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MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography

Creator:
Mallery, Garrick, 1831-1894  Search this
Extent:
41.29 Linear feet (22 boxes, 29 folders, 3 mounted drawings, and 3 rolled items)
Note:
Some materials, especially in series 3, are stored in the NAA artwork collection.
Culture:
Arctic peoples  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pictographs
Place:
Oceania
Date:
1849-1902
bulk 1870-1895
Summary:
Garrick Mallery (1831-1894) was an ethnologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology who focused primarily on Native American sign language and pictography. This collection reflects Mallery's research interests and methods. Much of the collection is comprised of correspondence and notes relating to sign language and pictography and is organized chiefly by either the cultural or geographic region to which the material belongs. Bound volumes of several of his publications are included, along with annotated draft copies from collaborators. In the case of Mallery's work on pictography, the collection includes several oversize items including original works and reproductions.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains Garrick Mallery's research and writings as a BAE ethnologist and is largely comprised of correspondence and preparatory materials for publications on Native American sign language and pictography. The geographic scope of the material is chiefly the present-day United States and Canada, though other areas of the world are represented less comprehensively. Correspondence and research notes include verbal descriptions of signs, sometimes with illustrations included. Bound volumes of Mallery's publications are included, along with annotations from collaborators. In addition, this collection includes notecards, drawings, illustrations, photographs, articles, and art objects. Art objects (mostly oversize) deal chiefly with Dakota winter counts and other artifacts.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into 3 series: 1) Research Notes, undated; 2) Materials on Sign Language, 1843-1849, 1873-1894; 3) Materials on Pictographs and Petroglyphs, 1849-1902, undated
Biographical Note:
Garrick Mallery (1831-1894) was born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania and practiced law in Philadelphia from 1853 until the outbreak of the American Civil War. While serving in the army, he became interested in Native American sign language and pictography, perhaps while performing his duties in frontier areas. After retiring from the military in 1879, Mallery was appointed to the newly created Bureau of American Ethnology as one of its first ethnologists. In his work with the Bureau, Mallery pioneered the study of sign language and pictographs, examining them as a universal human phenomenon with a direct link to spoken language.

In his work, Mallery collected and examined sign language vocabulary from Native American groups throughout the U.S. and Canada and regularly solicited contributions from collaborators. He also related his findings to examples from the wider world, comparing the formation of Native American signs to those in other areas by hearing individuals and by the deaf. Mallery completed several publications on the topic throughout the 1880s, notably Introduction to the Study of Sign language Among the North American Indians (1880), A Collection of Gesture- Signs and Signals of the North American Indians (1880), and "Sign-language among North American Indians Compared with that Among other People and Deaf-mutes," which appeared in the BAE 1st Annual Report (1881).

While most widely known for his work with sign language, Mallery also undertook extensive research into Native American pictography. Like his work with sign language, he both conducted original research and solicited assistance from collaborators. He was especially interested in the representational images in Dakota winter counts and petroglyphs in the United States and throughout the world.

Sources Consulted

Fletcher, Robert. "Garrick Mallery, President of the Philosophical Society of Washington, in 1888." In Brief Memoirs of Colonel Garrick Mallery, U.S.A., Who Died October 24, 1894, 3-8. Washington: Judd & Detweiler, 1895.

Fletcher, Robert. "Colonel Garrick Mallery, U.S.A." American Anthropologist 8, no. 2 (1895): 79-80.

Chronology

1831 -- Born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, on April 25

1850 -- Graduates Yale College

1853 -- Earns LL. B. from the University of Pennsylvania Admitted to the Pennsylvania bar

1853-1861 -- Practices law in Philadelphia

1861 -- Enters the volunteer army of the United States

1862 -- Severely wounded in the battle of Peach Orchard, Virginia Captured and held prisoner at Libby prison in Richmond, Virginia

1866 -- Completes service with volunteer army of the United States Accepts commission in regular army of the United States

1870 -- Marries Helen W. Wyckoff

1879 -- Retires from the United States army due to disability Appointed to the Bureau of American Ethnology

1880 -- Publishes Introduction to the Study of Sign-Language Among the North American Indians as Illustrating the Gesture-Speech of Mankind and A Collection of Gesture-Signs and Signals of the North American Indians With Some Comparisons

1881 -- Publishes "Sign Language Among North American Indians, Compared with that Among Other Peoples and Deaf-Mutes"

1894 -- Dies after a short illness in Washington, D.C., on October 24
Related Materials:
See MS 2322 A collection of gesture-signs and signals of the North American Indians for more of Garrick Mallery's work on sign language.
Provenance:
MS 2372 was transferred from the Bureau of Ethnology Archives to the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Archives with the merger of the BAE and the Department of Anthropology of the National Museum of Natural History in 1965. The Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Archives was renamed the National Anthropological Archives in 1968.
Restrictions:
Manuscript 2372 is open for research.

Access to Manuscript 2372 requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Sign language  Search this
Picture-writing  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Pictographs
Citation:
Manuscript 2372, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2372
See more items in:
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2372
Online Media:

Cloud Shield and American Horse winter counts

Collection Creator:
Mallery, Garrick, 1831-1894  Search this
Container:
Box 12
Cabinet Artwork
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1879
Scope and Contents:
Cloud Shield's Dakota Winter Count for Years 1777-1879, INV 08746901-08746922; American Horse's Dakota Winter Count for Years 1775-1879, INV 08746923-08746933.

Bound drawing book containing 33 drawings on recto and verso of 17 leaves. The first 22 pages of drawings are by Cloud Shield and represent a count of the years from 1777 to 1878; the next 11 pages of drawings are by American Horse and represent a count of the years from 1775 to 1878-79. Six leaves (probably blank) removed at back of volume. INV 08746901-08746933.
Collection Restrictions:
Manuscript 2372 is open for research.

Access to Manuscript 2372 requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 2372, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography / Series 3: Materials on Pictographs and Petroglyphs / 3.4: Correspondence, drawings, and photographs filed by artifact or Winter Count / Cloud Shield and American Horse Winter Counts
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms2372-ref1022

Battiste Good winter count

Collection Creator:
Mallery, Garrick, 1831-1894  Search this
Container:
Cabinet Artwork
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1880
Scope and Contents:
INV 08746800. Bound drawing book containing 19 pages of drawings in graphite, ink, and watercolor on recto surfaces; one small sketch and one page of inscriptions on verso. Four leaves (probably blank) removed at back of volume. The drawings represent a count of the years from 1700 to 1879 with 12 additional pages representing longer periods of years from 900 to 1700.
Collection Restrictions:
Manuscript 2372 is open for research.

Access to Manuscript 2372 requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 2372, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography / Series 3: Materials on Pictographs and Petroglyphs / 3.4: Correspondence, drawings, and photographs filed by artifact or Winter Count / Battiste Good's Winter Count / Battiste Good (Wa-Po-Ctan-Xi). Dakota Winter Count for Years 900-1880
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms2372-ref1137

Battiste Good (Wa-Po-Ctan-Xi). Dakota Winter Count for Years 900-1880

Collection Creator:
Mallery, Garrick, 1831-1894  Search this
Container:
Box 12
Cabinet Artwork
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1880
Scope and Contents:
Good produced this version of his winter count in a book provided by William H. Corbusier in 1880. Corbusier sent the winter count and associated interpretations to Col. Garrick Mallery of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Drawing (bound volume): INV 08746801-08746819.
Collection Restrictions:
Manuscript 2372 is open for research.

Access to Manuscript 2372 requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 2372, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography / Series 3: Materials on Pictographs and Petroglyphs / 3.4: Correspondence, drawings, and photographs filed by artifact or Winter Count / Battiste Good's Winter Count
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms2372-ref1314

Correspondence re: Dakota Winter Count

Collection Creator:
Mallery, Garrick, 1831-1894  Search this
Container:
Box 12
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1878-1891
Scope and Contents:
Dec 18, 1878, 2 pp.; Sept 8, 1884, Wm. H. Corbusier, 4 pp.; Postcard, Nov. 1883, Wm. H. Corbusier, 1 p.; May 11, 1887, Wm H. Corbusier, 4 pp.; Feb 12, 1891, Wm H. Corbusier, 2 pp.
Collection Restrictions:
Manuscript 2372 is open for research.

Access to Manuscript 2372 requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 2372, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography / Series 3: Materials on Pictographs and Petroglyphs / 3.4: Correspondence, drawings, and photographs filed by artifact or Winter Count / Dakota Winter Count
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms2372-ref1316

Dakota Winter, W. H. Corbusier

Collection Creator:
Mallery, Garrick, 1831-1894  Search this
Container:
Box 12
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
71 pp.
Collection Restrictions:
Manuscript 2372 is open for research.

Access to Manuscript 2372 requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 2372, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography / Series 3: Materials on Pictographs and Petroglyphs / 3.4: Correspondence, drawings, and photographs filed by artifact or Winter Count / Dakota Winter Count
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms2372-ref1317

List of names apparently from a winter count

Collection Creator:
Mallery, Garrick, 1831-1894  Search this
Container:
Box 12
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Manuscript 2372 is open for research.

Access to Manuscript 2372 requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 2372, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography / Series 3: Materials on Pictographs and Petroglyphs / 3.4: Correspondence, drawings, and photographs filed by artifact or Winter Count / Dakota Winter Count
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms2372-ref1318

Letter [concerning Dakota calendars], J. K. Homish [Honish?]

Collection Creator:
Mallery, Garrick, 1831-1894  Search this
Container:
Box 12
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1877 March 8
Scope and Contents:
12 pp.
Collection Restrictions:
Manuscript 2372 is open for research.

Access to Manuscript 2372 requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 2372, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography / Series 3: Materials on Pictographs and Petroglyphs / 3.4: Correspondence, drawings, and photographs filed by artifact or Winter Count / Dakota Winter Count
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms2372-ref1319

Rough draft of pp 89-127, BAE 4th Annual Report (1882-1883)

Collection Creator:
Mallery, Garrick, 1831-1894  Search this
Container:
Box 12
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1882
Collection Restrictions:
Manuscript 2372 is open for research.

Access to Manuscript 2372 requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 2372, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography / Series 3: Materials on Pictographs and Petroglyphs / 3.4: Correspondence, drawings, and photographs filed by artifact or Winter Count / Dakota Winter Count
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms2372-ref1320

Correspondence, drawings, and photographs filed by artifact or Winter Count

Collection Creator:
Mallery, Garrick, 1831-1894  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1870-1891
undated
Scope and Contents:
Documents pertaining to war robes and Dakota winter counts.
Collection Restrictions:
Manuscript 2372 is open for research.

Access to Manuscript 2372 requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 2372, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2372, Subseries 3.4
See more items in:
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography / Series 3: Materials on Pictographs and Petroglyphs
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms2372-ref27

Dakota

Collection Creator:
Mallery, Garrick, 1831-1894  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1877-1885
undated
Related Materials:
See sub-series 3.4 for drawings of Black Crow, and drawings and correspondence relating to Dakota Winter Counts.
Collection Restrictions:
Manuscript 2372 is open for research.

Access to Manuscript 2372 requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 2372, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography / Series 3: Materials on Pictographs and Petroglyphs / 3.3: Correspondence, drawings, and photographs filed by Native American tribe or subject
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms2372-ref447

Dakota Winter Count

Collection Creator:
Mallery, Garrick, 1831-1894  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1877-1891
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Manuscript 2372 is open for research.

Access to Manuscript 2372 requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 2372, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography / Series 3: Materials on Pictographs and Petroglyphs / 3.4: Correspondence, drawings, and photographs filed by artifact or Winter Count
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms2372-ref494

James Henri Howard Papers

Correspondent:
Woolworth, Alan R.  Search this
Weslager, C.A.  Search this
Witthoft, John, 1921-1993  Search this
Swauger, James Lee  Search this
Turnbull, Colin  Search this
Horn, Frances L.  Search this
Garcia, Louis  Search this
Fogelson, Raymond D.  Search this
Hodge, William  Search this
Hayink, J.  Search this
Feder, Norman  Search this
Ervin, Sam J. Jr  Search this
Feraca, Stephen E., 1934-  Search this
Feest, Christian F.  Search this
Cree, Charlie  Search this
Davis, Edward Mott  Search this
De Busk, Charles R.  Search this
Iadarola, Angelo  Search this
Brasser, Ted J.  Search this
Bunge, Gene  Search this
Cavendish, Richard  Search this
Clifton, James A.  Search this
DeMallie, Raymond  Search this
Blake, Leonard W.  Search this
Dean, Nora Thompson  Search this
Spier, Leslie, 1893-1961  Search this
Smith, John L.  Search this
Swanton, John Robert  Search this
Sturtevant, William C.  Search this
Peterson, John H.  Search this
Paredes, J. Anthony, 1939- (James Anthony)  Search this
Schleisser, Karl H.  Search this
Reed, Nelson A.  Search this
Medford, Claude W.  Search this
Lurie, Nancy Oestreich  Search this
Opler, Morris Edward  Search this
Nettl, Bruno, 1930-  Search this
Kraft, Herbert C.  Search this
Johnson, Michael G.  Search this
Lindsey-Levine, Victoria  Search this
Kurath, Gertrude  Search this
Adams, Richard N. (Richard Newbold), 1924-  Search this
Allen, James H.  Search this
Barksdale, Mary Lee  Search this
Battise, Jack  Search this
Creator:
Howard, James H., 1925-1982 (James Henri)  Search this
Names:
Lone Star Steel Company  Search this
Extent:
10.25 Linear feet
Culture:
Seminole  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Shawnee  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Chickasaw  Search this
Choctaw  Search this
Yanktonnai Nakota (Yankton Sioux)  Search this
Seneca  Search this
Euchee (Yuchi)  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Iroquois  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Mi'kmaq (Micmac)  Search this
Kickapoo  Search this
Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)  Search this
Menominee (Menomini)  Search this
Lenape (Delaware)  Search this
Oto  Search this
Tonkawa  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Oklahoma -- Archeology
Date:
1824-1992
bulk 1950-1982
Summary:
To a considerable degree, the James H. Howard papers consist of manuscript copies of articles, book, speeches, and reviews that document his professional work in anthropology, ethnology, ethnohistory, archeology, linguistics, musicology, and folklore between 1950 and 1982. Among these are a few unpublished items. Notes are relatively scant, there being somewhat appreciable materials for the Chippewa, Choctaw, Creek, Dakota, Omaha, Ponca, Seminole, and Shawnee. The chief field materials represented in the collection are sound recordings and photographs, but many of the latter are yet to be unidentified. A series of color photographs of Indian artifacts in folders are mostly identified and represent the extensive American Indian Cultural collection of costumes and artifacts that Howard acquired and created. Other documents include copies of papers and other research materials of colleagues. There is very little original material related to archeological work in the collection and that which is present concerns contract work for the Lone State Steel Company.
Scope and Contents:
The James Henri Howard papers document his research and professional activities from 1949-1982 and primarily deal with his work as an anthropologist, archeologist, and ethnologist, studying Native American languages & cultures. The collection consists of Series 1 correspondence; Series 2 writings and research, which consists of subject files (language and culture research materials), manuscripts, research proposals, Indian claim case materials, Howard's publications, publications of others, and bibliographical materials; Series 3 sound recordings of Native American music and dance; Series 4 photographs; and Series 5 drawings and artwork.

Howard was also a linguist, musicologist, and folklorist, as well as an informed and able practitioner in the fields of dance and handicrafts. His notable books include Choctaw Music and Dance; Oklahoma Seminoles: Medicines, Magic, and Religion; and Shawnee! The Ceremonialism of a Native American Tribe and its Cultural Backround.

Some materials are oversize, specifcially these three Winter Count items: 1. a Dakota Winter Count made of cloth in 1953 at the request of James H. Howard, 2. a drawing of British Museum Winter Count on 4 sheets of paper, and 3. Photographs of a Winter Count.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 5 series: Series 1. Correspondence, 1960-1982, undated; Series 2. Writings and Research, 1824-1992; Series 3. Sound Recordings, 1960-1979; Series 4. Photographs, 1879-1985; Series 5. Drawings and Artwork, 1928-1982.
Chronology:
1925 -- James Henri Howard was born on September 10 in Redfield, South Dakota.

1949 -- Received his Bachelor of Arts from the University of Nebraska.

1950 -- Received his Master of Arts from the University of Nebraska and began a prolific record of publishing.

1950-1953 -- Began his first professional employment as an archaeologist and preparator at the North Dakota State Historical Museum in Bismarck.

1955-1957 -- Was a museum lecturer at the Kansas City (Missouri) Museum.

1957 -- James H. Howard received his Ph.D. at the University of Michigan. Joined the staff of the Smithsonian's River Basin Surveys in the summer.

1957-1963 -- Taught anthropology at the University of North Dakota.

1962 -- Chief archeologist at the Fortress of Louisberg Archeological Project in Nova Scotia.

1963-1968 -- Taught anthropology at the University of South Dakota; State Archeologist of South Dakota; Director of the W. H. Over Dakota Museum.

1963-1966 -- Director of the Institute of Indian Studies, University of South Dakota.

1968-1982 -- Associate professor of anthropology at Oklahoma State University at Stillwater (became a full professor in 1971).

1979 -- Consulted for exhibitions at the Western Heritage Museum in Omaha, Nebraska.

1982 -- Died October 1 after a brief illness.
Biographical/Historical note:
James H. Howard was trained in anthropology at the University of Nebraska (B.A., 1949; M.A., 1950) and the University of Michigan (Ph.D., 1957). In 1950-1953, he served as archeologist and preparator at the North Dakota State Historical Museum; and, in 1955-1957, he was on the staff of the Kansas City (Missouri) Museum. During the summer of 1957, he joined the staff of the Smithsonian's River Basin Surveys. Between 1957 and 1963, he taught anthropology at the Universtity of North Dakota. Between 1963 and 1968, he served in several capacities with the University of South Dakota including assistant and associate professor, director of the Institute of Indian Studies (1963-1966), and Director of the W.H. Over Museum (1963-1968). In 1968, he joined the Department of Sociology at Oklahoma State University, where he achieved the rank of professor in 1970. In 1979, he was a consultant for exhibitions at the Western Heritage Museum in Omaha, Nebraska.

Howard's abiding interest were the people of North America, whom he studied both as an ethnologist and archeologist. Between 1949 and 1982, he worked with the Ponca, Omaha, Yankton and Yaktonai Dakota, Yamasee, Plains Ojibwa (or Bungi), Delaware, Seneca-Cayuga, Prairie Potatwatomi of Kansas, Mississipi and Oklahoma Choctaw, Oklahoma Seminole, and Pawnee. His interest in these people varied from group to group. With some he carried out general culture studies; with other, special studies of such phenomena as ceremonies, art, dance, and music. For some, he was interest in environmental adaptation and land use, the latter particularly for the Pawnee, Yankton Dakota, Plains Ojibwa, Turtle Mountain Chippewa, and Ponca, for which he served as consultant and expert witness in suits brought before the United Stated Indian Claims Commisssion. A long-time museum man, Howard was also interested in items of Indian dress, articles associated with ceremonies, and other artifacts. He was "a thoroughgoing participant-observer and was a member of the Ponca Hethuska Society, a sharer in ceremonial activities of many Plains tribes, and a first-rate 'powwow man'." (American Anthropologist 1986, 88:692).

As an archeologist, Howard worked at Like-a-Fishhook Village in North Dakota, Spawn Mound and other sites in South Dakota, Gavin Point in Nebraska and South Dakota, Weston and Hogshooter sites in Oklahoma, and the Fortess of Louisbourg in Nova Scotia. He also conducted surveys for the Lone Star Steel Company in Haskall, Latimer, Le Flore and Pittsburg counties in Oklahoma.
Related Materials:
Howard's American Indian Cultural Collection of Costumes and Artifacts, that he acquired and created during his lifetime, is currently located at the Milwaukee Public Museum. In Boxes 19-21 of the James Henri Howard Papers, there are photographs with accompanying captions and descriptions in binders of his American Indian Cultural Collection of Costumes and Artifacts that his widow, Elfriede Heinze Howard, created in order to sell the collection to a museum.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by James Henri Howard's wife, Elfriede Heinz Howard, in 1988-1990, 1992, & 1994.
Restrictions:
The James Henri Howard papers are open for research. Access to the James Henri Howard papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Ethnology -- United States  Search this
Ethnomusicology  Search this
Folklore -- American Indian  Search this
Powwows  Search this
Citation:
James Henri Howard Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1994-30
See more items in:
James Henri Howard Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1994-30
Online Media:

Manuscripts of Writings by Howard

Collection Correspondent:
Woolworth, Alan R.  Search this
Weslager, C.A.  Search this
Witthoft, John, 1921-1993  Search this
Swauger, James Lee  Search this
Turnbull, Colin  Search this
Horn, Frances L.  Search this
Garcia, Louis  Search this
Fogelson, Raymond D.  Search this
Hodge, William  Search this
Hayink, J.  Search this
Feder, Norman  Search this
Ervin, Sam J. Jr  Search this
Feraca, Stephen E., 1934-  Search this
Feest, Christian F.  Search this
Cree, Charlie  Search this
Davis, Edward Mott  Search this
De Busk, Charles R.  Search this
Iadarola, Angelo  Search this
Brasser, Ted J.  Search this
Bunge, Gene  Search this
Cavendish, Richard  Search this
Clifton, James A.  Search this
DeMallie, Raymond  Search this
Blake, Leonard W.  Search this
Dean, Nora Thompson  Search this
Spier, Leslie, 1893-1961  Search this
Smith, John L.  Search this
Swanton, John Robert  Search this
Sturtevant, William C.  Search this
Peterson, John H.  Search this
Paredes, J. Anthony, 1939- (James Anthony)  Search this
Schleisser, Karl H.  Search this
Reed, Nelson A.  Search this
Medford, Claude W.  Search this
Lurie, Nancy Oestreich  Search this
Opler, Morris Edward  Search this
Nettl, Bruno, 1930-  Search this
Kraft, Herbert C.  Search this
Johnson, Michael G.  Search this
Lindsey-Levine, Victoria  Search this
Kurath, Gertrude  Search this
Collection Creator:
Howard, James H., 1925-1982 (James Henri)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1951-1989
Scope and Contents:
Subseries 2.2 consists of manuscripts of Howard's work in archeology, including sites in Oklahoma, Nova Scotia, North Dakota, and South Dakota; anthropology and ethnology of some tribes of the Plains and Southeast; winter counts; book reviews that he wrote. It also contains manuscripts and materials he created when writing the books Choctaw Music and Dance and Shawnee! The Ceremonialism of a Native American Tribe and it Cultural Background.
Arrangement:
Subseries 2.2 is arranged alphabetically.
Collection Restrictions:
The James Henri Howard papers are open for research. Access to the James Henri Howard papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
James Henri Howard Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1994-30, Subseries 2.2
See more items in:
James Henri Howard Papers
James Henri Howard Papers / Series 2: Writings and Research
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1994-30-ref16

Howard, James H. 1955. "Two Dakota Winter Counts Texts." The Plains Anthropologist 5:13-30

Collection Correspondent:
Woolworth, Alan R.  Search this
Weslager, C.A.  Search this
Witthoft, John, 1921-1993  Search this
Swauger, James Lee  Search this
Turnbull, Colin  Search this
Horn, Frances L.  Search this
Garcia, Louis  Search this
Fogelson, Raymond D.  Search this
Hodge, William  Search this
Hayink, J.  Search this
Feder, Norman  Search this
Ervin, Sam J. Jr  Search this
Feraca, Stephen E., 1934-  Search this
Feest, Christian F.  Search this
Cree, Charlie  Search this
Davis, Edward Mott  Search this
De Busk, Charles R.  Search this
Iadarola, Angelo  Search this
Brasser, Ted J.  Search this
Bunge, Gene  Search this
Cavendish, Richard  Search this
Clifton, James A.  Search this
DeMallie, Raymond  Search this
Blake, Leonard W.  Search this
Dean, Nora Thompson  Search this
Spier, Leslie, 1893-1961  Search this
Smith, John L.  Search this
Swanton, John Robert  Search this
Sturtevant, William C.  Search this
Peterson, John H.  Search this
Paredes, J. Anthony, 1939- (James Anthony)  Search this
Schleisser, Karl H.  Search this
Reed, Nelson A.  Search this
Medford, Claude W.  Search this
Lurie, Nancy Oestreich  Search this
Opler, Morris Edward  Search this
Nettl, Bruno, 1930-  Search this
Kraft, Herbert C.  Search this
Johnson, Michael G.  Search this
Lindsey-Levine, Victoria  Search this
Kurath, Gertrude  Search this
Collection Creator:
Howard, James H., 1925-1982 (James Henri)  Search this
Container:
Box 13
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1955
Collection Restrictions:
The James Henri Howard papers are open for research. Access to the James Henri Howard papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
James Henri Howard Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
James Henri Howard Papers
James Henri Howard Papers / Series 2: Writings and Research / 2.5: Printed Publications by Howard / 1950-1955
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1994-30-ref175

MS 2002-28 Kiowa calendar on canvas

Extent:
1 Item (pictorial calendar 77 drawings, graphite and colored pencil, 10 x 213 cm.)
Culture:
Kiowa  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pictographs
Ledger drawings
Date:
1862-1901
Scope and Contents:
The calendar consists of 77 entries drawn on a piece of coarse cotton cloth with one selvedge edge and one edge machine hemmed. The entries begin near one end of the strip and move from left to right in a staggered linear sequence, stopping well short of the opposite end. Summer and winter entries alternate, with the register of summer entries drawn above the register of winter entries. A green forked pole accompanies pictures for summers when the Medicine Lodge ceremony was held. A yellow diamond outlined in blue indicates winter seasons. The calendar covers the period between 1862 and 1901. No information is known about the original production of this calendar.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2002-28
Local Note:
The collection record is based on information presented in Candace S. Greene and Russell Thornton, The Years the Stars Fell: Lakota Winter Counts at the Smithsonian, University of Nebraska Press, in press.
Album Information:
MS 2002-28 000
Genre/Form:
Pictographs
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 2002-28, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2002-28
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2002-28
Online Media:

MS 4444 Blackfoot picture writings translated by Richard Sanderville

Translator:
Bull Head, (Blackfeet chief)  Search this
Transcriber:
Carter, John Galen, 1891-1941  Search this
Creator:
Roman Nose, (Lakota chief)  Search this
Cloud Shield  Search this
American Horse, 1840-1908  Search this
Names:
Sitting Bull, 1831-1890  Search this
Extent:
32 Pages
7 Photographs
Culture:
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Photographs
Pictographs
Date:
June 13-18, 1934
Scope and Contents:
Dictated by Sanderville; written down by John G. Carter. Contents: Sitting Bull's Autobiographies (Dakota Number 1929); Wind River petroglyphs (Bureau of American Ethnology-AR 10, Figure 97); Madison River grave writings (Negative Numbers 215-b, 1-26); Roman Nose drawings (Dakota, Number 31303); Cloud Shield and American Horse winter counts (Dakota, Number 3203); petroglyphs in Black Hills (photographs with this manuscript).
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4444
Local Note:
Typescript and manuscript document
Topic:
Winter counts -- Dakota  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Genre/Form:
Pictographs -- Dakota
Photographs
Citation:
Manuscript 4444, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4444
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4444
Online Media:

MS 2261 Oglala Sioux Names for Years from A.D. 1759 to A.D. 1919

Creator:
ANONYMOUS  Search this
Extent:
5 Pages
Culture:
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
undated
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2261
Local Note:
Carbon typescript
Topic:
Sioux  Search this
Dakota Indians  Search this
Oglala Indians  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 2261, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2261
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2261

MS 2001-10 Anonymous Lakota winter count on muslin

Extent:
1 Drawing (pencil, ink, and watercolor on muslin, 89 x 176 cm.)
Culture:
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
n.d
Scope and Contents:
Pictorial calendar drawn on muslin in spiral form beginning at the center, covering the years 1752-3 to 1886-87. There is no documentation regarding who created the winter count. It is believed to have been collected on the Rosebud Reservation by John Anderson.
Biographical / Historical:
John Anderson (1869-1949) homesteaded in Cherry County, Nebraska in 1883; by 1885 he was working for rhe US Army at Fort Niobrara. He became a photographer and took hundreds of photographs of the landscape and people of Nebraska and South Dakota, particularly of people on the nearby Rosebud Reservation. Many of his negatives are now in the collection of the Nebraska Historical Society. He also assembled a collection of Indian material, now in the Sioux Indian Museum in Rapid City, South Dakota.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2001-10
Place:
United States Dakota Territory Rosebud Indian Reservation.
United States South Dakota Rosebud Indian Reservation.
Album Information:
MS 2001-10
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 2001-10, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2001-10
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2001-10
Online Media:

MS 3031 Dakota winter counts

Collector:
Hiatt, Harvey Marion, 1869-1953  Search this
Creator:
Iron Dog, Dakota  Search this
Extent:
2 Items (photographic prints )
Culture:
Sioux  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pictographs
Photographic prints
Date:
1923
Scope and Contents:
First print collates pictographs from nine winter counts depicting the meteor shower of 1833. MS (?) identifications on the back are by Hiatt. This print also reproduces a fanciful drawing entitled "The Sioux Historian." Second print is of Iron Dog's winter count, apparently owned by Hiatt, marked "Copyright 1923"; very badly faded.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 3031
Topic:
Winter counts -- Dakota  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Genre/Form:
Pictographs -- Dakota
Photographic prints
Citation:
Manuscript 3031, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS3031
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms3031

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