemporary American and European painting, thereby elevating its role as an influential cultural institution on a national and international level. Juried monetary prizes would be awarded to the two best works by American artists, additional awards would be offered to artists of all nationalities, and the Museum of Art's purchases for the year would be selected from the exhibition. Certain artists and collectors were tapped to serve as unofficial representatives of the Museum of Art at home and abroad, among them John White Alexander, William Coffin, I.M. Gaugengigl, Walter Shirlaw, and Edmund Tarbell. Many of the most prominent Pittsburgh art collectors were also asked to lend works to the exhibition. While details of the jury and artist selection process, number of representatives, exhibition show dates, and amount and total number of prizes would change over the years, the planning template was set and would remain the same for future Internationals.

Beatty continued to rely on a stable of close friends and confidantes to help smooth over relations with artists, dealers, shipping agents, and galleries alike, relying heavily on John White Alexander and W. Elmer Schofield, in addition to artists Thomas Shields Clarke, Walter Gay, Robert Henri, Frank D. Millet, and critic Charles M. Kurtz. Over time, many of the artists who served on International juries or Foreign Advisory Committees also became reliable friends and advocates of the International, including Edwin Austen Abbey, Edmond Aman-Jean, Edwin Howland Blashfield, William Merritt Chase, Charles Cottet, Kenyon Cox, Charles Harold Davis, Alfred East, Ben Foster, Charles Hopkinson, John la Farge, Gari Melchers, Leonard Ochtman, Irving R. Wiles, and Robert W. Vonnoh.

From 1896 to 1921, the Museum of Art held twenty-one Internationals, with the only exceptions coming in 1906 (construction of the Hall of Architecture, Hall of Sculpture, and Bruce Galleries), 1915 (deference to the San Francisco Panama-Pacific International), and 1916-1919 (World War I). During these years, the scope and administration of the International slowly expanded, though not without growing pains. At the turn of the century, new modernist styles of art that were appearing in galleries across Europe had not yet entered major American museums and the Carnegie Museum of Art maintained this trend. The museum's generally conservative selection policies, combined with criticism regarding the timing of the exhibition and the jury selection process, led to increasingly tense relations with artists, and were only partially resolved by changes made to the format of the International. In spite of these challenges, the Carnegie International retained its reputation as a preeminent venue for contemporary art and awarded top prizes to John White Alexander, Cecilia Beaux, George W. Bellows, Frank W. Benson, Andre Dauchez, Thomas Wilmer Dewing, Thomas Eakins, Childe Hassam, Winslow Homer, John Lavery, Henri le Sidaner, Edward W. Redfield, W. Elmer Schofield, Edmund C. Tarbell, Abbot Handerson Thayer, Dwight W. Tryon, and J. Alden Weir.

In addition to the International, Carnegie's mission of bringing cultural and educational opportunities to Pittsburgh was a central priority of the museum's daily operations. Beatty cultivated relationships with fellow museum directors, which allowed for the easy co-ordination and planning of traveling exhibitions benefiting the city. The museum developed educational programs for children and adults, including lectures, gallery talks, Saturday morning classes, fine art extension classes, guided tours, and outreach to local schools. As popular Pittsburgh art societies and clubs formed, the museum also provided meeting and exhibition spaces for groups such as the Associated Artists of Pittsburgh, the Art Society of Pittsburgh, the Art Students League, the Garden Club of Allegheny County, and the Junior League.

After more than 25 years of service, Beatty made the decision to retire and put out an informal call for candidates. Being the right man at the right time, in 1921, Homer Schiff Saint-Gaudens (1880-1958) became the Museum of Art's second director.

The only child of American sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens and his wife and artist, Augusta Fisher Homer, Saint-Gaudens frequently traveled abroad and grew up in the company of his parents' wide circle of friends, many of them artists, poets, writers, and performers who frequented the Cornish Artists' Colony. More intimate friends of the family included former students, assistants, and colleagues, the architect Stanford White, and successful artist-couples who resided near the family's Cornish, New Hampshire home, among them Louise and Kenyon Cox, Maria and Thomas Dewing, Florence and Everett Shinn, and Emma and Abbott Thayer.

Homer Saint-Gaudens attended the preparatory school Lawrenceville, graduated from Harvard in 1903, married the artist and suffragist Carlota Dolley (1884-1927) in 1905, and remarried to Mary Louise McBride (n.d.-1974) in 1929. He began his professional career as a journalist and worked as assistant editor of The Critic (1903) and managing editor of Metropolitan Magazine (1905). During those years, he was introduced to a number of the Ash Can school artists, wrote articles on contemporary art, and honed his abilities as a writer. In 1907, Saint-Gaudens took a break from professional editing and began a second career as the stage manager for Maude Adams, the most highly paid and successful stage actress of her day, with a yearly income of over one million dollars at the peak of her popularity. Working in theater and as Adams' manager for over ten years, Saint-Gaudens learned the ins and outs of event promotion and logistics, media coverage, and maintaining diplomatic relations through compromise, ideal skills he would later use in organizing the Carnegie Internationals.

With the United States' entry into World War I, Saint-Gaudens served as the chief of the U.S. Army's first camouflage unit and was awarded the Bronze Star. After his discharge, he managed Adams' 1918 final season and simultaneously helped his mother organize a major retrospective of his father's sculptures. While organizing a section of his father's work for the 1921 International, he was invited to step into the position of assistant director of the Carnegie Museum of Art, and was promoted to the directorship upon John Beatty's retirement.

Throughout his tenure, Saint-Gaudens was able to call upon long-standing family friendships with artists and art patrons to the museum's benefit. His connections to the art world can clearly be seen in his first major stand-alone exhibition, the Garden Club Show (1922). In this, he enlisted the aid of Elizabeth Alexander, wife of John White Alexander, and Johanna Hailman, artist and wife of John Hailman, who reached out to their circle of artists and art collecting friends in search of works appropriate for the show. Their efforts, combined with the relationships Beatty had established with museum directors, galleries, and dealers, as well as Saint-Gaudens' own friendships with Kenyon Cox, Thomas Dewing, Barry Faulkner, and Gari Melchers, resulted in an assemblage of 150 paintings of note. Coming immediately upon the heels of the 1922 International, the show was a resounding success. The exhibition's opening attracted over 300 delegates of the Garden Club of America and the entirety of Pittsburgh high society, settling any concerns regarding his leadership abilities.

As director of the Museum of Art, Saint-Gaudens instituted measures intended to streamline the Internationals and improve diplomatic relations with artists. Though the basic format of the juried exhibition remained the same, his solutions to the complaints many artists raised with the artist invitation, art selection, and jury systems reformed the International's reputation at a critical time. Though he was naturally inclined to appreciate the art and artists he had grown up with, Saint-Gaudens understood the immediate necessity of introducing modernist contemporary art into the museum's exhibitions and galleries. He circumvented the conservative Fine Arts Committee's resistance to the accolades of European modernists by choosing the tamest of the new 'radical' works. Eventually, he balanced the Internationals with a mix of conservative, moderate, and advanced works that appealed to a large range of audiences and increased the status and diversity of the Internationals.

To aid in his reformation of the International, Saint-Gaudens formalized a team of European agents who worked year round to scout artists' studios, recommend suitable art and artists, navigate local politics, arrange local transportation and logistics, and maintain cordial relations with artists abroad. In the spring, Saint-Gaudens would travel to Europe to meet with his agents in person, tour the most promising studios, and meet with artists personally. His team was headed by Guillaume Lerolle, who shared Saint-Gaudens' distinction of being the son of a well regarded national artist, Henry Lerolle. Like Saint-Gaudens, Lerolle was able and willing to call upon longstanding family friendships and networks on behalf of the Museum of Art. The other core members of the team were Ilario Neri (Italy), Arnold Palmer (England), Margaret Palmer (Spain), and Charlotte Weidler (Germany).

From 1922 to 1940, the Museum of Art held seventeen Internationals, with the exceptions coming in 1932 (Great Depression) and 1940 (World War II). After a brief period of change, growth, and experimentation in the early 1920s, the museum eventually settled on a routine of planning the Internationals, arranging for traveling exhibitions, and expanding upon the most popular of their educational programs. In addition to those programs put into place under Beatty's tenure, Saint-Gaudens paved the way for a revamped lecture series featuring visiting critics and traveled as a visiting lecturer himself.

During the 1930s, financial difficulties and increasing political tensions in Europe presented ample challenges to the diplomatic skills of Saint-Gaudens and his agents, and they found themselves increasingly forced to navigate through political minefields presented by the fascist ideologies of Germany and Italy, the chaos of the Spanish civil war, and the eventual outbreak of World War II in Europe. In spite of these challenges, under Saint-Gaudens' direction, the museum remained true to Andrew Carnegie's vision. The International was expanded to accept on average over sixty additional works of art, and at its peak, included art from twenty-one countries. Beginning in 1927, top prizes and recognition were awarded to Georges Braque, Marc Chagall, Salvador Dali, Andre Derain, Raoul Dufy, Karl Hofer, Rockwell Kent, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, and Edouard Vuillard.

Works by Arthur B. Davies, Charles Hawthorne, Edward Hopper, Augustus John, Oskar Kokoschka, Leon Kroll, Ernest Lawson, and William Orpen were added to the museum's permanent collection. And, as under Beatty's tenure, many of the artists selected to serve on the Jury of Award became advocates and friends of the museum, including Emil Carlsen, Anto Carte, Bruce Crane, Charles C. Curran, Daniel Garber, Charles Hopkinson, Laura Knight, Jonas Lie, Julius Olsson, Leopold Seyffert, Lucien Simon, Eugene Speicher, Maurice Sterne, Gardner Symons, Horatio Walker, and Charles H. Woodbury.

The monumental task of establishing the Carnegie Institute Museum of Art and the Carnegie International has left an archival record that is unique and unparalleled in documenting its relations with every aspect of the contemporary art world from the turn of the century through the first forty years of the twentieth century.
Provenance:
The Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records were loaned for microfilming in 1966 and later donated to the Archives of American Art in 1972. A small addition of corrrespondence was donated in 2017 by Elizabeth Tufts Brown.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Depressions -- 1929  Search this
Art, Modern -- Exhibitions  Search this
Fascism  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Museum directors  Search this
Function:
Art museums -- Pennsylvania
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Letterpress books
Museum records
Citation:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records, 1883-1962, bulk 1885-1940. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.carninst
See more items in:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-carninst
Online Media:

Edward J. Orth Memorial Archives of the New York World's Fair

Collector:
Orth, Edward J.  Search this
Exhibition Collectors Historical Organization  Search this
Names:
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Extent:
130 Cubic feet (417 boxes, 25 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Souvenirs
Photographs
Pamphlets
Guidebooks
Exhibition posters--1930-1940
Diaries
Ephemera
Film transparencies
Motion picture film
Posters
Place:
Flushing Meadows Park (New York, N.Y.)
New York (N.Y.)
Date:
1835-2000, undated
Summary:
Collection documents the 1939 New York World's Fair in Flushing Meadows, New York. Also includes material relating to other fairs, the Exhibition Collectors Historical Organization (ECHO), New York City tourism and The Walt Disney Company.
Scope and Contents:
Collection primarily documents the conception, planning, construction, management, and operations of the 1939 New York World's Fair located in Flushing Meadows, New York. Materials provide historical context and cultural significance as recorded in publications, artwork, photographs, ephemera, postcards, maps, plans, exhibitor's literature, souvenirs, and motion picture film. Most of the materials were primarily created for people who attended the fair. Some of the materials include scrapbooks created by fair visitors to document their experiences. There is a significant amount of material relating to other fairs, New York tourism, the Exhibition Collectors Historical Organization (ECHO) and the World's Fair Collector's Society. Other forms of entertainment such as festivals, the Olympic games, and Disney World are also found among these materials. There is little information relating to Edward Orth's personal and professional life as a city planner. The collection is arranged into eleven series.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eleven series.

Series 1, Edward J. Orth Personal Papers, 1915-1989, undated

Subseries 1.1, Correspondence, 1939-1989

Subseries 1.2, Other Materials, 1915-1989, undated

Series 2, Exhibition Collectors Historical Organization (ECHO) and World's Fair Collector's Society, Incorporated Records, 1942-1990, undated

Subseries 2.1, General Information, 1960-1988, undated

Subseries 2.2, Correspondence, 1942-1990, undated

Subseries 2.3, Classified and Wanted Advertisements, 1956-1988, undated

Subseries 2.4, Financial Records, 1976-1989

Subseries 2.5, Newsletters, 1969-1988, undated

Subseries 2.6, Membership Materials, 1970s-1989, undated

Series 3, New York World's Fair, Incorporated Records, 1900-1988, undated

Subseries 3.1, Administrative Files, 1900-1977, undated

Subseries 3.2, Amusement Zone, 1937-1940, undated

Subseries 3.3, Communications and Business Systems Zone, 1939-1965, undated

Subseries 3.4, Community Interest Zone, 1939-1949, undated

Subseries 3.5, Food Zone, 1939-1975

Subseries 3.6, Government Zone, 1939-1940

Subseries 3.7, Production and Distribution Zone, 1939-1940

Subseries 3.8, Transportation Zone, 1939-1940

Subseries 3.9, Ephemera, 1938-1988, undated

Series 4, Photographic Materials, 1939-1968, undated

Subseries 4.1, General, 1939-1940, undated

Subseries 4.2, Amusement Area, 1939-1940, undated

Subseries 4.3, Business Systems Zone, 1939-1940, undated

Subseries 4.4, Communications Zone, 1939-1940, undated

Subseries 4.5, Community Interest Zone, 1939-1940, undated

Subseries 4.6, Food Zone, 1939-1940, undated

Subseries 4.7, Government Zone, 1939-1940, undated

Subseries 4.8, Production and Distribution Zone, 1939-1940, undated

Subseries 4.9, Transportation Zone, 1939-1940, undated

Subseries 4.10, Miscellaneous, 1939-1940, undated

Subseries 4.11, Oversize Photographs, 1939-1940, undated

Subseries 4.12, Color Slides, 1939-1940, undated

Subseries 4.13, Color Transparencies, 1940-1942, undated

Subseries 4.14, Edward Orth, 1967-1968

Series 5, Scrapbooks, 1938-1981

Series 6, Postcards, 1906-1985, undated

Subseries 6.1, Amusement Area, 1939-1940, undated

Subseries 6.2, Business Systems Zone, 1939-1940, undated

Subseries 6.3, Communications Zone, 1939-1940, undated

Subseries 6.4, Community Interest Zone, 1939-1940, undated

Subseries 6.5, Food Zone, 1939-1940, undated

Subseries 6.6, Government Zone, International, 1939-1940, undated

Subseries 6.7, Government Zone, Federal and States, 1939-1940, undated

Subseries 6.8, Production and Distribution Zone, 1939-1940, undated

Subseries 6.9, Transportation Zone, 1939-1940, undated

Subseries 6.10, General, 1940, undated

Subseries 6.11, By Type, 1906-1985, undated

Series 7, Publications Related to World's Fairs, 1922-1989, undated

Subseries 7.1, Magazines, 1922-1988, undated

Subseries 7.2, Newspaper Articles, 1935-1989, undated

Subseries 7.3, Other Publications, 1937-1989, undated

Subseries 7.4, Other Subjects, 1962-1989

Series 8, Materials Relating to Other Fairs, 1851-2000, undated

Subseries 8.1, Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations or Crystal Palace Exhibition, 1851

Subseries 8.2, Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations, 1853-1853

Subseries 8.3, International Exhibition of Arts, Manufactures, and Products of the Soil and Mine or Centennial International Exhibition, 1876

Subseries 8.4, World's Columbian Exposition or Chicago World's Fair, 1893

Subseries 8.5, Exposition Internationale D'Anvers, Antwerp, Belgium

Subseries 8.6, Tennessee Centennial and International Exposition, 1897

Subseries 8.7, Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, 1898

Subseries 8.8, Expositions, 1901

Subseries 8.9, Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1906

Subseries 8.10, Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition, 1907

Subseries 8.11, Alaska, Yukon, Pacific Exposition, 1909

Subseries 8.12, Panama-California Exposition, 1915-1916

Subseries 8.13, Bronx International Exposition of Science, Arts, and Industries, 1918

Subseries 8.14, Sesquicentennial Exposition, 1926

Subseries 8.15, Barcelona International Exposition, 1929

Subseries 8.16, L'Exposition Coloniale, Paris, 1931

Subseries 8.17, Olympics, 1932

Subseries 8.18, A Century of Progress International Exposition, 1933

Subseries 8.19, Expositions, 1933-1935

Subseries 8.20, Expositions, 1936-1937

Subseries 8.21, Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne, 1937

Subseries 8.22, Golden Gate International Exposition, 1939

Subseries 8.23, Festival of Britain, Britain, London, United Kingdom, 1951

Subseries 8.24, Milan Fair, 1955

Subseries 8.25, Exposition Universelle et venti Internationale de Bruxelles, 1958

Subseries 8.26, American National Exhibition, 1959

Subseries 8.27, New York's World Fair, 1961-1977, undated

Subseries 8.28, Century 21 Exhibition, 1961-1962

Subseries 8.29, International and Universal Exposition or Expo 67, 1967

Subseries 8.30, Long Beach, California, 1967-1968

Subseries 8.31, HemisFair 68, 1968

Subseries 8.32, Expo 70 or Japan World Exposition, 1970

Subseries 8.33, Expo 74 or International Exposition on the Environment

Subseries 8.34, Expo 75 or International Ocean Exposition, 1975

Subseries 8.35, American Revolution Bicentennial, 1776-1976, 1976

Subseries 8.36, Queen's Bicentennial Festival, 1975-1976

Subseries 8.37, Plovdiv International Exhibition of 1981 or Expo 81

Subseries 8.38, Kobe Port Island Exposition or Portopia 81, 1981

Subseries 8.39, Knoxville International Energy Exposition or 1982 World's Fair, 1982

Subseries 8.40, Louisiana World Exposition, 1984

Subseries 8.41, Games of the XXIII Olympiad, 1984

Subseries 8.42, The International Exposition, Tsukuba, Japan or The International Science Technology Exposition, 1985

Subseries 8.43, Queen's Festival, 1985

Subseries 8.44, 1986 World Exposition on Transportation and Communication or Expo 86, 1986

Subseries 8.45, World Expo 88, 1988

Subseries 8.46, Universal Exposition of Seville or Expo 92, 1992

Subseries 8.47, Expo 2000, 2000

Subseries 8.48, Other Events and Celebrations, 1886-1989

Subseries 8.49, Combined Fairs, 1968-1994

Subseries 8.50, General information about world's fairs, 1964-1980

Series 9, Ephemera, 1892-1989, undated

Subseries 9.1, New York and New York World's Fair, 1892-1989, undated

Subseries 9.2, Other States and Countries, 1835, 1939, undated

Subseries 9.3, Motion Picture Film and Entertainment, 1937-1981, undated

Series 10, Audio Visual Materials, 1939, 1964-1965, undated

Subseries 10.1, Moving Images, 1939, 1964-1965, undated

Subseries 10.2, Sound Recordings, undated

Series 11, Oversize, 1835-1992, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Biographical / Historical

Edward Joseph Orth grew up with a strong interest in history, particularly the history of the 1939 New York World's Fair. Orth's visit to the fair as a twelve-year-old boy led to a life-long passion of collecting. At the time of his death, he had amassed enough materials to fill two homes in California. Orth also collected materials from several other fairs. In addition, he saved some of the records of the Exhibition Collectors Historical Organization (ECHO) and the World's Fair Collector's Society.

Orth was born April 19, 1927, to Andrew Joseph Orth and Florence Minnie Gordon Orth in Glendale, New York. In the 1930s, the Orth family lived in several locations in New York including Ridgewood, Brooklyn, Glendale, and Queens. The home that made the most impact in young Orth's life came in 1935 when the family moved to St. Albans, Queens seven miles from Flushing Meadow Park, the future site of the 1939 fair. Sadly in 1939 there were several deaths in the family including three grandparents. The severe loss of life limited family social activities but a drive by the future site of the fair provided Orth a glimpse of the Trylon and Perisphere. He would later remark that the sight appeared to be magic. In the summer of 1939, he went to the fair with his classmates from Public School 136. The next summer Orth and his father purchased a 10-admission ticket from an elementary school in Hollis, Queens, New York. He saved every souvenir and any information he could find about the fair. He filled scrapbooks with images from newspapers and postcards from the Curt Teich and Manhattan Postcard companies. When his family moved from an apartment to a house, he acquired a fair bench which was kept in the backyard.

In 1941, Orth attended Newton High School in Elmhurst, and Queens, New York. The high school offered a college preparatory program with heavy emphasis on mathematics, science, mechanical drawing, and workshop courses. Orth's education and training combined with the knowledge he gained from motion picture films viewed at the fair, including Thomas Edison's "The City of Light," Ford Motor Company's "Road of Tomorrow," "Democracy," and General Motors' "Futurama" provided the foundation and inspiration for a career in architecture and landscaping. He ultimately became a city planner for the state of California. By 1943, Orth was exploring used magazine and bookstores in New York City to acquire more fair materials before enlisting in the United States Army in 1945. Upon his discharge he resumed buying and trading fair postcards. From 1948-1953, Orth attended the University of California and the University of Connecticut where he studied architecture and landscape design. During these years he posted advertisements in various publications in his continued pursue for fair materials.

In March 1953, Mr. Orth moved to Los Angeles, California. There he formed lasting friendships with other collectors. By 1967, Orth and several of his closest friends including Peter Warner, Oscar Hengstler, David Oats, Larry Zim, and Ernest Weidhaas conceived the idea of a fair collector's organization. By the summer of 1968, the group had formally created the Exhibition Collectors Historical Organization (ECHO).

As time passed Orth became increasing concerned about the welfare of his collection. He wanted it to go to a museum rather than be sold in parts. In his will he stipulated that the collection would be given to the Smithsonian Institution upon his death. Jon Zackman, former Smithsonian employee, interviewed Orth's brother George and fair collector Peter Warner. Orth and Warner corresponded and traded objects over many years. Mr. Orth primarily covered the west coast area while Peter Warner was his east coast counterpart. Edward Orth died on September 6,1989 in Los Angeles, California at the age of sixty-two.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

New York World's Fair Collection, NMAH.AC.0134

Landor Design Collection, NMAH.AC.0500

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subject Category, World Expos, NMAH.AC.0060

Larry Zim World's Fair Collection, NMAH.AC.0519

Alice R. Hillis World's Fair Film, NMAH.AC.0531

Borden Company 1939 New York World's Fair Collection, NMAH.AC.1063

Memories of the New York World's Fair, NMAH.AC.0592

Archives Center World Expositions Collection, NMAH.AC.0825

Daniel H. Meyerson World's Fair Collection, NMAH.AC.0745

Division of Community Life World's Fairs Collection, NMAH.AC.1132

Princeton University Posters Collection, NMAH.AC.0433

Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Incorporated Records, NMAH.AC.0395

Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project, NMAH.AC.0417

Messmore and Damon Company Records, NMAH.AC.0846

Thomas Norrell Railroad Collection, NMAH.AC.1174

William L. Bird Holidays on Display Collection, NMAH.AC.1288

Wurlitzer Company Records, NMAH.AC.0469

Victor A. Blenkle Postcard Collection, NMAH.AC.0200

Materials at Other Organizations

New York Public Library The New York World's Fair 1939 and 1940 Incorporated Records, 1935-1945, MssCol 2233.

New York City 1939 World's Fair architectural drawings, circa 1935. Museum of the City of New York. Museum of the City of New York.

New York City 1939 World's Fair Collection, 1939-1940. Museum of the City of New York. New York World's Fair 1939/40 Collection. Queens Museum.

1939 New York World's Fair Postcards, Identifier: 1972-320, Audiovisual Collections Repository, Hagley Museum & Library
Separated Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

Artifacts from the collection include several thousand souvenirs and examples of memorabilia commemorating the fair to include buttons and badges, ceramics, glassware, clothing, costume jewelry, coins and medals, commemorative spoons and flatware, toys and games, and philatelic material which are all part of the Division of Home and Community Life's holdings (now Division of Cultural and Community Life).
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow. Viewing film portion of collection requires special appointment, please inquire. Do not use when original materials are available on reference video or audio tapes. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Exhibitions -- 1930-1940 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
World's fairs  Search this
Amusement parks--History  Search this
Amusement parks--New York (State)--History  Search this
Architecture--Exhibitions  Search this
Architecture--New York (State)--New York  Search this
Architecture--United States--Designs and plans  Search this
Burlesque shows--New York (State)--New York--1930-1940  Search this
Business history Business enterprises--United States--History  Search this
Chicago's Century of Progress  Search this
Construction and civil engineering  Search this
Construction industry--United States--Management--History  Search this
Corporate culture--History  Search this
Corporate culture--United States  Search this
Engineering--History--20th century  Search this
Exhibition buildings – New York (State) – New York  Search this
Exhibition buildings--1920-1940  Search this
Exhibitions -- Design  Search this
Fairs -- New York (State) -- New York -- History  Search this
Fashion--History--20th century  Search this
Flushing Meadows-Corona Park (New York, N.Y.)--History  Search this
Food in popular culture--New York (State)--New York  Search this
Graphic arts--United States--History--20th century  Search this
International exhibitions  Search this
International Exhibitions Bureau  Search this
Lighting, Architectural and decorative--History--20th century  Search this
Technology -- United States -- History -- 20th century  Search this
Transportation--New York Metropolitan Area--Planning  Search this
Transportation--New York (State)  Search this
United States --Foreign relations --1933-1945  Search this
Urban parks--United States--History  Search this
Urban design  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Economic aspects -- United States  Search this
Consumerism  Search this
Consumers--History--20th century  Search this
General Motors Corporation  Search this
Grand Central Parkway extension  Search this
Organizational behavior--United States--History  Search this
Public relations--History  Search this
New York World's Fair Commission  Search this
Queens (New York, N.Y.) Buildings, structures, etc.  Search this
Genre/Form:
Souvenirs -- 1930-1940
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1930-1940
Pamphlets -- 1930-1940
Guidebooks -- 1930-1940
Exhibition posters--1930-1940
Diaries
Ephemera -- 20th century
Film transparencies
Motion picture film
Posters -- 1930-1940
Citation:
Edward J. Orth Memorial Archives of the New York World's Fair, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0560
See more items in:
Edward J. Orth Memorial Archives of the New York World's Fair
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep808504c62-92bb-48b1-8a76-f9d279516c33
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0560
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Charles Duback

Interviewee:
DuBack, Charles S., 1926-  Search this
Interviewer:
Larsen, Susan C.  Search this
Names:
Landmark Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Newark School of Fine and Industrial Arts  Search this
Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture  Search this
Dugmore, Edward, 1915-  Search this
Grillo, John, 1917-  Search this
Grooms, Red  Search this
Katz, Alex, 1927-  Search this
Langlais, Bernard, 1921-1977  Search this
McNeil, George, 1908-1995  Search this
Ortman, George, 1926-  Search this
Pinette, Dennis, 1951-  Search this
Poor, Henry Varnum, 1887-1970  Search this
Stout, Myron, 1908-1987  Search this
Extent:
36 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
2004 December 15-2005 May 18
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Charles Duback conducted 2004 December 15-2005 May 18, by Susan C. Larsen, for the Archives of American Art, in Tenants Harbor, Maine.
Mr. Duback discusses his childhood; his Czech lineage; working at his father's bakery and gaining artistic sensibilities there; the drive to become an artist, and the financial risks therein; joining the Navy during World War II; attending trade school in New Haven, Connecticut, and the Newark School of Fine and Industrial Art in Newark, New Jersey; attending the Skowhegan School in Maine; his first wife Daphne Mumford; sustaining two homes, one in New York City and another in Maine, and the difficulties in maintaining them; the influence of collage on his paintings; his "strip" paintings; the opening and closing of the Landmark Gallery; making his "projections," wherein he adheres objects to a painting's canvas; and the friends he made during his time running Landmark. Duback also mentions moving from North Waldoboro, Maine to St. George, Maine; moving again to Germantown, New York; finding living in New York difficult; divorcing Mumford; his second wife Phyllis; rising tax and insurance costs and what they mean to artists; and painting as a career. Duback recalls Bernard Langlais, Helen Langlais, Edward Dugmore, Alex Katz, Wes LaFountain, Red Grooms, George Ortman, Myron Stout, George McNeil, Dennis Pinette, John Grillo, Henry Varnum Poor, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Charles S. DuBack (1926-) is a painter of Tenants Harbor, Maine. Susan C. Larsen, interviewer, is an art historian in Tenants Harbor, Maine.
General:
Originally recorded on 2 sound discs. Reformatted in 2010 as 2 digital wav files. Duration is 2 hr., 11 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Occupation:
Painters -- Maine -- Interviews  Search this
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Collage  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.duback04
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw93a105f39-ad66-4770-887a-db5bf7bb4849
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-duback04
Online Media:

The year of peril America in 1942 Tracy Campbell

Title:
America in 1942
America in nineteen forty-two
Author:
Campbell, Tracy 1962-  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource (xvi, 384 pages)
Type:
Electronic resources
Electronic books
History
Place:
United States
Date:
2020
1933-1945
1918-1945
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945--Psychological aspects  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Economic aspects  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Social aspects  Search this
HISTORY--Military--World War II  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
Social aspects  Search this
Psychological aspects  Search this
Economics  Search this
Economic history  Search this
Civilization  Search this
Nineteen forty-two, A.D  Search this
History  Search this
Economic conditions  Search this
Call number:
E806 .C36 2020 (Internet)
Restrictions & Rights:
1-user
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1147400

Oral history interview with Victor D. Spark

Interviewee:
Spark, Victor D. (Victor David), 1898-1991  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul  Search this
Names:
Duveen-Graham (Gallery)  Search this
M. Knoedler & Co.  Search this
New York University -- Students  Search this
United States. Marine Corps  Search this
Wildenstein Galleries  Search this
Duveen, Albert  Search this
Duveen, Joseph Duveen, Baron, 1869-1939  Search this
Halpert, Edith Gregor, 1900-1970  Search this
Karolik, Maxim  Search this
Knoedler, Roland F., 1856-1932  Search this
Wildenstein, Felix, 1883-1952  Search this
Extent:
3 Items (Sound recording: 3 sound files (1 hr., 59 min.), digital, wav)
55 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Sound recordings
Date:
1975 August 5
Scope and Contents:
Interview of Victor D. Spark, conducted August 5, 1975, by Paul Cummings, for the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, at Spark's New York City apartment.
Spark speaks of his early schooling at Townsend Harris Hall and NYU; his experience in the Marine Corps during World War II; working in his father's hotel business; the economic difficulties for art dealers during the Great Depression; apprenticing in galleries and working as a small art dealer; changes in the mid-century American art market; the differences between the art market for modern and contemporary art and that of older art. Spark also recalls Maxim Karolik, Edith Halpert, the gallerists Duveen, Knoedler, Wildenstein, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Victor D. Spark (1898-1991) was an art dealer from New York, New York.
General:
Originally recorded on 1 sound tape reel. Reformatted in 2010 as 3 digital wav files. Duration is 1 hr., 59 min.
Provenance:
These interviews are part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Occupation:
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Depressions -- 1929  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.spark75
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9c83cdac1-6b67-4556-94d8-ba8f50812763
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-spark75
Online Media:

Frank Perls papers and Frank Perls Gallery records

Creator:
Perls, Frank  Search this
Names:
Curt Valentin Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
M. Knoedler & Co.  Search this
Amato, Sam, 1924-  Search this
Brice, William, 1921-  Search this
Chuey, Robert  Search this
Lebrun, Rico, 1900-1964  Search this
Lipchitz, Jacques, 1891-1973  Search this
Matisse, Henri, 1869-1954  Search this
McGarrell, James, 1930-  Search this
Peake, Channing, 1910-  Search this
Perls, Klaus  Search this
Picasso, Pablo, 1881-1973  Search this
Ray, Man, 1890-1976  Search this
Strombotne, James  Search this
Warsaw, Howard  Search this
Extent:
23.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Short stories
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Sales records
Gallery records
Date:
circa 1920-1983
bulk 1949-1975
Summary:
The Frank Perls papers and Frank Perls Gallery records measure 23.8 linear feet and date from 1920-1983, with the bulk dating from 1949-1975. Personal papers include writings, military records, appointment calendars, and photographs. Gallery records date from its opening in 1939 until its closure in 1981 and consist of financial, sales, and legal records; exhibition files; exhibition catalogs and announcements; subject files that contain a variety of correspondence with artists, dealers, galleries, museums, and friends and family, as well as reference materials and photographs; and scrapbooks.
Scope and Content Note:
The Frank Perls papers and Frank Perls Gallery records measure 23.8 linear feet and date from 1920-1983, with the bulk dating from 1949-1975. Personal papers include writings, military records, appointment calendars, and photographs. Gallery records date from its opening in 1939 until its closure in 1981 and consist of financial, sales, and legal records; exhibition files; exhibition catalogs and announcements; subject files that contain a variety of correspondence with artists, dealers, galleries, museums, and friends and family, as well as reference materials and photographs; and scrapbooks.

Personal papers contain biographical materials, including military records from Perls' service in the army during World War II, personal photographs, documentation on his estate settlement, and numerous short stories. Of particular interest are Perl's stories about his interactions with Pablo Picasso and his work to uncover fraud, fakes, and corruption in the art world. There are also many photographs of Picasso, photographs of family, the war, and Perls, including two original photographs of Perls by Man Ray.

Gallery sales, purchases, consignments, insurance appraisals, loans, provenance research, and general business expenses are well documented in the General Business and Financial Records. Perls jointly owned artwork with several galleries in New York, including the Curt Valentine Gallery and M. Knoedler Gallery, and these consignment and joint sales are documented in the invoices. A complete accounting of the Gallery's income and expense reports from 1950-1971 is also be found in this series. Artists extensively documented through financial transactions are William Brice, James Strombotne, and Howard Warsaw.

Extensive exhibition files document the gallery's exhibitions and Perl's curatorial work. Files contain varied documentation, such as photographs, catalogs, announcements, and publicity for Frank Perls Gallery shows from 1939 through 1971. Artists represented in this series include Sam Amato, Robert Chuey, Jaques Lipchitz, Pablo Picasso, James McGarrell, and James Strombotne. Files are also found for the two major retrospective exhibitions Perls organized and curated, Matisse Retrospective at University of California, Los Angeles and Sixty Years of Picasso Prints at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, both in 1966. Additional information about these exhibitions is also found in the Subject Files.

Subject Files are extensive and varied in name, content, and topic. They consist mostly of correspondence with friends, family, colleagues, artists, critics, galleries and dealers, clients, arts organizations and associations, publications, and others. There are also reference files and exhibition files for exhibitions held at other galleries and museums in which Perls was interested, guest curated, or loaned artwork. The contents of each file unit varies, but many include correspondence, photographs, appraisal records, sales records, invoices, reports, and membership records. The files highlight his close personal relationship with many artists, including William Brice, Rico Lebrun, James McGarrell, Channing Peake, Pablo Picasso, and James Strombotne. Subject Files also contain abundant correspondence with colleagues and family members, including his brother Klaus, who owned and operated the Perls Gallery in New York. Many of the files concern Perl's work with art documentation and authentication. Subject Files have been arranged according to Frank Perls original order.

Finally, scrapbooks contain newspaper articles, catalogs, and announcements about exhibitions at the Perls Gallery in New York during the late 1930s and the Frank Perls Gallery in Los Angeles during the 1950s.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 5 series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Frank Perls papers, circa 1920-1981 (Box 1-2, 28; 1.1 linear feet)

Series 2: General Financial and Business Records, 1949-1975 (Box 2-4, 23-27; 3.4 linear feet)

Series 3: Exhibition Files, 1937-1975 (Box 5-6; 1.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Subject Files, circa 1939-1983 (Box 6-22; 16.5 linear feet)

Series 5. Scrapbooks, 1937-1957 (Box 28; 0.3 linear feet)
Historical Note:
Frank Perls (1910-1975) was founder and sole owner of the Frank Perls Gallery in Beverly Hills, California.

Frank Perls was born in Germany on October 23, 1910. His parents, Hugo and Kaethe Perls, owned one of the leading art galleries in Berlin, and sold the work of many well-known artists. Artists works included in the gallery inventory were pieces by Edvard Munch, Pablo Picasso, Claude Monet, Vincent van Gogh, and Paul Cézanne, among others. His parents enjoyed a close friendship with Picasso, a relationship Perls maintained until Picasso's death in 1973. After his parents divorce in 1931, his mother left Germany and eventually opened the Galerie Kaethe in Paris.Frank Perls studied art history at the Universities of Munich, Berlin, and Frankfurt and joined his mother at the Galerie Kaethe in 1932.

Frank Perls immigrated to the United States in 1937 and partnered with his brother, Klaus Perls, to open the Perls Galleries in New York. Two years later he moved to California and opened the Frank Perls Gallery on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood. During those first years, the Gallery hosted exhibitions by Man Ray, Eugene Berman, and John Decker.

Perls closed his gallery in 1942 when he enlisted in the United States Army. Because he was fluent in both French and German, Perls served as an interpreter at the Military Intelligence Service, European Theater of Operations. He landed in Normandy with the 30th Infantry Division and was awarded the Bronze Star in 1944. In 1945, Perls was assigned to the Arts and Monuments Section of Allied Military Government in Germany. He was honorably discharged in September, 1945.

After the war, Perls returned to Los Angeles and managed the recently opened Associated American Artists Gallery in Beverly Hills. The gallery was organized in 1934 and marketed art to the middle classes with the opportunity to purchase prints at affordable prices. Perls made significant contacts during his tenure at the gallery and eventually opened his own Beverly Hills gallery in 1950.

The Frank Perls Gallery on Camden Drive was closely associated with the Pierre Matisse Gallery and the Curt Valentin Gallery in New York, both major sources of exhibition materials for the early years. Perls introduced southern California to artists he believed represented the best modern art of America and Europe - Henri Matisse, Georges Braque, Alexander Calder, Pablo Picasso, Ben Shahn, Georgia O'Keeffe, Marc Chagall, Paul Klee, and Jean Dubuffet. Between 1950 to 1954, Frank Perls Gallery organized the first West coast exhibitions of Joan Miro, Marino Marini, and Alberto Giacometti. Perls also gave exhibitions to newly emerging artists of Southern California artists, including William Brice, Robert Chuey, Rico Lebrun, James McGarrell, Channing Peake, and Howard Warsaw.

Perls moved his gallery to Wilshire Boulevard in 1965 and stopped representing California artists at that time to focus primarily on major exhibitions of Henri Matisse and Picasso. In 1966, he helped organize an extensive traveling Henri Matisse exhibition at UCLA called Matisse Retrospective. Perls worked with Matisse's children, Pierre, Jean, and Marguerite Duthuit, to identify 345 prints and sculptures and attach family inventory numbers to them.

Frank Perls also organized several large Picasso exhibitions, including the Bonne Fete Monsieur Picasso exhibit at UCLA in 1961 and the 45 Selected Picasso Graphics exhibition at Frank Perls Gallery in 1971. For his work in preparing these major exhibitions in California of Matisse and Picasso, Perls was made a life fellow of the Los Angeles County Museum.

Perls was a member of the Art Dealers of America, serving for several years on the Board of Directors and as director. He was also dedicated to exposing art fakes and forgeries, earning a reputation for discovering, exposing, and pursuing disreputable art appraisers and dealers. Perls wrote extensively about modern art and artists, as well as his experiences in short stories that often appeared in print.

Frank Perls died on February 8, 1975 from complications following open-heart surgery. The Gallery remained open until 1981 while his executor and family distributed the gallery inventory.
Provenance:
The Frank Perls papers and Frank Perls Gallery records were donated by Joan Hazlitt, one of the executors of the Perls' estate, from 1976-1988.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Gallery owners -- California  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- California -- Beverly Hills  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Curators -- California  Search this
Art -- Forgeries  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- California
Genre/Form:
Short stories
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Sales records
Gallery records
Citation:
Frank Perls papers and Frank Perls Gallery records, circa 1920-1983, bulk 1949-1975. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.perlfran
See more items in:
Frank Perls papers and Frank Perls Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9163380a7-6151-44d0-b553-a17e8aae42a0
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-perlfran
Online Media:

Griffith family papers

Creator:
Griffith, Delaphine  Search this
Griffith, Jacqueline  Search this
Thomas, Sarah  Search this
Names:
Griffith family  Search this
Cole, Nat King, 1917-1965  Search this
Grantz, Norman, 1918-2001  Search this
Jordan, Louis, 1908-1975  Search this
Extent:
4.21 Linear feet (7 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Phonograph records
Correspondence
Marriage certificates
Ephemera
Financial records
School records
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1907-1950
bulk 1913-1945
Summary:
The Griffith Family papers, which dates from 1907 to 1950 and measures 4.21 linear feet, documents the personal lives of three generations in the Griffith family: Sarah Thomas, Delaphine and Jacqueline Griffith. The papers are comprised of personal and professional correspondence, receipts, bills, newspaper clippings, photographs, record albums, and legal documents.
Scope and Contents note:
The collection which dates from 1907 to 1950, bulk dates 1913-1945, documents the lives of three generations of the Griffith family: Sarah Thomas, Delaphine Griffith, and Jacqueline Griffith, while primarily focused on Delaphine (Della) Griffith. The papers document Mrs. Griffith's relationships with friends and family through extensive correspondence, as well as, her experiences as a domestic servant and federal employee. It also documents daily life in Washington D.C. through receipts and bills of sales. Mrs. Griffith and Ms. Griffith also retained a large phonograph record collection comprised of jazz, swing band, and rhythm and blues music.
Arrangement note:
The papers are arranged into three series one of which contains four subseries. Folders are arranged alphabetically within series, while documents are organized chronologically. Undated material appears in the front of folders. Oversized material appears in the series: Music Collection and Photographs. In box 7 of Oversized the folder entitled "Allen Griffith, 1915" appears before the phonograph record booklet covers because of the fragile nature of the portrait's frame.

Series 1: Biographical

Subseries 1.1: Correspondence

Subseries 1.2: Financial Records

Subseries 1.3: General

Subseries 1.4: Miscellaneous

Series 2: Music Collection

Series 3: Photographs
Biographical/Historical note:
Delaphine (Della) Griffith was born in Washington, D.C. on December 13, 1896 to Sarah Thomas. She lived in D.C. with her mother until 1916 when she moved to Atlantic City, New Jersey for work. Later that year she moved on to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Mrs. Griffith moved back to Washington, D.C. and met and married Alan Griffith in 1919. Together they had a daughter whom they named Jacqueline.

Throughout her adult life, Mrs. Griffith lived with her mother and family on the northwest side of Washington, D.C. She worked for the federal government during two different periods: the early 1930s and during World War II. On November 19, 1950, Mrs. Delaphine Griffith died at the age of 54. Jacqueline Griffith continued to live in the family home until her death in the early 1990s.
Provenance:
The Griffith Family papers were donated to the Anacostia Community Museum in May 1995 by June Brown.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for unrestricted research. Use requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Griffith Family papers are the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. Rights to work produced during the normal course of Museum business resides with the Anacostia Community Museum. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
Topic:
Popular music  Search this
African American women  Search this
World War 1939-1945 -- Economic aspects -- United States  Search this
African American -- Social life and customs  Search this
African American household employees  Search this
African American families  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Phonograph records
Correspondence
Marriage certificates
Ephemera
Financial records
School records
Citation:
The Griffith Family papers, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of June Brown.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-004
See more items in:
Griffith family papers
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa765eb353d-e5ed-40a2-b52b-c05d29f17735
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-06-004

Destructive creation : American business and the winning of World War II / Mark R. Wilson

Author:
Wilson, Mark (Mark R.) 1970-  Search this
Physical description:
379 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
History
Place:
United States
Date:
2016
20th century
Topic:
Industrial mobilization--History  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Economic aspects  Search this
Defense industries--History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1103892

The record of the alcoholic beverage industry in World War II

Title:
Alcoholic beverage industry in World War II
Physical description:
[50] p. 29 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
1946
C1946]
Topic:
Distilling industries  Search this
Alcohol  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Economic aspects  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_801729

Arsenal of World War II : the political economy of American warfare, 1940-1945 / Paul A.C. Koistinen

Title:
Arsenal of World War Two
Political economy of American warfare, 1940-1945
Author:
Koistinen, Paul A. C  Search this
Subject:
United States National Defense Advisory Commission  Search this
United States Office of Production Management  Search this
United States War Production Board  Search this
Physical description:
xiii, 657 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
2004
C2004
20th century
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945--Economic aspects  Search this
Industrial mobilization--History  Search this
Defenses  Search this
Economic aspects  Search this
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_739319

On the farm front : the Women's Land Army in World War II / Stephanie A. Carpenter

Author:
Carpenter, Stephanie A  Search this
Subject:
Women's Land Army of America History  Search this
Physical description:
214 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
2003
C2003
20th century
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945--Food supply  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Women  Search this
Agriculture--Economic aspects  Search this
Food supply--History  Search this
Women farmers  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_739862

Paratroopers, too, rely on Reliance quality / [Martha McGrew]

Title:
Meet the paratroopers
Author:
McGrew, Martha  Search this
Reliance Manufacturing Company  Search this
Subject:
Reliance Manufacturing Company  Search this
Physical description:
1 v. : mostly ill. ; 24 x 31 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
1940
1945
[between 1940 and 1945?]
Topic:
Parachute troops  Search this
Parachutes  Search this
Clothing trade--Military aspects  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Economic aspects  Search this
Call number:
UD483 .M34 1940
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_601128

Shipbuilding policies of the War Production Board : January 1942-November 1945 / prepared under the supervision of George W. Auxier by William Chaikin and Charles H. Coleman

Author:
Chaikin, William  Search this
Coleman, Charles H (Charles Hubert) 1900-  Search this
Auxier, George W (George Washington) 1905-  Search this
United States Civilian Production Administration  Search this
Subject:
United States War Production Board  Search this
Physical description:
207 p. : ill. ; 27 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
1947
[1947]
Topic:
Shipbuilding  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Economic aspects  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_629290

Holocaust-era assets : a finding aid to records at the National Archives at College Park, Maryland / compiled by Greg Bradsher

Author:
United States National Archives and Records Administration  Search this
Bradsher, Greg  Search this
Subject:
United States National Archives and Records Administration  Search this
Physical description:
xix, 1166 p. ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
Catalogs
Place:
Europe
Date:
1999
Topic:
Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)--Economic aspects--Sources--Catalogs  Search this
Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)--Economic aspects--Manuscripts--Catalogs  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Confiscations and contributions--Sources--Catalogs  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Confiscations and contributions--Manuscripts--Catalogs  Search this
Jewish property  Search this
Call number:
D804.19 .U6 1999
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_658088

Iron fleet : the Great Lakes in World War II / George J. Joachim

Author:
Joachim, George J  Search this
Physical description:
138 p., [16] p. of plates : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Great Lakes
Great Lakes Region
United States
Date:
1994
C1994
Topic:
Shipping  Search this
Iron mines and mining  Search this
Raw materials--Government policy  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Economic aspects  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_686901

Thread of victory, by Frank L. Walton. The conversion and conservation of textiles, clothing and leather for the world's biggest war program

Author:
Walton, Frank L  Search this
Physical description:
272 p. illus. (incl. facsims.) 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
1945
[1945]
Topic:
Textile industry  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Economic aspects  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_540866

Modify Your Search







or


Narrow By