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Mirror with Celluloid Back

Maker:
Cruver Manufacturing Company  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 1.2 cm x 9 cm; 1/2 in x 3 9/16 in
overall: 1/2 in x 3 1/2 in; 1.27 cm x 8.89 cm
Object Name:
Mirror
Mirror with Celluloid Back
Object Type:
Advertising Artifacts
Place made:
United States: Illinois, Chicago
Associated Place:
United States: New Jersey
Related event:
World War I  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Celanese Plastic Company
ID Number:
CH.334567
Accession number:
310799
Catalog number:
334567
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Advertising
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a0-e5c6-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_2942
Online Media:

The Milometer slide rule computer

Physical Description:
cellulose nitrate (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 3.5 cm x 16.8 cm x .5 cm; 1 3/8 in x 6 5/8 in x 3/16 in
overall: 1 1/2 in x 6 5/8 in x 3/16 in; 3.81 cm x 16.8275 cm x .47625 cm
Object Name:
slide rule computer
slide rule
Place made:
United States: Ohio, Cleveland
Associated Place:
United States: New Jersey
Date made:
1917
Related event:
World War I  Search this
ID Number:
2006.0098.1569
Catalog number:
2006.0098.1569
Accession number:
2006.0098
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Celluloid
Military
Computers & Business Machines
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ab-8f22-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1347423
Online Media:

In Memoriam matchbox cover

Physical Description:
cellulose nitrate (overall material)
tin (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 4 cm x 6 cm x 2.5 cm; 1 9/16 in x 2 3/8 in x in
overall: 1 5/8 in x 2 3/8 in x 1 in; 4.1275 cm x 6.0325 cm x 2.54 cm
Object Name:
match box cover
Place made:
United Kingdom: England
Associated Place:
United States: New Jersey
Date made:
1916
Subject:
Propaganda  Search this
World War I  Search this
England  Search this
Credit Line:
Dadie and Norman B. Perlov
ID Number:
2006.0098.1603
Catalog number:
2006.0098.1603
Accession number:
2006.0098
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Industry & Manufacturing
Celluloid
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b3-6659-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1347466
Online Media:

American Fund for French Wounded matchbox cover

Maker:
Whitehead & Hoag Company  Search this
Physical Description:
cellulose nitrate (overall material)
paper (match box material)
Measurements:
overall: 3.8 cm x 6.1 cm x 2 cm; 1 1/2 in x 2 3/8 in x 13/16 in
overall: 1 1/2 in x 2 7/16 in x 7/8 in; 3.81 cm x 6.19125 cm x 2.2225 cm
Object Name:
match box cover
Place made:
United States: New Jersey, Newark
Associated Place:
United States: New Jersey
Date made:
after 1915
Subject:
France  Search this
World War I  Search this
Related event:
World War I  Search this
ID Number:
2006.0098.1612
Catalog number:
2006.0098.1612
Accession number:
2006.0098
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Celluloid
Advertising
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ac-980d-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1347478
Online Media:

Fatherless Children of France

Maker:
Whitehead & Hoag Company  Search this
Physical Description:
cellulose nitrate (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 1.5 cm x 3.2 cm; 9/16 in x 1 1/4 in
overall: 2 3/16 in x 11/16 in x 1/8 in; 5.55625 cm x 1.74625 cm x .3175 cm
Object Name:
pin
Celluloid Pin
Place made:
United States: New Jersey, Newark
Referenced:
United States: Illinois, Chicago
Associated Place:
United States: New Jersey
Date made:
1915-1920
Subject:
World War I  Search this
Related event:
World War I  Search this
ID Number:
2006.0098.0130
Accession number:
2006.0098
Catalog number:
2006.0098.0130
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Celluloid
Clothing & Accessories
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ab-f520-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1317127
Online Media:

Honor Roll Tag Day

Physical Description:
cellulose nitrate (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 2.5 cm; x in
overall: 1 in; 2.54 cm
Object Name:
Pin
Celluloid Pin
Associated Place:
United States: New Jersey
Date made:
ca 1918
Related event:
World War I  Search this
ID Number:
2006.0098.0254
Accession number:
2006.0098
Catalog number:
2006.0098.0254
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ac-52bc-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1317457
Online Media:

Celluloid Novelty

Maker:
Whitehead & Hoag Company  Search this
Browning, King & Company  Search this
Physical Description:
cellulose nitrate (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 6 cm x 9.6 cm; x 2 3/8 in x 3 3/4 in
overall: 1/16 in x 2 1/4 in x 3 3/4 in; .15875 cm x 5.715 cm x 9.525 cm
Object Name:
Celluloid Novelty
Calendar
Place made:
United States: New Jersey, Newark
Associated Place:
United States: New Jersey
Date made:
1919
Related event:
World War I  Search this
ID Number:
2006.0098.0568
Accession number:
2006.0098
Catalog number:
2006.0098.0568
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ac-4851-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1323219
Online Media:

First National Bank of Omaha

Advertiser:
First National Bank of Omaha  Search this
Maker:
Whitehead & Hoag Company  Search this
Physical Description:
cellulose nitrate (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 5.3 cm x 12 cm; 2 1/16 in x 4 3/4 in
overall: 1/16 in x 2 1/8 in x 4 11/16 in; .15875 cm x 5.3975 cm x 11.90625 cm
Object Name:
calendar
Place made:
United States: New Jersey, Newark
Referenced:
United States: Nebraska, Omaha
Associated Place:
United States: New Jersey
Date made:
1918
Subject:
Navy  Search this
Banks  Search this
.45  Search this
Related event:
World War I  Search this
ID Number:
2006.0098.0619
Accession number:
2006.0098
Catalog number:
2006.0098.0619
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Celluloid
Advertising
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ac-4b73-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1325730
Online Media:

William Anderson Coffin papers, 1886-1924

Creator:
Coffin, William A. (William Anderson), 1855-1925  Search this
Subject:
Stella, Joseph  Search this
Warren, Whitney  Search this
Mauer, Alfred  Search this
Benson, Frank Weston  Search this
Blashfield, Edwin Howland  Search this
Zorach, William  Search this
Gay, Walter  Search this
Gussow, Bernard  Search this
Bouché, Louis  Search this
Cortissoz, Royal  Search this
Pan-American Exposition  Search this
Société des artistes français  Search this
Exposition d'artistes de l'école Américaine  Search this
American Rights Committee  Search this
American Artists' Committee of One Hundred  Search this
Lotos Club (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Musée d'histoire et d'art (Luxembourg)  Search this
Committee for the Exhibition of American Painting and Sculpture (Paris, France)  Search this
Type:
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Topic:
Harper's Weekly  Search this
New York Post  Search this
Art Exhibitions France Paris  Search this
Landscape painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art, American  Search this
World War, 1914-1918 -- Civilian relief -- France  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7476
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209634
AAA_collcode_coffwill
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209634
Online Media:

American Artists' Committee of One Hundred records, 1916-1923

Creator:
American Artists' Committee of One Hundred  Search this
Subject:
Bonnat, Léon Joseph Florentin  Search this
Thoumy, Edmond  Search this
Coffin, William A. (William Anderson)  Search this
Allied Bazaar  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Societies, etc. -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
War relief  Search this
World War, 1914-1918 -- France  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6978
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209107
AAA_collcode_ameracoh
Theme:
Art Movements and Schools
Lives of American Artists
Communities, Organizations, Museums
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209107

Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records

Creator:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art  Search this
Names:
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
Buffalo Fine Arts Academy  Search this
Corcoran Gallery of Art  Search this
Gallery of William Macbeth  Search this
M. Knoedler & Co.  Search this
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Alexander, John White, 1856-1915  Search this
Beatty, John W. (John Wesley), 1851-1924  Search this
Beaux, Cecilia, 1855-1942  Search this
Brush, George de Forest, 1855-1941  Search this
Chase, William Merritt, 1849-1916  Search this
Church, Samuel Harden  Search this
East, Alfred, Sir, 1849-1913  Search this
Hassam, Childe, 1859-1935  Search this
Homer, Winslow, 1836-1910  Search this
Saint-Gaudens, Homer, b. 1880  Search this
Thayer, Abbott Handerson, 1849-1921  Search this
Extent:
265.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Letterpress books
Museum records
Place:
Spain -- History -- Civil War, 1936-1939
Date:
1883-1962
bulk 1885-1962
Summary:
The records of the Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art measure 265.8 linear feet and date from 1883-1962, with the bulk of the material dating from 1885-1940. The collection includes extensive correspondence between the museum's founding director, John Beatty, and his successor, Homer Saint-Gaudens, with artists, dealers, galleries, collectors, museum directors, representatives abroad, shipping and insurance agents, and museum trustees. The collection also includes Department of Fine Arts interoffice memoranda and reports; loan exhibition files; Carnegie International planning, jury, shipping, and sale records; Department of Fine Arts letterpress copy books, and a copy of the original card catalog index to these records.
Scope and Contents:
The records of the Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art measure 265.8 linear feet and date from 1883-1962, with the bulk of the material dating from 1885-1940. The collection includes extensive correspondence between the museum's founding director, John Beatty, and his successor, Homer Saint-Gaudens, with artists, dealers, galleries, collectors, museum directors, representatives abroad, shipping and insurance agents, and museum trustees. The collection also includes Department of Fine Arts interoffice memoranda and reports; loan exhibition files; Carnegie International planning, jury, shipping, and sale records; Department of Fine Arts letterpress copy books, and a copy of the original card catalog index to these records.

This collection is a complete record of the museum's work, starting with the planning of the first loan exhibition in 1885 and ending with the cancellation of the International at the start of World War II in 1940. The museum's day-to-day relationships with all aspects of the contemporary art world are documented within the historical context of artists' reactions to World War I; the economic repercussions of the Great Depression on art sales and museum budgets; the ramifications of fascism on German, Italian, and European art; the impact of civil war on Spanish art; and the tensions introduced by the rise of 'radical' modernist art in Europe.

Correspondence (Series 1) is the largest series in the collection (152.5 linear feet) and is comprised of extensive correspondence between the Museum of Art and over 8700 correspondents, with over 3600 correspondents specifically related to art and artists.

Correspondents related to the art world include museum staff, artists, collectors, museums, galleries, dealers, shippers, insurance agencies, art directors, associations, societies, clubs, critics, press, and governments. These exchanges include general requests for information; requests related to the museum's exhibitions, including the International; letters regarding the museum's involvement in the events of other art organizations; loan, sales, and provenance information for specific works of art; and information regarding the events of other art organizations.

The correspondence of the museum's staff provides the greatest insight into understanding the museum's evolution into an international cultural institution. Both directors' correspondence touch on their personal opinions on art, their rationale behind policy decisions, and their understanding of the extent to which the museum's work was dependent on the good relations they maintained in the art world. Additionally, the extensive, opinionated correspondence between Saint-Gaudens' European agents and museum staff during the 1920s and 1930s provide a unique perspective on emerging art trends and the skill, growth, and personalities of individual artists.

The most prolific of the museum staff correspondents include museum directors John Beatty and Homer Saint-Gaudens, Board of Trustees president Samuel Harden Church, assistant director Edward Balken, and European agents Guillaume Lerolle , Ilario Neri, Arnold Palmer, Margaret Palmer, and Charlotte Weidler. Additional prominent staff members include Helen Beatty, Robert Harshe, Caroline Lapsley, Henry Jack Nash, John O'Connor, Charles Ramsey, George Shaw, George Sheers, August Zeller, and Fine Arts Committee members John Caldwell, William Frew, William Hyett, and John Porter.

The most prolific artist correspondents include John White Alexander, George Grey Barnard, Cecilia Beaux, Frank Benson, George de Forest Brush, William Merritt Chase, William Coffin, Bruce Crane, Andre Dauchez, Charles H. Davis, Alfred East, Ben Foster, Daniel Garber, Charles P. Gruppe, John Johansen, Johanna Hailman, John McLure Hamilton, Birge Harrison, Childe Hassam, Winslow Homer, Laura Knight, John la Farge, Gaston la Touche, John Lavery, Henri le Sidaner, Jonas Lie, Hermon A. MacNeil, Antonio Mancini, Gari Melchers, Emile Menard, Henry R. Poore, Edward Redfield, W. Elmer Schofield, Leopold Seyffert, Lucien Simon, Eugene Speicher, Abbott Handerson Thayer, Robert Vonnoh, J. Alden Weir, Irving R. Wiles, and Ignacio Zuloaga. Other artists of note include: Edwin Austen Abbey, George Bellows, Edwin Blashfield, Frank Brangwyn, Mary Cassatt, Kenyon Cox, Thomas Wilmer Dewing, Thomas Eakins, William Glackens, Robert Henri, Eastman Johnson, Rockwell Kent, Paul Manship, Henry Ranger, John Singer Sargent, Edward Steichen, Alfred Stieglitz, Edmund Tarbell, James McNeil Whistler, N.C. Wyeth, and Charles Morris Young.

Frequent museum collaborators include the Art Institute of Chicago, Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Brooklyn Museum, Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, Cleveland Museum of Art, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Detroit Institute of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Museum of Modern Art, Saint Louis Museum of Fine Arts, Toledo Museum of Art, and Worcester Art Museum.

Other prolific correspondents include collectors Chauncey Blair, Andrew Carnegie, Charles Lang Freer, George Hearn, Alexander Humphreys, Roy Hunt, Mrs. B.F. Jones, Burton Mansfield, Frank Nicola, Duncan Phillips, John Stevenson, and William Stimmel; dealers and galleries M. Knoedler, William Macbeth, Central Art Gallery, Charles A. Walker, C.W. Kraushaar Art Galleries, Downtown Gallery, Durand-Ruel and Sons, Ehrich Galleries, Ferargil Galleries, Frank Rehn, Frederick Keppel, Haseltine Art Gallery, R.C. Vose Galleries, and W. Scott Thurber Fine Arts; insurance agent Macomber Co.; and shippers Dicksee and Co., J.W. Hampton, P. Navel/R. Lerondelle, Stedman and Wilder, and W.S. Budworth and Son.

Correspondents not specifically related to the contemporary art world include businesses, educational institutions, libraries, and the general public. These exchanges detail the daily work of the museum, including the estimates and work orders of office suppliers, contractors, printers, and etc.; programming and research inquiries of k-12 and college/university institutions; acknowledgements of the receipt of Museum of Art publications; and general public inquiries regarding museum policies, exhibitions, and the permanent collection. Companies and institutions who worked particularly closely with the museum include Alden and Harlow (architects), Detroit Publishing Co., and Tiffany and Co.

Department of Fine Arts (Series 2) consists of art and artist lists, correspondence, memoranda, notes, and reports. These files were begun under John Beatty's tenure and streamlined under Homer Saint-Gaudens' directorship to track activities directly related to the museum's interoffice affairs. File headings continued under Saint-Gaudens focus on art considered and purchased for the permanent collection, employee records, exhibition proposals and loans, Fine Arts Committee minutes, museum programming, museum publications, press releases, requests for images, and requests for general information.

Under Saint-Gaudens, the Fine Arts Committee files contain voluminous impressions of contemporary European artists, which he composed during his annual studio tours of the continent in the early 1920s and late 1930s. These informal reports provide insight into the shaping of the International and include a running commentary on historical events of the time. The Fine Arts Committee files also document the artistic and budgetary compromises that were struck, particularly during the Great Depression and early run-up to World War II.

Exhibitions (Series 3) includes correspondence with collectors, museums, galleries, dealers, shippers, and many of the artists themselves. Additional documents include catalogs, lists, planning notes, and telegrams related to 185 traveling and loan exhibitions held at the Museum of Art from 1901 to 1940. Of these, over 100 are one-artist shows and 82 are group, survey, regional, or topical shows. The one-artist exhibitions tend to showcase contemporary artists of the time. Regional shows focused on American and European art, with two shows featuring the art of Canada and Mexico. Survey themes focused on animals, children, cities, gardens, landscapes, Old Masters, and portraitures. Many of the genre shows venture into art not typically collected by the Museum of Art, including architecture, crafts, engravings, figure studies, graphic arts, illustrations, miniatures, mural decorations, oriental rugs, prints, printed books, sculpture, small reliefs, stained glass, theater models, watercolors, and wood engravings.

The most important shows organized and curated by Museum of Art staff include the Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1915), American Sculpture Show (1915, 1920), Applied Arts Show (1917), Original Illustrations Show (1921), Mexican Art Show (1929), Garden Club Show (1922), Industrial Art Show (1924), Pittsburgh Artists Show (1935), French Survey Show (1936), English Painting Survey Show (1937), American Paintings, Royal Academy Show (1938), and Survey of American Painting Show (1940).

Important one-artist shows include Abbot Handerson Thayer (1919), George de Forest Brush (1922), Frank W. Benson (1923), Rockwell Kent (1923, 1939), Anders Zorn (1924), John Lavery (1925), Paul Manship (1925), Mary Cassatt (1925), Laura Knight (1925), Edouard Manet (1932), Edward Hopper (1936), Winslow Homer (1922, 1936), Paul Cezanne (1936), Charles Burchfield (1937), and William Glackens (1938).

International (Series 4) is comprised of catalogs, correspondence, art and artist lists, itineraries, jury selection ballots, minutes, notes, and reports related to the planning, logistics, and promotion of the International Exhibition from 1895 to 1940. These documents were originally grouped and filed separately under John Beatty and were more rigorously streamlined under Homer Saint-Gaudens. The folder headings continued under Saint-Gaudens focus on art purchases, artists' invitations, artists' request for information, general exhibition planning, Foreign Advisory Committees, foreign governments, jury reception planning, loan requests, and touring logistics.

Letterpress books (Series 5) consist of 75 volumes that chronologically collect all of the Museum of Art's outgoing correspondence from 1896 to 1917. Volumes 1-8 contain the only copy of outgoing correspondence from 1896 to 1900. Duplicate copies of all outgoing correspondence dating from 1901 to 1917 were filed in Correspondence (Series 1) by museum staff.

Card catalogs (Series 6) also include three sets of catalogs created by the Museum of Art to track the outgoing and incoming correspondence contained in this collection. Set 1 (1895-1906) consists of the original cards. Set 2 (1907-1917) and Set 3 (1918-1940) consists of photocopies of the original cards that were merged together into one contiguous set.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series:

Series 1: Correspondence, 1883-1962, (Boxes 1-153, OV 267; 152.5 linear feet)

Series 2: Department of Fine Arts, 1896-1940, (Boxes 153-184, OV 268; 31.6 linear feet)

Series 3: Exhibitions, 1901-1940, (Boxes 184-204; 20 linear feet)

Series 4: International, 1895-1940, (Boxes 204-234, 265-266; 30.2 linear feet)

Series 5: Letterpress Books, 1900-1917, (Boxes 235-251; 17 linear feet)

Series 6: Card Catalogs, 1895-1940, (Box 252-264; 11 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
The Carnegie Institute Museum of Art was established in 1895 by industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. One of the first modern contemporary art museums in the United States, its flagship exhibition, the Carnegie International, is recognized as the longest running contemporary exhibition of international art in North America and is the second oldest in the world.

Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) was born in Dumfermline, Scotland and migrated to America with his family in 1848. Often regarded as the second-richest man in history behind John D. Rockerfeller, Carnegie built his industrialist fortunes in the steel industry and spent the remainder of his life in support of major philanthropic projects. By the age of 33, he had developed his personal philosophy of philanthropy, which saw it as the responsibility of the wealthy to foster educational opportunities and disseminate the ideals of high culture among all levels of society. In addition to establishing over 2500 free public libraries, in 1895, he provided the funds to build the Carnegie Institute, located in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Carnegie Institute originally maintained three separate departments under the auspices of the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, and the Carnegie Museum of Art.

The Carnegie Institute was administered by a Board of Trustees selected by Carnegie, all prominent professional men of Pittsburgh. Within this group, eight men were selected to serve on the Museum of Art's Fine Arts Committee, which was initially granted the final say on gallery affairs. The first Fine Arts Committee was composed of two artists, Alfred Bryan Wall and Joseph Ryan Woodwell, and six businessmen. Among the latter group, John Caldwell, Henry Clay Frick, William Nimick Frew, and David Thompson Watson were also knowledgeable art patrons and collectors. Over time, the Fine Arts Committee's sway over gallery affairs would be measured by the dedication of its various members and tempered by the vision and authority of the Museum's directors, John Beatty and Homer Saint-Gaudens, and the Carnegie Institute Board of Trustees president, Samuel Harden Church.

From 1896 to 1921, John Wesley Beatty (1851-1924) served as the first director of the Museum of Art. A native Pittsburgher and an accomplished silver engraver, illustrator, and painter, Beatty attended the Royal Bavarian Academy in Munich and upon his return to America, made a living as an artist. He also taught at the Pittsburgh School of Design for Women and co-founded a small school of art with fellow local artist George Hetzel. In 1890, while serving as the secretary of the Pittsburgh Art Society, he became the primary organizer of a loan exhibition to be displayed at the opening of the Carnegie Free Library in Allegheny, Pennsylvania. In 1895, when the Carnegie Institute trustees began discussing the possibility of a similar loan exhibition for the opening of their new institution, Beatty was contacted and eventually enlisted to take on the task. Upon the success of that exhibition, he was invited to direct the gallery's affairs and served as the Museum of Art's director until his retirement.

Beatty was an enthusiastic supporter of Impressionism, Realism, Tonalism, Symbolism, and the critically acclaimed contemporary art of the 1890s. He also shared Carnegie's vision for the Museum of Art and believed in the educational and uplifting role aesthetic beauty could provide to the general public. Pursuant to the stated goals of Andrew Carnegie, under Beatty's direction the museum began to purchase important contemporary works to add to its chronological collection of "Old Masters of tomorrow" and almost immediately began planning the first of its Internationals.

The Internationals were viewed as the primary means of showcasing the Museum of Art's selection of the best in contemporary American and European painting, thereby elevating its role as an influential cultural institution on a national and international level. Juried monetary prizes would be awarded to the two best works by American artists, additional awards would be offered to artists of all nationalities, and the Museum of Art's purchases for the year would be selected from the exhibition. Certain artists and collectors were tapped to serve as unofficial representatives of the Museum of Art at home and abroad, among them John White Alexander, William Coffin, I.M. Gaugengigl, Walter Shirlaw, and Edmund Tarbell. Many of the most prominent Pittsburgh art collectors were also asked to lend works to the exhibition. While details of the jury and artist selection process, number of representatives, exhibition show dates, and amount and total number of prizes would change over the years, the planning template was set and would remain the same for future Internationals.

Beatty continued to rely on a stable of close friends and confidantes to help smooth over relations with artists, dealers, shipping agents, and galleries alike, relying heavily on John White Alexander and W. Elmer Schofield, in addition to artists Thomas Shields Clarke, Walter Gay, Robert Henri, Frank D. Millet, and critic Charles M. Kurtz. Over time, many of the artists who served on International juries or Foreign Advisory Committees also became reliable friends and advocates of the International, including Edwin Austen Abbey, Edmond Aman-Jean, Edwin Howland Blashfield, William Merritt Chase, Charles Cottet, Kenyon Cox, Charles Harold Davis, Alfred East, Ben Foster, Charles Hopkinson, John la Farge, Gari Melchers, Leonard Ochtman, Irving R. Wiles, and Robert W. Vonnoh.

From 1896 to 1921, the Museum of Art held twenty-one Internationals, with the only exceptions coming in 1906 (construction of the Hall of Architecture, Hall of Sculpture, and Bruce Galleries), 1915 (deference to the San Francisco Panama-Pacific International), and 1916-1919 (World War I). During these years, the scope and administration of the International slowly expanded, though not without growing pains. At the turn of the century, new modernist styles of art that were appearing in galleries across Europe had not yet entered major American museums and the Carnegie Museum of Art maintained this trend. The museum's generally conservative selection policies, combined with criticism regarding the timing of the exhibition and the jury selection process, led to increasingly tense relations with artists, and were only partially resolved by changes made to the format of the International. In spite of these challenges, the Carnegie International retained its reputation as a preeminent venue for contemporary art and awarded top prizes to John White Alexander, Cecilia Beaux, George W. Bellows, Frank W. Benson, Andre Dauchez, Thomas Wilmer Dewing, Thomas Eakins, Childe Hassam, Winslow Homer, John Lavery, Henri le Sidaner, Edward W. Redfield, W. Elmer Schofield, Edmund C. Tarbell, Abbot Handerson Thayer, Dwight W. Tryon, and J. Alden Weir.

In addition to the International, Carnegie's mission of bringing cultural and educational opportunities to Pittsburgh was a central priority of the museum's daily operations. Beatty cultivated relationships with fellow museum directors, which allowed for the easy co-ordination and planning of traveling exhibitions benefiting the city. The museum developed educational programs for children and adults, including lectures, gallery talks, Saturday morning classes, fine art extension classes, guided tours, and outreach to local schools. As popular Pittsburgh art societies and clubs formed, the museum also provided meeting and exhibition spaces for groups such as the Associated Artists of Pittsburgh, the Art Society of Pittsburgh, the Art Students League, the Garden Club of Allegheny County, and the Junior League.

After more than 25 years of service, Beatty made the decision to retire and put out an informal call for candidates. Being the right man at the right time, in 1921, Homer Schiff Saint-Gaudens (1880-1958) became the Museum of Art's second director.

The only child of American sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens and his wife and artist, Augusta Fisher Homer, Saint-Gaudens frequently traveled abroad and grew up in the company of his parents' wide circle of friends, many of them artists, poets, writers, and performers who frequented the Cornish Artists' Colony. More intimate friends of the family included former students, assistants, and colleagues, the architect Stanford White, and successful artist-couples who resided near the family's Cornish, New Hampshire home, among them Louise and Kenyon Cox, Maria and Thomas Dewing, Florence and Everett Shinn, and Emma and Abbott Thayer.

Homer Saint-Gaudens attended the preparatory school Lawrenceville, graduated from Harvard in 1903, married the artist and suffragist Carlota Dolley (1884-1927) in 1905, and remarried to Mary Louise McBride (n.d.-1974) in 1929. He began his professional career as a journalist and worked as assistant editor of The Critic (1903) and managing editor of Metropolitan Magazine (1905). During those years, he was introduced to a number of the Ash Can school artists, wrote articles on contemporary art, and honed his abilities as a writer. In 1907, Saint-Gaudens took a break from professional editing and began a second career as the stage manager for Maude Adams, the most highly paid and successful stage actress of her day, with a yearly income of over one million dollars at the peak of her popularity. Working in theater and as Adams' manager for over ten years, Saint-Gaudens learned the ins and outs of event promotion and logistics, media coverage, and maintaining diplomatic relations through compromise, ideal skills he would later use in organizing the Carnegie Internationals.

With the United States' entry into World War I, Saint-Gaudens served as the chief of the U.S. Army's first camouflage unit and was awarded the Bronze Star. After his discharge, he managed Adams' 1918 final season and simultaneously helped his mother organize a major retrospective of his father's sculptures. While organizing a section of his father's work for the 1921 International, he was invited to step into the position of assistant director of the Carnegie Museum of Art, and was promoted to the directorship upon John Beatty's retirement.

Throughout his tenure, Saint-Gaudens was able to call upon long-standing family friendships with artists and art patrons to the museum's benefit. His connections to the art world can clearly be seen in his first major stand-alone exhibition, the Garden Club Show (1922). In this, he enlisted the aid of Elizabeth Alexander, wife of John White Alexander, and Johanna Hailman, artist and wife of John Hailman, who reached out to their circle of artists and art collecting friends in search of works appropriate for the show. Their efforts, combined with the relationships Beatty had established with museum directors, galleries, and dealers, as well as Saint-Gaudens' own friendships with Kenyon Cox, Thomas Dewing, Barry Faulkner, and Gari Melchers, resulted in an assemblage of 150 paintings of note. Coming immediately upon the heels of the 1922 International, the show was a resounding success. The exhibition's opening attracted over 300 delegates of the Garden Club of America and the entirety of Pittsburgh high society, settling any concerns regarding his leadership abilities.

As director of the Museum of Art, Saint-Gaudens instituted measures intended to streamline the Internationals and improve diplomatic relations with artists. Though the basic format of the juried exhibition remained the same, his solutions to the complaints many artists raised with the artist invitation, art selection, and jury systems reformed the International's reputation at a critical time. Though he was naturally inclined to appreciate the art and artists he had grown up with, Saint-Gaudens understood the immediate necessity of introducing modernist contemporary art into the museum's exhibitions and galleries. He circumvented the conservative Fine Arts Committee's resistance to the accolades of European modernists by choosing the tamest of the new 'radical' works. Eventually, he balanced the Internationals with a mix of conservative, moderate, and advanced works that appealed to a large range of audiences and increased the status and diversity of the Internationals.

To aid in his reformation of the International, Saint-Gaudens formalized a team of European agents who worked year round to scout artists' studios, recommend suitable art and artists, navigate local politics, arrange local transportation and logistics, and maintain cordial relations with artists abroad. In the spring, Saint-Gaudens would travel to Europe to meet with his agents in person, tour the most promising studios, and meet with artists personally. His team was headed by Guillaume Lerolle, who shared Saint-Gaudens' distinction of being the son of a well regarded national artist, Henry Lerolle. Like Saint-Gaudens, Lerolle was able and willing to call upon longstanding family friendships and networks on behalf of the Museum of Art. The other core members of the team were Ilario Neri (Italy), Arnold Palmer (England), Margaret Palmer (Spain), and Charlotte Weidler (Germany).

From 1922 to 1940, the Museum of Art held seventeen Internationals, with the exceptions coming in 1932 (Great Depression) and 1940 (World War II). After a brief period of change, growth, and experimentation in the early 1920s, the museum eventually settled on a routine of planning the Internationals, arranging for traveling exhibitions, and expanding upon the most popular of their educational programs. In addition to those programs put into place under Beatty's tenure, Saint-Gaudens paved the way for a revamped lecture series featuring visiting critics and traveled as a visiting lecturer himself.

During the 1930s, financial difficulties and increasing political tensions in Europe presented ample challenges to the diplomatic skills of Saint-Gaudens and his agents, and they found themselves increasingly forced to navigate through political minefields presented by the fascist ideologies of Germany and Italy, the chaos of the Spanish civil war, and the eventual outbreak of World War II in Europe. In spite of these challenges, under Saint-Gaudens' direction, the museum remained true to Andrew Carnegie's vision. The International was expanded to accept on average over sixty additional works of art, and at its peak, included art from twenty-one countries. Beginning in 1927, top prizes and recognition were awarded to Georges Braque, Marc Chagall, Salvador Dali, Andre Derain, Raoul Dufy, Karl Hofer, Rockwell Kent, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, and Edouard Vuillard.

Works by Arthur B. Davies, Charles Hawthorne, Edward Hopper, Augustus John, Oskar Kokoschka, Leon Kroll, Ernest Lawson, and William Orpen were added to the museum's permanent collection. And, as under Beatty's tenure, many of the artists selected to serve on the Jury of Award became advocates and friends of the museum, including Emil Carlsen, Anto Carte, Bruce Crane, Charles C. Curran, Daniel Garber, Charles Hopkinson, Laura Knight, Jonas Lie, Julius Olsson, Leopold Seyffert, Lucien Simon, Eugene Speicher, Maurice Sterne, Gardner Symons, Horatio Walker, and Charles H. Woodbury.

The monumental task of establishing the Carnegie Institute Museum of Art and the Carnegie International has left an archival record that is unique and unparalleled in documenting its relations with every aspect of the contemporary art world from the turn of the century through the first forty years of the twentieth century.
Provenance:
The Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records were loaned for microfilming in 1966 and later donated to the Archives of American Art in 1972. A small addition of corrrespondence was donated in 2017 by Elizabeth Tufts Brown.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Art museums -- Pennsylvania -- Pittsburgh  Search this
Depressions -- 1929  Search this
Art, Modern -- Exhibitions  Search this
Fascism  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Museum directors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Letterpress books
Museum records
Citation:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records, 1883-1962, bulk 1885-1940. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.carninst
See more items in:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-carninst
Online Media:

Meyer Later World War I Collection

Creator:
Later, Meyer, 1895-1984  Search this
Other:
"Brother Al"  Search this
Later, Abe  Search this
North, Bob  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (3 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Memorabilia
Correspondence
Account books
Postcards
Postards
Photographs
Place:
France -- 1910-1920
Connecticut
Date:
1917-1919
Summary:
Collection consists of correspondence, photographs, and artifacts documenting Meyer Later, a World War I veteran who served with the United States Army in France between September, 1918 and April, 1919.
Scope and Contents:
Series 1, Personal Correspondence, 1917-1919, consists of Later's personal letters to his family, his brother Abe, and his brother-in-law Bob North dating from January, 1917 to April, 1919. Most of the letters detail his endeavors in areas of eastern France, including Dijon, Paris, and Buzancy. Also included is Later's discharge letter addressed from Commander-in-Chief John J. Pershing.

Series 2, Photographs, 1919, contains six photographs taken in various areas of France of Later and other soldiers. One photograph documents Later with other soldiers in Fromereville, France dated January 31, 1919. Another is a group photograph taken in Dijon, France dated May 8, 1919.

Series 3, United States Army Materials, 1918-1919, consists of the pay record bBook and an Army leave permit related to Later's service in the United States Army.

Series 4, Memorabilia, 1919, contains one silver dog tag with Later's first and last name and a seven digit serial number. Also included are four silk-embroidered handkerchiefs from Paris in 1919.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into four series.

Series 1, Personal Correspondence, 1918-1919

Series 2, Photographs, 1919

Series 3, United States Army Materials, 1918

Series 4, Memorabilia, 1917-1919
Biographical / Historical:
Meyer Later was born on August 12, 1895, in Hartford, Connecticut. He grew up in a family of six brothers and three sisters and was known by family and friends as a charming and comical individual. He was educated in Hartford, Connecticut and was drafted into the United States Army in 1918 during World War I. He served between the fall of 1918 and the spring of 1919. During the war, Later was stationed in northern and eastern France including Dijon, Fromereville, and Buzancy. After the war, Later worked with his father and six brothers at the Morris Packing Company, the family's meat packing business in Hartford. Later died in New York, New York in 1984.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Stephanie Later, November, 2008.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
War -- World War I soldiers  Search this
United States Army  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Genre/Form:
Memorabilia -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 1910-1920
Account books
Postcards -- 1900-1950
Postards -- 1910-1920
Photographs -- 1910-1920
Citation:
Meyer Later World War I Collection, 1917-1919, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1140
See more items in:
Meyer Later World War I Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1140
Online Media:

Ivory Soap [..] 99 44/100% Pure. [Print advertising.] The Century Magazine

Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Names:
United States. Army  Search this
Collection Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Leyendecker, J. C., 1874-1951  Search this
Smith, Jessie Willcox, 1863-1935  Search this
Elliott, Elizabeth Shippen Green  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (b&w, 24 x 17 cm.)
Container:
Box 4, Folder 2 (1916)
Type:
Archival materials
Print advertising
Date:
1916
Scope and Contents:
Caption: "Ivory Soap......99 44/100% Pure". Military men washing at campsite.
Local Numbers:
244594

Ivorydata4 451

0207910441 (Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Reproduction restrictions due to copyright.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Men  Search this
Baths  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Genre/Form:
Print advertising
Collection Citation:
Ivory Soap Collection, 1883-1998, undated; Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Procter & Gamble.
See more items in:
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection / Series 1: Ivory Soap Products Advertisements / Advertisements
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0791-ref2005

Ivory Soap [..] 99 44/100% Pure. [Print advertising.] National Geographic

Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Names:
United States. Army  Search this
Collection Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Leyendecker, J. C., 1874-1951  Search this
Smith, Jessie Willcox, 1863-1935  Search this
Elliott, Elizabeth Shippen Green  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (b&w, 25.5 x 16.5 cm.)
Container:
Box 4, Folder 3 (1917)
Type:
Archival materials
Print advertising
Date:
1917
Scope and Contents:
Caption: "Ivory Soap......99 44/100% Pure". Military men at military camp.
Published 18 February 1918.
Local Numbers:
244609

Ivorydata4 466

0207910456 (Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Reproduction restrictions due to copyright.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Men  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Genre/Form:
Print advertising
Collection Citation:
Ivory Soap Collection, 1883-1998, undated; Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Procter & Gamble.
See more items in:
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection / Series 1: Ivory Soap Products Advertisements / Advertisements
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0791-ref2020

Ivory Soap [..] 99 44/100% Pure. [Print advertising.] General circulation publications

Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Names:
United States. Army  Search this
Collection Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Leyendecker, J. C., 1874-1951  Search this
Smith, Jessie Willcox, 1863-1935  Search this
Elliott, Elizabeth Shippen Green  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (b&w, 25.5 x 16 cm.)
Container:
Box 4, Folder 4 (1918)
Type:
Archival materials
Print advertising
Date:
1918
Scope and Contents:
Caption: "Ivory Soap..99 44/100% Pure". Military men bathing in river.
Local Numbers:
244620

Ivorydata4 477

0207910467 (Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Reproduction restrictions due to copyright.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Baths  Search this
Men  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Genre/Form:
Print advertising
Collection Citation:
Ivory Soap Collection, 1883-1998, undated; Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Procter & Gamble.
See more items in:
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection / Series 1: Ivory Soap Products Advertisements / Advertisements
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0791-ref2031

A picture and a letter from one of the doughboys in the Army.. [Print advertising.] National Geographic

Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Artist:
Straub, George  Search this
Collection Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Leyendecker, J. C., 1874-1951  Search this
Smith, Jessie Willcox, 1863-1935  Search this
Elliott, Elizabeth Shippen Green  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (b&w, 25.5 x 17 cm.)
Container:
Box 4, Folder 5 (1919)
Type:
Archival materials
Print advertising
Date:
1919
Scope and Contents:
Caption: "A picture and a letter from one of the doughboys in the Army of Occupation". Soldiers in barracks with bar of Ivory.
Local Numbers:
244630

Ivorydata4 487

0207910477 (Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Reproduction restrictions due to copyright.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Men  Search this
United States. Army. American Expeditionary Forces  Search this
Genre/Form:
Print advertising
Collection Citation:
Ivory Soap Collection, 1883-1998, undated; Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Procter & Gamble.
See more items in:
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection / Series 1: Ivory Soap Products Advertisements / Advertisements
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0791-ref2041

It Floats! [Print advertising.] General circulation publications

Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Names:
United States. Army  Search this
Collection Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Leyendecker, J. C., 1874-1951  Search this
Smith, Jessie Willcox, 1863-1935  Search this
Elliott, Elizabeth Shippen Green  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (b&w, 25.5 x 17 cm.)
Container:
Box 4, Folder 5 (1919)
Type:
Archival materials
Print advertising
Date:
1919
Scope and Contents:
Caption: ""It Floats!"" Men in uniform next to wash trough in French village.
Local Numbers:
244635

Ivorydata4 492

0207910482 (Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Reproduction restrictions due to copyright.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Men  Search this
Women  Search this
French  Search this
Genre/Form:
Print advertising
Collection Citation:
Ivory Soap Collection, 1883-1998, undated; Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Procter & Gamble.
See more items in:
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection / Series 1: Ivory Soap Products Advertisements / Advertisements
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0791-ref2046

Ivory Soap [..] 99 44/100% Pure. [Print advertising.]

Advertiser:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Names:
United States. Army  Search this
Collection Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Leyendecker, J. C., 1874-1951  Search this
Smith, Jessie Willcox, 1863-1935  Search this
Elliott, Elizabeth Shippen Green  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (b&w, 32 x 25.5 cm.)
Container:
Box 8, Folder 15 (1919)
Type:
Archival materials
Print advertising
Date:
1919
Scope and Contents:
Men on ship bathing in makeshift tub.
Local Numbers:
244723

Ivorydata4 580

0207910571 (Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Reproduction restrictions due to copyright.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Baths  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Men  Search this
Genre/Form:
Print advertising
Collection Citation:
Ivory Soap Collection, 1883-1998, undated; Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Procter & Gamble.
See more items in:
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection / Series 1: Ivory Soap Products Advertisements / Advertisements
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0791-ref2134

Historical Maps and Aerial Photographs [Gröschel]

Creator:
Roth, Dieter, 1930-1998  Search this
Extent:
1.46 Cubic feet ((8 containers))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Maps
Manuals
Photograph albums
Date:
bulk 1884-1941
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of approximately 1.87 cubic feet of historical maps and photographs collected by Dieter Gröschel. The maps, which are various sizes, date from approximately 1884 to 1941 and were produced in Germany, France, and England. They show parts of Russia; Germany; France; Belgium; Holland; Bavaria; and Africa; and many have hand-drawn notations including battle lines, locations of troops, etc. Some of the maps are linen-backed and designed for use in an aircraft. The collection also contains numerous black and white historical photographs including aerial photographs of Germany and France taken in 1917 and 1918; photographs of personnel, facilities, and operations relating to Feldflieger-Abteilung Nr. 5 which date from 1915 to 1918; aerial photographs taken in 1918 of Flanders and Zeebrugge by Karl Keppler and Max Greiner of Fliegerabteilung 291 (A); a French set of 32 black and white aerial photographs on ten pages, with interpretation, used for training observers in World War I; an unbound German World War I album containing black and white photographs and post cards; and a photo album belonging to a paymaster of the Jagdstaffelschule I during World War I. The album, which measures approximately 14 x 10 inches, is linen-covered and contains photographs of the front-lines in France and Italy; personnel, including members of the Lothringisches Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 144; aircraft, including crashes; and personal family photographs relating to the album's creator. Aircraft depicted in these photographs include an Albatros D Series Fighter and a captured Nieuport fighter. There is also a 3.5 x 5.5 inch color post card dating to 1915 with an illustration of French pre-World War I era infantry looking up at an Etrich Taube (Dove) type aircraft included in the collection. Finally, this collection contains a selection of manuals which includes the following titles: Instructions Concerning Battle Maps, U.S. Army War College, 1917 (Translated from French edition of 1916); List of Conventional Signs and Abbreviations in Use on French and German Maps, compiled by Second Section, General Staff (Topography), American Expeditionary Forces, 1918; Catalogue of Maps, General Staff, American Expeditionary Forces, 1918; List of Places in Argonne-Verdun District with their Locations, Supplement A, General Headquarters, American Expeditionary Forces, November 7, 1918; Notes on Map Reading for Use in Army Schools, His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1918; Basic Field Manual, Vol. 1, Chapter 5 - Map and Aerial Photograph Reading, U.S. War Department, 1938; Basic Field Manual, Conventional Signs, Military Symbols, and Abbreviations, U.S. War Department, 1939; Basic Field Manual, Military Intelligence, Military Maps, U.S. War Department, January 6, 1941; Basic Field Manual, Elementary Map and Aerial Photograph Reading, U.S. War Department, April 12, 1941; and Basic Field Manual, Advanced Map and Aerial Photograph Reading, U.S. War Department, September 17, 1941.
Provenance:
Dieter H. M. Gröschel., Gift, 2015
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
World War, 1914-1918 -- Aerial operations  Search this
Genre/Form:
Maps
Manuals
Photograph albums
Citation:
Historical Maps and Aerial Photographs [Gröschel], Accession 2015-0046, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2015.0046
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2015-0046

Harold F. Pierce Aviation Medicine Collection

Creator:
Pierce, Harold Fisher, 1889-1963  Search this
Names:
Henderson, Yandell, 1873-1944  Search this
Extent:
3.27 Cubic feet (4 legal document boxes; 1 legal half-size document box; 3 flat boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1909-1985
Summary:
The Harold F. Pierce collection consists of documents relating to Pierce's career in aviation medicine, particularly his service as a flight surgeon in World War I and World War II and his work on the Henderson Pierce rebreathing apparatus. Materials include correspondence, photographs, military records, certificates, technical drawings, and news clippings.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of approximately three cubic feet of material relating to Harold F. Pierce's career in aviation medicine including correspondence; photographs; military records; certificates; technical drawings; and news clippings. The collection also contains a scrapbook which covers Pierce's service in World War I, his experiments at Oxford University and Columbia University, the Wilmer Institute, and World War II. Notable figures found in the collection include John Paul Stapp; David Goodman Simons; James A. Healy; Albert William Stevens; Sir William Osler; Merritte Weber Ireland; William H. Wilmer and others. The collection also contains personal letters from Pierce to his family written during his time in service during both World Wars. Large format drawings include maps of the Second and Third Aviation Instruction Centers, France, during World War I, and technical drawings for his rebreathing apparatus.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series: Professional Materials and Personal Materials.

Series 1 contains documents related to Harold F. Pierce's career in aviation medicine, particularly his service as a flight surgeon during World War I and World War I.

Series 2 contains Harold F. Pierce's personal documents, including letters of appointment, resumes, news clippings (both biographical and on subjects of interest), photos and portraits, and family materials.

Some of the materials were organized by L. Pierce (the donor, Pierce's daughter) into categories, particularly those related to aviation, the Henderson-Pierce rebreathing apparatus, and inventions. Select paragraphs of correspondence were clipped from the original document and placed under these categories. These materials frequently were kept in the category in which they were found. Numerous notes (underlining, checkmarks, dates, etc.) made by L. Pierce can be found on documents throughout the collection.
Biographical / Historical:
Harold F. Pierce (1889-1963) received his degree from Clark University in 1912, having previously served in the Navy. He then worked in the electrical engineering and testing laboratory of the General Electric Company. After entering academia, he was an instructor of chemistry at Dartmouth College and transferred to Harvard Medical School.

When the United States entered World War I, Pierce was working on gas mask technology for the Bureau of Mines. In 1917, he joined the American Expeditionary Forces, U.S. Army Air Service, Sanitary Corps in World War I as a flight surgeon. During his time in service, Pierce helped to develop the Henderson-Pierce rebreathing apparatus, based on his prewar work with Yale University's Professor Yandell Henderson. He was instrumental in establishing medical research laboratories, first at Hazelhurst Field, Mineola, Long Island, and then in France at the 2nd Aviation Instruction Center, Tours, and the 3rd Aviation Instruction Center, Issoudun.

After leaving the military in 1919, Pierce continued his studies and work with rebreathing equipment at Oxford University as a tutor and demonstrator of physiology, including involvement with British Mount Everest reconnaissance expeditions. In 1922, he earned a BSc (OXON) Degree in pathology.

He returned to the United States to serve as Associate Physiologist at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University, earning his Ph.D. in colloidal chemistry in 1927. From 1927 to 1935, he served as Associate Professor of research ophthalmology at Wilmer Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. (He had served with founder William H. Wilmer in WWI.) In 1935, he received his M.D. and served as Assistant Resident in medicine at Bellevue Hospital, New York City. He also assisted in the design of the capsule for the Explorer II manned high-altitude balloon launch.

Pierce rejoined the U.S. Army Air Forces in 1942 serving as a flight surgeon and altitude physiologist at the School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas. In 1945, he was transferred to the Avon Old Farms Convalescent Hospital in his home state of Connecticut.

After World War II, Pierce served as medical director of the Connecticut State Welfare Department and as a consultant in aero-physiology at Hartford Hospital until retiring in 1960. He is recognized as a pioneer in the field of aviation medicine.
Provenance:
Ms. L. Pierce, Gift, 2014.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aviation medicine  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Aviation Instruction Center, 3rd (France)  Search this
Explorer II (Balloon)  Search this
Hazelhurst Field, Mineola, N.Y. Medical Research Laboratory  Search this
Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute  Search this
Citation:
Harold F. Pierce Aviation Medicine Collection, Acc. 2014.0044, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2014.0044
See more items in:
Harold F. Pierce Aviation Medicine Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2014-0044
Online Media:

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