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Inventors Oral History Collection

Creator:
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.  Search this
Interviewer:
Bedi, Joyce  Search this
Daemmrich, Arthur  Search this
Oswald, Alison  Search this
Ott, Katherine  Search this
Interviewee:
Hamilton, Marilyn, 1949-  Search this
Hyatt, Gilbert P. , 1938-  Search this
Lindahl, Lisa  Search this
Miller, Hinda  Search this
Reid, Tahira N.  Search this
Smith, Polly Palmer  Search this
Extent:
855.63 Gigabytes (Interviews include .mp4, video/.mxf and .wav files. )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Born digital
Oral history
Transcripts
Date:
2020-2021
Summary:
Born digital video oral history interviews and transcripts with inventors documenting a variety of subjects and disciplines.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series, alphabetical by last name of interviewee.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

JogBra, Inc. Records (NMAH.AC.1315)

Disability Reference Collection (NMAH.AC.1319)

Folia Water Materials (NMAH.AC.1407)

Materials at the Smithsonian Institution Archives

Program/Project Records, 1994-2017 (SIA Acc. 19-100)

Interview with Theresa Dankovitch, inventor of the Folia water filter.

Interview with David Stone, inventor of Ferrock, a carbon-negative substitute for concrete. Also includes interviewee Richard Pablo.

Interview with Amy Prieto, inventor of a rechargeable battery.

Interview with John Warner, co-founder of the field of green chemistry.

Program/Project Records, 1989-2010 (SIA Acc. 12-582)

Interview with Remo Belli, jazz drummer who developed and marketed the first successful synthetic drumheads and founded the Remo company.

Interview with Arthur Ganson, inventor, kinetic sculptor and musician.

Audiovisual Records, 1995-2014 (SIA Acc. 16-092)

Interview with Gary Fisher, inventor of the modern mountain bike.

Lemelson Center, Program/Project Records, 2006-2015 (SIA Acc. 16-043)

Interview with Doreen Lorenzo, former president of Quirky.

Interview with Corinna E. Lathan, co-Founder of AnthroTronix, Inc., a biomedical research and development company with a focus on assistive technologies.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Access and use of audiovisual materials available in the Archives Center reading room or by requesting copies of audiovisual materials at RightsReproductions@si.edu.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American engineers  Search this
Brassieres -- 20th century  Search this
Computer science  Search this
Disabilities  Search this
Double Dutch  Search this
Electrical engineering  Search this
Electrical engineers  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Mechanical engineers  Search this
Mechanical engineering and engineers  Search this
Microprocessors  Search this
Running  Search this
Sports  Search this
Sports bra  Search this
Women inventors  Search this
wheelchairs  Search this
Inventors, Black  Search this
Genre/Form:
Born digital
Oral history -- 2010-2020
Transcripts
Citation:
Inventors Oral History Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1504
See more items in:
Inventors Oral History Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep85c072cbb-cb11-493e-a0e6-184df5e09c2e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1504

Ann Moore Innovative Lives Presentation

Topic:
Innovative Lives Program (NMAH public program series)
Snguli baby carrier
Weego Baby Carrier
Creator:
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.  Search this
Berger, Sondra  Search this
Moore, Ann, 1940-  Search this
Moore, Mike  Search this
Names:
Auckerman, Lucy  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (5 boxes , BetaCamSP, 1/2 inch VHS videotapes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audio cassettes
Betacam sp (videotape format)
Floppy disks
Interviews
Oral history
Videotapes
Place:
Africa, French-speaking West
Date:
1999-10
Summary:
Ann Moore is the inventor of the Snugli baby carrier and Air Lift oxygen carrier. The collection contains original, master, and reference videos, audiocassette recordings, and transcripts documenting Moore's inventive career.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 5.5 hours of original BetaCam SP recordings, 5.5 hours of master video copies, 5.5 hours of reference copies, 5.5 hours of audiocassette recordings, transcripts, and articles documenting the life and work of Ann Moore, inventor of the Snugli baby carrier and Air Lift oxygen carrier. The recordings include a presentation by Ann and Mike Moore for the Lemelson Center's Innovative Lives Program. Audience participants include students from Seven Locks Elementary School in Bethesda, Maryland; Burrville Elementary School in Washington, D.C.; Barrett Elementary School in Arlington, Virginia; and Jefferson Junior High School in Washington, D.C. Ann Moore's interview includes footage of her home in Colorado and discussions with users of the Air Lift oxygen carrier and Weego baby carrier.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into five series.

Series 1: Original videos, 1999

Series 2: Master videos, 1999

Series 3: Audiocassettes, 1999

Series 4: Reference videos, 1999

Series 5: Supplemental documentation, 1999
Biographical / Historical:
Ann Moore was born in 1940 in a small Ohio farming community and studied pediatric nursing at the University of Cincinnati. She joined the Peace Corps in 1962 as part of a medical team and was sent to Togo. She met her husband Mike Moore during training. While in Togo, Ann Moore noticed that most women tied their babies onto their backs with a long piece of fabric, which made the babies more content. Back in Colorado, Moore wanted to carry her newborn daughter Mandela in the same way. With the assistance of her mother, Lucy Aukerman, Moore designed the first Snugli baby carrier in 1969 (US Patent 3,481,517). She patented the Snugli in 1984 (US Patent 4,434,920). Snugli, Inc. grew from a small company where each Snugli was handmade by Aukerman and her neighbors to a large company with an international presence and a factory in Colorado. In 1985 Ann and Mike Moore sold Snugli, Inc. to Gerico, a Huffy Company. In 1986 Ann invented Air Lift, a soft mesh backpack oxygen carrier so people on oxygen could be more mobile (US Patent 4,739,913).

Ann and Mike Moore became disappointed in how Gerico had simplified the Snugli design so it could be manufactured less expensively so in 1999 the Moores launched Weego, a soft baby carrier similar to the original Snugli. The Weego has some modern improvements, including an adjustable buckle around the top of the carrier instead of pin tucks. The Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation was founded in 1995 at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History through a generous gift from the Lemelson Foundation. The Center's mission is to document, interpret, and disseminate information about invention and innovation; to encourage inventive creativity in young people; and to foster an appreciation for the central role invention and innovation plays in the history of the United States. The Innovative Lives series brings together Museum visitors and especially school age children, and American inventors to discuss inventions and the creative process and to experiment and play with hands-on activities related to each inventor's product. This collection was recorded by the Innovative Lives Program of the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.
Provenance:
This collection was recorded by the Innovative Lives Program of the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation on October 15, 1999.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply.
Topic:
Infants -- Care  Search this
Inventions -- 1950-2000  Search this
Inventors -- 1950-2000  Search this
Slides  Search this
Women inventors  Search this
Women inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audio cassettes -- 1990-2000
BetaCam SP (videotape format)
Floppy disks
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Oral history -- 1990-2000
Videotapes -- 1990-2000
Citation:
Ann Moore Innovative Lives Presentation and Interview, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0706
See more items in:
Ann Moore Innovative Lives Presentation
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep807245371-e2c3-4d78-b05a-ebd7d0d9b573
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0706
Online Media:

Ellen Ochoa Innovative Lives Presentation

Topic:
Innovative Lives Program (NMAH public program series)
Interviewee:
Ochoa, Ellen, Dr., 1958-  Search this
Creator:
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.  Search this
Names:
United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration  Search this
Extent:
0.75 Cubic feet (3 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lectures
Slides
Videotapes
Date:
1996-09-24
Scope and Contents:
Original master and reference videos documenting children's program by Dr. Ellen Ochoa. Dr. Ellen Ochoa discusses her role as an inventor, scientist, and astronaut at NASA.
Arrangement:
Divided into 3 series: 1. Original videos; 2. Master videos; 3. Reference videos.
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. Ochoa was born in Los Angeles, Calif. B.S. in physics, San Diego State, 1975; master's and doctorate in electrical engineering, Stanford University, 1981 and 1985. Dr. Ochoa holds three patents in the field of optical processing and has worked as a research scientist at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) since 1988. In 1990 she became the first Hispanic woman astronaut selected by NASA. In April 1993, Ochoa flew as a mission specialist on the space shuttle Discovery.
Provenance:
Created by the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation, National Museum of American History, 1996.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the original videos are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions. Signed copies of releases on file.
Topic:
Astronauts -- 1990-2000  Search this
Astronautics -- 1990-2000  Search this
Electric engineering -- 1980-2000  Search this
Hispanic Americans -- 1950-2000  Search this
Inventions -- 1980-2000  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Space flight -- 1990-2000  Search this
Women inventors  Search this
Women inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Space shuttles -- 1990-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Lectures -- 1990-2000
Slides
Videotapes -- 1990-2000
Citation:
Ellen Ochoa Innovative Lives Presentation, 1996, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0595
See more items in:
Ellen Ochoa Innovative Lives Presentation
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8bcf0d752-ff9d-40a3-a5fa-95de9bff7e23
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0595
Online Media:

Episode 150

Collection Producer:
Lodge, Arthur  Search this
Arthur Lodge Productions.  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Association of Manufacturers  Search this
Extent:
1 Motion picture film
Container:
Reel AC0507-OF0150
Type:
Archival materials
Moving Images
Motion picture films
Date:
1953 August 27
Scope and Contents:
460 Degrees Below Zero! Consulting industrial research engineering. Arthur D. Little Co., Cambridge, MA.

Exporting an Idea! India considers Dairy Queens; food industry. Dairy Queen, Long Island, NY.

Putting on the Pressure! Manufacturers of oilfield equipment including Ball and Gate valves. Cameron Iron Works, Houston, TX.

Manufactured Menagerie! Manufacturing toy animals made of rubber. Woman inventor. Bain Factory, Peterborough, NH.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the films are stored off-site. Special arrangements must be made directly with the Archives Center staff to view episodes for which no reference copy exists. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees will be charged for reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Industry on Parade Film Collection, 1950-1959, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Industry on Parade Film Collection
Industry on Parade Film Collection / Series 1: Motion Picture Films
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8823bef55-086f-4042-bcf9-2efb519f9de7
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0507-ref298

Episode 238

Collection Producer:
Lodge, Arthur  Search this
Arthur Lodge Productions.  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Association of Manufacturers  Search this
Extent:
1 Motion picture film
Container:
Reel AC0506-OF0238
Box 5, Tape AC0507-MV0238
Type:
Archival materials
Moving Images
Motion picture films
Date:
1955 May 7
Scope and Contents:
Mississippi Manufacturing lounge chairs. Stratolounger, Inc., Okolona, MS.

Utah Processing paraffin. Sure Seal Corporation, Bountiful, UT.

Missouri Making electric transformers. Wagner Electric Corp., St. Louis, MO.

Oregon Mrs. Wendling patents the Ease Off baby spoon; woman inventor. Portland, OR.

Reference video, Box 10
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the films are stored off-site. Special arrangements must be made directly with the Archives Center staff to view episodes for which no reference copy exists. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees will be charged for reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Industry on Parade Film Collection, 1950-1959, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Industry on Parade Film Collection
Industry on Parade Film Collection / Series 1: Motion Picture Films
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep828d85595-0f5d-4106-8bfd-f01f909d31b3
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0507-ref456

Episode 339

Collection Producer:
Lodge, Arthur  Search this
Arthur Lodge Productions.  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Association of Manufacturers  Search this
Extent:
1 Motion picture film
Container:
Reel AC0507-OF0339
Type:
Archival materials
Moving Images
Motion picture films
Date:
1957 April 13
Scope and Contents:
Connecticut Pre-fabricated house components manufactured in a factory combined create individualized houses; construction industry. Fabricators, Inc., Norwalk, CT.

Michigan Manufacturing tricks for magic trade; entertainment. Abbott's House of Magic, Colon, MI.

Pennsylvania Making wetting agent to fight dust in industry; clean air. Johnson-March Corp., Philadelphia, PA.

Ohio A secretary, Mary Smith, gets patent on supply drawer that fits under typewriter shelf. Idea incorporated into assembly line of office furniture manufacturer. Woman inventor. Globe Wernicke, Cincinnati, OH.

Duplicate of 359
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the films are stored off-site. Special arrangements must be made directly with the Archives Center staff to view episodes for which no reference copy exists. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees will be charged for reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Industry on Parade Film Collection, 1950-1959, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Industry on Parade Film Collection
Industry on Parade Film Collection / Series 1: Motion Picture Films
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep88c20eb2b-9bd9-48de-8583-29082cf7eea5
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0507-ref653

Episode 341

Collection Producer:
Lodge, Arthur  Search this
Arthur Lodge Productions.  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Association of Manufacturers  Search this
Extent:
1 Motion picture film
Container:
Reel AC0507-OF0341
Type:
Archival materials
Moving Images
Motion picture films
Date:
1957 April 27
Scope and Contents:
New York Collecting house dust for developing serum to treat people allergic to dust. Pharmaceutical industry helps relieve symptoms of hay fever and asthma. Endo Laboratories, New York, NY.

Michigan Sheila Forshee developed idea of way to dispose of paint-saturated water using disposable curtains for paint booths. Woman inventor. Newcomb-Detroit Co., Detroit, MI.

Vermont Treating scrap mica with chemical and heat treatments to form large sheets with uniform electrical insulating properties. Samica Corp., Rutland, VT.

Texas Attendant hooks basket to car, fills basket, and keeps running tab so women can shop at drive through market without leaving their car. Drive-Thru Market, Houston, TX.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the films are stored off-site. Special arrangements must be made directly with the Archives Center staff to view episodes for which no reference copy exists. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees will be charged for reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Industry on Parade Film Collection, 1950-1959, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Industry on Parade Film Collection
Industry on Parade Film Collection / Series 1: Motion Picture Films
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8396a350a-8d24-44f8-a26f-c6de496b40eb
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0507-ref657

Episode 359

Collection Producer:
Lodge, Arthur  Search this
Arthur Lodge Productions.  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Association of Manufacturers  Search this
Extent:
1 Motion picture film
Container:
Reel AC0507-OF0359
Type:
Archival materials
Moving Images
Motion picture films
Scope and Contents:
Connecticut Pre-fabricated house components manufactured in a factory combined create individualized houses; construction industry. Fabricators, Inc., Norwalk, CT.

Michigan Manufacturing tricks for magic trade; entertainment. Abbott's House of Magic, Colon, MI.

Pennsylvania Making wetting agent to fight dust in industry; clean air. Johnson-March Corp., Philadelphia, PA.

Ohio A secretary, Mary Smith, gets patent on supply drawer that fits under typewriter shelf. Idea incorporated into assembly line of office furniture manufacturer. Woman inventor. Globe Wernicke, Cincinnati, OH.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the films are stored off-site. Special arrangements must be made directly with the Archives Center staff to view episodes for which no reference copy exists. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees will be charged for reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Industry on Parade Film Collection, 1950-1959, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Industry on Parade Film Collection
Industry on Parade Film Collection / Series 1: Motion Picture Films
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d38abbf6-1211-47e4-991a-74313b63422b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0507-ref689

These Four Black Women Inventors Reimagined the Technology of the Home

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Tue, 07 Feb 2017 14:00:00 +0000
Topic:
Search this
See more post:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_72aa0d3cf2c1ffbb908029c8623da471

Charlotte Cramer Sachs Papers

Creator:
Sachs, Charlotte Cramer, 1907-2004  Search this
Names:
Cramanna  Search this
Cramarc  Search this
Crambruck Press  Search this
Cramer Products Company  Search this
Joy Originals  Search this
Joy Products  Search this
Sachs, Alexander  Search this
Samuels, Donald  Search this
Extent:
4 Cubic feet (13 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertisements
Awards
Business records
Clippings
Correspondence
Notes
Patents
Patent applications
Photographs
Sheet music
Date:
1905-2002
bulk 1940-2002
Summary:
Papers relating to Charlotte Cramer Sachs's life and career as an inventor mainly of food and household-related products: correspondence, photographs, business papers, awards, patents, printed materials, notes, and miscellany. The collection primarily consists of invention-related marketing materials including invention samples and prototypes, notes, clippings, business correspondence, and customer account records.
Scope and Contents:
The records are divided into two series. Series 2 is further divided into eight subseries.

Series 1 documents the inventor's creativity through her artistic, literary, and musical records. Also included are awards and certificates received and materials related to her childhood home. This series contains few photos of Cramer Sachs herself, although a print of one of her paintings, "Portrait of a Lady," circa 1953, seems to be a self-portrait. There are no photos of her husband or daughter in the collection. Also missing is any information related to the inventor's formal education, childhood, the circumstances of her departure from Berlin, marriage, and family life.

Materials in Series 2 constitute the bulk of the collection and are primarily comprised of marketing ephemera, with very few financial and production records. This series gives a broad outline of Cramer Sachs's many inventions documenting Joy Products and wine-related inventions in the most depth.

Series 1: Creative and Artistic Papers, 1933-2002

These records include sheet music, songbooks, stories, and poetry of the inventor's own creation; photographic prints of her artwork; art exhibition materials; publishing company (Crambruck Press) records and published materials; childhood residence ("Haus Cramer") materials, and awards and certificates unrelated to inventions. Artwork and songs make up the bulk of the materials, and are arranged alphabetically by subject. Records in this series provide a context for Cramer Sachs's career as an inventor, although they do not reveal extensive information regarding her personal life or history.

Records relating to artwork include press releases, exhibition photographic prints and negatives, promotional materials, newspaper clippings, notebooks compiled by Cramer Sachs, as well as donation records of artworks given by the inventor to The Cathedral Church of St. John the Divine.

Crambruck Press publishing company is a combined name which incorporates the inventor's surname, Cramer and mother's maiden name, Bruck. These records include a pre-publication notice and order form for a Crambruck Press publication, correspondence from a donor, as well as three Crambruck Press publications: From Boring Dinosaur to Passionate Computer by Livingston Welch, 1968; Poems by Helen H. Shotwell, 1970; and In Search of Harmony by Charlo, 1964.

Haus Cramer materials include photographs, newspaper clippings (many of them in German), correspondence between Cramer Sachs and Stanford University, and floor plans of the house designed in 1912 by German architect Hermann Muthesius. A framed black-and-white photographic print of Haus Cramer is fragile and is housed in a sink matte, box 9.

Poetry materials, songs, and stories are contained in bound books, published songbooks, original sheet music, and copyright records for song words, manuscripts written by Cramer Sachs, as well as correspondence records related to her writings. The song "With Love From New York" was used in the marketing of "Joy New Yorkshire Pudding Mix," and the records contain a vinyl recording which doubles as a marketing piece. Allusions to her husband, Alexander Sachs, and daughter, Eleanor, are found in some of her songs and stories.

Translation materials are comprised of correspondence (mostly in German), as well as Cramer Sachs's complete English translation of the "Stoffel Flies Across the Ocean" story, originally written in German by Erika Mann, circa 1932.

Series 2: Invention Records, 1905-2002

Invention Records contain information related to Cramer Sachs as an inventor and are divided into eight subseries. Materials include: patent related records; samples and prototypes; marketing and advertising materials; newspaper and magazine clippings; business correspondence records; customer account records; Wine Museum materials; and patent searches. These present a broad overview of Cramer Sachs's many inventions, although the majority of information is concentrated in the Household/Office, Food Products, and Wine-related series. Records are arranged chronologically by invention. The final subseries contain patent searches requested by the inventor.

Subseries 2.1: Cramer Products Company and Affiliate Company Records, 1942-2002

Materials include financial records, business correspondence, company awards and certificates, real estate materials, license agreements with outside inventors, a promotion prospectus for the company, and three company stamps (three dimensional). Also included are records of an invention for which Cramer Sachs sought copyright, "Orthodontic Device," 1954, and those having to do with products distributed—not invented—by Cramer Products Company, "Forster Longfresh," 1985. In addition, there are black-and-white photographic prints of an office opening which include images of Cramer Sachs in 1967. These records are arranged chronologically.

Subseries 2.2: Household/Office Records, 1913-1972

These records relate to seven different inventions, each with varying degrees of information. "Combination Key and Flashlight," 1940 was an improvement on previous patents and therefore consists of the earlier patent materials (1913 and 1938), Cramer Sachs's patent application materials, an official, sealed patent application (1940), prototype drawings, correspondence records related to manufacturing and distribution, photographic prints, and a newspaper article. "Cozi-Crib," 1958 and 1968, and "Joy Originals Log Cabin Furniture Set," 1957, records include marketing materials whereas "Holdit," 1972, and "Party Platter," 1962, are minimally represented by one or two photographic prints. "Gaitray" materials consist of four product samples. Materials for "Miracle Knee Tray," circa 1953 include marketing ephemera, a photograph, and two product samples. A prototype for the "Traypron," 1954, is also included. These records are arranged alphabetically by invention name.

Subseries 2.3: Food Products, 1940-1969

Records in this subseries are mostly comprised of Joy Products prepared mix materials. Two exceptions are the small, fragile recipe book, 1940, and the "Caviodka," 1962, records. Business correspondence materials contain those from a food and equipment consultant, the Colgate-Palmolive Company, and Arthur Colton Company, in addition to those relating to the incorporation of Cramer Sachs's "baking mix manufacturing plant" (1945). There are numerous packaging samples of various Joy Products, along with handwritten recipes and notes. An example of early packaging for Joy Products "Early American Muffin Mix" is in flat box 10. This subseries also includes customer surveys and comments, marketing plans and proposals, advertisements, and a marketing portfolio compiled by the inventor. A scrapbook contains Joy Products newspaper clippings, advertisements, marketing ephemera, and photographs of store displays. The scrapbook pages are extremely brittle and are housed in sleeves. Preservation copies are available for research use. These records are arranged chronologically.

Subseries 2.4: Pet Accessories, 1953-1954

This subseries consists of materials relating to three inventions: "Bonnie Stand," circa 1953-1954; "Guidog," 1953; and "Watch-Dog," 1953. Records include photographic prints, marketing materials, printing blocks (for "Bonnie Stand"), as well as a declaration of invention for, and a product sample of, "Watch-Dog." These records are arranged alphabetically by invention name.

Subseries 2.5: Games, 1961-1969

The inventor created two games: "Domi-Notes," circa 1961 and "Musicards," circa 1969. "Domi-Notes" materials include an order form citing the distributor as G. Schirmer, Inc. and the addressee as Walter Kane and Son, Inc., and three games two in cardboard boxes, (fragile) and one housed in the original hard plastic case. Records relating to "Musicards" consist of two game samples including directions for playing.

Subseries 2.6: Wine-Related, 1966-2002

Wine-related records cover twenty distinct inventions and range from specialty cabinets—which make-up the bulk of the materials—to bottle accessories such as the "Bottle Bib" and the "Cramanna Bottle Ring." The type and number of records vary, with the majority concentrated in the "Cool-Safe," "Cramarc Multiple Cabinet," "Modern Wine Cellar," and "Well Tempered Systems" folders. Records in invention-specific folders are arranged alphabetically and include marketing materials, press releases, photographic prints and some negatives, cabinet drawings, brochures, order forms, correspondence, as well as product samples of "Bottle Bibs."

Customer account records are arranged alphabetically and consist of billing statements, invoices, receipts, blueprints, correspondence, cabinet drawings, customer feedback, bills of lading, and memoranda. Letters from David H. Wollins laud Cramer Sachs's cabinet as "the finest home wine storage system in the world." Examples of how the inventor handled an unsatisfied customer can be found in the Col. Charles Langley folder.

Miscellaneous wine-related materials follow the customer account records. Included are advertising ephemera, photographs, and newspaper clippings originally assembled into a binder by Cramer Sachs. Taped to the inside front cover was a cut-out from a magazine advertisement which reads, "If you stick with the herd, you could end up as a lamb chop." Miscellaneous materials also include unlabeled cabinet drawings, photographic prints, competitor materials, photocopies from Grossman's Guide to Wines, Spirits, and Beers, as well as marketing materials and newspaper clippings covering a range of wine-related inventions. These records are arranged alphabetically by subject.

The final section of the wine-related subseries documents the development and eventual dissolution of The Wine Museum of New York. Records are arranged chronologically and include a provisional charter; an extension of the provisional charter; a newspaper clipping; outreach correspondence; a binder of wine museum materials including brochures, event invitations, exhibition opening cards, board member profiles, a press release, and newspaper clippings; wine museum exhibition information; and records related to the dissolution of the museum.

Subseries 2.7: Temperature and/or Humidity Controlled Devices, 1968-2002

This subseries documents the inventor's temperature and/or humidity controlled inventions that do not relate to wine. Cramer Sachs created the "Well Tempered Cabinet" for both wine and musical instruments; it is documented in this and the wine-related subseries. These records cover eight distinct inventions which range from specialty cabinets for musical instruments, furs, and cigars to devices designed to cool the body. Records relate to marketing, invention-specific business correspondence, confidential information and competition agreements, and include photographic negatives and prints. Miscellaneous cabinet drawings, cigar-related materials, and newspaper articles are also included. Records are arranged alphabetically by invention name followed by miscellaneous materials.

Subseries 2.8: Patent Searches, 1905-1980

Records in this subseries include correspondence as well as copies of several patented inventions for which Cramer Sachs requested information.
Arrangement:
Tha collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Creative and Artistic Papers, 1933-2002

Series 2: Invention Records, 1905-2002

Subseries 2.1: Cramer Products Company and Affiliate Company Records, 1942-2002

Subseries 2.2: Household/Office, 1913-1972

Subseries 2.3: Food Products, 1940-1969

Subseries 2.4: Pet Accessories, 1953-1954

Subseries 2.5: Games, 1961-1969

Subseries 2.6: Wine-related, 1966-2002

Subseries 2.7: Temperature and/or Humidity Controlled Devices, 1968-2002

Subseries 2.8: Patent Searches, 1905-1980
Biographical / Historical:
Charlotte Cramer Sachs was born in Berlin, Germany on September 27, 1907. Her father, Hans Siegfried Cramer, worked as a businessman for a successful grain import and export company whose innovative enterprises included the import of soy beans from Eastern Europe. In 1903, Hans married Gertrud Bruck, one of the first women to attain her Abitur, somewhat similar to an American high school diploma, at age eighteen. Bruck's formal education ended there, as her wish to attend university was thwarted by her father Adalbert, a judge who insisted that she remain at home. The couple settled in Berlin and had two children—Frederick H., born March 2, 1906, and Charlotte. From 1913 to 1924 The Cramers lived in the Berlin Dahlem suburb occupying "Haus Cramer," a villa built in 1912 to their specifications by German architect Hermann Muthesius.

On September 12, 1924, Cramer Sachs married Donald Samuels, a top executive of the Manhattan Shirt Company and moved to New York from England where their daughter Eleanor was born on June 11, 1926. Several years later, the couple divorced. Mother and daughter lived together in London for a few years before moving back to New York around 1936. Charlotte's parents relocated to New York at the same time, after a brief stay in London following their flight from Berlin after Hitler's rise to power. In August 1945, Charlotte Cramer married Alexander Sachs, a leading economist who had introduced Albert Einstein to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and acted as advisor to the President.

Although she established her business career in America, Cramer Sachs retained fond memories of the house and extensive grounds in Dahlem. In 1977 she composed the song "A Salute to Berlin" to commemorate the designation of Haus Cramer as one of the city's historic landmarks. In 2000, she donated a painted portrait of herself from the time she had lived in Haus Cramer to the villa's new owner, Stanford University. The house retains additional significance in the context of this collection because Cramer Sachs credited its wine cellar—unusual in that it provided a separate, climate controlled environment for red and white wines—as an inspiration for her line of custom-built, vibration-free wine storage devices, which would later make Cramer Products Company a household name among wine connoisseurs.

While she did not attend university her pursuit of learning continued throughout her life as she studied poetry, musical composition, and the fine arts. Cramer Sachs often told her niece, Lilian Randall, that she wished she had received further education, although her public art exhibitions, poetry awards, numerous original songs, the establishment of Crambruck Press (her own publishing company), as well as language fluency in French, English, and German, are testaments to this inventor's intellectual curiosity and development. Evidence of Cramer Sachs's entrepreneurial spirit surfaced in her early thirties with her first patent: Improvements in Combined Key and Flashlight, July 16, 1940, patent number 2,208,498.

In 1940, Cramer Sachs completed courses from the New York Institute of Dietetics, an effort spurred by the onset of her daughter's diabetes. With financial assistance from her parents in the early 1940s, Cramer Sachs developed Joy Products prepared mixes, marking the beginning of a successful career in inventing. "We were a pioneer in that field," said Cramer Sachs of her baking mix manufacturing company, an operation that consisted of a Bronx neighborhood factory employing ninety workers. The enterprise began with corn muffin and popover mixes and expanded into frostings, puddings, and breads. Newspaper clippings from the time promoted Joy packaged mixes as ideal gifts for "the boys overseas" who were in locations where it was "impossible to get together the makings of a cake." Cramer Sachs refused an early offer to sell her mix formulas which were subsequently copied and exploited by larger, more powerful companies. Joy Products, whose name was chosen to express the inventor's delight in creativity, remained in business as a modest one-woman operation for over twenty years before succumbing to competition.

Cramer Sachs created another highly successful invention, the specialty wine cabinet, more than twenty years after she founded Joy Products. In addition to her memories of visits with her father to the wine cellar in her family's German villa, further motivation came from an interest—though she hardly drank it at all—in wine and recognition that "standard cooling and refrigerating appliances [were] too cold for wines." Reportedly, Cramer Sachs "started looking for [an appropriate device] and could not find one," and thus the impetus to invent took shape. The "Modern Wine Cellar," 1966, was an early example of over twenty wine-related inventions, most of them storage devices. A mention of her product in Grossman's Guide to Wines, Spirits, and Beers, increased demand among wine lovers and may have prompted Cramer Sachs to state that she "should find a good market" for her newest invention line. Testimony from David H. Wollins, a successful New York lawyer and customer of Cramer Sachs, lauded the cabinet as "the finest home wine storage system in the world." She framed his letter and hung it in her office at 381 South Park Avenue, her base operation where she employed one or two part-time helpers from the 1960s until her death in 2004.

The inventor took great joy in music, expressed in her own numerous compositions and her creation of the games "Domi-Notes" and "Musicards" in 1961 and 1969. Her fondness for music also prompted the expansion of her specialty cabinets to include temperature and humidity controlled devices for storing a variety of items, most notably the "Well Tempered Cabinet for Musical Instruments," which Cramer Sachs first designed for legendary violinist Isaac Stern. Soon the inventor began producing similar cabinets for the storage of cigars, furs, and documents.

Described by her niece as "shy with people but a great admirer of talent, intellect, and humanity," Cramer Sachs also "harbored a great love for animals." She invented several pet accessories in the early 1950s, including: "Watch-Dog," a dog collar with a time piece; "Bonnie Stand," a holder fashioned to accommodate disposable food bowls; and "Guidog," an early version of a retractable dog leash.

In 1972, Cramer Sachs suffered the loss of her only child, Eleanor, and in the summer of the next year her husband Alexander passed away. She continued her "business of creating new product ideas" for the remainder of her life. The most recent invention materials represented in the collection are those for the "Conservator" from 2002, a temperature and humidity controlled device with compartments to store a variety of items. In her last telephone conversation with her niece, on March 10, 2004, Cramer Sachs expressed her hope that she would feel "strong enough to get to the office the next day or so." The inventor died the following day at the age of 96.

Patents issued to Charlotte Cramer Sachs:

United States Patent: 2,208,498, "Combined Key and Flashlight," July 16, 1940

United States Patent: 2,509,423, "Wedge Heel Shoe," May 30, 1950

United States Patent: 2,808,191, "Lap Tray," October 1, 1957

United States Patent: Des. 363,618, "Cabinet," October 31, 1995
Related Materials:
Materials in Other Organizations

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum

Related materials on husband Alexander Sachs's political and professional life found in the Papers of Alexander Sachs

Art Gallery of Ontario, E. P. Taylor Research Library and Archives, Toronto Ontario, Canada

Correspondence between Cramer Sachs and Sam and Ayala Zacks dating from the 1970s and relating to Zionist art found in the Sam and Ayala Zacks Fonds.

Columbia University Libraries, Avery Drawings & Archives Collections Haus Cramer architectural records and papers, 1911-2004, (bulk 1911-1955)

This collection primarily contains original and reprographic architectural records, photographs, correspondence and personal and professional records related to the design, construction, and ownership of the Haus Cramer in Dahlem, Berlin, Germany, designed by German architect Hermann Muthesius in 1911-1913 for Hans and Gertrud Cramer, with later additions by Muthesius and other architects. A significant portion of the collection also documents the Cramer family's efforts to obtain restitution after World War II for the seizure of the house in the 1930s. Also included are records documenting the restoration and reuse, an effort led by noted architectural historian Julius Poesner.

Mount Holyoke College Archives and Special Collections

Cramer papers, 1938-1954

Cramer, Frederick Henry, 1906-1954; historian and college teacher. Mount Holyoke College faculty member, 1938-1954. Papers consist of writings, biographical information, and photographs; primarily documenting his scholarly activities and his interest in automobile racing.

German Historical Institute

Charlotte Cramer Sachs in the Immigrant Entrepreneurship: German-American Business Biographies, 1720 to the Present.

The collaborative research project Immigrant Entrepreneurship: German-American Business Biographies, 1720 to the Present sheds new light on the entrepreneurial and economic capacity of immigrants by investigating the German-American example in the United States. It traces the lives, careers and business ventures of eminent German-American business people of roughly the last two hundred and ninety years, integrating the history of German-American immigration into the larger narrative of U.S. economic and business history.
Provenance:
The papers were donated to the Archives Center at the National Museum of American History in the spring of 2005 by Lilian Randall (niece), Erich Cramer (nephew), Aileen Katz (niece), Elisabeth Weissbach (niece), and John Cramer (nephew).
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Baked products  Search this
Food mixes  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Wine -- Storage  Search this
Women inventors  Search this
Women inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements
Awards
Business records -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Notes
Patents
Patent applications
Photographs -- 20th century
Sheet music
Citation:
Charlotte Cramer Sachs Papers, 1905-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0878
See more items in:
Charlotte Cramer Sachs Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep80e9d7739-dea1-4c9b-82cb-6fcf17e24b00
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0878
Online Media:

Wade Corset Collection

Inventor:
Wade , Alzira Hewitt Cowardin , 1839-1929  Search this
Manufacturer:
Wade Corset Company  Search this
Donor:
Colby, Anne  Search this
Actor:
Marlowe, Julia, 1865-1950  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ephemera
Photographs
Date:
1894-1906
bulk 1900-1906
Summary:
Collection documents the Wade Corset Company of Minneapolis, Minnesota, founded by inventor, Alzira Hewitt Cowardin Wade.
Content Description:
Ephemera and photographs related to the Wade Corset Company founded by inventor, Alzira Hewitt Cowardin Wade.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series, topically.
Biographical:
Alzira Hewitt Cowardin Wade (1839-1929), was born in Huntsville, Alabama to Colin Manley Cowardin and Mary Hewitt Morehead. She was one of six children that included Agnes Hunter Cowardin; Mary Elizabeth Cowardin; Margaret Cowardin; Henry Cowardin and Robert Cowardin.

She married Dr. James Howlett Hunter on June 11, 1857 and had two children, Colin Hiram Hunter and Alzira Allie Belle Hunter. Dr. Hunter died of Yellow Fever in 1860. Her second marriage was to William Elijah Wade on June 26, 1866, and the couple had two children, Margaret Ruth Wade and George Munson Wade.

Wade worked as a seamstress and established the Wade Corset Company in Minneapolis, Minnesota, expanding eventually to New York City, Atlantic City, Paris and London. The company offered corset waists, abdominal bands, bust supports, corsage ruffles and girdles. Wade patented an abdominal supporter (US 517,941) in 1894; a reversible corset busk (US 640,839) in 1900; and an apparel corset (US 656,913) in 1900.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Anne Colby, July 2022.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Corsets  Search this
Women inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ephemera
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
Wade Corset Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1580
See more items in:
Wade Corset Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep807f512dc-a705-40f2-a34b-9ffc433ca0db
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1580
Online Media:

Lisa Lindahl Papers

Donor:
Lindahl, Lisa  Search this
Names:
Bellisse  Search this
Bell, Lesli  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Dvds
Promotional literature
Newspaper clippings
Date:
2001-2005
Summary:
The collection documents the creation and marketing of the Compressure Comfort Bra, a bra designed to alleviate pain for women who have had breast cancer. The bra was developed in 2000 by Lisa Lindahl with physical therapist, Lesli Bell.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of newspaper and magazine articles, a DVD, and promotional and marketing materials relating to a compressure comfort bra Lindahl designed for use by patients with edema following breast cancer surgery.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
In 1977 Lisa Lindahl, with Hinda Miller and Polly Palmer Smith, created the first sportsbra, called the Jogbra. In 2000, Lindhal partnered with Lesli Bell, a physical therapist looking to create a garment for women suffering from edema following breast cancer surgery. The two developed the Compressure Comfort Bra and founded the company Bellisse to sell their product.
Materials in the Archives Center:
Maidenform Collection (AC0585)

Jogbra, Inc. Records (AC1315)

Division of Medicine and Science Disability Reference Collection (AC1319)
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center in 2015 by Lisa Lindahl.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Brassieres -- 20th century  Search this
Breast -- Cancer  Search this
Edema  Search this
Medical innovations  Search this
Sports bra  Search this
Women inventors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles -- 20th century
DVDs
Promotional literature
Newspaper clippings
Citation:
Lisa Lindahl Papers, 2001-2003, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1352
See more items in:
Lisa Lindahl Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep84d0b8369-f6b2-4999-b8a9-5d3f14e98536
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1352

Predictor Pregnancy Test

Designer:
Crane, Margaret  Search this
Physical Description:
plastic (box material)
plastic (dropper material)
rubber (dropper top material)
plastic (test tube material)
plastic (holder within the box material)
unknown reflective material (angled mirror material)
Measurements:
overall, paper box: 4 1/8 in x 1 3/4 in x 1 5/8 in; 10.4775 cm x 4.445 cm x 4.1275 cm
overall, kit: 3 3/4 in x 1 1/2 in x 1 1/2 in; 9.525 cm x 3.81 cm x 3.81 cm
overall, paper insert: 14 1/4 in x 9 3/8 in; 36.195 cm x 23.8125 cm
Object Name:
diagnostic, pregnancy
biological
Place made:
United States: New Jersey, West Orange
Canada
Date made:
1970
Date of invention:
1968
FDA approval date:
1976
Subject:
Diagnostic Equipment  Search this
Obstetrics  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's Health Products  Search this
Women's Health  Search this
Women Inventors  Search this
ID Number:
2015.0220.02
Accession number:
2015.0220
Catalog number:
2015.0220.02
Patent number:
215,774 S
3,579,306 A
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Health & Medicine
The Antibody Initiative
Antibody Initiative: Diagnostics
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b2-c265-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1817638
Online Media:

Vitullo Evidence Collection Kit for Sexual Assault Examination

Previous owner:
Dreiser, Mary Sladek  Search this
Designer:
Playboy Enterprises, Inc.  Search this
Goddard, Marty  Search this
Adapter:
Vitullo, Louis R.  Search this
Collaborator:
Citizens Committee for Victim Assistance  Search this
Playboy Foundation  Search this
Manufacturer:
Becton, Dickinson and Company  Search this
Physical Description:
paper; wood; plastic; graphite; adhesive; cotton; ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall, as originally housed in kit box: 1 1/4 in x 10 1/2 in x 6 1/2 in; 3.175 cm x 26.67 cm x 16.51 cm
overall, as stored in tray: 2 in x 22 in x 14 in; 5.08 cm x 55.88 cm x 35.56 cm
Object Name:
evidence collection kit, sexual assault
rape kit
Place made:
United States: Illinois, Chicago
United States: Texas, Irving
Date made:
ca 1982
Subject:
Criminology  Search this
Forensic Science  Search this
Feminism  Search this
Women's Health  Search this
Women's Rights  Search this
Women Inventors  Search this
ID Number:
2021.0107.01
Accession number:
2021-8-1-a/gg
2021.0107
Catalog number:
2021.0107.01
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Health & Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng4e9f99851-3b0b-4fe6-9e6e-0114ed0b6233
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_2009657

Ephemera associated with the Citizens Committee for Victim Assistance

Maker:
Goddard, Marty  Search this
Collaborator:
Dreiser, Mary Sladek  Search this
Associated:
Citizens Committee for Victim Assistance  Search this
Physical Description:
paper; ink; adhesive (overall material)
Measurements:
overall, as stored: 8 1/2 in x 11 in x 1/8 in; 21.59 cm x 27.94 cm x .3175 cm
overall, job offer document: 8 1/2 in x 11 in; 21.59 cm x 27.94 cm
Object Name:
ephemera
Place made:
United States: Illinois, Chicago
Date made:
1981
Subject:
Criminology  Search this
Forensic Science  Search this
Feminism  Search this
Women's Health  Search this
Women's Rights  Search this
Women Inventors  Search this
ID Number:
2021.0107.02
Catalog number:
2021.0107.02
Accession number:
2021.0107
2021-8-1-a/gg
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Health & Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng4aa909b80-c4be-494a-a4eb-8fa0b1bc9e91
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_2012107
Online Media:

Steam Tricycle in Front of North Entrance to SIB

Author:
Unknown  Search this
Subject:
Copeland, Lucius D  Search this
Watkins, J. Elfreth  Search this
Johnston, Frances Benjamin 1864-1952  Search this
Casanowicz, Immanuel Moses  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Building (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Physical description:
Color: Black and White; Size: 10w x 8h; Type of Image: Group, candid; Medium: Photographic print
Type:
Photographic print
Group, candid
Place:
United States of America, District of Columbia, Washington, Southwest, Smithsonian Institution Building
Date:
1888
Topic:
Bicycles  Search this
Carriage Porch  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
North front  Search this
Steam engines  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Tricycles  Search this
Women  Search this
Inventions  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Standard number:
57818 or MAH-57818
Restrictions & Rights:
No restrictions
Data Source:
Smithsonian Archives - History Div
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sic_10707
Online Media:

Josephine G. Fountain undated

Subject:
Fountain, Josephine  Search this
University of Florida Teaching Hospital and Clinics  Search this
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Date:
undated
Topic:
Medical sciences  Search this
Women scientists  Search this
Nursing  Search this
Women inventors  Search this
Tracheotomy  Search this
Local number:
SIA Acc. 90-105 [SIA2008-1647]
Restrictions & Rights:
No access restrictions Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu
Copyright Not Evaluated
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_308450

Patricia Bath Innovative Lives Presentation and Interview, [videotapes]

Creator:
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.  Search this
Bath, Patricia, Dr., 1942-2019  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Betacam sp (videotape format)
Interviews
Oral history
Photographs
Slides
Videotapes
Date:
February 17, 2000 and March 1, 2000.
Summary:
Dr. Patricia Bath was born in 1942 in New York. She conceived of the Laserphaco Probe in 1981 and patented it in 1988 (US Patent # 4,744,360 for an "Apparatus for ablating and removing cataract lenses"). The collection contains original and reference video footage of Dr. Bath's Innovative Lives Presentation documenting her work in the field of ophthalmology and her work creating and patenting the LaserPhaco Probe, an instrument to remove cataracts. Also included is an interview with Dr. Bath at her home in Los Angeles and an interview with her daughter, Eraka Bath and supplemental documentation assembled by Dr. Bath. The documentation includes photocopies of articles, patents, biographical sketch material, and selected publications and references to related to lasers and surgery of Dr. Bath
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 8.5 hours of original (BetaCam SP) video recordings and reference (viewing) copies (VHS) documenting the life and career of Dr. Patricia Bath. The recordings include a presentation by Dr. Bath for the Lemelson Center's Innovative Lives Program and interviews at her home and laboratory in Los Angeles. The collection also includes an interview with Dr. Bath's daughter, Eraka Bath, and copies of footage from other sources about Dr. Bath's work. Additionally, there is supplemental documentation assembled by Dr. Bath. The documentation includes photocopies of articles, patents, biographical sketch material, and selected publications and references to related to lasers and surgery of Dr. Bath.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into three series.

Series 1, Original Videos, 2000

Series 2, Reference Videos, 2000

Series 3, Supplemental Documentation
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. Patricia Bath (1942-) was born in New York. She attended Charles Evans Hughes High School, Hunter College (B.A. 1964), and Howard University College of Medicine (M.D. 1968). Bath held a fellowship in ophthalmology at Columbia University (1969-1970) and an internship at New York University (1970-1973) where she was the first African American resident in ophthalmology. Dr. Bath later joined the faculty of UCLA and Charles R. Drew University in surgery and ophthalmology and later the Department of Ophthalmology at UCLA's Jules Stein Eye Institute. In 1976, Dr. Bath and other colleagues formed the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness (AIPB). Dr. Bath conceived of the Laserphaco, an instrument to remove cataracts in 1981. She received US patent #4,744,360 for an "Apparatus for ablating and removing cataract lenses" on May 17, 1988. Later patents include a method and apparatus for ablating and removing cataract lenses; laser apparatus for surgery of cataractous lenses; and pulsed ultrasound method for fragmenting/emulsifying and removing cataractous lenses. Dr. Bath retired from the UCLA Medical Center in 1993 to work in telemedicine, the use of electronic communication to provide medical services to remote areas where healthcare is limited.

The Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation was founded in 1995 at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History through a generous gift from the Lemelson Foundation. The Center's mission is: to document, interpret, and disseminate information about invention and innovation; to encourage inventive creativity in young people; and to foster an appreciation for the central role invention and innovation play in the history of the United States. The Innovative Lives series brings together Museum visitors and especially, school age children, and American inventors to discuss inventions and the creative process and to experiment and play with hands-on activities related to each inventor's product. This collection was recorded by the Innovative Lives Program of the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.
Related Materials:
An anatomical eye (accession # 2000.0038.01) was donated to the Division of Medicine and Science in 2000 by Dr. Patricia Bath.
Provenance:
This collection was recorded by the Innovative Lives Program of The Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation on March 1, 2000. The Innovative Lives series brings Museum visitors and American inventors together to discuss inventions and the creative process and to experiment and play with hands-on activities related to each inventor's product.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the original videos are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Surgeons  Search this
Topic:
African American physicians  Search this
African American women  Search this
Eye diagnosis  Search this
Eye equipment and supplies  Search this
Eye -- Examination  Search this
Eye -- Diseases  Search this
Inventions -- 1980-2000  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Laserphaco (medical instrument)  Search this
Medicine -- Communication systems  Search this
Ophthalmologists  Search this
Ophthalmology  Search this
Women inventors  Search this
Women inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
BetaCam SP (videotape format)
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Oral history -- 1990-2000
Photographs
Slides
Videotapes
Citation:
Dr. Patricia Bath Innovative Lives Presentation and Interview, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0753
See more items in:
Patricia Bath Innovative Lives Presentation and Interview, [videotapes]
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep82bec8a2d-6974-4d85-a763-0371cfbef832
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0753
Online Media:

Patsy Sherman Innovative Lives Presentation

Topic:
Innovative Lives Program (NMAH public program series)
Scotchgard
Creator:
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.  Search this
Inventor:
Sherman, Patsy  Search this
Names:
3M Company  Search this
Smith, Samuel  Search this
Extent:
0.35 Cubic feet (3 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Videotapes
Date:
March 12, 1997.
Scope and Contents:
Videohistory contains original and reference videos and photographs documenting a lecture program for children by Patsy Sherman, inventor of Scotchgard.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into four series.

Series 1: Original Videos

Series 2: Master Videos

Series 3: Reference Videos

Series 4: Photographs
Biographical / Historical:
Patsy Sherman was born in Minnesota. After graduating from Gustavus Adolphus College in 1952, Sherman was employed by 3M Company. At 3M, Sherman and a fellow researcher, Samuel Smith attempted to create a new synthetic material to use with jet fuel. During their experiments, Patsy accidentally spilled some of the compound on her tennis shoe and noticed that the shoe remained clean. This discovery led to the development of Scotchguard. Scotchguard is a compound used worldwide to repel soil on sofas, chairs, tablecloths, clothing, and other objects that are used daily. Patsy Sherman's name appears on 16 patents awarded to 3M for their inventions. She has been awarded numerous honors for her achievements and was inducted into the Minnesota Inventors Hall of Fame in 1989. She retired from 3M in 1992.
Provenance:
Created by the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Innovation and Invention, National Museum of American History, 1997.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the original videos are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions. Signed releases on file.
Topic:
Chemistry -- 20th century  Search this
Chemists -- 20th century  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Slides  Search this
Textile fabrics -- 20th century  Search this
Women chemists -- 20th century  Search this
Women inventors  Search this
Women inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Videotapes -- 1990-2000
Citation:
Patsy Sherman Innovative Lives Presentation, March 12, 1997, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0599
See more items in:
Patsy Sherman Innovative Lives Presentation
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep80f280a90-601d-4d99-96bb-a4ca0ae3955e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0599
Online Media:

Jogbra, Inc. Records

Donor:
Lindahl, Lisa  Search this
Miller, Hinda  Search this
Smith, Polly Palmer  Search this
Names:
Jogbra, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
16 Cubic feet (30 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertising
Articles
Business records
Photographs
Promotional literature
Scrapbooks
Slides (photographs)
Date:
1977-2008
Summary:
The collection documents the invention of the Jogbra and includes biographical materials, business records, photographs, promotional, marketing and advertising materials, correspondence and audiovisual materials.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the invention of the sports bra primarily through marketing and promotional materials. The collection also documents the Jogbra, Inc. company activities, and includes biographical materials, business records, promotional, marketing and advertising materials, photographs, patent records, and audiovisual materials.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series.

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1980-2006

Series 2: Business Records, 1979-1999

Subseries 2.1: JBI, Inc., 1979-1996

Subseries 2.2: Champion Jogbra, 1988-1999

Series 3: Photographs, 1978-2008

Series 4: Promotional and Marketing Materials, 1979-2000

Series 5: Patent Records, 1978-2003

Series 6: Audiovisual Materials, 1993
Biographical / Historical:
Lisa Lindahl was frustrated by the inadequacy of her everyday bra when she began jogging in the early 1970s. When her sister, Victoria Woodrow began jogging she met with the same issues and called Lisa to ask what she did about it. Commiserating over their problems, Victoria asked, "What do you do about all the breast movement? It's so uncomfortable." And Lisa said, "I don't know. It really is uncomfortable." Victoria said, "Why isn't there a jock strap for women?" Lisa laughed back and said, "Yeah, same idea, different part of the anatomy. Wouldn't that be great?" The sisters hung up laughing and Lisa sat down and opened up a spiral notebook to record her thoughts and design criteria for this "jock bra." "Here's a bra made just for jogging. What would it do?" And Lindahl wrote, "Okay, the straps would not fall off my shoulders and there wouldn't be any hardware to dig in and it would be comfortable and maybe even breathable, and it would stop my breasts from bouncing."

Lindahl engaged her childhood friend Polly Palmer Smith in her effort to solve the bra problem. They found no suitable products in retail stores, but were inspired by Lisa's husband, Al Lindahl, who took a jock strap and pulled it over his head and down over his chest and said, "Hey ladies, here's your jock bra." Lisa said, "I had to get into the act, so I jumped up and said, "Let me try it. Let me try." And I pulled his jock strap up and over my head and pulled the pouch over my breast and the waistband of the jockstrap went around my rib and I kind of jumped up on bed and I said, "Polly, Polly, look at this, look at this." They went to multiple stores and inquired but could not find a bra that fit their needs--a bra that kept the breasts pressed flat against the chest and eliminated motion. They also wanted something without seams and hooks, wire or other metal elements. Lindahl, along with Polly Palmer Smith, a childhood friend from New Jersey, sewed a pair of jockstraps together creating a few prototypes.

Smith introduced Lindahl to Hinda Schreiber, a fellow costume designer and classmate at New York University. Schreiber worked as an assistant to Smith at the Champlain Shakespeare Festival held at the University of Vermont in the summer of 1977. With interest in and enthusiasm for the idea of creating more jogbras, Schreiber joined Lindahl and Smith. They called their product the "jockbra" but later changed it to "Jogbra," figuring that the word "jock" might be a turn-off for some women. On November 20, 1979, US Patent 4,174,717 for an athletic brassiere was issued to the three co-inventors. Subsequent US patents include:

Eugenie Z. Lindahl, Hinda S. Schreiber, and Polly P. Smith, Des. 259,370 for a brassiere, 1981; and US 4,311,150 for an athletic brassiere, 1982.

Eugenie Z. Lindahl and Hinda Schreiber, Des. 260,445 for an athletic shirt, 1981 and Des. 301,518 for a brassiere, 1989.

LaJean Lawson and Hinda Miller, US 6,083,080 for a protective brassiere with local energy absorption, 2000.

Lesli R. Bell and Eugenie Z. Lindahl, US 6,860,789 for a compression garment, 2005.

Lindahl started the company Jogbra, Inc. in 1977 and then re-named it SLS, Inc. (for Smith, Lindahl, Schreiber) in early 1978. As President of the company, Lindahl issued equal shares to herself, Smith and Schreiber. The name changed again to Jogbra Inc., for a brief time, before finally becoming JBI, Inc. in the early 1980s. Marketing their new product (with start-up capital lent by Miller's father, Bruce L. Schreiber) was a challenge. According to Lindahl, buyers for sporting goods stores were "squeamish" about displaying bras, which did not look like lingerie, but an athletic garment. Stores that did feature the jogbra were pleased by how well it sold. Miller placed strong emphasis on the point of purchase advertising and packaging. The jogbra line of products expanded to include a women's and men's sport brief, the Thermobra and Thermobrief. Soon, a number of other manufacturers, including Vanity Fair, Olga, and Warner, were entering the sports bra market.

JBI, Inc. was bought by Playtex Apparel, Inc. in 1990 and Playtex Apparel sold it to the Sara Lee Corporation in 1991. Throughout these transitions, Schreiber served as began as Vice-President and, in 1983, became President of the then JBI, Inc. when Lindahl became CEO and Chair of their Advisory Board of Directors. Smith was never active in the company and had become a minority shareholder. When JBI, Inc. was sold to Playtex Apparel, Miller and Lindahl became co-presidents of the new Jogbra Division until Lindahl left the company in 1991. Miller (née Schreiber) continued to serve as president and became CEO of the Champion Jogbra Division of Sara Lee in 1994. Miller left the company in 1997 to pursue other interests.

Lisa Z. Lindahl (November 23, 1948-) was born Eugénie Louise Zobian in Montclair, New Jersey to Florence and Ernest Zobian. The Zobians had four children, Ernest Jr., Mark, Victoria, and Eugénie, known as "Lisa." Lindahl graduated from Vernon Court Junior College in Newport, Rhode Island (1968), the Katherine Gibbs Secretarial School (1969), and later graduated from the University of Vermont with a bachelor's degree in education [1977]. She received a master's degree in culture and spirituality from Holy Names University in California in 2007. In 1970, Lindahl married Alfred Lindahl and divorced in 1978. Lindahl was diagnosed with epilepsy at age four and would later serve as Senior Vice President of the Board of Directors of the Epilepsy Foundation from 1991 to 2000 where, as Chair of the Women and Epilepsy Task Force she brought legitimacy to the gender differences in epilepsy and epilepsy treatments. In 2001, Lindahl co-founded, with Dr. Lesli Bell, the Lightning2 Company (dba Bellisse) to design and market their patented Compressure Comfort Bra, a compression garment for women suffering from lymphedema. Lindahl is the author of two books: Beauty As Action, The Way of True Beauty and How Its Practice Can Change Our World (2017) and Unleash the Girls, The Untold Story of the Invention of the Sports Bra and How It Changed the World (And Me), (2019). She continues to write and pursue other artistic interests.

Hinda Schreiber Miller (April 18, 1950-) was born in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. She graduated from the Parsons School of Design (B.F.A., 1972) and from New York University (M.F.A., 1976). A costume designer by training, Miller taught costume design at the University of South Carolina. Miller later became a Vermont state senator (2002-2013) representing the Chittenden District which includes all of Chittenden County. Miller ran unsuccessfully for mayor of Burlington, Vermont in 2006. She is presently president of DeForest Concepts, a consulting firm specializing in small business and the promotion of women entrepreneurs. Miller is married to Dr. Joel Miller and has two children.

Polly Palmer Smith (November 10, 1949-) was raised in Montclair, New Jersey. She graduated from the Moore College of Art & Design with a (B.F.A., 1971) and New York University (M.F.A., 1975). She joined the Jim Henson Company in 1978 where she worked as a costume designer for twenty-five years. Smith worked on films such as the Dark Crystal, The Muppets Take Manhattan, and Labyrinth. Some of her television work includes Fraggle Rock and Muppet Treasure Island. Smith received Emmy nominations for her designs for The Jim Henson Hour (1988) and Muppets Tonight (1996) and she received seven Emmy awards for her designs on Sesame Street. Smith also co-designed costumes for the television series The StoryTeller (1986-1988) which won a British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) award for Best Costumes in 1989.
Historical:
The introduction of the sports bra made greater sports participation possible for many American women. Many women were reluctant to engage in sports such as running, basketball, and tennis because of the embarrassment and discomfort associated with excessive breast motion. The passage of Title IX (1972) and James Fixx's popular 1977 book, The Complete Book of Running, contributed to the increased popularity of sports for women. This increase in women's sports exposed the inadequacies of conventional brassieres for athletic use: weight shifts from bouncing caused straps on ordinary brassieres to slip around or off the shoulder; excessive motion caused friction and chafed skin; and hooks or other metallic elements tended to poke into the skin; and excessive bouncing caused soreness.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Division of Cultural and Community Life

Prototypes and finished Jogbras and Olympic pins. See accession: 2013.0322.

Materials at Other Organizations

Vermont Historical Society

Champion jogbra [publicity folder], 1988-2004

Summary: This packet of information contains photocopies and reprints of articles and advertisements from various publications, and press releases, published or released between 1988-2004, about the creation and development of the women's sports bra, Jogbra, by its inventors Hinda Miller and Lisa Lindahl.

Original jogbra

The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Jogbra Brassiere, 1979. See Accession: 1980.51.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Culture and the Arts (now Division of Cultural and Community Life), National Museum of American History, holds JogBra-related artifacts. See accession 2013.0322.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Hinda Miller in 2013.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.Collection is open for research.

Social Security numbers are present and numbers have been rendered unreadable and redacted. Researchers may use the photocopies in the collection. The remainder of the collection has no restrictions.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Brassieres -- 20th century  Search this
Sports for women  Search this
Sporting goods industry  Search this
Sporting goods  Search this
Women athletes  Search this
Women's history -- United States  Search this
Women inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertising -- 20th century
Articles -- 20th century
Business records -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Promotional literature
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Slides (photographs) -- 20th century
Citation:
Jogbra, Inc. Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1315
See more items in:
Jogbra, Inc. Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep877883596-1840-417e-8eaf-332853682b0e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1315
Online Media:

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