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United States Women in Aviation through World War I

Creator:
Oakes, Claudia M.  Search this
Names:
Clark, Julia.  Search this
Dutrieu, Helene.  Search this
Law, Ruth  Search this
Moisant, Matilde, 1887-1964  Search this
Myers, Mary, "Carlotta Queen of the Air"  Search this
Quimby, Harriet, 1875-1912  Search this
Raiche, Bessica.  Search this
Scott, Blanche Stuart, 1889-1970  Search this
Snook, Neta  Search this
Stinson, Katherine  Search this
Stinson, Marjorie  Search this
Extent:
0.74 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1909-1978
bulk 1904-1920
Summary:
This collection consists of research material used by National Air and Space Curator Claudia Oakes to prepare the publication United States Women in Aviation through World War I (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978).
Scope and Contents:
The material in this collection consists of photographs, photocopies of news clippings, correspondence, and biographies of the women who participated in the aviation field, not only in the United States but throughout the world, from 1880 through World War I. The women highlighted include: Ada Acosta, Ruth Law, Helene Dutrieu, Julia Clark, Alys McKey Bryant, Tiny Broadwick, Bernetta Miller, Matilde Moisant, Mary "Carlotta" Myers, Bessica Raiche, Harriet Quimby, Blanche Stuart Scott, Neta Snook, and Katherine and Marjorie Stinson.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged accordingly:

Series I: Photographs

Series II: Claudia Oakes' Notes

Series III: Subject Files

The first group of materials contains photographs of the women who participated in the aviation field, not only in the United States but throughout the world, from 1880 through World War I. Most photographs are identified by subject (pilot or aircraft name), date, captions, and, whenever possible, by Smithsonian's negative numbers.

The second group of materials includes the author's written notes and correspondence.

The third group of documents provides valuable biographical information about specific aviatrixes. These files are arranged in alphabetical order by subject.
Biographical / Historical:
This collection of photographs, written notes, articles, photocopies of news clippings, correspondence, and biographies was used by Claudia M. Oakes to prepare the publication, United States Women in Aviation Through World War I (Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington, D.C., 1978). She donated these materials sometime after the book's completion.
Provenance:
Claudia M. Oakes, transfer, 1989
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Citation:
United States Women In Aviation Through World War I Collection, Acc. XXXX-0424, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0424
See more items in:
United States Women in Aviation through World War I
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg274a1322c-6186-4fa6-9754-bddac68cad20
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0424
Online Media:

Gene Nora Stumbough Jessen Papers

Creator:
Jessen, Gene Nora  Search this
Extent:
8 Cubic feet (22 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1950s-2010s
Summary:
This collection consists of 8 cubic feet of archival material documenting the life of Gene Nora Stumbough Jessen from 1950s to the 2010s. She had a successful career as a flight instructor, Beech Aircraft sales demonstration pilot, Beech Aircraft dealership owner, flight school chief pilot, commercial pilot, Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) Safety Counselor, aviation insurance agent/broker, advisor to the FAA, president of the Ninety-Nines, Inc. (1988-1990), and published aviation author. Jessen also participated in the Women in Space Program, evaluating women's potential as possible astronauts at the Lovelace Medical Center in 1961.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of approximately 8 cubic feet of archival material documenting the aviation career of Gene Nora Stumbough Jessen, including her involvement with the Ninety-Nines, her career with Beechcraft Aviation, and her writings on aviation; there is also a small amount of material related to her week-long testing with the Women in Space Program. The following types of materials are included: correspondence, photographs, pilot logs, scrapbooks, photo albums, programs, brochures, maps, magazine articles, manuals, handbooks, VHS tapes, and audiotapes.
Arrangement:
When the National Air and Space Museums Archives received the Gene Nora Stumbough Jessen Collection, it was arranged alphabetically by folder name. All original folder titles have been retained. PII has been manually redacted. Any additional contextual information that was added by the processing archivist appears in brackets.
Biographical / Historical:
Gene Nora (pronounced Janora) Stumbough Jessen was born on January 10, 1937, in Springfield, Illinois. While growing up, Jessen became interested in aviation after learning about the Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASPs) who served their country during World War II. She began flying while in her junior year of high school in the Civil Air Patrol and earned her private pilot license in 1956. She then attended the University of Oklahoma (OU), where she was a member of their flight team and entered her first National Intercollegiate Flying Association (NIFA) competition. While taking classes in 1959, Jessen became the first woman to work as a flight instructor for the school, which allowed her to also pay for college. During her time at OU, she earned seven collegiate-level flying trophies and remained on staff for six years after completing her English degree.

In 1961 Jessen quit her job as a flight instructor when she was selected as one of the women to participate in the Women in Space Program (1960-1962), also known as the Mercury 13 or Fellow Lady Astronaut Trainees (FLATs), at the Lovelace Medical Center in New Mexico. She was twenty-four years old. Dr. William Randall "Randy" Lovelace, who designed and carried out the rigorous testing for the thirty-two male Project Mercury candidates, and US Air Force Brigadier General Donald Flickinger, were curious to see how women would fare against their all-male peers. Unable to interest the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the undertaking, they conducted the experiment in secret independently. For Phase 1, this group of women underwent the same rigorous physical testing regimen used for NASA's Mercury astronauts. All participants passed. Armed with these results, Lovelace and Flickinger lobbied both Congress and the White House to consider including women in the Astronaut Corps, neither of which were keen on the idea; On a draft response letter, Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson wrote "Let's stop this now!" Before the other parts of the test could begin, the Lovelace Program was cancelled.

Jessen moved to Wichita, Kansas, and accepted a job at Beech Aircraft in 1962. There, Jessen piloted planes for demonstration purposes for the company. On July 20, 1962, she embarked on a 90-day, 40,000 mile cross-country flight with fellow pilots Joyce Case and Mike Gordon. They were known as "The Three Musketeers", named after the Beech Musketeers the trio flew in formation across the United States. She and Case were the only female pilots flying for any aircraft manufacturer at that time. Soon, Jessen became rated to fly the entire line of Beech aircraft. In her spare time, she volunteered with the Wichita Wing Scouts from 1963-1967.

In Kansas, she also met and married Leland Robert "Bob" Jessen (1925-2020), a B-29 pilot during World War II, on June 12, 1964, in Colorado Springs, Colorado. In 1967, they moved to Boise, Idaho, where they established their own Beech dealership and, later, an aviation insurance business and Boise Air Service, a full-service, fixed base operation on the Boise Airport.

Jessen was also an avid writer. She was the aviation columnist for The Northwest Flyer, and The Idaho Statesman. Jessen also wrote several books on the history of women in aviation, including Sky Girls, a chronicle of the 1929 Powder Puff Derby.

Additionally, Jessen was appointed by President Lyndon B. Johnson to serve on the Federal Aviation Agency's (FAA) Women in Aviation Advisory Board for five years. Between 1988 and 1990, Jessen was President of the Ninety-Nines, an international organization of licensed women pilots. She was also a Wing Scout Leader, treasurer of the Idaho Pilot's Association, an Accident Prevention Counselor for the FAA, and the Boise Airport Commissioner. She was recently inducted into the International Women in Aviation Pioneers Hall of Fame in Dayton, Ohio. Jessen holds over 4,000 hours of flying experience and earned ratings as a commercial pilot, single and multi-engine land, single-engine sea, instrument rating and a Gold Seal flight instructor.

Gene Nora Jessen passed away on May 21st, 2024.

HONORS:

Honorary PhD, University of Wisconsin

Idaho Aviation Hall of Fame

Pathfinder Award Wall of Fame, Seattle Museum of Flight

Wright Brothers Master Pilot Award

Ninety-Nines Amelia Earhart Award

Achievement Award, International Northwest Aviation Council

Evanston Township High School Distinguished Alumni Award

Adler Planetarium Women in Space Service Award

Mercury 13 NASA Award, International Human Space Flight Day

Women with Wings Award, International Air and Space Museum

Next Generation Indie Book Award, 2010

YMCA Pioneers of the Future Award

FAA Women's Advisory Committee on Aviation

Boise Airport Commissioner
Provenance:
Gene Nora Jessen, Gift, 2023, NASM.2023.0052
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- Flights  Search this
Astronautics  Search this
Beech Aircraft Family  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Citation:
Gene Nora Stumbough Jessen Papers, NASM.2023.0052, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2023.0052
See more items in:
Gene Nora Stumbough Jessen Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2b905f10b-05ae-4366-94c0-809cf299d0bc
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2023-0052
Online Media:

Amelia Earhart Around-the-World Flight Correspondence File [W.T. Miller]

Creator:
Miller, W. T.  Search this
Names:
Earhart, Amelia, 1897-1937  Search this
Noonan, Frederick  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet (1 folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Telegrams
Newspapers
Reports
Date:
bulk 1936 - 1940
Summary:
Amelia Earhart (1897-1937) in 1928 was the first woman to fly (as a passenger) across the Atlantic, and in 1932 the first woman (and second person, after Charles Lindbergh) to fly solo and nonstop across that ocean. She flew many record flights, published several books and accomplished much for women in aviation. This collection consists of a file of correspondence, telegrams, official Coast Guard dispatches from the USS Itasca, and reports relating to the planning of Amelia Earhart's 1937 flight and the naval search for her after her disappearance.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of a file of correspondence (predominantly carbon copies), telegrams, official Coast Guard dispatches from the USS Itasca, and reports relating to the planning of Amelia Earhart's 1937 flight and the naval search for her after her disappearance. The file contains correspondence signed by George Putnam and some of the correspondence relates to the radio frequencies that were to be used/were used by Earhart during her trip. This file evidently belonged to W. T. Miller, who was Airways Superintendent at the Bureau of Air Commerce, United States Department of Commerce. Miller was very involved in asserting sovereignty over Pacific Islands, such as Howland, during the late 1930s.
Arrangement:
Collection is in original reverse chronological order.
Biographical / Historical:
Amelia Earhart (1897-1937) in 1928 was the first woman to fly (as a passenger) across the Atlantic, and in 1932 the first woman (and second person, after Charles Lindbergh) to fly solo and nonstop across that ocean. She flew many record flights, published several books and accomplished much for women in aviation before attempting on June 1, 1937, an around-the-world flight from Miami, Florida in a twin-engine Lockheed Electra. She and navigator Frederick J. Noonan were flying from Lae, New Guinea to Howland Island when they disappeared over the Pacific Ocean on July 2, 1937. A exhaustive sea and air search, ordered by President Franklin Roosevelt, was unsuccessful in locating Earhart and Noonan.
Provenance:
John Davison, Gift, 2010, NASM.2011.0006
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Flights around the world  Search this
Endurance flights  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Telegrams
Newspapers
Reports
Citation:
Amelia Earhart Around-the-World Flight Correspondence File [W.T. Miller], NASM.2011.0006, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2011.0006
See more items in:
Amelia Earhart Around-the-World Flight Correspondence File [W.T. Miller]
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg252d37dbc-ebd2-42fb-95d8-3e53d57ed446
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2011-0006
Online Media:

Cross Section of Aviation Personnel Collection [Boedecker]

Creator:
Boedecker, Kenneth J.  Search this
Extent:
8.96 Cubic feet (15 flat boxes, 25 shoeboxes, 1 slim document box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Black-and-white negatives
Photographic prints
Date:
1936-1962
Summary:
Kenneth Judson "Boedy" Boedecker (1892--1981) was an aircraft engine expert and avid amateur photographer who created a series of photo albums containing images of a wide variety of personnel employed in the aviation field. This collection consists of those albums, the negatives for the photographs in the albums, and one box of enlarged prints of some of the photographs.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of sixteen volumes of photo albums containing photographs of a wide variety of personnel employed in the aviation field, including aircraft and engine manufacturing, the military, and airline and airport employees. The photographs are mostly taken by Kenneth Judson "Boedy" Boedecker, although some photos that show Boedecker himself were taken by others with his camera. Some are taken at the subject's workplace and others are taken at events such as air races or organization meetings, and it appears to have been Boedecker's practice to try to take photographs of the entire flight crew when he traveled by air. Most of the photographs are autographed by the subject and all are captioned with the subject's name, company, date, and location where the photo was taken. In the case of the photographs of flight crews, the airline route is also noted. Boedecker documented both large and small companies, and a large portion of the employees shown in the albums are women. The photographs appear in the albums in the order they were taken, and some include indexes of the people shown in the album. The collection also includes the negatives for the photographs in the albums, which are arranged alphabetically by last name of the subject, and one box of enlarged prints of some of the photographs.
Arrangement:
Collection has three series defined by type of material. The first series consists of volumes of photo albums that are arranged by date. The second series consists of negatives arranged alphabetically by last name of subject. The third series contains copy prints.
Biographical / Historical:
Kenneth Judson "Boedy" Boedecker (1892--1981) was an aircraft engine expert and avid amateur photographer. Boedecker began his technical training at the Mechanics Institute in New York in 1910 and studied there until 1914, later studying at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn from 1914 to 1918. Boedecker also served in the US Naval Reserve (USNR) and was on active duty during World War I as a chief machinist's mate with the Northern Bombing Group in France and England. Boedecker worked as a machinist, draftsman, tool designer, and inspector for various companies before joining Lawrence Aero Engine Corporation as Chief Inspector in 1919, later becoming the Assistant Works Manager. When Lawrence merged with Wright Aeronautical, Boedecker became a Service Engineer for Wright before rising to Service Manager in 1927, General Service Manager in 1929, and Sales and Service Engineer in 1931. At the time of Boedecker's retirement in 1958, he was assistant to the vice president for sales at Curtiss-Wright. Boedecker learned to fly making test flights of Wright aircraft and made his first solo flight in 1930, going on to earn his pilot's license. During his time with Wright Aeronautical, Boedecker was assigned to test and inspect the Wright engines that powered numerous record-setting aircraft including Charles Lindbergh's Ryan NYP Spirit of St Louis that made the first solo transatlantic flight, the Fokker C-2 Bird of Paradise in which Lester Maitland and Albert Hegenberger made the first transpacific flight from the US mainland to Hawaii, and the Fokker F.VIIB-3m Southern Cross which Charles Kingsford-Smith and his crew flew to make the first transpacific flight from California to Australia. Boedecker also checked the engines of various aircraft that flew in the 1927 Dole Air Race. Boedecker was a member of numerous professional and aviation organizations including the Society of Automotive Engineers, Ancient and Secret Order of Quiet Birdmen, Wings Club, and Conquistadores del Cielo.

In the 1930s, Boedecker purchased a new camera and began to take portrait photographs of colleagues and other members of the aviation community as a way to familiarize himself with the equipment. Encouraged by the editor of Wright Aeronautical's internal employee newsletter who reproduced some of the photographs in that publication, the project grew to include sixteen volumes of photographs taken during the course of Boedecker's work as well as during his extensive travels to aviation-related events. Boedecker would print two copies of each photograph and send them to the subject, asking that person to sign one and return it to him for inclusion in his album. At least one volume of the album was reproduced and published in the late 1930s by Aero Digest Publishing Company. The first fifteen albums were officially presented to the Smithsonian at a ceremony in the Regents Room on May 16, 1962. The sixteenth volume was sent later as it was still being completed at the time of the presentation. In that volume there is a photograph taken at the presentation ceremony by a Smithsonian photographer which, according to Boedecker, is the only photograph in the collection not taken with his camera.
Provenance:
Kenneth J. Boedecker, Gift, 1962, NASM.XXXX.0323.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Aircraft industry  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Airlines  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums
Black-and-white negatives
Photographic prints
Citation:
Cross Section of Aviation Personnel Collection [Boedecker], NASM.XXXX.0323, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0323
See more items in:
Cross Section of Aviation Personnel Collection [Boedecker]
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2d2ad4ab8-4b66-4c41-a7a4-6b500315c57a
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0323
Online Media:

Early Aviation Newsclippings Collection

Extent:
22.08 Cubic feet ((19 boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Newspaper clippings
Date:
bulk 1897-1934
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of newspaper clippings relating to airships, balloons, and early aircraft. The material includes articles on famous inventors, as well as accidents, predictions, war arms, weather bureau reports, and women in aeronautics.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Airships  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Newspaper clippings
Citation:
Early Aviation Newsclippings Collection, Acc. XXXX-0420, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0420
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2680e2054-f2b0-40a8-945f-001fbb7cc05f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0420

Betty Skelton Collection

Creator:
Skelton, Betty, 1926-  Search this
Names:
Fellow Lady Astronaut Trainees (FLATS, "Mercury 13")  Search this
Pitts Aviation Enterprises, Inc.  Search this
Pitts S-1 Special, Little Stinker  Search this
Project Mercury (U.S.)  Search this
Extent:
8.21 Cubic feet (10 legal document boxes, 4 flatboxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Advertisements
Clippings
Date:
circa 1920-2005
Summary:
In 2002 Betty Skelton donated a collection of materials outlining her career as an aviatrix and race car driver to the National Air and Space Museum. The donated material consists primarily of news clippings, pamphlets, magazines, photographs, and scrapbooks covering the span of Ms. Skelton's career.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists primarily of news clippings, pamphlets, magazines, photographs, and scrapbooks covering the span of Ms. Skelton's career.
Arrangement:
The collection has been divided into three series. The first series contains information on Betty Skelton's personal life, including birth and wedding announcements and family photos. The second, pertaining to her professional life, spans a broad range of materials covering the various careers pursued by Ms. Skelton. The third series consists of oversized items such as scrapbooks and large format magazines. Each series is further divided by format (i.e. news clippings, brochures, and photographs) and then chronologically.

SERIES I: Personal

News clippings; Photographs

SERIES II: Professional

News clippings, Programs and Pamphlets; Correspondence; Magazines/Press Releases; Photographs; Negatives

SERIES III: Oversized Materials
Biographical / Historical:
Betty Skelton Frankman, noted aviatrix, automobile test driver, race car driver, and business woman, was born in 1926 in Pensacola, Florida. Her interest in aviation was kindled at a young age while watching Navy stunt pilots practice. Soon, she and her parents began taking flying lessons and Betty soloed for the first time at age 12, four years before the legal age. As soon as she was legally able, age 16, Betty got her pilot's license. At age 19 she joined the Civil Air Patrol while also working as a flight instructor at her father's aviation school. She began a professional career as an aerobatic pilot in 1946, flying a 1929 Great Lakes 2T1A biplane. In 1948, while flying that aircraft, Betty won her first International Aerobatic Championship for Women. She would repeat this achievement in 1949 and 1950 while flying a Pitts-Special S-1C that she nicknamed "Little Stinker." By 1951 Betty realized that she had gone as far as a woman could go in aviation and retired.

Through a chance meeting with Bill France, the founder of the National Association of Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR), Betty began a second career as a test and race car driver. She set multiple land speed records and two transcontinental speed records. Her work with Dodge and Chevrolet led her to her next career as an advertising executive for Campbell-Ewald Advertising Agency, the firm that handled Chevrolet advertising.

In 1959, Betty was given the opportunity to train with the original Mercury 7 astronauts. She completed the same physical and physiological tests as the astronauts, but knew a woman was not destined to be the first American in space. The experience resulted in only a cover story in LOOK magazine (Vol. 24 No. 3 Feb. 2, 1960). In 1965, Betty married Donald Frankman and, eventually, the two moved to Florida and started a real estate business.

Betty held more combined aviation and automotive records than any other person. Her aviation achievements included: a world speed record for piston engine aircraft (unofficial), two light plane altitude records, and three international aerobatic championships. Her achievements in the automotive field included a women's closed course speed record (144.02 mph), a speed record for 200-249 cubic inch piston displacement (105.8 mph), a 24-hour stock car endurance record, a transcontinental record New York to Los Angeles (56 hrs 58 mins.), four land speed records, a South American transcontinental auto speed record, and multiple Bonneville Speed and Endurance Records.

She was also inducted into many halls of fame including, the International Aerobatic Hall of Fame, the NASCAR International Motorsports Hall of Fame, the Corvette Hall of Fame, the Tampa Sports Hall of Fame, and the Florida Women's Hall of Fame. In 1985, Betty and Don donated her Pitts Special "Little Stinker" to the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum (NASM). It currently hangs at the entrance to NASM's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center at Dulles, Virginia. Betty and her second husband, Dr. Allan Erde, retired to The Villages, Florida, a popular retirement community where many residents use golf carts to get from place to place. But Betty, in keeping with her moniker as the "fastest woman on Earth," drove a bright red Corvette convertible. She died at her home on August 31, 2011, at the age of 85.

The following timeline covers key events in Skelton's life, as well as in the aerospace and automotive industries. Events involving Skelton are shown in normal type while those of the latter are shown in italics.

Timeline of Betty Skelton

6/28/1926 -- Betty is born in Pensacola, Florida

May 1927 -- Charles Lindbergh makes the first solo west to east transatlantic flight

May 1932 -- Amelia Earhart becomes first women to solo across the Atlantic

1937 -- Amelia Earhart and Captain Fred Noonan go missing

12/7/1941 -- Bombing of Pearl Harbor forces American entry into World War II

1942 -- Officially soloed and received pilot's license at age 16

1944 -- Women's Airforce Service Pilots program ends

1945 -- Joins the Civil Air Patrol, eventually achieving rank of Major

May 1945 -- End of War in Europe

August 1945 -- Atom bomb dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki followed by Japanese surrender and end of World War II

1946 -- Begins career as aerobat at Southeastern Air Exposition in Jacksonville, Florida

1947 -- The United States Air Force becomes an independent military service Chuck Yeager breaks the sound barrier becoming the first man to fly faster than the speed of sound

1948 -- Becomes International Aerobatics Champion for women Buys "Little Stinker" Orville Wright dies at age 76 Berlin Airlift begins operation NASCAR is formed

1949 -- Pilots the smallest plane to cross the Irish Sea Represents United States in RAF Pageant – Belfast, Ireland Sets World Light Plane Altitude Record (~26,000 ft) First non-stop round the world flight is made by Capt. James Gallagher Represents United States in International Air Pageant – London, United Kingdom Unofficially sets world Speed Record for engine aircraft (426 mph) Retains title as International Aerobatics Champion for women

1950 -- Retains title of International Aerobatics Champion for women Becomes hostess of radio program "Van Wilson's Greeting Time"

1951 -- Four monkeys become the first living creatures to travel in space Retires from Flying Sets World Light Plane Altitude Record (~29,000 ft)

1953 -- Jacqueline Cochran becomes first women to fly faster than the speed of sound Stars in a movie short about motor boat jumping Meets Bill France and takes first ride in pace car

1954 -- Sets Stock Car Flying Mile Record (105.88 mph) Sets new world women's closed course record (144.02 mph) Sets new world women's closed course record (143.44 mph) First woman to drive an Indy Car

1955 -- Participates in Stock Car Endurance Run

1956 -- Becomes an advertising executive for Campbell-Ewald Participates in Stock Car Endurance Run First successful launch of a Chrysler Redstone Rocket from Cape Canaveral Sets new land speed record (145.044 mph) Sets transcontinental record New York to Los Angeles (56 hrs 58 mins)

1957 -- Sputnik 2 carries first dog into space Participates in Mobilgas Economy Run Sputnik is launched by the Soviet Union

1958 -- United States launches Explorer 1, the first US satellite to enter Earth's orbit National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is established South American Transcontinental Auto Speed Record (41hrs 14 mins)

1959 -- Trains with Mercury 7 astronauts

1960 -- Participates in Mobilgas Economy Run

1961 -- Alan Shepard becomes the first American in space Participates in Mobilgas Economy Run Yuri Gagarin becomes first man in space

1962 -- Cuban Missile Crisis Participates in Baja Run

1963 -- John F. Kennedy is assassinated Valentina Tereshkova becomes first women in space

1965 -- Sets new land speed record (315 mph) Marries Donald A. Frankman

1967 -- An accident during testing of Apollo 1 kills Virgil Grissom, Roger Chaffee, and Edward White

1969 -- Successfully lobbies to end discrimination against female pilots in air racing Becomes Vice President of Campbell-Ewald's new Women's Market and Advertising Department Apollo 11 is launched with Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins, making Neil Armstrong the first man on the moon

1970 -- Explosion onboard Apollo 13 First scheduled service of the Boeing 747

1972 -- The last manned mission to the moon, Apollo 17 is completed President Nixon announces funding for the building of a reusable space shuttle

1974 -- Charles Lindbergh dies at age 72

1975 -- Apollo/Soyuz Test Project and Soyuz 19 successfully dock in Earth orbit

1977 -- Begins working for First Florida Realty Publishes book Little Stinker British Airways and Air France begin regular Concorde service from New York's JKF Airport National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launches Voyager I & II

1980 -- Jacqueline Cochran dies at age 74

1981 -- Space Shuttle Columbia launches for the first shuttle mission

1983 -- Sally Ride becomes first American woman in space

1985 -- Donates Little Stinker to NASM

1986 -- Space Shuttle Challenger explodes on take off Soviet Union launches Mir Space Station

1988 -- Inducted into International Aerobatic Hall of Fame (1st woman)

1989 -- Destruction of the Berlin Wall

1993 -- Inducted into NASCAR International Motorsports Hall of Fame (1st woman) Inducted into Florida Women's Hall of Fame

1997 -- Inducted into Women in Aviation Pioneer Hall of Fame Mars Pathfinder lands on surface of Mars

2001 -- Space Station Mir ends its 15 year life in space Inducted into Corvette Hall of Fame (1st woman) Donald A. Frankman dies

2003 -- Concorde service between the United States and Europe ends Inducted into International Council of Air Shows Foundation Hall of Fame

2005 -- Marries Allan Erde Inducted into National Aviation Hall of Fame

2008 -- Inducted into Motorsports Hall of Fame of America

8/31/2011 -- Betty dies at her home in The Villages, Florida
Provenance:
Betty Skelton, Gift, 2001
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Pitts S-1 Special  Search this
Pitts aircraft  Search this
Aeronautics -- Competitions  Search this
Airplane racing  Search this
Women air pilots  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Stunt flying  Search this
Automobile racing  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Licenses  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Advertisements
Clippings
Citation:
Betty Skelton Collection, NASM.2002.0002, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2002.0002
See more items in:
Betty Skelton Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2b042e943-f87d-46e2-ad47-4d2ad6077728
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2002-0002
Online Media:

Women's Air Force Service Pilots (WASP) Collection

Creator:
Haydu, Bernice Falk  Search this
Names:
Avenger Field -- Sweetwater, TX  Search this
United States. Army Air Forces  Search this
United States. Army. Air Corps  Search this
Women Airforce Service Pilots (U.S.)  Search this
Cochran, Jacqueline  Search this
Haydu, Bernice Falk  Search this
Extent:
0.2 Cubic feet (1 letter document box, partial)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Rosters
Photographs
Songbooks
Newsletters
Date:
1944-1982
bulk 1944-1949
Summary:
During World War II, members of the Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP) ferried planes, towed anti-aircraft artillery training targets, flew tracking, simulated bombing missions, performed radio control, flight tested aircraft, gave instrument instruction and performed many other duties. Their work allowed more men to participate in aviation combat roles. Bernice Falk Haydu (1920-2021) was a member of WASP class 44-7. This collection contains yearbooks, membership rosters, songbooks, photographs, correspondence, etc. from her WASP career.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains documents from Bernice Falk Haydu's career with the Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP). Materials include yearbooks, membership rosters, songbooks, photographs, correspondence and calling cards, and Falk's civilian employee pass for Pecos Army Air Field.
Arrangement:
Arranged by type of material.
Biographical / Historical:
With the entry of the United States into World War II, many American women pilots longed to volunteer their skills to serve their country but were barred from flying for the US military due to their gender. Some American women pilots, including well-known racing pilot Jacqueline "Jackie" Cochran, had already offered their services to the British Air Transport Auxiliary (ATA), ferrying aircraft from the manufacturers to and between air bases and freeing up male Royal Air Force (RAF) pilots for other duties. Cochran's experience with the ATA led her to lobby long and hard for a similar organization in the US. Initially, two organizations were formed to allow American women pilots to participate in the war effort. On September 10, 1942, the Women's Auxiliary Ferrying Squadron (WAFS), consisting of commercially licensed women pilots under the leadership of Nancy Harkness Love, was created as part of the US Army Air Corps' Air Transport Command. On November 16, 1942, a women pilot training program designed to supply pilots for the WAFS was begun under Cochran's leadership as the Women's Flying Training Detachment (WFTD). Initially based at Howard Hughes Municipal Airport in Houston, Texas, the WFTD was soon moved to Avenger Field at Sweetwater, Texas. On August 5, 1943, the WAFS and the WFTD were merged to form the Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP), with Cochran as director of the WASP and its training division and Love as director of the ferrying division. Between November 17, 1942, and December 7, 1944, the 1,074 women who earned WASP wings flew 60 million miles for the US Army Air Corps. From light aircraft, the WASPs advanced quickly to fly every type of Air Corps aircraft in use at the time. Except for aerial gunnery and formation flying, these women received the same training as the male pilots. WASPs ferried planes, towed anti-aircraft artillery training targets, flew tracking, simulated bombing missions, performed radio control, flight tested aircraft, gave instrument instruction and performed many other duties. Their work allowed more men to participate in aviation combat roles.

Bernice Falk Haydu (1920-2021) was a member of WASP class 44-7. Known as Bee Falk at the time, she volunteered for the civilian Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP) in early 1944 because she loved flying and wanted to help the war effort. She trained for seven months at Avenger Field in Sweetwater, Texas, where she logged 210 hours in various aircraft. She went on to serve at Pecos Army Airfield as an engineering test pilot and a utility pilot before the WASP program was canceled in December 1944. After the war, she worked as a freelance flight instructor, ferry pilot, and later owned a Cessna dealership and flight school. Haydu served as president of the WASP alumni association, Order of the Fifinella, between 1975-78, spearheading efforts for recognition for the WASP. In 1977, the WASP were granted military veteran status. Haydu was one of three surviving WASP to stand beside President Obama in 2009 as he awarded the Congressional Gold Medal to the WASP for their service during World War II.
Provenance:
Bernice Falk Haydu, Gift, 1987, NASM.1987.0077
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Miss Fifinella (Fictitious character)  Search this
Women and the military  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Aerial operations  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Rosters
Photographs
Songbooks
Newsletters
Citation:
Women's Air Force Service Pilots (WASP) Collection, NASM.1987.0077, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1987.0077
See more items in:
Women's Air Force Service Pilots (WASP) Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg23f252343-fdbb-4f6f-b6ad-04b0f02684e9
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1987-0077
Online Media:

Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers

Creator:
Junkin, Hattie Meyers, 1896-1985  Search this
Names:
Advance Aircraft Company  Search this
Waco Aircraft Company  Search this
Weaver Aircraft Company  Search this
Barnaby, Ralph S. (Ralph Stanton), 1893-1986  Search this
Brukner, Clayton J., 1896-1977  Search this
Junkin, Elwood J. (Elwood James), 1897-1926  Search this
Weaver, George E. "Buck", 1895-1924  Search this
Extent:
3.3 Cubic feet (12 Boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Publications
Photographs
Correspondence
Date:
1906-1982
bulk 1920-1933
Summary:
This collection consists of the personal papers of Hattie Meyers Junkin. The material consists of correspondence, scrapbooks, and manuscripts, as well as material on Junkin's husbands and Weaver Aircraft Co.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains the personal papers of Hattie Meyers Junkin. The material consists of correspondence, scrapbooks, photographs, periodical articles and manuscripts, including material about her three husbands and about the history of the Waco Aircraft Company. This collection could very easily be called the Hattie and George "Buck" Weaver collection since much of the collection material revolves around her life with him and his Weaver/Waco Aircraft Company legacy.
Arrangement note:
The collection has been divided into nine series. These series are described below.

Series 1: General correspondence

Series 2: Soaring and gliding

Series 3: General materials of Hattie Meyers Junkin

Series 4: Waco Company History

Series 5: George "Buck" Weaver materials

Series 6: Scrapbooks

Series 7: Miscellaneous

Series 8: General Photographs

Series 9: Negatives

Series 1: General Correspondence.

This series is divided into two sub-series, personal and business correspondence. The personal correspondence materials consists primarily of letters written by George "Buck" Weaver to Hattie between 1917 to 1923. It also includes letters from family members, friends and acquaintances including Charles Meyers (Hattie's brother), Katherine Stinson, and "Matty" Emil Laird. There are also invitations, christmas cards and special occasion announcements. The business sub-series is comprised of mostly letters to publishers, but also includes letters to women's organizations, business associates, news media and other formal correspondence. Materials have been arranged chronologically.

Series 2: Soaring and Gliding.

This series contains primarily newspaper articles and photographs related directly to Ms. Junkin's soaring activities. There is also correspondence related directly to the topic of soaring, contest programs, bulletins and miscellaneous materials.

Series 3: General materials Hattie Meyers Junkin.

This series contains primarily her writings in major periodical publications, but also contains periodical articles about her children and her personal activities, club correspondence, Early Bird Dinner materials and other general materials.

Series 4: Waco Company History.

This series contains materials directly related to the Waco company and the activities of its founders including, early drafts of Hattie's history of the Waco Company--The Human Investment in Waco Aircraft, Elwood "Sam" Junkin biography, materials related to the Bruckner litigation for control of the Waco Aircraft Company, photographs of early Waco aircraft, and publicity materials including a Waco $0.13 stamp.

Series 5: George "Buck" Weaver materials.

This series contains materials related directly to George "Buck" Weaver. Much of the material in this series pertains to Weaver's activities as a civilian aviation instructor, in Waco, Texas during World War I. Most of the materials found in this series were found together when processing began.

Series 6: Scrapbooks.

This series contains six scrapbooks dating primarily between the years 1914-1926. Much of the material pertains to George "Buck" Weaver's activities at Waco, Texas, his barnstorming activities, promotional activities for the Weaver Aircraft Company and his marriage to Hattie and their family life. Some of the more recent materials deals with Hattie's soaring activities. PLEASE NOTE: Most of the pages in these scrapbooks are loose and the materials fragile. PLEASE HANDLE WITH EXTREME CARE.

Series 7: Miscellaneous materials.

This series contains materials that were organized by Ms. Junkin in a specific fashion or did not fit logically into any of the series listed. In most cases materials in this series are duplications, but their organization offers a researcher insight into materials she thought most important.

Series 8: General Photographs.

This series contains general photographs which did not fit into any of the series above. Many of these photos are publicity shots or photos of family and friends.

Series 9: Negatives.

This series contains 72 negatives found in the collection. These have been separated out and rehoused as a preservation measure. Some of the negatives have prints, but most do not. These associations have been noted in the list below. They are described first by item number (i.e. #27), general topic (i.e Soaring and Gliding), subject and date if known, and if a print is available. They have been arranged by general topic groups. Please request assistance from a staff member when handling these negatives. The staff member will also be able to inform you of ordering procedures if you wish to order copies of these negatives and prints.
Biographical/Historical note:
Hattie Meyers Junkin (1898-1990) was an aviator and observer of a number of historical events. Always interested in aviation, in 1917 she married George "Buck" Weaver ( -1924), a civilian flying instructor at the military training center at Waco, TX. Weaver, along with Clayton Bruckner and Elwood "Sam" Junkin, founded the Advance Aircraft Company in 1921 (Weaver Aircraft Company, 1922-29; Waco Aircraft Co., 1929-1946). Following Weaver's death she married Junkin ( -1926), but he died shortly afterwards and control of Weaver Aircraft slipped away. In 1929 she married Ralph Stanton Barnaby (1893-1986), a glider pilot and aviation pioneer. In 1931 she became one of the first women to earn a glider class C license and attended the University of Washington (DC) studying law, although she was unable to take the bar exam. In 1940 she moved to Garden City, NJ, where she remained until moving to Alabama in the late 1970s. She spent much of her life writing, including articles on Weaver Aircraft.
General note:
Other type of material: printing block.
Related Materials:
The National Air and Space Museum (NASM) Archives Division holds additional material about people related to Hattie Meyers Junkin, although at present this particular collection is all the information available about Hattie Meyers Junkin. Biographical information about Charles William Meyers and George "Buck" Weaver can be found in the biographical fiche collection at the NASM Archives/Garber Facility. Biographical material about Ralph Stanton Barnaby can be found in the Ralph Stanton Barnaby Collection (1915-1986), Accession number 1987-0048. It is also stored at the NASM Archives/Garber Facility. In the NASM Archives downtown facility, we recommend the biographical files which contains additional materials about George "Buck" Weaver and Charles William Meyers. There is also aircraft information available in the Waco Aircraft Technical Files found also in the NASM Archives downtown facility. For additional material related to aircraft, please see the Waco Aircraft Company Records, Accession number XXXX-0151. This collection contains mostly drawings of Waco aircraft and some company records. It is stored at the NASM Archives/Garber Facility.

For additional photographic materials about Charles William Meyers and Waco Aircraft, please see the NASM videodisc files located at the NASM Archives facility downtown. Images of Charles W. Weaver can be seen on NASM videodisc 2B-19072 to 2B-19078. Images of various types of Waco Aircraft can been seen on NASM videodiscs 1B, 2A, and 3B. In some cases, there are original videodisc prints available in the NASM Archives facility downtown and copy negatives at the Smithsonian Institution, Office of Printing and Photographic Services (OPPS). Please consult a staff member for more details and about ordering procedures.
Provenance:
Hattie Meyers Junkin, Gift, 1983, NASM.XXXX.0171
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Periodicals  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Gliding and soaring  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Publications
Photographs
Correspondence
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0171
See more items in:
Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2a0382321-6858-4a1c-9391-23e8a3434c72
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0171
Online Media:

Mary White Gaunt Air Evacuation Nurse Materials

Creator:
Gaunt, Mary White  Search this
Extent:
0.39 Cubic feet (1 letter size document box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Correspondence
Notebooks
Date:
1942-1946, 1960s
Summary:
Mary White Gaunt served in the US Army Air Forces (USAAF) during World War II as an air evacuation nurse was later a nurse at Wilford Hall medical facility at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas, where she cared for National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) astronaut Alan Bean following surgery he had there. This collection consists of material relating to Gaunt's career including, military records, two small pocket notebooks where Gaunt kept notes on her missions, a scrapbook documenting Gaunt's time stationed in the United States, and a second scrapbook documenting her time stationed in England. The collection also includes a packet of material sent to Gaunt by astronaut Alan Bean following his post-surgery recovery at Wilford Hall medical facility at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas, where Gaunt was his nurse. The packet includes a letter from Bean to Gaunt thanking her for her excellent care; a signed photo of Bean; some photos of other astronauts; and some National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) publications.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of approximately 0.39 cubic feet of material relating to Mary White Gaunt and her World War II service in the US Army Air Forces (USAAF) as an air evacuation nurse. Types of materials in the collection include copies of her military records, two small pocket notebooks where Gaunt kept notes on her missions, a scrapbook documenting Gaunt's time stationed in the United States, and a second scrapbook documenting her time stationed in England. The scrapbooks contain mainly captioned photographs, but they also include some news clippings and ephemera. The collection also includes a packet of material sent to Gaunt by astronaut Alan Bean following his post-surgery recovery at Wilford Hall medical facility at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas, where Gaunt was his nurse. The packet includes a letter from Bean to Gaunt thanking her for her excellent care; a signed photo of Bean inscribed, "To Mary Gaunt -- The best nurse ever...anywhere;" some photos of other astronauts; and some National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) publications.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged by type of material.
Biographical / Historical:
Mary White Gaunt served in the US Army Air Forces (USAAF) during World War II as an air evacuation nurse. She had worked as a night supervisor nurse at Midway Hospital in St. Paul, Minnesota for a little over three years before joining the military in March 1941. Gaunt completed training at the Army Air Forces School of Air Evacuation and served in the United States including time in Colorado, at Camp Grant, Illinois, and as assistant chief nurse at Truax Field, Wisconsin. Gaunt was sent overseas in December 1943 where she was stationed at USAAF Station 489 (Royal Air Force Cottesmore), England and later transferred to USAAF Station 486 (Royal Air Force Greenham Common), England. During her service with the USAAF, which included assignment to the 811th and 816th Medical Air Evacuation Transportation Squadrons, Gaunt completed 99 combat sorties and 6 transatlantic air evacuation missions and participated in the following battles and campaigns: Normandy, Northern France, Ardennes, Rhineland, and Central Europe. Gaunt separated from the USAAF in February 1946 at the rank of captain. In the 1960s, Gaunt was a nurse at Wilford Hall medical facility at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas, where she cared for National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) astronaut Alan Bean following surgery he had there.
Provenance:
Melissa Furman, Gift, 2022, NASM.2022.0028.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Nurses  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Military records -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Correspondence
Notebooks
Citation:
Mary White Gaunt Air Evacuation Nurse Materials, NASM.2022.0028, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2022.0028
See more items in:
Mary White Gaunt Air Evacuation Nurse Materials
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2a0c697e5-dfcc-4eb1-ba4b-4fe98f13508a
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2022-0028
Online Media:

Mary Billy Cline Quinn Collection

Creator:
Quinn, Mary Billy Cline, 1902 (date of birth)  Search this
Extent:
.10 Cubic feet (2 folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Publications
Date:
1929-1963
Summary:
This collection documents the flying career of Mary Billy Cline Quinn.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the following types of material: aviator licenses, correspondence, pilot's logs, certificates, photographs, and newspaper clippings.
Arrangement:
The two folders in this collection are arranged by format. Folder 1 includes paper materials; folder 2, photographs.
Biographical / Historical:
Mary Billy Cline Quinn was born May 5, 1902, in Erie, Kansas. She studied law at the University of Kansas and graduated from the Kansas State Teachers College before making her career in aviation. She held Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI)/National Aeronautic Association (NAA) license #7580 and transport pilot license #12647, as well as sporting and foreign licenses. On July 2, 1930, Quinn set a brief world altitude record for a woman in a light plane, reaching 17,500 feet.
General:
The Aeronautics Department holds several artifacts relating to this collection:

1. A20030022000 - Jacket, Flying, Civilian

2. A20030023000 - Helmet, Cap, Flying, Civilian

3. A20030024000 - Gloves, Flying, Civilian

4. A20030025000 - Boots, Flying, Civilian

5. A20030026000 - Goggles, Flying Civilian

6. A20030027000 - Bracelet, Civilian

7. A20030028000 - Letter Opener, Civilian
Provenance:
Beth Q. Vaughn, Gift, October 2002, NASM.2003.0002
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- Records  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Publications
Citation:
Mary Billy Cline Quinn Collection, Acc. NASM.2003.0002, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2003.0002
See more items in:
Mary Billy Cline Quinn Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg22366f8c5-ccb4-48f2-aa7e-2d2a812035bb
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2003-0002
Online Media:

National Air Races Negative Collection

Names:
National Air Races  Search this
Pulitzer Trophy Race  Search this
Thompson Trophy Race  Search this
Brown, Charles  Search this
Cleland, Cook  Search this
Cochran, Jacqueline  Search this
De Bona, Joseph C.  Search this
McKitten, Ben  Search this
Skelton, Betty, 1926-  Search this
Turner, Roscoe, 1895-1970  Search this
Extent:
0.33 Cubic feet (1 box, 336 black and white 4 x 5 inch format negatives)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Cleveland (Ohio)
Date:
1948-1949
Summary:
This collection consists of 336 black and white 4 x 5 inch format negatives by Robert E. Burke Studios, Inc. of Cleveland, Ohio; most of the photographs depict aircraft, personalities, and activities at or in relation to the National Air Races held at Cleveland in 1948 and 1949.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 336 black and white 4 x 5 inch format negatives and their original paper envelopes. The photography has been identified as the work of Robert E. Burke Studios, Inc. of Cleveland, Ohio, advertised as the "Official Photographer" of both the 1948 and 1949 National Air Races. Most of the photographs cover aircraft, personalities, and activities at or in relation to the 1948 and 1949 National Air Races; views include racing and military aircraft on the ground and in flight, views of the spectators (including entertainment personalities such as actor James "Jimmy" Stewart and radio presenter Arthur Godfrey), presentation of awards on the Speaker's Stand, aerial views of Cleveland Municipal Airport, and views of pilots and their supporters. Pilots portrayed include Charles Brown, Cook Cleland, Jacqueline Cochran, Joseph C. De Bona, Ben McKillen, Betty Skelton, and Roscoe Turner. The collection also includes some non-aviation work apparently done for Thompson Products, a major producer of aircraft engine components and high-performance valves used in both aircraft and automobile engines.
Arrangement:
During initial processing by NASM Archives in 2004, the negatives were assigned NASM Archives image reference numbers (NASM 9A02483 through NASM 9A02814-C) in the order in which they were received from the NASM Aeronautics Department; they are physically stored in NASM image reference number order. For the purposes of the online finding aid, the images have been intellectually rearranged into numerical order using the photographer's original 8-digit negative numbers as printed on the original negative envelopes. The images are grouped according to the first four digits of the negative number (Burke's "File" number) and divided into two chronological series for the years 1948 and 1949.
Biographical / Historical:
First held in 1920 at Mitchel Field outside of New York City, the National Air Races were an annual, week-long event including formation flying, parachute drops, aerobatic displays, and closed-circuit and cross-country air races. Through the 1920s, the location of the Races moved to a different American city each year, occurring at Cleveland, Ohio, for the first time in 1929. In the 1930s, the Races settled almost permanently at Cleveland Municipal Airport (later known as Cleveland Hopkins International Airport), with only the 1930, 1933, and 1936 races held in Los Angeles, California. The Races were suspended from 1940 to 1945 due to World War II, but resumed at Cleveland in 1946, with the post-war contestants now including many military surplus aircraft. The National Air Races, meant to be the high point of the air racing year, included privately sponsored races to both foster the development of aircraft and raise the profile of the sponsors. The 1948 Races (held September 4-6, 1948) and 1949 Races (held September 3-5, 1949) featured trophy races sponsored by Ohio companies Bendix Corporation, the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Standard Oil of Ohio (Sohio), and the local Cleveland companies Tinnerman Products (makers of fasteners used in aircraft construction) and Thompson Products (makers of high-performance valves for both aircraft and automobile racing engines). High-speed aircraft races certainly helped draw huge crowds to the airport to see the action, but tragically, on September 5, 1949, Bill Odom, piloting the modified North American P-51C Mustang "Beguine" in that day's Thompson Trophy Race, crashed into a house in the Cleveland suburb of Berea, Ohio, killing himself and a woman and child. Berea and other municipalities in the area quickly passed ordinances prohibiting air racing in their airspace, signaling the end of the National Air Races as they had existed up to that point. The races would be reborn decades later in 1964 at Reno, Nevada, as the National Championship Air Races.
Related Materials:
Additional photography by Robert E. Burke from the 1947 through 1949 National Air Races, as well as copies of the Official Programs for the 1948 and 1949 Races can be seen in the Bendix Air Races Collection, NASM.1988.0115.
Provenance:
Unknown, transfer from NASM Aeronautics Department, 1994, NASM.XXXX.0555.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- Awards  Search this
Aeronautics -- Competitions  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Airplane racing  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Women air pilots  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Airports  Search this
Stunt flying  Search this
Parachutes  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0555
See more items in:
National Air Races Negative Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2bf237701-9158-4266-b522-2291f41c49d3
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0555
Online Media:

Aviation for women

Author:
Women in Aviation, International  Search this
Physical description:
v. : ill. ; 28 cm
Type:
Periodicals
Date:
1998
1998-
Topic:
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Women air pilots  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1092397

Thea Rasche

Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
Thea Rasche was born on 12 August 1899.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aviation  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
aeronautics, civil  Search this
Licenses  Search this
Collection Citation:
Pilots' Licenses Collection, NASM.XXXX.0650, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Pilots' Licenses Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2b278079f-6cbb-4ed6-bfda-03a375195edd
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0650-ref55

Annual Sporting License

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1929
Scope and Contents:
An Annual Sporting license issued to Rasche in 1929 by the National Aeronautic Association of the U.S.A. and expired on 31 December 1929. The license contains a photograph of Rasche.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aviation  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
aeronautics, civil  Search this
Licenses  Search this
Collection Citation:
Pilots' Licenses Collection, NASM.XXXX.0650, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Pilots' Licenses Collection
Pilots' Licenses Collection / Thea Rasche
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg203e8b1fd-84e7-427f-b212-53756428bf75
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0650-ref56

Ladybirds: women in aviation. Illustrated by Haris Petie

Author:
Jablonski, Edward  Search this
Author:
Petie, Haris  Search this
Physical description:
160 pages illustrations 22 cm
Type:
Juvenile literature
Ouvrages pour la jeunesse
History
Juvenile works
Date:
1968
Topic:
Aeronautics--History  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Femmes en aéronautique  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Call number:
TL547 .J11
TL547.J11
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_165

In their own words forgotten women pilots of early aviation Fred Erisman

Title:
Forgotten women pilots of early aviation
Author:
Erisman, Fred 1937-  Search this
Physical description:
xii, 220 pages illustrations 23 cm
Type:
Biography
Biographies
History
Date:
2021
Topic:
Women air pilots  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics--History  Search this
Femmes pilotes d'aéronef  Search this
Femmes en aéronautique  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1160869

Manila Davis Talley Scrapbook

Creator:
Talley, Manila Davis.  Search this
Names:
Curtiss-Wright Corporation  Search this
United States. Civil Air Patrol  Search this
Extent:
0.23 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Date:
bulk 1917-1967
bulk 1929-1942
Summary:
This collection consists of a scrapbook relating to Manila Davis Talley and her aviation career.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of one scrapbook which contains newspaper clippings, membership cards, programs, photographs, and pilot's licenses, mostly relating to Manila Davis Talley and her aviation career. The focus of the collection is on the years 1929-42, and highlights Talley's career as a salesperson for Curtis-Wright, and her association with the 99s and the Betsy Ross Corps. Also included is the scrapbook is information on the Women's National Air Races, the Women's National Air Meets, and Talley's work with the Civil Air Patrol. The scrapbook also includes clippings and other items related to Amelia Earhart, Jimmy Doolittle and General Balbo.
Arrangement:
Single item in original order.
Biographical / Historical:
Manila Davis Talley (1898-1973) soloed in October 1929 and received her pilot's license in April of 1930. She joined Curtis-Wright Corporation as a saleswoman in late 1929 or early 1930. Talley joined the 99s (international association of female pilots) in 1930 and was a founding member of Betsy Ross Corps, a private 1930s female auxiliary/reserve for the Army Air Corps. Talley was the third woman to go through Air Force War College, in December 1966.
Provenance:
Estate of Manila Davis Talley, Gift, Unknown, NASM.XXXX.0041
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Women air pilots  Search this
Airplane racing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Manila Davis Talley Scrapbook, NASM.XXXX.0041, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0041
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2b3cfd97b-f6e7-454c-b17d-1c97c8b7f0e6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0041
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Online Media:

Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection

Topic:
Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation
Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Names:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
National Air and Space Museum -- Exhibitions  Search this
Extent:
13.38 Cubic feet (11 legal document boxes, 1 shoe box (5 x 8 inches), 6 records center boxes )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Date:
1917-2000
bulk 1981-1986
Summary:
This collection consists of background material collected in support of the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum (NASM) exhibit "Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation" (opened in 1982) and its companion book (published 1983) by curators Von Hardesty and Dominick Pisano, a related symposium, educational materials, and a travelling version of the exhibit. The collection contains photographs and textual materials used in the exhibit and book, internal correspondence and memoranda, and a large amount of material gathered for research purposes but not used in any "Black Wings" production.
Scope and Contents:
The core of the collection covers activities of American Black aviators between 1917 and 1981, from Eugene Bullard's service as a pilot in World War I through the first Black astronauts assigned to the Space Shuttle program in the early 1980s. Curators Von Hardesty and Dominick Pisano and other Museum staff collected and generally grouped materials to fit the four chronological sections of the "Black Wings" exhibit and related book, with a strong emphasis on the stories of individual people.

Headwinds (1917-1939) covers pioneer fliers such as Bullard and Bessie Coleman; Black aviation activities in the Chicago and Los Angeles areas; early aviators and organizers including William J. Powell, Willa Brown, and Cornelius Coffey; and long distance flights by James Herman Banning and Thomas C. Allen, and C. Alfred "Chief" Anderson and Dr. Albert E. Forsythe.

Flight Lines (1939-1945) includes the 1939 flight of Dale L. White and Chauncey E. Spencer to Washington, D.C.; the Civilian Pilot Training Program (CPT); the start of training of Black military pilots at Tuskegee Army Air Field during World War II; and training of the all-Black 477th Bombardment Group. This section and the next include U.S. Army Air Force documents and photography, and materials obtained from individual Tuskegee Airmen.

Wings for War (1943-1945) covers the experiences of the men of the 99th Fighter Squadron and later the 322nd Fighter Group, all-Black fighter units which participated in the Allied campaigns in North Africa, Sicily, and Italy during World War II, and their commander, Benjamin O. Davis, Jr.

Era of Change (1945-1981), including many materials from the U.S. armed forces and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), covers the desegregation of the armed forces; military pilots' participation in the Korean and Vietnam wars (featuring William Earl Brown, Jr.; Daniel "Chappie" James, Jr.; Benjamin O. Davis, Jr.); general aviation (John W. Green, Jr.; Neal Loving); commercial aviation (Perry H. Young, Jr.; James O. Plinton, Jr.); and the U.S. space program, including not just the first Black astronauts (Guion S. Bluford, Jr.; Ronald E. McNair; Frederick D. Gregory; Charles F. Bolden) but many other NASA professional men and women from Project Mercury through the beginning of the Space Shuttle era.

Most of the material was photocopied from other sources such as books, newspapers, periodicals, and other archival collections, but many copy photographs and anecdotes were obtained from the aviators themselves (or their families), particularly those active in the 1930s and 1940s. The collection also contains internal Museum documents, notes, and memoranda regarding the development and implementation of the various "Black Wings" productions, including portions of exhibit scripts, book manuscripts, ephemera, and Museum photography taken at the exhibit opening and the symposium. Photographic formats include prints, copy prints, 4 x 5 inch black and white copy negatives and color transparencies, and 35mm copy slides. Quality of the photography is often fair to poor, as the copies are several generations removed from the original images.

The last six boxes of the collection (currently unprocessed) consists of material collected circa 2000 by curator Cathleen S. Lewis and Ian Cook (NASM Department of Space History) for a proposed update to the "Black Wings" exhibit. After it became clear that the exhibit was not going to be updated, Lewis transferred the material to the NASM Aeronautics Department, as Hardesty and Pisano were contemplating an update to the Black Wings book. This, too, failed to materialize, and the material was transferred to the NASM Archives in May 2018 to be added to the existing Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection. This series was received by the Museum's Archives Division after the existing collection material had been scanned; it has not been scanned.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series. The first four roughly chronological series (Exhibit, Book, Educational Outreach, and Symposium) relate to the different "Black Wings" productions, and materials within each series often reflect the four-section groupings detailed in the Scope and Content note. The next series, Research Materials, has four sub-series: Biographical Files (alphabetical by last name), Subject Files and Study Materials (alphabetical by subject), Photographic Negatives, and Photographic Prints and Illustrations. The last series houses later additions to the collection which are currently unprocessed. Materials within folders are predominantly photocopies (xerographs) and often include numerous duplicates, many unlabeled, and in no specific order. Materials relating to an exhibit often include a NASM Exhibits Department reference number (example: SE:13-L73-P58 to P59) indicating the exhibit number (13), label number (L73), and position within the exhibit (P58 to P59). Some materials are not visible online due to copyright restrictions.
Biographical / Historical:
On September 23, 1982, the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum (NASM) exhibit "Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation" opened as part of the existing "Pioneers of Aviation" exhibit located in Gallery 208 of the museum's National Mall Building in Washington, D.C. The exhibit was dedicated to the American Black Aviator, who anonymously played a historic role in shaping the growth of modern aviation. "Black Wings" encompasses the men and women who had to overcome enormous social pressures in order to gain the right to pursue the dream of flight in both civilian, military, and commercial circles. The exhibit generated much public and media interest, and inspired the Museum to sponsor a symposium on February 25, 1983, entitled "The American Black in Aviation, A Decade of Change: 1939-1949," (working title: "Tuskegee Airmen at War") featuring presentations by historians and U. S. Army Air Forces veterans including Noel F. Parrish (Commander, Tuskegee Army Air Field, 1942-1946), George F. Roberts (Commander, 99th Fighter Squadron, September 1943 to April 1944), and pilots Lewis A. Jackson, Elwood T. Driver, and Louis R. Purnell. In conjunction with the exhibit, the Museum, working with Sid Aaronson Films, Inc., produced a set of sound filmstrip packages designed for elementary and secondary school use. In 1983, the Smithsonian Institution Press published a companion book, Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation, authored by the exhibit's curators, Von Hardesty and Dominick Pisano; a second edition was issued the following year as part of the Smithsonian History of Aviation and Spaceflight series. A Smithsonian Institution Travelling Exhibition Service (SITES) version of the exhibit began circulating to other museums and venues in June 1983, and a expanded version of the SITES exhibit (featuring additional artifacts, photography, and audio-visual materials) was displayed April 1 to August 5, 1984, at the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum (later know as the Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum) in Washington, D.C. The original NASM "Black Wings" exhibit—with occasional updates—remained on display in the "Pioneers of Flight" gallery (later renamed the "Barron Hilton Pioneers of Flight Gallery") until 2019 when the gallery was closed due to renovations to the Museum's National Mall Building.
Related Materials:
"Black Wings: African American Pioneer Aviators" NASM Website Collection, NASM.2004.0026 [finding aid not available online]
Provenance:
National Air and Space Museum (NASM) Department of Aeronautics, Transfer, 1993, NASM.1993.0060; additional material transferred from NASM Department of Space History, 2018
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
aeronautics, civil  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Women air pilots  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
African American air pilots  Search this
African American women air pilots  Search this
Women in technology  Search this
Astronauts  Search this
Astronautics  Search this
United States Air Force  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Black people -- United States  Search this
Korean War, 1950-1953  Search this
Vietnam War, 1961-1975  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Photographs
Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1993.0060
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg27c62d0c6-784f-4db6-9a31-26160b8635a1
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1993-0060
Online Media:

Magnificent Women and Flying Machines The First 200 Years of British Women in the Sky

Author:
Smith, Sally  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource (248 pages)
Type:
Electronic resources
History
Date:
2021
Topic:
Women in aeronautics--History  Search this
Women air pilots--History  Search this
Femmes en aéronautique--Histoire  Search this
Femmes pilotes d'aéronef--Histoire  Search this
Women air pilots  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Call number:
TL539 .S65 2021 (Internet)
Restrictions & Rights:
1-user
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1159963

Subject – U.S. WOMEN IN AVIATION THROUGH WORLD WAR I

Collection Creator:
Oakes, Claudia M.  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 48
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
Remarks – Claudia Oakes' draft.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
United States Women In Aviation Through World War I Collection, Acc. XXXX-0424, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
United States Women in Aviation through World War I
United States Women in Aviation through World War I / Series 2: Claudia Oakes' Notes
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg22045ea3b-4c30-4bc9-970c-7c23833d33ee
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0424-ref112
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