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Maid of Cotton, Cathy Muirhead, 1969. [black and white]

Collector:
The Cotton Museum at the Memphis Cotton Exchange  Search this
Names:
Muirhead, Cathy  Search this
Collection Creator:
Cotton Museum (Memphis, Tennessee)  Search this
National Cotton Council  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 9" x 6".)
Type:
Archival materials
Programs
Scope and Contents:
"1969: Spotlight on Cotton... a preview of spring fashions presented at the 1969 Maid of Cotton Selection", The Auditorium, Memphis, Tennessee, January 3, 1969. Program.
Arrangement:
Box No. Blue photo box , folder: Marketing
Local Numbers:
AC1176-0000039.tif (AC Scan No.)
Exhibitions Note:
Displayed in Archives Center exhibition, "The Experience of a Lifetime: The Maid of Cotton Story, 1939-1993", from December 1, 2010 to March 25, 2011. Craig Orr, curator.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the negatives are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Beauty contestants  Search this
Beauty contests -- United States  Search this
Cotton industry  Search this
Cotton textile industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Programs -- 1940-1990
Collection Citation:
Maid of Cotton Records, 1939-1993, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Maid of Cotton Records
Maid of Cotton Records / Series 1: Organizational and Pageant Files / 1.1: Maid of Cotton Files / Cathy Louise Muirhead
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep89bb4aff8-963a-4a7d-be56-8e4787ea1ca2
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1176-ref720

Maid of Cotton, Alice Corr, 1953. [color]

Collector:
The Cotton Museum at the Memphis Cotton Exchange  Search this
Names:
Corr, Alice  Search this
Collection Creator:
Cotton Museum (Memphis, Tennessee)  Search this
National Cotton Council  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 10" x 7".)
Type:
Archival materials
Programs
Scope and Contents:
"The Miracle of Cotton...the 1953 fashion story, Presenting Miss Alice Corr, 1953 Maid of Cotton". Skyway, Hotel Peabody, Wednesday, May 13, 1953. Fashion show program.
Arrangement:
Box No. Blue file box, folder: 1953.
Local Numbers:
AC1176-0000040.tif (AC Scan No.)
Exhibitions Note:
Displayed in Archives Center exhibition, "The Experience of a Lifetime: The Maid of Cotton Story, 1939-1993", from December 1, 2010 to March 25, 2011. Craig Orr, curator.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the negatives are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Beauty contestants  Search this
Beauty contests -- United States  Search this
Cotton industry  Search this
Cotton textile industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Programs -- 1940-1990
Collection Citation:
Maid of Cotton Records, 1939-1993, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Maid of Cotton Records
Maid of Cotton Records / Series 1: Organizational and Pageant Files / 1.1: Maid of Cotton Files / Alice Julia Corr
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8a487404e-cb16-46a1-be04-b816e8b4c1ce
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1176-ref721

Maid of Cotton, Jeannine Holland, 1951. [black and white]

Collector:
The Cotton Museum at the Memphis Cotton Exchange  Search this
Names:
Holland, Jeannine  Search this
Collection Creator:
Cotton Museum (Memphis, Tennessee)  Search this
National Cotton Council  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 17-1/2" x 12-1/4".)
Type:
Archival materials
Programs
Scope and Contents:
"The Voice of Cotton - 'Round the World", program showcasing cotton fashions, 1951.
Arrangement:
Box No. 1 (blue file box)
Local Numbers:
AC1176-0000051m.tif (AC Scan No.)
Exhibitions Note:
Displayed in Archives Center exhibition, "The Experience of a Lifetime: The Maid of Cotton Story, 1939-1993", from December 1, 2010 to March 25, 2011. Craig Orr, curator.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the negatives are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Beauty contestants  Search this
Beauty contests -- United States  Search this
Cotton industry  Search this
Cotton textile industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Programs -- 1940-1990
Collection Citation:
Maid of Cotton Records, 1939-1993, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Maid of Cotton Records
Maid of Cotton Records / Series 1: Organizational and Pageant Files / 1.1: Maid of Cotton Files / Jeannine Holland
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8da195a1a-f68e-468e-8b04-7bf4c169acb8
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1176-ref732

Landor Design Collection

Creator:
Landor Associates  Search this
Landor, Walter  Search this
Names:
Mair, Francis M., 1916-1991 (commercial artist)  Search this
Extent:
68 Cubic feet (198 boxes, 4 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiovisual materials
Business letters
Business records
Personal papers
Videotapes
Interviews
Oral history
Date:
circa 1862-2002, undated
Summary:
Collection consists of the business records and original art documenting the work of Walter Landor and his design firm Landor Associates located in San Francisco, California.
Scope and Contents:
Collection documents the career of designer Walter Landor and the significant body of commercial imagery and packaging produced by Landor Associates design firm. Contains corporate and business records of Landor Associates, Landor's personal papers, oral history interviews, films, videotapes, and other audiovisual resources.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into seven series.

Series 1: Landor Associates Business Records, 1862-1993, undated

Subseries 1.1: Historical Background and Project Administration Files, 1941-1993, undated

Subseries 1.2: Office Files, 1960-1993, undated

Subseries 1.3: Newsletters, 1978-1986

Subseries 1.4: Scrapbooks, 1940s-1990s, undated

Subseries 1.5: Memoranda, 1956-1979

Subseries 1.6: Magazine Articles, Newspaper Clippings, and Trade Journal Articles, 1926-1992, undated

Subseries 1.7: Press Releases and Miscellaneous Files, 1982-1987, undated

Subseries 1.8: Walter Landor Reading Files, 1948-1978 (bulk 1970-1978)

Subseries 1.9: New Brochure, 1978-1983, 1978-1985

Subseries 1.10: International Files, 1938-1993, undated

Subseries 1.11: Promotional Files, 1964-1991, undated

Subseries 1.12: Conventions, Seminars, and Conferences, 1955-1989, undated

Subseries 1.13: Awards, 1937-1989, undated

Subseries 1.14: Tours, Presentations, and Parties, 1951-1986, undated

Subseries 1.15: Communication Films, 1965-1969, undated

Subseries 1.16: Client Files, 1936-1992, undated

Subseries 1.16.1: Companies A-Z, 1936-1992, undated

Subseries 1.16.2: Montedison Group S.p.A., 1971-1980, undated

Subseries 1.17: Ferryboat Klamath and the Museum of Packaging Antiquities, 1924-1992, undated

Subseries 1.18: Labels, 1862-1986, undated

Subseries 1.19: Packaging, 1949, undated

Subseries 1.20: Original Artwork, 1976-1992, undated

Series 2: Walter Landor Papers, 1939-1996, undated

Subseries 2.1: Papers, 1939-1993, undated

Subseries 2.2: Trip Files, 1954-1988, undated

Subseries 2.3: Speeches, 1948-1992, undated

Subseries 2.4: Corporate Historical Reference, 1950-1996, undated

Series 3: Photographic Materials, 1930-1993, undated

Subseries 3.1: Photographic Prints, 1930-1993, undated

Subseries 3.2: Slides, 1940-1990, undated

Subseries 3.3: Publications, 1965-1992, undated

Series 4: Landor Archives Project, 1949-2002, undated

Subseries 4.1: Lillian Sader Files, 1950-1993, undated

Subseries 4.2: Ed Scubic Files, 1968-1990, undated

Subseries 4.3: Other Associates Files, 1949-1993, undated

Subseries 4.4: Oral Histories, 1969-1994

Subseries 4.5: Archives Project Reference Files, 1939-2002, undated

Series 5: Motion Picture Films, 1944-1977, undated

Subseries 5.1: Landor Associates, 1958-1972, undated

Subseries 5.2: Educational and Training Acquired by Landor Associates, 1944-1975, undated

Subseries 5.3: Promotional Films Acquired by Landor Associates, 1958-1977, undated

Subseries 5.4: Television Commercials, Advertising and Public Service Announcements, 1964-1975, undated

Subseries 5.5: Miscellaneous Films Acquired by Landor Associates, 1967-1970, undated

Series 6: Video Cassette Tapes, 1980-1993, undated

Series 7: Audio Cassette Tapes, 1971-1991, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Walter Landor (1913-1995), son of Jewish Bauhaus architect Fritz Landauer, came to the United States in 1938 with the design team for the British Pavilion at the 1939 World's Fair in New York City. He emigrated to the United States in 1941, launching a small design firm in San Francisco. Landor started out doing package design for a largely local and regional clientele (including many West Coast wineries and breweries), although he soon developed a client list that included some of the world's largest and most prestigious corporations. Corporate identity projects were an important specialization. In addition to his own considerable design abilities, Landor had a gift for inspiring and organizing the creativity of a group of associates, and for developing lasting and productive relationships with his clients. The firm developed particular strength in its portfolio of airlines, financial institutions and consumer goods, and prided itself on a network of international clients. From the beginning, Landor linked design to research in consumer behavior, developing increasingly sophisticated methods for evaluating the effectiveness of his designs. This collection documents Walter Landor's remarkable career, the significant body of corporate identity, packaging and other commercial imagery produced by Landor Associates, and the interplay between industrial design and American consumer culture.
German Historical Institute

Walter Landor in the Immigrant Entrepreneurship: German-American Business Biographies, 1720 to the Present.

The collaborative research project Immigrant Entrepreneurship: German-American Business Biographies, 1720 to the Present sheds new light on the entrepreneurial and economic capacity of immigrants by investigating the German-American example in the United States. It traces the lives, careers and business ventures of eminent German-American business people of roughly the last two hundred and ninety years, integrating the history of German-American immigration into the larger narrative of U.S. economic and business history.
Related Materials:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Francis M. Mair Papers NMAH.AC.0548

NW Ayer Advertising Agency Records NMAH.AC.0059

Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Incorporated Records NMAH.AC.0395

Emmett McBain Afro American Advertising Poster Collection NMAH.AC.0192

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana NMAH.AC.0060

Marilyn E. Jacklar Memorial Collection of Tobacco Advertisements NMAH.AC.1224

Marlboro Oral History and Documentation Project NMAH.AC.0198

Black and Decker Collection NMAH.AC.1441

Stag's Leap Wine Cellars Documentation Project NMAH.AC.0816

Frito-Lay, Incorporated Records NMAH.AC.1263

Smothers Brothers Collection, NMAH.AC.1437

Division of Work and Industry, National Museum of American History

The division holds artifacts related to the Walter Landor and his advertising work. See accession 1993.0393.
Provenance:
Personal papers donated to Archives Center in 1993 by Josephine Landor, widow of Walter Landor; business records donated to Archives Center in 1993 by Landor Associates.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Industrial design  Search this
advertising  Search this
Industrial designers  Search this
Marketing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiovisual materials
Business letters
Business records -- 20th century
Personal papers -- 20th century
Videotapes
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Oral history
Citation:
Landor Design Collection, circa 1862-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0500
See more items in:
Landor Design Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep85b2af5a7-7d92-4d6e-b7fe-f715312975d4
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0500
Online Media:

Slides

Collection Creator:
Landor Associates  Search this
Landor, Walter  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1940-1990, undated
Scope and Contents:
Landor Associates used 35 mm color photographic slides for business presentations and work sessions, both internally and with business clients. Slides documented Landor Associates design projects in progress, social events, the ferryboat Klamath, and the Museum of Packaging Antiquities. Most of the slides are of finished products -- carefully produced images of packaging and of corporate identity work, including logos, symbols, and stationery. Several versions of a design often are included for comparisons and there are occasional images of point-of-sale locations. For come corporate identity assignments, especially banks, there are on-location slides of existing buildings and signage. Documentation is especially rich for Philip Morris international brand cigarettes. Most of the slides were initially found in binders but not always in a discernable order.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Landor Design Collection, circa 1862-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0500, Subseries 3.2
See more items in:
Landor Design Collection
Landor Design Collection / Series 3: Photographic Materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8bf80c906-9aa9-48c7-8345-1fb06f8d7797
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0500-ref151

Fritz Bultman papers

Creator:
Bultman, Fritz, 1919-1985  Search this
Names:
Boghosian, Varujan  Search this
Bultman, Jeanne  Search this
Cicero, Carmen, 1926-  Search this
Cornell, Joseph  Search this
Drexler, Sherman  Search this
Fromboluti, Sideo, 1921-  Search this
Graham, John, 1887-1961  Search this
Hofmann, Hans, 1880-1966  Search this
Hofmann, Maria, 1885-1963  Search this
Kees, Weldon, 1914-1955  Search this
Krasner, Lee, 1908-1984  Search this
Manso, Leo  Search this
Motherwell, Robert  Search this
Newman, Annette  Search this
Newman, Barnett, 1905-1970  Search this
Ossorio, Alfonso, 1916-1990  Search this
Ponsold, Renate  Search this
Reynal, Jeanne, 1903-  Search this
Rothschild, Judith  Search this
Sills, Thomas, 1914-  Search this
Simon, Sidney, 1917-1997  Search this
Smith, Tony, 1912-1980  Search this
Speyer, Nora  Search this
Tworkov, Jack  Search this
Vevers, Tony  Search this
Windham, Donald  Search this
Extent:
11.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Interviews
Paintings
Drawings
Sketches
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Date:
1928-2010, bulk 1940s-1990s
Summary:
The papers of New York School painter and sculptor Fritz Bultman, 1928-2010, bulk 1940s-1990s, measure 11.9 linear feet. They document Bultman's professional activities, ties to the Abstract Expressionist movement, and his personal life. Letters from friends and family include many from Hans and Maria Hofmann. Letters by Bultman are mostly to family; also found are a few drafts and copies of business and personal letters. Writings and notes are by and about Bultman. Notebooks/sketchbooks (39 volumes) include autobiographical writings, notes on dreams and thoughts while in psychoanalysis, many sketches and some completed drawings. Subject files reflect Bultman's professional activities, interests, and relationships; Hans Hofmann is the most thoroughly documented subject. Extensive printed material concerns Bultman's activities and exhibitions; also included are his published writings. Most photographs are of artwork, Bultman, his family and friends. Also found are biographical materials, 4 diaries, 6 interviews with Fritz Bultman and Jeanne Bultman, and a small amount of artwork.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of New York School painter and sculptor Fritz Bultlman, 1928-2010, bulk 1940s-1990s, measure 11.9 linear feet. They document Bultman's professional activities, ties to the Abstract Expressionist movement, and his personal life. Letters from friends and family include many from Hans and Maria Hofmann. Letters by Bultman are mostly to family; also found are a few drafts and copies of business and personal letters. Writings and notes are by and about Bultman. Notebooks/sketchbooks (39 volumes) include autobiographical writings, notes on dreams and thoughts while in psychoanalysis, many sketches and some completed drawings. Subject files reflect Bultman's professional activities, interests, and relationships. Extensive printed material concerns Bultman's activities and exhibitions; also included are his published writings. Most photographs are of artwork, Bultman, his family and friends. Also found are biographical materials, 4 diaries, 6 interviews with Fritz Bultman and Jeanne Bultman, and a small amount of artwork.

Biographical materials include school records and notice of Bultman's army classification.

Most letters are addressed to Fritz Bultman and his parents. Fritz's education in Munich and studying with Hans Hofmann is well-documented. Many letters are from Miz Hofmann and Hans Hofmann. Also found are a smaller number of letters from museums, galleries, universities, and arts organizations. The surviving letters by Bultman are mainly to his family. Most were written when he was a student in Munich or traveling in Europe. There are some drafts and copies of letters concerning professional activities, arrangements for lectures, exhibitions, and Cynthia Goodman's editing "Form and Color in the Creative Process: The Painter's Primer" by Hans Hofmann.

Most interviews focus on Bultman's career. An interview with Jeanne and Fritz Bultman is about John Graham, and one of the interviews with Jeanne Bultman concerns Hans Hofmann.

Bultman's writings and notes include articles, lectures and talks about Hans Hofman, lectures about his own work, and a book review. Among the writings about Bultman are articles, a catalog essay and exhibition review.

Notebooks/sketchbooks (39 volumes) contain a variety of writings and notes, including some that are autobiographical, along with sketches and several finished drawings. Some volumes consist of writings and notes with a few sketches and doodles while others are mainly sketchbooks containing a few stray notes and brief writings; many contain approximately the same amount of text and drawings.

Diaries (4 volumes) contain entries about his work, professional and personal activities. One volume is a record of his October 1978 trip to Istanbul.

Subject files contain varying combinations of correspondence, photographs, printed material, and manuscripts. The most extensive file relates to Hans Hofmann and includes copies of writings by him. Other files of note concern Joseph Cornell, the exhibitions "Forum '49" and "Forum '49 Revisited," Weldon Kees, Tony Smith, and Donald Windham.

The largest series, printed material, consists of exhibition catalogs, announcements, reviews, articles and clippings about or mentioning Bultman.

Noteworthy among the small amount of artwork by Bultman is an early print; also found are loose drawings and paintings on paper.

Photographs of artwork document the full range of Bultman's production --paintings, sculpture, drawings, collage, stained glass, interior design and decoration. Also found are a few photographs of works by other artists. Photographs of Fritz Bultman include many by Renate Ponsold. Other indentified individuals include parents Fred and Pauline Bultman, sister Muriel Bultman, childhood nurse Katie Belle, son Johann Bultman, Sherman Drexler, Hans Hofmann, Miz Hofmann, Miss Katsura, Lee Krasner, Annalee Newman, Barnett Newman, Alfonso Ossorio, Jeanne Reynal, Thomas Sills, Jack Tworkov, and Wally Tworkov. A group portrait of the artists of Long Point Gallery includes: Varujan Boghosian, Fritz Bultman, Carmen Cicero, Sideo Fromboluti, Budd Hopkins, Rick Klauber, Lee Manso, Sidney Simon, Robert Motherwell, Judith Rothschild, Nora Speyer, and Tony Vevers. Also found in this series are photographs of Bultman exhibition installations and views of miscellaneous places.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in 10 series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Materials,1928-2003 (Box 1; 0.1 linear feet)

Series 2: Letters, 1930-1995 (Box 1; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 3: Interviews, 1968-1998 (Box 1; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 4: Writings and Notes, 1935-circa 1980s (Boxes 1-2; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 5: Notebooks/Sketchbooks, 1937-circa 1979 (Boxes 2-3, 11; 0.7 linear feet)

Series 6: Diaries, 1977-1979 (Box 3; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 7: Subject Files, 1942-2010 (Boxes 3-5, 11; 2.3 linear feet)

Series 8: Printed Material, 1941-2006 (Boxes 5-9, OV 12; 3.5 linear feet)

Series 9: Artwork, circa 1930s-1956 (Boxes 9, 11; 0.1 linear feet)

Series 10: Photographs, 1935-1997 (Boxes 9-10; 0.6 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Fritz Bultman (1919-1985), a New York School painter and sculptor who lived and worked in Provincetown, Massachusetts and New York City, was also a collagist, stained glass artist, and educator.

Anthony Fred Bultman, III --always known as Fritz --was from a prominent and cultured New Orleans family. He began studying art as a boy and one of his teachers was Morris Graves, a family friend. His last 2 years of high school were spent at the Munich Preparatory School, boarding with Mrs. Hans Hofmann whose husband was working in New York for an extended period. Bultman attended the New Bauhaus in Chicago before studying for three years with Hans Hofmann in New York City and Provincetown, Massachusetts. As well as being a major influence on Bultman's development as a painter, Hofmann became a life-long friend.

Fritz Bultman met dancer and model Jeanne Lawson (1918-2008), when she was posing in Hofmann's studio during the summer of 1941. They married in 1943 and the following year bought a house in Provincetown. In 1945, Bultman built a studio designed by a friend from the New Bauhaus, sculptor and architectural designer Tony Smith, who also helped with its construction.

His first solo exhibition was held in 1947 at the Hugo Gallery, New York; others followed in 1950, again at Hugo Gallery and at Kootz Gallery, New York. After receiving an Italian Government Grant for Exchange Fellowship, Bultman spent 1950-1951 in Florence, Italy, where he learned the process of casting and began making metal sculpture. In 1952 the Bultmans moved to New York City. Depressed and beset by anxiety, Bultman began Freudian psychoanalysis, and between 1952 and 1956 produced very little artwork.

In 1958 Bultman resumed exhibiting and continued to show regularly for the remainder of his life. He enjoyed solo exhibitions in New York City, Paris, New Orleans, North Carolina, Provincetown, and other venues. Between 1958 and 1963 Bultman taught painting at Hunter College and was an instructor in design and painting at Pratt Institute. Bultman spent 1964-1965 in Paris on a Fulbright Grant painting and sculpting, studying European methods of bronze casting, and meeting French artists. Bultman maintained his reputation as a highly regarded art instructor and in later years was a sought after guest lecturer at a various colleges. While artist-in-residence at Kalamazoo College, Michigan in 1981, he designed and produced a stained glass mural with technical assistance from his wife, Jeanne Bultman, a skilled artisan.

Fritz Bultman died of cancer in Provincetown, Massachusetts, in 1985.
Related Materials:
An oral history interview with Fritz Bultman, 1986 January 6, was conducted by Irving Sandler for the Archives of American Art (available on microfilm reel 3196).
Provenance:
Gift of Fritz Bultman in 1984, which included material lent for microfilming in 1970 and 1971. Additions donated by Jeanne Bultman, his widow, in 1988 and 2000, and by his sons, Anthony F. Bultman, IV and Ellis Johann Bultman, in 2013.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
New York school of art  Search this
Abstract expressionism  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Interviews
Paintings
Drawings
Sketches
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Citation:
Fritz Bultman papers, 1928-2010, bulk 1940s-1990s. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.bultfrit
See more items in:
Fritz Bultman papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw94698b1c8-1885-4f89-93a0-52663a6492fe
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-bultfrit
Online Media:

Doc Cheatham Papers

Creator:
Cheatham, Doc, 1905-1997  Search this
Cheatham, Amanda  Search this
Extent:
11 Cubic feet (23 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Home movies
Interviews
Parts (musical)
Passports
Photographs
Posters
Programs
Motion pictures (visual works)
Sheet music
Appointment books
Address books
Clippings
Awards
Date:
1939-1998
Summary:
Papers documenting Cheatham's career as a jazz trumpeter. The papers include passports, appointment and address books; photographs, both personal and professional; a transcript of an interview of Cheatham; sheet music, including parts for various instruments; home movies from Cheatham's travels; awards and certificates; printed material including posters, programs, clippings.
Scope and Contents:
The Adolphus "Doc" Cheatham Papers contain publications, photographs, correspondence, memorabilia, autobiographical materials, music, awards, and audio and visual recordings documenting his life and career as a big band and jazz trumpeter.

The collection is 11 cubic feet and is organized into five series: Series 1: Publications, Series 2: Photographs and Artwork, Series 3: Personal Papers and Memorabilia, Series 4: Music and Awards, and Series 5: Audioviusal Materials. The majority of the material dates from the mid-1930s to the late 1990s.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into five series.

Series 1: Publications, circa 1950s-1990s

Series 2: Photographs and Artwork, 1930s-1990s

Series 3: Personal Papers and Memorabilia, circa 1930s-1990s

Series 4: Music and Awards, circa 1940s-1990s ' Series 5: Audiovisual Materials, circa 1930s-1990s
Biographical / Historical:
Adolphus "Doc" Cheatham (1905-1997) was born in Nashville, Tennessee. He grew up playing trumpet and saxophone in the pit orchestra of the Bijou Theater where he accompanied such blues artists as Ma Rainey and Bessie Smith. His first professional break was with Marion Hardy's band for the Sunshine Sammy Revue.

After touring with Hardy's band in 1924, Cheatham taught himself to read music and moved to Chicago, where he became acquainted with Louis Armstrong. Under the influence of Armstrong, Cheatham decided to play trumpet exclusively and eventually subbed for Armstrong. While in Chicago, Cheatham also worked with Wilbur De Paris and Chick Webb. Between 1927 and 1930 he toured Europe as the lead trumpet player for Sam Wooding.

When Cheatham returned to the United States in 1930, he joined Marion Hardy's Alabamians, but eventually took a position in McKinney's Cotton Pickers. In 1933 he joined Cab Calloway's Orchestra and toured with him for nine years, including a tour of South America. Cheatham took a few months off in 1933 but soon found himself in recording studios with such jazz legends as Count Basie and Billie Holiday. During recording sessions and performances throughout the 1940s Cheatham continued to develop his skills as a trumpet soloist in big bands and smaller ensembles.

The eventual decline of big bands in the 1950s led Cheatham to explore Latin music. As a result, he performed with Marcelino Guerra, Perez Prado, and Machitos Band. Cheatham reunited with Wilbur De Paris in 1957 for a tour of Africa and in the following year he toured Europe with Sammy Price. In 1960 he returned to Africa with Herbie Mann and later moved to New York where he led his own band.

During the 1960s Cheatham decided to build on his past music influences to improve himself as a soloist and improviser. Consequently, he gained an international reputation as a trumpet soloist. It was at this time that he also began singing on his recordings. Throughout the rest of his career he remained in high demand on the concert and festival circuit.

Cheatham continued performing and recording into the 1990s. Every Sunday for the last years of his life he played at Sweet Basil, his "hangout" club in New York. In 1996 he recorded an album with then newcomer Nicholas Payton. However, the morning after a 1997 concert with Payton in Washington, D.C. Cheatham suffered a fatal stroke. He did not live to see his collaboration with Payton receive a Grammy for Best Jazz Instrumental Performance in 1998.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Culture and the Arts (now Division of Cultural and Community Life) holds related artifacts: a trumpet, trumpet mutes, bowtie, and pair of glasses.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Archives Center by Amanda N. Cheatham, widow of Doc Cheatham, June, 2002.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Jazz musicians -- United States  Search this
Trumpet players -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Home movies
Interviews
Parts (musical)
Passports
Photographs -- 20th century
Posters -- 20th century
Programs -- Concerts
Motion pictures (visual works)
Sheet music
Appointment books
Address books
Clippings -- 20th century
Awards
Citation:
Doc Cheatham Papers, 1939-1998, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0814
See more items in:
Doc Cheatham Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep83f5c787e-004e-4ef7-aacf-d2032e6b0930
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0814
Online Media:

Krispy Kreme Corporation Records

Creator:
Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation.  Search this
Names:
Rudolph, Vernon Carver  Search this
Extent:
16.5 Cubic feet (40 boxes, 2 oversized folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Albums
Color negatives
Motion pictures (visual works)
Color prints (photographs)
Business records
Commercials
Photographs
Training films
Videotapes
Date:
1932 - 2009
Summary:
Correspondence, administrative records, operational records, company newsletters, news clippings, photographs, photograph albums, and audio-visual materials.
Scope and Contents:
Series 1: History of Krisy Kreme, includes records and materials which document the history of Krispy Kreme Doughnut Company and Corporation. Included are stories about the company and its founder, Vernon Rudolph ("A Man and an Enterprise" is in booklet form while "Brief Outline of the History of Krispy Kreme" is 115 pages) and also a story about the employees and facilities of the Corporation; a report that includes the organization's history and brief biographies of the management team; and overall operating reports from 1948 and 1950. There is also information pertaining to Krispy Kreme's association with Beatrice Foods Company as well as a biography of William Lewis Rudolph, brother of Vernon. This series also contains a draft (from 1952) of a report to the Government Purchasing Agencies about Krispy Kreme's mix plant operations, comprising a detailed list of equipment, cost controls, and a chronology of Krispy Kreme store openings. These are located in a folder marked "Historical Data." There is also a folder entitled "Vernon Rudolph" which contains a photocopy of two photographs -- one is of the front of a house while the other is of a family -- and a funeral tribute, dated 1973, to Vernon Rudolph.

Series 2: Administrative Records, contains those records which deal with the overall operation of the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Company and Corporation. This series is arranged into the following subseries:

Subseries 2.1: Correspondence, contains copies of letters to and from Vernon Rudolph and vendors, banks, Krispy Kreme stores and office personnel, local organizations, government agencies. The dates range from the 1930s through 1972. There is one original letter and its accompanying envelope from 1939. Subseries 2.2: Executive Records, contains the articles of incorporation, bylaws, minutes, and resolutions of the Board of Directors. The dates range from 1946-1977. This subseries also includes an organizational chart from the mid-1970s as well as an article of incorporation for Frozen Products, Inc., a subsidiary of the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation. There is also an Incorporation Plan from 1946 that includes a plan of organization, bills of sale, and a balance sheet. The folder marked "Miscellaneous," contains minutes from the first meeting of the incorporators in 1946 and a short note from 1952 concerning floor space at the Ivy Street plant. Subseries 2.3: Financial Records, ca. 1940-1996, includes annual and audit reports, gross sales statements for the company and the corporation as well as for doughnut mix. This subseries also contains balance sheets, a general accounting ledger, and operating reports. In the folder "Canceled Checks," there are signed checks by Vernon Rudolph as well as a handwritten listing of expenses that is titled "Personal Bank Records." There is also a prospectus dated from 1975 which is one year before the merger with Beatrice. Subseries 2.4: Legal Records, 1947-1982, deals mostly with trademark issues. It contains the correspondence and registration applications pertaining to trademark laws. Also included are the actual trademark registrations from all 50 states (since expired) as well as a list of expiration dates for the registrations. This subseries also contains correspondence between Krispy Kreme and Prudential Insurance Company concerning loans. There is also a folder "Miscellaneous Agreements and Contracts" that contains a lease agreement from 1957 and an accident claims agreement from 1955. Subseries 2.5: Personnel Records, dates range from the 1950s-1985. It includes information concerning employee benefits and manuals on selling doughnuts and running doughnut machines. Female employees are provided with guidelines in both a booklet, ca. 1963, titled "Salesgirl," and a plaque from the early 1960s that instructs them on appearance, retail manner, and attitude. Also contained in this subseries are award certificates given for years of service and a photograph of service award pins, jewelry, watches, and a clock. Other certificates were those for Associates and store operators certifying that they are fully capable and properly trained to operate a Krispy Kreme store. In the "Miscellaneous" folder, there are memorandums to employees, want-ad clippings, and a thank you card from the Corporation to its employees for 50 years of success. Subseries 2.6: Professional Associations, contains a certificate of membership into the US Chamber of Commerce, 1955. Subseries 2.7: Stock Records, deals with the purchase and sale of stocks from 1947-1975. There are copies of two agreements -- one regarding Krispy Kreme selling an employee stocks and the other concerning Krispy Kreme buying stocks in the Pinebrook Real Estate and Development Corporation. The folder "Stockholders," contains a 1950 end of year letter to stockholders and a brief report on a court case entitled "How Not to Sell Company Stock to Key Employees" from a 1949 newsletter, "Estate and Tax Letter." There is a stockholders ledger dated 1947-1975 which also has a list of stockholders attached to one page. Subseries 2.8: Testimonial Letters, are from customers and date from 1994-1997. In some cases, Krispy Kreme responses were attached with the original, in others they were not. All the letters are copies of the originals and are on acid-free paper. Subseries 2.9: Miscellaneous, contains drawings and pictures of the Corporation headquarters in Winston-Salem, NC, and of exterior store signage. It also includes logo designs from the 1960s through 1989, samples of stationery, a brochure for and a photograph of the Krispy Kreme plane, and a program for the 1994 Krispy Kreme Annual Conference. There is also a folder containing Holiday greeting cards from Krispy Kreme management and a program from their 1990 Christmas party. Series 3: Operational Records, contains those records which pertain to all aspects of the production and sale of Krispy Kreme doughnuts. This series has the following subseries:

Subseries 3.1: Advertising and Promotions, ca. 1947-1993, contains small and full page newspaper advertisements from 1947 through 1993 (including some undated advertisements), the mats and layouts that the retail stores used in their own in-store advertising, and information and correspondence concerning billboard advertising. This subseries also includes television commercial storyboards and an audience pre-test report for three of them. There is also materials on the different promotions Krispy Kreme used. The "Miscellaneous" folder contains a variety of indoor and outdoor advertisements. Subseries 3.2: Equipment and Engineering, is itself broken down into three categories: American Gas Association (AGA), Equipment Design, and Equipment Information. The "American Gas Association" section contains correspondence between the AGA and Krispy Kreme regarding AGA inspection of and seal of approval for Krispy Kreme-made equipment. "Equipment Design" contains the notes, sketches, test results, and photographs of various pieces of equipment designed and made by Krispy Kreme. "Equipment" information includes equipment brochures and booklets and more detailed information on the use of the equipment. Subseries 3.3: Franchises/Associates, ca. 1940s-1990s, contains literature to attract potential new franchisees as well as samples of franchise agreements. This subseries also includes photographs and press releases concerning store openings. These are located in three folders: "Grand Opening Summary," "Knoxville Grand Opening," and "Krispy Kreme Locations." There is also a videocassette that highlights Krispy Kreme's foray into New York City in 1996. Subseries 3.4: Fundraising, includes a variety of materials that concern Krispy Kreme's program of assisting local organizations in their fundraising efforts. The dates range from the 1940s-1990s. It contains brochures, ca. 1940s-1990s, which explain the fundraising plan and its benefits. There are also guides geared towards Krispy Kreme salespersons to help them present the plan to potential clients. In the "Miscellaneous" folder, there is a newspaper advertisement from September 1988 promoting the fundraising plan. There is also a photo collage done by Krispy Kreme Fundraising Representative, Sharon Craig, to commemorate a local parade in Memphis, TN (at the Elvis Presley Boulevard plant). Subseries 3.5: Marketing, contains a 1996 marketing standards manual and press kits from 1997. The marketing manual was directed to store operators to assist them in promoting and selling their products. The press kits were given to the Smithsonian when discussions concerning Krispy Kreme's donation to the museum began in the spring of 1997. Subseries 3.6: Packaging, ca. 1930s-1992, contains examples of the different packaging used by Krispy Kreme to market their food products and mixes. Also included are designs for new packaging. One example is for doughnuts done by Comet Products Inc. (of MA) in 1979. Four samples of pie packaging designs were created by Pike & Cassels, Inc. (of NC) in late 1991 and early 1992. In the "Miscellaneous" folder there are examples of other Krispy Kreme packaging. Subseries 3.7: Quality Control Laboratory, ca. 1959-1976, consists of two items. The first one, which was originally housed in a binder, is a notebook of information on lab procedures and on the chemical consistency and test concerning doughnut ingredients. This belonged to David Downs, Chief Chemist at Krispy Kreme. The second item is a "pictorial" prospectus of the entire Krispy Kreme operation -- departments, individual stores, products and packaging -- which belonged to the Laboratory. Subseries 3.8: Sales Records, ca. 1950s-1980s, contains materials that would assist both franchise managers and operators (with in-store sales) and route salespeople (in selling wholesale Krispy Kreme products to groceries, etc). It includes a Route Book, ca. late 1950s, that contained order information and belonged to Robah G. Hendrick, a Krispy Kreme salesman. There is also a sales order pad, ca. 1950s-early 1960s, used by a Krispy Kreme store in Memphis, TN. There are also two in-house catalogs -- in folders "Posters, inserts, cards..." and "Shelf talkers catalog" -- that contain items that can be ordered by managers and that are used to sell store products. Shelf talkers are signs posted near the merchandise or on grocery display shelves. They, like the posters, inserts, cards, are used to attract customers with specials and promotions. Samples of shelf talkers are included in this subseries. There is also a "Miscellaneous" folder which contains a Krispy Kreme coupon, a book of gift certificates, another example of a shelf talker sign, and brochures of different store displays. Subseries 3.9: Store Operations, ca. 1960s-1970s, deals primarily with items that are meant for store operators and mangers to help them in running a Krispy Kreme store. Two manuals -- Production and Extruded Doughnut manuals -- instruct managers in producing high quality products. Two other manuals -- Associates Operations and Branch Plant Managers' Manual -- discuss doughnut production, but also give directives and policies on other store issues, such as safety, sanitation, and personnel. The Branch Plant Managers' Manual also delves into the natural gas crisis in January 1977 and deals with advertising, security, and photo requests. This subseries also includes five 8"x6" laminated cards that contain doughnut recipe information and checklists of cleanup and sanitation procedures. There is also a plaque entitled "What is a Customer?" which explains to employees why a Krispy Kreme customer is so important. In the "Miscellaneous" folder there are two guides that advise on how to promote and sell items and a store/production area sign containing the store mission statement. [Also see Series 2: Administrative Records, Subseries E: Personnel, for a guide entitled "Salesgirl" which instructs the female Krispy Kreme employee on matters pertaining to dress and attitude.] Series 4: Newsletters, 1957-1998, includes, Krispy Kreme News, Krispy Kreme Management Circle, and Hot Doughnut News.

Krispy Kreme News, 1957-1998, is geared towards all members of the Krispy Kreme community -- management, operators and managers, and employees. Its articles discuss new store openings, Corporation news, community (or news-related) events, and provides instructions and reminders concerning store upkeep and sanitation. There are sections announcing upcoming retirements, congratulating outstanding employees, and honoring long service to Krispy Kreme. Also included are articles that do not necessarily pertain to Krispy Kreme, but, rather, add a human element to the newsletters, such as humorous stories, articles on birds, and tips on highway safety. Some articles of interest are a history of chocolate (September 1963), "You Can Improve Your Memory" (May 1967), "A Communist is a Rich Marxist" (July 1967), and a discussion on skirt lengths and their relation to economics (February 1970). [In addition, there are two early issues of Krispy Kreme News (May 9 and May 15, 1951) in a folder entitled "Brief Outline of the History of Krispy Kreme, 1977" which is located in Series 1: History of Krispy Kreme.] Also included in this subseries and relating to Krispy Kreme News are a subject index, a questionnaire form, and signed release letters. Krispy Kreme Management Circle, 1995-1997, is a quarterly newsletter geared towards Krispy Kreme management and leadership. The articles focus on product quality, marketing and promotions, and training. At the end of each issue, there is a ranking of stores in different sales categories, i.e., average customer purchases (in dollars), highest percentages of customers buying beverages with their food or buying a second dozen doughnuts. Hot Doughnut News, 1997, caters primarily to Krispy Kreme store operators, providing reports on stores and ideas for marketing. Series 5: Press Clippings, 1949-1998, contains articles and stories that cover the Corporation, its history, its founder and subsequent leaders, and its community programs and promotions. The bulk of the clippings are from newspapers with a scattering of magazine articles. The largest number clippings come from the Winston-Salem Journalof Winston-Salem, NC, where Krispy Kreme is based. All articles have been copied onto acid-free paper.

Some clippings have been separated from the rest. One folder, "Davey Allison," contains clippings concerning the sudden death of this popular NASCAR driver and Krispy Kreme spokesman, in 1993. The folder titled "Ralph Simpson and Associates, July-Sept 1995" contains articles and news briefs on Krispy Kreme and its competitors collected by a Winston-Salem public relations firm. Two other folders with clippings from the Simpson PR firm concern Krispy Kreme's donation into the Smithsonian in July 1997. The contents of these two folders are not on acid-free paper. "School Computers" documents the efforts of the Krispy Kreme Corporation to help distribute computers to schools across North Carolina. The "TV Monitoring Report, July 1997" folder does not contain any clippings, but includes a listing of news stories that appeared on television about the Krispy Kreme donation to the Smithsonian. Series 6: Photographs, ca. late 1930s through the mid 1990s, consists of black-and-white and color photographs and some negatives and transparencies. This series is divided into the following subseries:

Subseries 6.1: Corporate Staff, Associates, and Store Managers, ca. 1940s-early 1990s, is broken down into the following two categories: "Corporate Staff" and "Associates and Store Managers." Corporate Staff contains photographs of the officers of the corporation as well as members of the staff at the headquarters in Winston-Salem. Most are portrait shots with some group photos, e.g., the Board of Directors. There are also photographs of a 1974 retirement party for Mike Harding (Chairman of the Board and CEO) and Louise Joyner (editor of the Krispy Kreme News) and of a wedding cake made in 1990 for the wedding of headquarters accountant Cathy Rogers. The cake and the wedding were featured in the winter 1991 issue of Krispy Kreme News. [Also of interest are two photocopies of photographs -- of a house and a family -- located in Series 1: History of Krispy Kreme, Folder: "Vernon Rudolph."] The Associates and Store Managers photographs consist mostly of group portraits taken at their respective annual meetings: Associate Operators' Meeting and Store Managers' Conference. Also included are scenes of store manager training, which was mandatory for all new Krispy Kreme managers. Subseries 6.2: Corporate Headquarters, date from the late 1940s through the late 1980s. This subseries contains photographs of the General Offices, Equipment Department, Laboratory, Mix Department, and Warehouse. [Other photographs pertaining to these areas can be found in Series 6: Photographs, Subseries H: "Tour Given to Smithsonian Staff."] The General Offices photographs include exterior and interior views of the headquarters on Ivy Avenue. The Equipment Department photographs show various pieces of doughnut equipment as well as the designing, manufacturing, and assembling of said equipment by Krispy Kreme. [For more technical information on the different equipment, please refer to Series 3: Operational Records, Subseries B: "Equipment and Engineering."] The Quality Control Laboratory photographs consist of views that show the interior of the laboratory and of the chemists at work. There are also some images of test results of the doughnut mixes for quality and consistency. In addition, there are pictures of lab results of tests on glaze made with and without stabilizers. The Mix Department photographs contain views of the different stages of department operations. They also show the equipment used to prepare the dry doughnut mixes, which later are sent to the Krispy Kreme stores. The Warehouse photographs show bags of Krispy Kreme prepared mixes stacked in a large warehouse at the headquarters and waiting to be shipped. Subseries 6.3: Retail Shops and Plants, ca. 1937-1994, contains photographs of specific Krispy Kreme stores. They show the exterior and interior views of the shops including storefront, signage, retail, and production areas, as well as employees and customers. The bulk of the photos range from the 1950s through the 1970s. They are arranged by state, by city within the state, and then by street name within the city. Subseries 6.4: General Photographs, ca. 1940s-mid 1990s, concern unspecified Krispy Kreme shops and plants. They include views of store exteriors (storefront and signage) and interiors (production and retail areas and signage). The production area photographs show the various stages of the production of doughnuts, pies, and honeybuns. There are also photographs of customers, employees, and of students participating in the Krispy Kreme fundraising plan. The employee photographs consist of general in-store action and posed shots as well as views of employees receiving service awards for years of service. The fundraising photographs show students picking up boxes of doughnuts from Krispy Kreme shops or selling those boxes in an effort to raise money. This subseries also contains photographs of the trucks used by the Krispy Kreme stores throughout the years to deliver their products to groceries and other food stores. [A a set of press clippings that detail the use of Kripsy Kreme trucks in delivering school computers to North Carolina schools. These can be found in SERIES 5: Press Clippings, in the folder titled "School Computers, May-June 1993."] Subseries 6.5: Trade Shows, range in date from the 1950s through 1970s. This subseries includes photographs of Krispy Kreme displays at trade shows in the United States (Atlanta and St. Louis) and in Greece, Indonesia, Japan, and Pakistan. Subseries 6.6: Products and Packaging, ca. late 1940s-early 1990s, shows samples of various grocery store displays as well as photographs of doughnuts, fried pies, and honeybuns -- with and without packaging. There is also a folder that contains shots of Krispy Kreme coffee cups. Subseries 6.7: Advertising and Promotions, dates from 1965-1990s. The bulk of the photographs centers around shots of Davey Allison's race car. Allison was a Krispy Kreme spokesman for their Race to Daytona Sweepstakes in 1991. The other photographs consist of views of various advertising posters used in shops and grocery stores. There are also photographs that show Krispy Kreme advertising displays in airports. Subseries 6.8: Photo Albums, consist of six albums, all falling within the date range of the 1950s through the mid 1980s. The first album, "Exterior and Interior shots of Unspecified Retail Shops," contains photographs that date from the late 1970s-mid 1980s; these consist of exterior and interior views of various stores. The second album, entitled "Krispy Kreme Album," dates from 1962. A Christmas gift to Vernon Rudolph from the Corporate staff and associates, it contains photographs of the individual staff members and associates as well as group shots of the associates at annual meetings. There are also photographs of various shop storefronts. This album also includes exterior and interior views of the corporate headquarters. "Krispy Kreme Doughnut Co.," ca. 1950s-1960s, is the third album. It served as a pictorial marketing tool used to attract new associates and franchisees. It shows exterior views of the corporate headquarters, various storefronts, and views of a typical Krispy Kreme trade show display. There are also photographs showing retail doughnut production as well as images of packaging and final products. In addition, there is a price list of equipment and mixes. The "Plant and Production" album dates from the 1960s. It consists of photographs showing the different stages of doughnut production and the preceding steps involving the equipment and mix departments and laboratory. There are also exterior views of various retail shops and of the headquarters in Winston-Salem. The "Production Equipment Album," ca. 1960s-early 1970s, is similar to the "Krispy Kreme Doughnut Co." album with regards to the subject of the photographs. Additionally, there are photographs of the officers of the Corporation as well as images of advertising posters used in grocery stores. The sixth album, entitled "Social Gatherings Album," dates from 1951-1971. It contains photographs of female corporate staff members at various social gatherings, such as bridal and baby showers, picnics, birthdays, and Christmas parties. Subseries 6.9: Tour Given to Smithsonian Staff, contains photographs that were taken on May 28, 1997. The photos, taken by Smithsonian photographer Rich Strauss, depict a tour of the Corporation headquarters in Winston-Salem, NC. One highlight of interest is a view of the safe where the secret Krispy Kreme recipe is kept (located in the "Quality Control Laboratory" section of this subseries). The photographs are arranged according to the order of the tour. Series 7: AUDIOvisual Materials, remains unprocessed as of the date of this finding aid. This series consists of training films, videotapes, TV and radio commercials, and slide presentations. A rough inventory of these materials is provided in the container list.
Biographical / Historical:
The Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation started with a recipe, a Pontiac, a pack of cigarettes, and a dream. Add in hard work and a commitment to quality and consistency and what emerges is a company that is at the top of its field and beloved by its customers. It is an organization that has been innovative over the years, but has also remained true to its belief in making top quality products and ensuring excellent customer service. All of this has made Krispy Kreme doughnuts and its company a Southern icon.

The story of Krispy Kreme is the story of one man: Vernon Rudolph. Vernon Rudolph opened his first Krispy Kreme shop in the 1930s and from there built a corporation which he led until his death in the early 1970s. There is another part of the story and that is the continuation of the dream by Joseph McAleer. It was after some years under corporate food giant, Beatrice Foods, that McAleer, beginning in 1982, steered Krispy Kreme back to its traditional emphasis on excellent doughnuts as well as on a family atmosphere within the entire corporation.

The story begins on June 30, 1915 in Marshall County, Kentucky with the birth of Vernon Carver Rudolph. He was the eldest son of Rethie Nimmo Rudolph (mother) and Plumie Harrison Rudolph (father) and had a strict, but loving, upbringing. Vernon Rudolph did well in school, both academically and athletically. He also found time to work in his father's general store as well as helping his neighbors with odd jobs.

After graduating from high school, Rudolph then began his life's work when he went to work for his uncle, Ishmael Armstrong. It seems Armstrong bought a doughnut shop -- along with the assets, name, and recipe -- from a Frenchman from New Orleans, Joe LeBeau. So in 1933, Rudolph began selling the yeast-based doughnuts door to door for the Krispy Kreme Doughnut shop in Paducah, Kentucky. Not only did Rudolph sell doughnuts, he took part in producing them, thereby giving him an all-around experience in the doughnut business.

The economic depression that rocked the country also affected the shop. Armstrong decided to move from Paducah to the much bigger Nashville, Tennessee, hoping that business would be better there. Vernon Rudolph went with him to the new location, hoping for the same. But after trying, Armstrong, in 1935, decided to sell the shop and return to Kentucky. Rudolph wanted to buy it, but unfortunately did not have the money. However, his father -- whose general store had closed and who was working for the doughnut shop as a salesman -- stepped in. He borrowed the money and soon after Krispy Kreme was operating under new ownership. It was also at this time that one of Rudolph's younger brothers, Lewis, joined the family business.

The shop was doing well, enough so that in 1936 Rudolph's father opened another shop in Charleston, West Virginia. Awhile later, a third shop opened in Atlanta, Georgia. While this growth was occurring, Vernon Rudolph still wanted to own his own Krispy Kreme store. In the summer of 1937, he left Nashville with two friends in their new 1936 Pontiac and $200. Carrying start-up doughnut equipment the three young men set out towards an unknown destination, but with a known dream.

Louise Skillman Joyner, Krispy Kreme News editor, recounts how Rudolph and his friends settled on Winston-Salem, North Carolina as the location for their shop.

After some disappointments in looking for a suitable location, Vernon Rudolph, standing on a street corner in Peoria, [Illinois], one evening, wondered what the next move should be. Rents were quite high in that section of the country and the trio was running out of money. He took a pack of Camel cigarettes from his pocket and noticed that they were manufactured in Winston-Salem, N.C. "Why not Winston-Salem?" he thought, "A town with a company producing a nationally advertised product has to be a good bet." So off across the mountains to North Carolina they went.

With only $25 left, they arrived in Winston-Salem. Using that money to rent a space on Main Street and then getting the ingredients and some equipment on credit (which they paid back promptly), the three men began making yeast doughnuts. That day was July 13, 1937. Vernon Rudolph believed in producing only doughnuts of high quality and those were the only ones that were ever sold. That belief (as well as the mouth-watering doughnuts) endeared them to the people of Winston-Salem. What also caught their eye (and their taste buds) was the doughnut production that occurred in the store's front window and the free samples given away in the evenings.

Krispy Kreme at this time was primarily a wholesale enterprise. Using trucks to deliver the products, Rudolph was able to sell doughnuts throughout the area. But soon the wonderful aroma that came from the shop caused passersby to ask for doughnuts right there on the spot. This led to the beginning of Krispy Kreme's retail operations.

In the midst of all this, Rudolph met and married an Atlanta woman, Ruth Ayers, in 1939. This family increased by one in 1943 when the Rudolphs adopted a baby girl, whom they named Patricia Ann. Sadly, Ruth Ayers Rudolph was killed in an automobile accident in Orangeburg, South Carolina in 1944.

The number of Krispy Kreme stores continued to grow in the years that followed. But instead of Rudolph owning all of them outright, he entered into partnerships or into associate (franchise) relationships. The arrangements gave the operators of these particular shops that use of the Krispy Kreme name, recipe, and later the ingredients. But more importantly, they had to agree to adhere to the Krispy Kreme philosophy of producing only the highest quality doughnuts. In those early years, the business was truly family-oriented. This atmosphere continued with these associate owners.

In 1946, Rudolph began thinking about consolidating all the Krispy Kreme resources together under a corporation. This umbrella, he believed, would enable Krispy Kreme to grow further and also give the shops a sense of uniformity. So on October 1, 1946 a corporation named the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Company was formed. Less than a year later, on June 3, 1947, a new corporation, the Krispy Kreme Corporation, was incorporated. The Company concerned itself with individual store operations, while the corporation took care of producing dry mixes used by the shops. Vernon Rudolph served as President and Chairman of the Board.

It was also in 1946 that Rudolph married again -- to Lorraine Flynt of Winston-Salem. Their family of three grew over the years to include Vernon Carver Jr., Sanford, Curtis, and Beverly.

The formation of the corporation was followed by the creation of three important departments within Krispy Kreme: the Mix Department, the Laboratory, and the Equipment Department. Each had an essential role in the overall success of the company. The Mix Department has grown since its creation in 1948. Its primary mission: to mix, in bulk, the key ingredients needed by the shops to make doughnuts -- both yeast- and cake-doughnuts -- but also newly added products -- fried pies and honeybuns. By providing these mixes, Krispy Kreme was able to ensure that all stores made the same excellent products.

The Laboratory was created in 1949. Vernon Rudolph's beliefs in top quality and uniformity were put in action. The Laboratory tested ingredients that were in the prepared mixes and experimented with others to see if perhaps a new ingredient would make a great product better.

Rudolph started the Equipment Department because Krispy Kreme's main supplier of yeast doughnut machines, the Doughnut Corporation of America, decided to enter the retail doughnut business itself. So with the help of consultants and staffed with engineers and machinists, the Equipment Department began manufacturing its own equipment in 1949.

The push towards automation that swept the nation also affected Krispy Kreme. One piece of equipment that illustrates this is the Ring King Junior. Designed for cake doughnut production and taking up only seven square feet, the Ring King Junior cut, fried, turned, and cooled about 30 to 75 dozen per hour. How different from the early days of Krispy Kreme when everything had to be done by hand -- measuring, cutting, frying. The Ring King not only saved space and time, but also ingredients used. And it gave a uniformity to the doughnuts produced -- something Vernon Rudolph liked very much.

Over the years, Krispy Kreme has followed a philosophy of excellent quality and customer service. It recognizes the importance of the customer -- because without him or her there would be no reason to be in business. Along with giving their customers the best, getting involved in the community is another way Krispy Kreme has endeared itself to them. They do this by primarily helping area schools raise money for equipment, uniforms, trips, etc. In order to accomplish its goals, the company needs hard-working and dependable people. Krispy Kreme recognizes the value of its employees. The family atmosphere of those early days has continued.

Vernon Rudolph believed in that philosophy and always strove to make Krispy Kreme the best in the doughnut business. His death on August 16, 1973, left a large void and the years immediately afterwards were tough. Then, in 1976, Krispy Kreme merged with corporate giant Beatrice Foods Company of Chicago. It was still headquartered in Winston-Salem and continued its operations, but as a subsidiary.

For Beatrice, showing a profit was extremely important. To help its Krispy Kreme division, Beatrice encouraged additions to the menu and substitutions of ingredients in the doughnut mixes. This did not appeal to long-time Krispy Kreme associates, but unfortunately there was not much that could be done at that time.

Beatrice's association with Krispy Kreme was not as profitable as it had hoped it would be. So in 1981, the food corporation decided to sell its subsidiary. One Krispy Kreme associate saw this as an opportunity to bring the doughnut company back to the basic traditions upon which it had built a successful enterprise. The associate, Joseph A. McAleer, Sr., had been with the company for almost thirty years when this situation arose. An Alabama native, he went to work for the company in 1951 after he saw an advertisement in the Mobile Press Register for qualified people to join a profitable organization -- the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation. After meeting with Vernon Rudolph, McAleer worked at the Pensacola, Florida store for $1 per hour in order to learn all aspects of a shop's operations. Rudolph had initially wanted McAleer to work for no pay, but with a family to care for, McAleer could not do this and so the $1 an hour agreement was arranged.

McAleer worked 120 hour weeks for over a year. This experience enabled him, in 1953, to start a shop of his own, in Pritchard, Alabama, a suburb of Mobile. His first effort there was not a success -- due to a poor location. He opened another shop in 1956 -- this time off of a busy street in Mobile -- and this time was successful. Over the next 17 years, McAleer opened up other Krispy Kreme shops in Alabama and Mississippi and all promised to provide the highest quality product and the best service. And continuing the family-oriented tradition, members of his immediate family worked in the different shops.

The death of Vernon Rudolph and Beatrice's purchase of Krispy Kreme seemed to send the doughnut company in a new direction -- one not everyone, including McAleer, liked. When Beatrice wanted to sell Krispy Kreme, McAleer talked with his fellow associates and those with ties to the company -- people, like him, who had a stake in Krispy Kreme's success -- and through his efforts was able to form a group of investors. In 1982, the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation had new owners.

These new owners, though, saw Krispy Kreme as a specialty-type of operation with a certain uniqueness and familial closeness and one which needed to concentrate on its basic foundation. That is, going to back to Vernon Rudolph's philosophy of top quality and top service as well as focusing on people, both customers and employees. They are beliefs and values that have proven successful and have helped Krispy Kreme grow from a small doughnut shop in Winston-Salem to a large corporation that still makes the same much-loved doughnut.
Related Materials:
There is a folder of duplicate Krispy Kreme material in Archives Center collection #439, the Sally L. Steinberg Collection of Doughnut Ephemera. The Archives Center also contains collection #662, two scrapbooks from the Doughnut Corporation of America. Artifacts donated by the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation to the National Museum of American History are located in the Division of Cultural History and the Division of the History of Technology.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the National Museum of American History, Archives Center on July 17, 1997, by the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation. Additional items were donated on July 17, 1997, by V. Carver Rudolph and on August 6, 1997, by Steve Cochran.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bakers and bakeries  Search this
Doughnuts  Search this
Genre/Form:
Albums
Color negatives
Motion pictures (visual works)
Color prints (photographs)
Business records -- 20th century
Commercials
Photographs -- 20th century
Training films
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 19th-20th century
Videotapes
Citation:
Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0594
See more items in:
Krispy Kreme Corporation Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8b98b555f-1303-4e03-8876-934ec97bb886
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0594
Online Media:

Puerto Rico Division of Community Education [DIVEDCO] Poster Collection

Donor:
Archivo General de Puerto Rico  Search this
Collector:
Puerto Rico. Division of Community Education. Department of Education  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (32 folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Screen prints
Posters
Place:
Puerto Rico -- 20th century
Date:
1955-2005, undated
Summary:
Collection consists of 378 posters documenting the social, cultural, and educational issues for Puerto Rico of Puerto Rico for nearly fifty years.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of 378 posters, the majority of which are approximately 22" x 28" documenting social, cultural, and educational issues for Puerto Rico. The posters were widely displayed throughout Puerto Rico and provide a window into the lives of the residents for fifty years. The collection is divided into three series. Series one documents events primarily for holidays. Series two provides information relating to the type of social services available to the residents. Economic and employment issues are documented in series three.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into three series.

Series 1, Events, 1955-1990, undated

Series 2, Social Services, 1971-2005, undated

Series 3, Economics and Employment, 1987-1989, undated
Biographical / Historical:
The Puerto Rican Division of Community Education [DIVEDCO] provided resources primarily for the island's poor and rural residents. Created in 1949, it employed community leaders, artists, and writers to develop programs and cultural works that addressed many of the issues and concerns of the Puerto Rican community.

See: Wikipedia for more information.
Related Materials:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Teodoro Vidal Collection, NMAH.AC.0712

Division of Community Life Dissertation Series: Lange, Yvonne, Santos: The Household Wooden Saints of Puerto Rico, NMAH.AC.0197

Spanish Language Broadcasting Collection, NMAH.AC.1404

Goya Foods, Incorporated Collection, NMAH.AC.0694

Manuel Quiles Films, NMAH.AC.0765

Frank Espada Photographs, NMAH.AC.1395

Archives Center Business Americana Collection, NMAH.AC.0404

Graciela Papers, NMAH.AC.1425

Maidenform Collection, NMAH.AC.0585

Edward J. Orth Memorial Archives of the New York World's Fair, NMAH.AC.0560
Provenance:
The posters were donated to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History by the Archivo General de Puerto Rico through Nelly V. Cruz Rodriguez on May 19, 1997.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Puerto Rico in art -- 20th century  Search this
Health attitudes -- 20th century -- Puerto Rico  Search this
Health education -- 1940-1980 -- Puerto Rico  Search this
Social conditions -- 20th century -- Puerto Rico  Search this
Cultural policy -- 20th century -- Puerto Rico  Search this
Modernity and society -- Puerto Rico  Search this
Genre/Form:
Screen prints
Posters -- 20th century
Citation:
Puerto Rico Division of Community Education Poster Collection, 1940-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0615
See more items in:
Puerto Rico Division of Community Education [DIVEDCO] Poster Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8612da7ec-6306-4f79-bb22-8ac39686b5b8
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0615
Online Media:

Serigrafias de Loiza Aldea-Rafael Tufino [screen print poster]

Artist:
Tufino, Rafael  Search this
Sponsor:
Puerto Rico. Division of Community Education. Department of Education  Search this
Collection Donor:
Archivo General de Puerto Rico  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 86 x 58.6 cm.)
Container:
Map-folder 15
Type:
Archival materials
Posters
Screen prints
Place:
Puerto Rico -- 20th century
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
DIVEDCO posters were also printed to promote exhibitions of Puerto Rican artists. This poster advertises the exhibition of renowned artists Rafael Tufino's portfolio of silkscreens depicting scenes from the famous Afro-Puerto Rican town of Loiza. Tufino was one of several DIVEDCO artists who, like Carlos Osorio, also lived and worked in New York City, where he co-founded the Taller Boricura. (From exhibition text by Marvette Perez.)
Local Numbers:
Ac0615-0000003.tif (AC Scan)

1997.3100.34 (Museum Cat. No.)
Exhibitions Note:
In the exhibition "Posters from the Division of Community Education (DIVEDCO) of Puerto Rico, 1948-1989," Sept. 17, 2008-Jan. 18, 2009, at the Smithsonian's S. Dillon Ripley Center.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Serigraphy  Search this
Artists -- Puerto Rico  Search this
Politics -- Puerto Rico  Search this
Genre/Form:
Posters -- Puerto Rico
Screen prints
Collection Citation:
Puerto Rico Division of Community Education Poster Collection, 1940-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Puerto Rico Division of Community Education [DIVEDCO] Poster Collection
Puerto Rico Division of Community Education [DIVEDCO] Poster Collection / Series 1: Events / Art Expositions
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep85fadec87-23a6-457d-ba3f-5911da62d6dd
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0615-ref1175
Online Media:

30 Aniversario DIVEDCO [screen print poster]

Artist:
Cortes, Eduardo Vera  Search this
Sponsor:
Puerto Rico. Division of Community Education. Department of Education  Search this
Collection Donor:
Archivo General de Puerto Rico  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 72 x 47.5 cm.)
Container:
Map-folder 17
Type:
Archival materials
Posters
Screen prints
Place:
Puerto Rico -- 20th century
Date:
1979
Scope and Contents:
This thirtieth anniversary poster of DIVEDCO shows its creative team filming, editing, performing, and at work in the print shop. Their target audiences, a farmer planting in the countryside and a child reading a DIVEDCO book, appear on the edges of the action. The building featured in the background is the old DIVEDCO headquarters, currently the Museo de Arte e Historia de San Juan. (From exhibition text by Marvette Perez.)
Local Numbers:
AC0615-0000037.tif (AC Scan)

1997.3100.36 (Museum Cat. No.)
Exhibitions Note:
In the exhibition "Posters from the Division of Community Education (DIVEDCO) of Puerto Rico, 1948-1989," Sept. 17, 2008-Jan. 18, 2009, at the Smithsonian's S. Dillon Ripley Center.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Farmers -- Puerto Rico  Search this
Politics -- Puerto Rico  Search this
Genre/Form:
Posters -- Puerto Rico
Screen prints
Collection Citation:
Puerto Rico Division of Community Education Poster Collection, 1940-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Puerto Rico Division of Community Education [DIVEDCO] Poster Collection
Puerto Rico Division of Community Education [DIVEDCO] Poster Collection / Series 1: Events / Anniversaries
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep877c9314a-588f-43c4-b00e-55e1dd38baaf
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0615-ref1249
Online Media:

Programa de Navidad 1977 [screen print poster]

Artist:
Contreras, Jose Melendez  Search this
Sponsor:
Puerto Rico. Division of Community Education. Department of Education  Search this
Donor:
Puerto Rico. Division of Community Education. Department of Education  Search this
Collection Donor:
Archivo General de Puerto Rico  Search this
Extent:
1 Poster (Ink on paper., 68.3 x 47.7 cm.)
Container:
Map-folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Posters
Screen prints
Place:
Puerto Rico -- 20th century
Date:
1977
Scope and Contents:
Jose Melendez Contreras began his career in the DIVEDCO workshop in 1952 and worked there as a graphic artist for posters and as a book illustrator until 1977. This is one of the last posters he made for DIVEDCO. A master of angular compositions, in this Christmas poster he shows a close-up of a musician singing and playing a traditional guiro with typical island architecture and mountains behind him. (From exhibition text by Marvette Perez.)
Local Numbers:
AC0615-0000006.tif (AC Scan)

1997.3100.08 (Museum Cat. No.)
Exhibitions:
In the exhibition "Posters from the Division of Community Education (DIVEDCO) of Puerto Rico, 1948-1989," Sept. 17, 2008-Jan. 18, 2009, at the Smithsonian's S. Dillon Ripley Center.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Musicians  Search this
Christmas  Search this
Politics -- Puerto Rico  Search this
Genre/Form:
Posters -- Puerto Rico
Screen prints
Collection Citation:
Puerto Rico Division of Community Education Poster Collection, 1940-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Puerto Rico Division of Community Education [DIVEDCO] Poster Collection
Puerto Rico Division of Community Education [DIVEDCO] Poster Collection / Series 1: Events / 1.1: Holidays
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8020fe51e-90a1-4c46-b9a8-a34054f7f963
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0615-ref774

William M. Marutani Papers

Creator:
Marutani, William M.  Search this
Names:
Japanese Americans Citizens League  Search this
Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians  Search this
Donor:
Marutani, Victoria  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (4 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Awards
Legal documents
Date:
1940-2003
Summary:
These materials are arranged chronologically and include information about Marutani's life and professional activities. The series includes information about his time in the Army, his association with Tule Lake, his work on the Loving v. Virginia case, photographs, a plaque from the Tule Lake Reunion Committee, and lecture research and notes.
Scope and Contents:
Papers mostly relating to Marutani's activism on behalf of former inmates of Japanese American internment camps during World War II, including: papers relating to Marutani's service with the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, notes, facts and copies of historic documents he gathered; correspondence with former internees; photographs of camps and internees; legislative and litigative materials; and papers relating to Marutani's own wartime and post-war experiences.

This collection documents Marutani's activism on behalf of former Japanese American internment camp residents. Included are papers relating to Marutani's involvement with the CWRIC, notes, research, and photocopies of historic documents; correspondence; photographs of camps and internees; and legislative and litigation materials. Also, there are papers relating to Marutani's own wartime and post-war experiences.

Series 1: Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC), 1940-1990 These materials relate to the investigation by the Commission and the response to the results. Series one is divided into two subseries: Correspondence, 1980-1984 and Reference Materials, 1942-1990. The correspondence is in the original order that Marutani created and relates to research, communications between Commission members, and reactions to the Commission's findings. The reference materials also include research done in affiliation with the Commission.

Series Two: William M. Marutani Papers, 1942-2003
Arrangement:
Collection arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
William M. Marutani, a second generation Japanese American, was born in Kent, Washington. In the fall of 1941, he enrolled in courses at the University of Washington, but was forced to leave because of Executive Order 9066, which initiated the wartime incarceration of Japanese Americans. Marutani was taken to Fresno Assembly Center in the spring of 1942, and three months later was transferred to Tule Lake concentration camp, where he spent an additional three months. At the age of 20, he volunteered for the armed forces but was denied because of his Japanese ancestry. However, in 1944, he was inducted into a military intelligence school and later sent to Japan where he served in the Counter Intelligence Corps. In 1953, Marutani graduated from the University of Chicago Law School and joined the firm of MacCoy, Evans, and Lewis. He provided legal counsel for the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) and presented arguments in Loving v. Virginia, the ruling that struck down anti-miscegenation laws. In 1981, President Jimmy Carter appointed Marutani to the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC). This commission was created to investigate the incarceration of Japanese Americans and reparations for that action. Marutani was the only Japanese American to serve on the Commission. Based on his recommendations, Congress issued a payment with an apology to those affected. Marutani accepted the apology from President George Bush but refused the payment. Marutani passed away on November 15, 2004, at the age of 81.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center by Marutani's widow, Victoria Marutani, in 2005.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Concentration camps -- 1942-1945 -- United States  Search this
Japanese Americans -- Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Photographs -- 20th century
Awards
Legal documents -- 1940-2000
Citation:
William M. Marutani Papers, 1942-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0890
See more items in:
William M. Marutani Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep84d8c731f-8b44-43fd-aec6-cc4c614c324f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0890
Online Media:

Claire Falkenstein papers

Creator:
Falkenstein, Claire, 1908-1997  Search this
Names:
Coos Art Museum  Search this
Fresno Art Museum  Search this
Galerie Anderson-Mayer  Search this
Galerie Stadler  Search this
Jack Rutberg Fine Arts (Los Angeles, Calif.)  Search this
John Bolles Gallery (San Francisco, Calif.)  Search this
Los Angeles Museum of Art  Search this
Malvina Miller  Search this
Martha Jackson Gallery  Search this
Merging One Gallery  Search this
Mills College -- Faculty  Search this
Pond Farm Workshop  Search this
San Francisco Museum of Art  Search this
University of California, San Francisco. School of Fine Arts -- Faculty  Search this
Green, Ray, 1908-1997  Search this
Guggenheim, Peggy, 1898-1979  Search this
Kuh, Katharine  Search this
O'Donnell, May, 1906-2004  Search this
Sawyer, Kenneth B.  Search this
Still, Clyfford, 1904-  Search this
Still, Patricia  Search this
Tapie, Michel  Search this
Temko, Allan  Search this
Tobey, Mark  Search this
Wildenhain, Frans, 1905-1980  Search this
Extent:
42.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sketchbooks
Notebooks
Diaries
Scrapbooks
Drawings
Sketches
Photographs
Movie scripts
Motion pictures (visual works)
Interviews
Date:
circa 1914-1997
bulk 1940-1990
Summary:
The papers of sculptor, painter, jewelry designer, and teacher Claire Falkenstein measure 42.8 linear feet and date from 1917 to her death in 1997. There is extensive correspondence with fellow artists, collectors, critics, friends, museums, and galleries. The collection also contains biographical materials, much of it collected and organized by Falkenstein, personal and business records, writings, diaries, exhibition files, commission files, teaching files, photographs, original artwork, scrapbooks, and printed materials. There is a short motion picture film of an interview with Falkenstein featuring the windows she designed for St. Basil's Church in Los Angeles.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of sculptor, painter, jewelry designer, and teacher Claire Falkenstein measure 42.8 linear feet and date from 1917 to her death in 1997. There is extensive correspondence with fellow artists, collectors, critics, friends, museums, and galleries. The collection also contains biographical materials, much of it collected and organized by Falkenstein, personal and business records, writings, diaries, exhibition files, commission files, teaching files, photographs, original artwork, scrapbooks, and printed materials. There is a short motion picture film of an interview with Falkenstein featuring the windows she designed for St. Basil's Church in Los Angeles.

Biographical material includes appointment calendars, awards and honorary degrees, interview transcripts, passports, resumes, wills, and scrapbooks. Scrapbooks were compiled by Falkenstein and focus primarily on her exhibitions at the Galerie Stadler and Gallery Meyer in 1959 and 1960. Also of interest are the "biography files" created and arranged by Falkenstein. These files contain material that she personally felt was the most important in documenting her activities each year. They include correspondence, exhibition catalogs, printed material, and invitations.

Measuring nine linear feet, correspondence is extensive and comprehensively documents Falkenstein's work, social life, relationships, and other business and personal activities. Correspondence dates from 1941 to 1997 and includes business letters and correspondence with friends and family. Her communications with friends, family, clients, gallery owners, collectors, museums, publishers, foundations, and grant agencies reveal many of her ideas and techniques. Individual correspondents include Ray Green, Peggy Guggenheim, Katharine Kuh, May O'Donnell, Ken Sawyer, Clyfford and Pat Still, Michel Tapie, Allan Temko, Mark Tobey, and Frans Wildenhain. Gallery and museum correspondence is with the San Francisco Museum of Art, Coos Art Museum, Los Angeles Museum of Art, Galerie Stadler (Paris), Gallery Mayer (Paris), Malvina Miller (New York), Martha Jackson Gallery (New York), Jack Rutberg Fine Arts (Los Angeles), Galerie Anderson-Mayer (Paris), and Bolles Gallery. Correspondence is also found in the Commission Files and Exhibition Files.

Personal and business records contain a wide variety of material documenting Falkenstein's business, financial, legal, professional, and personal transactions. Files are found for sales and prices, art inventories, smaller jewelry commissions, her work as a juror, her business with galleries, legal affairs and contracts, expenses, records of arts organizations to which she belonged, conferences, grants and fellowships, studio and house renovations, her Paris studio and Paris expenses, travel, donations, loans and consignments, conservation, art shipping, insurance, and taxes. Oversized visitor's logs contain comments from visitors to Falkenstein's studio in Venice, California.

Falkenstein maintained comprehensive documentation of her exhibitions from her first exhibition in the 1930s to the last one at the Merging One Gallery in 1996. Files include both a chronological record and individual record for nearly all of her exhibitions. Found with the files are correspondence, photographs, loan and shipping records, catalogs, announcements, clippings, articles, and other records. Most of the photographs related to exhibitions are found in the Photographs Series. The files for exhibitions at the Fresno Art Museum, Martha Jackson Gallery and Jack Rutberg Fine Art Gallery are particularly rich.

Commission files document nearly all of Falkenstein's public and private large-scale projects and often contain a visual record of the work, as well as correspondence, design notes, contracts, and expense reports. There is documentation of the St. Basils Church windows in Los Angeles; the Peggy Guggenheim gate in Venice, Italy; and the fountain at the California Savings and Loan, in Los Angeles; and many others. There is also a chronological record of her commissions. The bulk of the photographs of commissions are found in the Photograph series. Also, most of Falkenstein's jewelry design commissions are found in the Personal and Business Records series.

Falkenstein's work as a prolific writer, particularly in the 1940s and 1950s, is well-documented here through her numerous published articles in Arts and Architecture magazine, and the New York Herald-Tribune. Her work for Arts and Architecture was primarily written for the "Art Comments from San Francisco" section. She was living in Paris when she contributed an art news column to the New York Herald-Tribune. Also found here are five diaries and one journal dating from circa 1929-1978. The entries are inconsistent and concern mostly travel. The diaries from 1929 and 1934 are more personal. Falkenstein also maintained extensive notes and notebooks about artwork ideas, observations about art, research, and even drafts of letters. There are also many notes about various topics, including art and class notes. Additional writings are eclectic and cover a wide range of topics, including music, poetry, the script for Falkestein's film entitled Touching the Quick, and drafts of her unpublished book on murals. A handful of writings by others are found, most with annotations by Falkenstein.

Teaching files include Falkenstein's numerous lectures given while teaching at Mills College, Pond Farm Workshops, and California School of Fine Arts, and various symposiums and conferences. Also found are lesson plans, contracts, scattered correspondence, and notes. The files on her tenure at the Pond Farm Workshops are particularly interesting, with notes about her fellow teacher Frans Wildenhain and correspondence with workshop owners, Jane and Gordon Herr.

There are extensive photographs of Falkenstein, her family and friends, colleagues, commissions, exhibitions, and works of art. Included are many images of Falkenstein, of Falkenstien with her art, of Falkentstien working, and of Falkenstein's studio. There are numerous photographs of Falkenstein with friends, family, and colleagues in social or work settings. Also found are photographs of exhibition openings, installation views, and works of art exhibited. Additional photographs document Falkenstein's commissions, including images of her at work. Additional images of commissions may also be found in the Commission Series, but the bulk are filed here. There are numerous photographs of Falkenstein's works of art, including drawings, sculpture, jewelry, murals, lamps, and ceramics.

Falkenstein's papers include a large amount of sketches, sketchbooks, and drawings. Many of the sketches and drawings relate to her ideas about commissions and large sculpture, jewelry designs, and general sketches. Sketches are also found in the Commission Files. Also included are drawings by Mark Tobey and Michel Tapie, and others.

Finally, printed materials include general exhibition catalogs, newspapers clippings, and clippings of articles by and about Falkenstein. Also included are books that have been inscribed and signed by the author.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 9 series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1934-1997 (Box 1-4, 41; 4.3 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1931-1997 (Box 5-13; 9 linear feet)

Series 3: Personal and Business Records, 1936-1997 (Box 14-17, 41, 46-49; 4.2 linear feet)

Series 4: Exhibitions, 1930-1996 (Box 18-21, 42, OV 50; 3.3 linear feet)

Series 5. Commissions, 1930-1992 (Box 21-22, OV 50-54 ; 2.0 linear feet)

Series 6: Writings, circa 1929-1993 (Box 22-26, 42, 55; 4.6 linear feet)

Series 7: Teaching Files, 1929-1995 (Box 26; .8 linear feet)

Series 8: Photographs, circa 1917-1997 (Box 27-35, 43, 55-56; 9.5 linear feet)

Series 9: Artwork, circa 1937-1995 (Box 36-37, 44, 57; 2.0 linear feet)

Series 10: Printed Materials, circa 1914-1990 (Box 37-40, 45, 58; 3.9 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Claire Falkenstein (1908-1997) spent the majority of her life working as an artist, sculptor, jewelry designer, teacher, and writer in California.

Claire Falkenstein was born in 1908 and grew up in Coos Bay, Oregon. In 1920, Falkenstein and her family moved to Berkeley, California, where she attended high school and then college at the University of California at Berkeley, studying philosophy, anthropology, and art. She graduated in 1930. Falkenstein had her first solo show at the East-West Gallery in San Francisco in 1930, the only member of her class to have an exhibition before graduation.

During the early 1930s, Falkenstein studied at Mills College with modernist sculptor Alexander Archipenko. There she also met Bauhaus artists Laszlo Moholy-Nagy and Gyorgy Kepes. Falkenstein married her high school sweetheart, Richard McCarthy in 1936.

In 1944, Falkenstein had her first New York exhibition at the Bonestall Gallery. At that time, Falkenstein's primary mediums were stone and wood. However, she became increasingly experimental with new materials that included sheet aluminum, Cor-Ten steel, glass, plastics, and welded wire rods while maintaining a connection to organic and natural forms. Her work in jewelry design was an outlet for exploring these new materials, forms, and techniques on a small scale. As her work grew physically larger, so did her recognition and it was her work in sculpture that won her a faculty appointment at the California School of Fine Arts from 1947-1949. It was here that she met Patricia and Clyfford Still, Hassel Smith, and Richard Diebenkorn.

In 1948, Falkenstein was invited to exhibit at the Salon des Realites Nouvelle in Paris, her first European show. She eventually moved to Europe in 1950 and had studios in Paris, Venice, and Rome. While in Europe, Falkenstein executed a number of large scale commissions, including the stair screen for Galerie Stadler (1955), grotto gates for Princess Pignatelli's villa in Rome (1957), and the bronze, steel, and the glass gate at the Peggy Guggenheim Museum in Venice (1961). While in Paris, she became acquainted with noted art critic Michel Tapie, with whom she maintained a life-long friendship.

During the 1940s and 1950s Falkenstein was a regular contributor to Arts and Architecture magazine, most often writing the "Art Comments from San Francisco" section. While in Paris, she also wrote a column on art news for the New York Herald Tribune.

Falkenstein returned to the United States in 1962, eventually renovating a studio space in Venice, California. It was here that she conceived her largest commissions. In 1965, Falkenstein received a commission from the California Savings and Loan to create a sculpture for a large fountain at the front of the bank in downtown Los Angeles. The copper tube fountain, entitled "Structure and Flow #2," was the first of many large scale public art commissions that Falkenstein completed during her years in California. Her most important commission in the United States, completed in 1969, was for the doors, rectory gates and grills and stained-glass windows for St. Basil's Church on Wilshire Boulevard in Los Angeles. The eight doors and fifteen rectory screens, including 80 foot high windows in the nave, were an expansion of the "never ending screen" concept that Falkenstein executed with the Pignatelli commission in Rome. She continued to use this motif in her work throughout her career.

Claire Falkenstein worked as an arts instructor, visiting artist, and guest lecturer at many colleges, workshops, and schools in California. Her first position was at Mills College from 1946-1947. Shortly thereafter, she was appointed to the faculty at the California School of Fine Arts and later taught in the Extension Divisions of the University of California, Berkeley. She taught classes at California State Polytechnic University, California State University at Davis, and the Anna Head School. Falkenstein also taught art at the Pond Farm Workshops in California, and lectured at numerous colleges and museums. She served on many juried art shows in Southern California.

Falkenstein was acquainted with many artists, writers, instructors, collectors, gallery owners, and critics. Close friends included Esther and Bob Robles, Clyfford and Patricia Still, Michel Tapie, Allan Temko, Mark Tobey, Frans Wildenhain, and other notable figures in the art world.

Falkenstein continued to complete large scale private and public commissioned sculptures during the 1960s through the 1980s, including work for the University of Southern California, Hyland Biological Laboratory, California State University at Dominquez Hills and the California State Department of Motor Vehicles. Throughout her career, Falkenstein's work was featured in numerous exhibitions across the country. Her sculpture and other artwork can be found in the permanent collections of the Museum of Modern Art, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Coos Art Museum, Harvard University Art Museum, University of Southern California Fisher Museum of Art, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, and the Tate Gallery.

Falkenstein died in 1997 at the age of 89.
Related Material:
The Archives of American Art also holds two oral history interviews with Claire Falkenstein. The interview on April 13, 1965 was conducted by Betty Hoag and the one on March 2 and 21, 1995 was conducted by Paul Karlstrom.
Provenance:
The Claire Falkenstein papers were donated in 1997 by Steffan Wacholtz and Nancy Kendall, trustees for the Claire Falkenstein Trust.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Sculptors -- California  Search this
Painters -- California  Search this
Jewelers -- California  Search this
Educators -- California  Search this
Authors -- California  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Art patronage  Search this
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Artists' studios  Search this
Jewelry  Search this
Poetry  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women painters  Search this
Women designers  Search this
Women educators  Search this
Women authors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketchbooks
Notebooks
Diaries
Scrapbooks
Drawings
Sketches
Photographs
Movie scripts
Motion pictures (visual works)
Interviews
Citation:
Claire Falkenstein papers, circa 1914-1997, bulk 1940-1990. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.falkclai
See more items in:
Claire Falkenstein papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9911c74ff-413b-4b54-9280-89c8b0480495
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-falkclai
Online Media:

Glass

Collection Creator:
Falkenstein, Claire, 1908-1997  Search this
Container:
Box 32, Folder 41
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1950-1985
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Claire Falkenstein papers, circa 1914-1997, bulk 1940-1990. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Claire Falkenstein papers
Claire Falkenstein papers / Series 8: Photographs / 8.7: Works of Art
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9775b590c-ff51-4653-bb27-788ed8c382ab
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-falkclai-ref1258

Glass

Collection Creator:
Falkenstein, Claire, 1908-1997  Search this
Container:
Box 32, Folder 42
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1958-1979
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Claire Falkenstein papers, circa 1914-1997, bulk 1940-1990. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Claire Falkenstein papers
Claire Falkenstein papers / Series 8: Photographs / 8.7: Works of Art
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw91e3ed016-3d72-4bcc-bf73-14dd07dfc7ec
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-falkclai-ref1259

Glass

Collection Creator:
Falkenstein, Claire, 1908-1997  Search this
Container:
Box 33, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1958-1979
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Claire Falkenstein papers, circa 1914-1997, bulk 1940-1990. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Claire Falkenstein papers
Claire Falkenstein papers / Series 8: Photographs / 8.7: Works of Art
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9ce3588ed-4a5b-4ea4-b188-f498520960d3
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-falkclai-ref1260

Glass

Collection Creator:
Falkenstein, Claire, 1908-1997  Search this
Container:
Box 32, Folder 43
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1958-1979
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Claire Falkenstein papers, circa 1914-1997, bulk 1940-1990. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Claire Falkenstein papers
Claire Falkenstein papers / Series 8: Photographs / 8.7: Works of Art
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9e9c44d3e-9fcc-4374-8e6d-41f009d9b351
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-falkclai-ref2211

Photographs

Collection Creator:
Strayhorn, Billy (William Thomas), 1915-1967  Search this
Russo, William, 1928-2003  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Claxton, William  Search this
Leonard, Herman, 1923-2010  Search this
Collection Composer:
Kenton, Stan  Search this
Collection Musician:
Mulligan, Gerry  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1940s-1990s
Scope and Contents:
Photographs documenting the life and career of William Russo. Photographs are arranged by subject matter in alphabetical order. Classifications include, Russo with family, Russo Music, Russo Head Shots, and staged productions like "The Bacchae." Some unique photographs include portraits of Russo as a young boy, Russo's mother, and a photograph with Russo, Ellington and Strayhorn.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but an oil painting is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
William Russo Music and Personal Papers, 1920s-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0845, Series 6
See more items in:
William Russo Music and Personal Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep809cd2665-a964-40d4-8b5b-b23947592aee
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0845-ref2098

Amiche mostly non-Russo photos

Collection Creator:
Strayhorn, Billy (William Thomas), 1915-1967  Search this
Russo, William, 1928-2003  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Claxton, William  Search this
Leonard, Herman, 1923-2010  Search this
Collection Composer:
Kenton, Stan  Search this
Collection Musician:
Mulligan, Gerry  Search this
Container:
Box 162, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1940-1990s
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but an oil painting is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
William Russo Music and Personal Papers, 1920s-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
William Russo Music and Personal Papers
William Russo Music and Personal Papers / Series 6: Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8f3cd9c94-2549-483a-ab6f-226bf3bc5767
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0845-ref2102

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