Photographs made by Herman J. Viola, depicting the 1973 Institute of American Indian Art meeting, Wolf Robe Hunt and his Acoma pottery, the transfer of Blue Eagle collection from Mae Abbott home to National Anthropological archives, and the 1974 Star Hawk Pow Wow in Watonga, Oklahoma. Additionally, there are photographs of NAA staff and the 1974 Acee Blue Eagle reception at NAA, possibly made by Viola. The collection also contains some photographs of Wounded Knee taken by Rev. Salvatore Genete, and copies of official portraits of Governor Aquillar of San Ildefonso Pueblo made by Harry B. Neufeld. There are also National Archives photographs of Chinese Boxer Rebellion prints, and Young watercolors and Alden sketches of American landscapes.
Much of the collection consists of portraits of participants in the NAA's American Indian Cultural Resources Training Program made by Smithsonian photographers, including Victor Krantz. These individuals include: Harry Walters, Navajo; Anna Walters, Otoe-Pawnee; George Sutton, Southern Arapaho; Sarah Yazzie, Navajo; Rubie Sootkis, Norther Cheyenne; David Fanman, Cheyenne; Augustine Smith, Navajo; Lorraine Bigman, Navajo; Jim Jefferson, Southern Ute; Rose Marie Pierite Gallardo, Tunica-Biloxi; George Horse Capture, Gros Ventre; Violet Zospah, White Mountain Apache; Gloria Anderson, Mille Lacs; Wenonah Silva, Wampanoag; Claire Lamont, Oglala; George Wasson, Coos-Coquille; Virginia Martin, Yakama; Gary Roybal, San Ildefonso; Richard Ground, Sihasapa; Almeda Baker, Hidatsa; June Finley, Hidatsa; Lida Young Wolf, Hidatsa; Christine Webster, Menominee; Rose Marie Roybal, Puyallup; Vivienne Jake, Kaibab-Paiute; Kim Yerton, Hupa; Dean Jacobs, Ojibwa; Lois Nowlin, Shawnee; Bonita McCloud, Nisqually; Gloria Maude Blackbird Cheswalla, Osage; Emily Peake, Ojibwa; Gordon McLester, Oneida; Mary Seth, Nez Perce; Bill Tohee, Oto-Missouria; Frank LaPena, Wintu; Juanita McQuistion, Wyandot; Carson Waterman, Seneca; Elton Stumbling Bear, Kiowa Apache; Patrick Chief Stick, Chippewa-Cree; Lynne Walks-on-Top, Spokane; Ethelyn Garfield, Paiute; Nora Dauenhauer, Tlingit; Caroline B. Jones, Tulalip; Grace F. Thorpe, Sauk and Fox; Dixie Lee Davis, Yavapai; Lynn D. Pauahty, Kiowa; David Lee Harding, Ojibwa; Robert V. Bojorcas, Klamath; Patty Leah Harjo, Seneca-Cayuga; Steven DeCoteau, Clallam; Robert Van Gunten, Ojibwa; Danny K. Marshall, Steilacoom; Meredith P. Flinn, Makah; Rhonda Hulsey, Chickasaw; Betty J. Brown, Choctaw; Vernon Calavaza, Zuni; Jack Bowen Jr., Upper Skagit; and Harry William Jr., Pima.
Herman Joseph Viola is a historian of the American Indian who was director of the National Anthropological Archives from 1972-1989 and founding editor of Prologue: The Journal of the National Archives. In 1973, he launched the American Indian Cultural Resources Training Program, designed to entice American Indians into becoming professional archivists, librarians, curators, and historians through research and internships at the NAA.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 74-17
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives holds Viola's papers from 1980-1981.
Records relating to the American Indian Cultural Resources Training Program can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in the Records of the National Anthropological Archives.
Photo lot 74-17, Herman J. Viola photograph collection of Star Hawk Pow Wow, American Indian Cultural Resources Training Program, and acquisition trips for NAA, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Photographs depicting American Indian baskets and portraits of American Indians with whom C. Hart Merriam worked, as well as scenic views and images of animals and plants, mostly in California. Many of the photographs were made by Merriam himself or his daughter Zenaida Merriam Talbot. In addition, Merriam collected photographs from other researchers and photographers, including J. S. Diller, John Peabody Harrington, Henry Wetherbee Henshaw, and O. E. Meddaugh. There are also images acquired from the Boysen Studio of Yosemite and photographs of Mark Twain, John Muir, basketmaker Maggie James, and Merriam's family.
Clinton Hart Merriam (1855-1942) was a Columbia University-educated physician who worked as a naturalist, including as head of the Biological Survey for the US Department of Agriculture. He joined the Harriman Alaska Expedition as a zoologist in 1899. In 1910, he left the USDA and began to conduct research among the California tribes. Financed by Mary W. Harriman and the E. H. Harriman Fund administered by the Smithsonian, he researched tribes' vocabularies, history, mythology, crafts (particularly basketmaking) until about 1936. His resarch was assisted by his daughter, Zenaida, who took photographs and painted glass slides for him. Merriam served as President of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1920-1921.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 74-27
Additional information supplied by Marvin Shodas.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Merriam's notes held in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 1563 and in the Smithsonian Institution Archives in SIA Acc. 12-264.
Additional photographs by Merriam held in the National Museum of American Indian Archives in the Mary Harriman Rumsey Photograph Collection and the Harriman Alaska Expedition Photograph Collection.
Correspondence from Merriam held in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 4558, the Department of Anthropology records (Manuscript and Pamphlet file), Bureau of American Ethnology records, J.C. Pilling Papers, Ales Hrdlicka Papers, and Jesse Logan Nusbaum Papers.
The Bancroft Library at University of California, Berkeley holds the C. Hart Merriam Papers, C. Hart Merriam Collection of Native American Photographs (prints corresponding to negatives in this collection), and C. Hart Merriam pictorial collection.
The collection is open for research.
Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Merriamʹs family has requested that credit be given the C. Hart Merriam collection whenever the photographs are used.
This scrapbook includes articles, newspaper clippings, letters and photographs from various events and marches Grace participated in regarding the fight for returning surplus lands to Native peoples. These events and materials include--Fishing Rights March (1970) in Yelm, Washington with the McCloud family; Fort Lawton "Surplus" March (1970) in Seattle, Washington; Pit River versus P.G..E. (1970) in Big Bend, California; DQU, Deganawidah Quetzalcoatl University founding (1971) in Davis, California; and documentation as National Commitee Director for the "Return Surplus Lands to Indian People".
The cover and back of the scrapbook binder are in Box 12 since they are oversized.
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: email@example.com).
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to firstname.lastname@example.org. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Grace F. Thorpe Collection, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Partly in Powell's handwriting, most in hand of a clerk. Also 21 pages vocabularies and notes in Powell's hand, apparently Wintun, found with Curtin's Karok myths (Number 269) and added to this file (4/60).
Contents (In Powell's hand) 1 page. Introduction 49 pages. Numklactawa creates the Sacramento River 9 pages. Hot, the Great Musician 7 pages. Vegetal food provided 5 pages. Light and Darkness 10 pages. [Ages of the Wintuns] 3 pages. Thunder and Lightning 2 pages. The Wind Maker 1 page. The Origin of the Rainy Season 3 pages. Sed-it is caught in a tree: a Tar-baby Story 8 pages. Ber-rit- the Giant of Mt. Shasta 2 pages. Blue-jay, the Medicine Woman 2 pages. The Buzzard aspires to the Chief 7 pages. The Comet-Goddess 1 page. Whirlwinds 1 page. Wak-porc, the God of Fire 8 pages. Wo-mul-num-kai-a, the Red-headed Woodpecker 6 pages. To-ri-has, the Bald Eagle 3 pages. The Great Magician 8 pages. Bul-ti-hok, the Screech Owl1 page. Tul-tcu-her-ris 9 pages. [No-dal-mo-no-ko, an orphan] 11 pages. Lightning and Thunder & other stories (Powell's hand) 23 pages. [Ka-het, the Monster Bat] 1 page. Portion of paper (?) pages 17, 32, and 38 to 50 incl. (Powell's hand) 3 pages. Notes on medicine, word lists, list of Indians from whom Wintun Mythology was procured, etc. One sheet is dated November 12, 1880 7 pages. 204 pages total.
NAA MS 794-b
Note: The second part of this file is incorrectly listed in Harvey Pitkin's Wintun bibliography, International Journal of American Linguistics, Volume 28, Number 1, 1962, page 47 at the end of entry 48 (Manuscript 269 by Curtin) instead of at the end of entry 47 (Manuscript 794-b).
In handwriting of a scribe. Contents: "Tirumenasa and The daughters of Tsararokkiemila." 17 pages. Places: Pitt River. "Berit loses the Daughter of Taretkiemila and his own hair by dreaming of Kahit." 6 pages. Places: Mt. Shasta. "The Journey of Sedit and Poharamasherit to the land of Puidalladekiemila. 30 pages. Places: Pitt River, Lassen Butte. "Death of Suptcit and Resurrection of the Nompatits by Winispukic." 10 pages. Places: Sacramento River. "Sedit buys three barks of Nohlospatkilis." 8 pages. Place: Stillwater. "Sulaloimis at Nelwakut." 16 pages. Places: Sacramento River, Anderson. "Sedit and Kalihuri at Dekesnorton." 10 pages. Places: Sacramento River. "Tsileuherit and the Tcitiwirik Sisters." 10 pages. Places: Sacramento River, Lassens Butte. ""Kuril splits himself and becomes the Man and Woman Kukipiwit." 7 pages. Places: Redding, Rockbridge (near Shasta City). "Memtulitkiemila and Tsuratkiemila on Puimem." 9 pages. Places: Pitt River. "Pitisherit and Klakherit." 26 pages. "The Birth of Walokitila and Tumukitila." 19 pages. Places: List of geographic locations with this myth gives "Wintun name" and translation. "The visit of Puipawinmak and Tsikipatharamas to their brother Topiwaikalalti in the land of Topitcikiemila. 23 pages. Places: Sacramento River, Redding, Pitt River, McCloud River, places near Anderson, and Shasta City, Stillwater.
"Hlutcustcinaila and Nopyarhpak's daughters." 27 pages. Places: McCloud River. Sedit "wolf" (coyote) in Wintun.--Curtin, Wintun vocabulary. Manuscript #841, recorded 1888-1889, Shasta County, California.
NAA MS 3535
These myths have been catalogued for many years as "California myths" on the basis of place-names, but have not been more specifically identified. However, three stories mention Sedit, "wolf" (or "Coyote") in Wintun (see Curtin, Manuscript Number 841, Wintun vocabulary recorded 1888-89, Shasta County, California); and one story gives the "Wintun name" in a list of geographic locations. Presumably all of the stories are Wintun.--MCB, 5/66
Tirumenasa and The daughters of Tsararokkiemila
Berit loses the Daughter of Taretkiemila and his own hair by dreaming of Kahit
The Journey of Sedit and Poharamasherit to the land of Puidalladekiemila
Death of Suptcit and Resurrection of the Nompatits by Winispukic
Sedit buys three barks of Nohlospatkilis
Sulaloimis at Nelwakut
Sedit and Kalihuri at Dekesnorton
Tsileuherit and the Tcitiwirik Sisters
Kuril splits himself and becomes the Man and Woman Kukipiwit
Memtulitkiemila and Tsuratkiemila on Puimem
Pitisherit and Klakherit
The Birth of Walokitila and Tumukitila
The visit of Puipawinmak and Tsikipatharamas to their brother Topiwaikalalti in the land of Topitcikiemila
Includes: Wintun place names and names for other tribes. No date. Autograph document. 1 page. "Names of men in Natinug, Hupa Valley." No date. Autograph document. 2 pages. Wintun place and tribal names are recorded on a sheet torn from schedule of John Wesley Powell's Introduction to the Study of Indian Languages. (page 184).
In addition to Modoc materials, there are items which relate or may relate to the Shasta, Achomawi, Wintun and Yana. Possibly not all are in Curtin's handwriting.
Contents of file: (1) "Modoc Words." February 23, 1884. 34 pages total: vocabulary 24, 2 pages; myth, 2 pages (note on outside cover reads, "One Kumush story in this book"); notes on several myths which are identified by number only, 6 pages. This entire item may belong in file 2569. (2) "Customs. Information given by Jesse Pitt." Modoc. 9 pages, numbered 421-9. Marked "not to be used in "Modoc Myths;" see letter 7/8/12." This notation is crossed out. (3) "Medicine. The Doctor. This information was given by Koalak'aka. I afterward questioned the old men at Klamath Agency and found out that it was accurate." 8 pages numbered 414-20. Same notation as above, crossed out. (4) "Names of Places on the Triangle East of Redding and South of Pit River. Achomawi ? 30 pages. (5) Personal names, Achomawi ? Shasta ? Wintun ? Yana ? 15 pages. (6) Item moved to Yana vocabulary # 2060 (5/66) (7) Vocabulary. Tribe ? 6 pages. Mentions terms relating to Mt. Shasta page 2; Redding, page 3, Pit River, page 4, Maj. Redding, page 5, Stillwater, page 5. (8) Miscellaneous vocabulary notes. Tribes ? 7 pages.
NAA MS 3538
Customs. Information given by Jesse Pitt
Medicine. The Doctor.
Names of Places on the Triangle East of Redding and South of Pit River
According to note by Hewitt, many of these were published by Curtin or Mrs. Curtin. The material is not systematically arranged, and the unpublished material, if any, has not been identified as such. In 1959 two items, "Book 10, last book of stories in Modoc" (42 pages), and a myth, "The Bat" (2 pages), were added to this file from file Number 3538-- a miscellaneous collection of papers found in Hewitt's office in 1937; possibly these two items include unpublished material.
Title information from note by J.N.B. Hewitt.
Information from Don Hann, District Archaeologist, Bear Valley Ranger District, Malheur National Forest, 528 East Main Street, John Day, Oregon, 97845. November 29, 1992. Bureau of American Ethnology manuscripts #1299 and #2569 contain 2-330 pages of material (mostly myths) gathered from the Wintu and Losa (sp ?) Indians. I saw no indication that anyone knows that these documents contain anything but Modoc material. The Wintu are from Northern California but I've never heard of the Losa. Unfortunately these documents are very disorganized and I don't know which manuscript the material came from.
145 in number. List of Modoc myths: 1 Girl saved by a mountain- 1 page. 2 Five Gusessolam brothers- 1 page. 3 Nanihlas (Bat) 1 page. 4 Lok (Grizzly bear) and Koe (a large white bird) 1 page. 5 Skunk 1 page. 6 Tsasas (skunk) 1 page. 7 Lok steals the food of Pseutiwas 1 page. 8 Kumuc, Wicink (snake) and Mank (squirrel) 1 page. 9 Kumush 1 page. 10 Kumac and his daughter 1 page. 11 Wus and the three moons of winter 1 page. 12 Habits of Modoc women 1 page. 13 Wus (coyote) running with the clouds 1 page. 14 Limalimaas (thunder) is killed by the little boy Nulwi. 4 pages. 15 Kai makes two winter months out of five---2 pages. 16 Gwin-win- 2 pages. 17 Gak pretends to be dying, kills deer, meets Wus, kills Yemal, and then goes with Wus to the mountains. 5 pages. 18 Mice. 2 pages. 19 Lulusdewieas who went under the lava beds to Mt Shasta. 3 pages. 20 Tcackai and the old man with the ground hogs 2 pages. 21 The five Blaiwas brothers, or the man with the blue leg. 3 pages. 22 Swaia runs a race- 3 pages. 23 Skunk and the sister at Blaiwas- 24 Snow escapes from the bag- 3 pages. 25 Kawaduilala and her two grandsons who appear to Kiuks in dreams- 3 pages. 26 Wus disobeys the laws of swimming ponds and from a person is changed to an animal- 3 pages. 27 The five Utususamts brothers- 5 pages. 28 Tsasas (skunk) steals his sister's roots- 2 pages.
29 Kaiutsis brothers and Gak visit Skel- 4 pages. 30 Utususas and the ten birds- 3 pages. 31 Owl Rock teaches a young man to gamble- 3 pages. 32 Tcackai kills the five sons of Sok, is carried off by Sok, and saved by Skel. 4 pages. 33 Kumuc brings about a battle between the Swat and Djajak people. 4 pages. 34 Wus sent after the wandering fire by his mother 4 pages. 35 Neogiwuls (thrown out) and his father 6 pages. 36 The child was carried off by a Skoks 2 pages. 37 Kaiutsis (gray wolf) of Mlaiksi (Mount Shasta) 3 pages. 38 The son-in-law of Wamnuks (rattlesnake). 6 pages. 39 The Kiuks who was killed and entered into his mother's body. 3 pages. 40 Kaiutsiamts and his son-in-law Tsisgigi. 2 pages. 41 The man who wouldn't marry Buzzard's sister. 2 pages. 42 Tsakiak kills Kaiutssiamts. 2 pages. 43 Kumuc gets Daplal (duck) to destroy the fish dam. 2 pages. 44 Skel and his brother-in-law Dukdukwas. 3 pages. 45 Lolokokokas becomes a Skoks. 3 pages. 46 Wus meets the Water Basket and Fire drill brothers. 3 pages. 47 Trial of strength between Bat and Raven. 3 pages. 48 The son of Walkatckas and the Djaudjau sisters. 2 pages. 49 Bat hide the deer,. 3 pages.
NAA MS 1299
Girl saved by a mountain
Five Gusessolam brothers
Lok (Grizzly bear) and Koe (a large white bird)
Lok steals the food of Pseutiwas
Kumuc, Wicink (snake) and Mank (squirrel)
Kumac and his daughter
Wus and the three moons of winter
Habits of Modoc women
Wus (coyote) running with the clouds
Limalimaas (thunder) is killed by the little boy Nulwi
Kai makes two winter months out of five
Gak pretends to be dying, kills deer, meets Wus, kills Yemal, and then goes with Wus to the mountains
Lulusdewieas who went under the lava beds to Mt Shasta
Tcackai and the old man with the ground hogs
The five Blaiwas brothers, or the man with the blue leg
Swaia runs a race
Skunk and the sister at Blaiwas
Snow escapes from the bag
Kawaduilala and her two grandsons who appear to Kiuks in dreams
Wus disobeys the laws of swimming ponds and from a person is changed to an animal
The five Utususamts brothers
Tsasas (skunk) steals his sister's roots
Kaiutsis brothers and Gak visit Skel
Utususas and the ten birds
Owl Rock teaches a young man to gamble
Tcackai kills the five sons of Sok, is carried off by Sok, and saved by Skel
Kumuc brings about a battle between the Swat and Djajak people
Wus sent after the wandering fire by his mother
Neogiwuls (thrown out) and his father
The child that was carried off by a Skoks
Kaiutsis (gray wolf) of Mlaiksi (Mount Shasta)
The son-in-law of Wamnuks (rattlesnake)
The Kiuks who was killed and entered into his mother's body
Kaiutsiamts and his son-in-law Tsisgigi
The man who wouldn't marry Buzzard's sister
Tsakiak kills Kaiutssiamts
Kumuc gets Daplal (duck) to destroy the fish dam
Skel and his brother-in-law Dukdukwas
Lolokokokas becomes a Skoks
Wus meets the Water Basket and Fire drill brothers