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Du-cór-re-a, Chief of the Tribe, and His Family

Artist:
George Catlin, born Wilkes-Barre, PA 1796-died Jersey City, NJ 1872  Search this
Sitter:
DU-CUR-RE-A  Search this
Medium:
oil on canvas
Dimensions:
29 x 24 in. (73.7 x 60.9 cm)
Type:
Painting
Date:
1830?
Topic:
Figure group  Search this
Ethnic\Indian  Search this
Ethnic\Indian\Winnebago  Search this
Portrait group\family  Search this
Portrait male  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr.
Object number:
1985.66.199-206
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Painting and Sculpture
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk71d83a560-55c2-4d6f-8688-aba77f72a315
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1985.66.199-206

Reuben Snake papers

Writer of accompanying material:
Snake, Reuben, 1937-1993  Search this
Names:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
National Tribal Chairmen's Association  Search this
Native American Church of North America  Search this
Extent:
1.25 Linear feet (3 archival boxes)
Culture:
Winnebago Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Writings
Biographies
Obituaries
Correspondence
Biography files
Interviews
Reports
Date:
1970-1996
Summary:
The Reuben A. Snake, Jr. Papers, located in the Cultural Resource Center of the National Museum of the American Indian, contain writings, correspondence, biographical materials, and written materials relating to the Native American Church which document the literary and political activities of this Winnebago tribal leader.
Scope and Contents:
The Reuben Snake Papers encompass original writings by Snake, correspondence, biographical materials, and written materials relating to Reuben's activism on behalf of the Native American Church.

Also included in this collection are video and audio tapes that contain interviews, talks, radio broadcasts, and other orally and visually transmitted items. These materials have been transferred to the NMAI Media Archives. All photographs have been transferred to the NMAI Photo Archives.
Arrangement:
The Reuben Snake papers are divided into four series:

Series 1, Writings, (undated, 1972-1993),

Series 2, Correspondence (undated, 1982-1996),

Series 3, Biographical (undated, 1985-1996),

Series 4, Native American Church (1971-1993)
Biographical / Historical:
Reuben A. Snake, Jr. was born January 12, 1937 at Winnebago, Nebraska, the youngest child of Reuben Harold and Virginia Greyhair Snake. Reuben's mother divorced her husband and later remarried, but Reuben's early life was fraught with hardships, including a period of separation from his parents and siblings. When the family's financial situation improved, parents and children were able to reunite and eventually settled in Hastings, Minnesota.

Reuben entered Haskell Institute in Lawrence, Kansas, in 1950 but later dropped out due to problems with alcohol. He joined the Army in 1956, from which he was honorably discharged, and two years later he married Kathy McKee, with whom he raised four daughters and two sons. In 1965 he quit drinking.

Reuben was active in the American Indian Movement (AIM) in the 1970s and organized many demonstrations during his tenure as national chairman of that organization. After being elected chairman of the Winnebago tribe, Reuben reorganized the tribe, centralizing its administration and improving funding and accountability. Reuben was involved with educational issues as well, serving on education committees for the National Congress of American Indians and the National Tribal Chairman's Association. He worked both nationally and internationally to help make more widely known issues of Indian health, education, and religious freedom.

Reuben began to renew his spiritual and cultural ties with the Native American Church in the 1970s and eventually became a Roadman for the church. With the help of Senator Daniel Inouye from Hawaii he fought judicial battles to legalize the importation of peyote from Mexico for use in sacramental ceremonies. In 1990, when the United States Supreme Court ruled that the sacred use of peyote was not protected by the Constitution, Reuben became the official spokesperson for the Native American Church to educate the public about church philosophy and history. He organized the Native American Religious Freedom Project to lobby for national legislation what would amend and strengthen the American Indian Religious Freedom Act.

Reuben had suffered a major heart attack in 1986, and by the early 1990s, his health was deteriorating. He died on June 28, 1993. Reuben did not live to see the results of his hard work on behalf of Native American religious freedom, Amendments to the American Indian Religious Freedom Act, which President Clinton signed into law in October, 1994. These amendments protected the religious use of peyote by Indians.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Kathy Snake in 2006.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the Archivist of the National Museum of the American Indian. Please submit a written request to NMAIArchives@si.edu. Copyright vested in Reuben A. Snake, Jr. has not passed to the National Museum of the American Indian; researchers are responsible for determining any other copyright questions.
Topic:
Peyote  Search this
Function:
American Indian Movement
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Writings
Biographies
Obituaries
Correspondence
Biography files
Interviews
Reports
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Reuben A. Snake, Jr. Papers, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.012
See more items in:
Reuben Snake papers
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-012

Bag

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Possible collector:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Previous owner:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Seller:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Object Name:
Bag
Media/Materials:
Wool yarn
Techniques:
Twined
Object Type:
Bags/Pouches (and parts)
Place:
Nebraska; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
10/3095
Barcode:
103095.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Bags/Pouches (and parts)
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws64ab458bb-8846-4921-a4bb-6a8412ffdb5c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_110874
Online Media:

Awl

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Possible collector:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Previous owner:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Seller:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Object Name:
Awl
Media/Materials:
Antler, iron point
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Tools and Equipment (General)
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
14/1085
Barcode:
141085.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Tools and Equipment (General)
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws62f7892de-b821-4527-81af-ce58f18734b0
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_151228
Online Media:

Sash/Belt

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Possible collector:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Previous owner:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Seller:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Object Name:
Sash/Belt
Media/Materials:
Wool yarn
Techniques:
Fingerwoven
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Accessories
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
14/1031
Barcode:
141031.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Clothing/Garments: Accessories
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6c1efcc1d-071c-41eb-8fe9-0fe58f603265
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_151579
Online Media:

Bag

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Possible collector:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Previous owner:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Seller:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Object Name:
Bag
Media/Materials:
Wool yarn
Techniques:
Twined
Object Type:
Bags/Pouches (and parts)
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
14/917
Barcode:
140917.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Bags/Pouches (and parts)
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6ab7ce9f8-024e-4696-a30a-0a50c128dffe
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_151056
Online Media:

Bag

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Previous owner:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Seller:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Object Name:
Bag
Media/Materials:
Wool yarn
Techniques:
Twined
Object Type:
Bags/Pouches (and parts)
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
16/9329
Barcode:
169329.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Bags/Pouches (and parts)
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6e30892ae-a46c-47ac-996c-267ae0aafac7
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_181456
Online Media:

Boy's leggings

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Possible collector:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Previous owner:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Seller:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Object Name:
Boy's leggings
Media/Materials:
Deerhide/deerskin, paint, wool cloth, hide thong/babiche
Techniques:
Sewn, painted, fringed
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments
Place:
Nebraska; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
10/3151
Barcode:
103151.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Clothing/Garments
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws67326bfbe-dab4-414b-b8ba-13d10768c19f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_111458
Online Media:

Brooch

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Previous owner:
Samuel A. Combs (S. A. Combs), Non-Indian, 1846-1926  Search this
Seller:
Samuel A. Combs (S. A. Combs), Non-Indian, 1846-1926  Search this
Object Name:
Brooch
Media/Materials:
German silver ("nickel silver"/copper-nickel alloy)
Techniques:
Hammered, cutout
Object Type:
Adornment/Jewelry
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Date created:
1870-1900
Catalog Number:
11/7637
Barcode:
117637.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Adornment/Jewelry
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6e8bf8be3-e389-4185-ac75-33ac7e818e2e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_126774
Online Media:

Necklace

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Possible collector:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Previous owner:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Seller:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Object Name:
Necklace
Media/Materials:
Glass bead/beads
Techniques:
Strung
Object Type:
Medicines/Remedies
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
14/1053
Barcode:
141053.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Medicines/Remedies
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6ece3a7c2-3d6a-4bab-9314-9be3623045a5
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_151196
Online Media:

Rattle (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Possible collector:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Previous owner:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Seller:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Object Name:
Rattle (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Gourd, wood
Techniques:
Cut
Object Type:
Music and Sound
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
14/997
Barcode:
140997.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Music and Sound
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6f450b810-8576-4731-81b2-790adeb83da9
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_151545

Brooch

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Possible collector:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Previous owner:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Seller:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Object Name:
Brooch
Media/Materials:
Silver
Techniques:
Hammered, cutout, stamped
Object Type:
Adornment/Jewelry
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Date created:
1870-1920
Catalog Number:
14/1101
Barcode:
141101.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Adornment/Jewelry
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6666064cf-fe7d-4407-87ca-04cb9da9eb4f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_151601
Online Media:

Woman's moccasins

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Previous owner:
Thomas P. Hedges, Non-Indian  Search this
Seller:
Thomas P. Hedges, Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Woman's moccasins
Media/Materials:
Hide
Techniques:
Ribbonwork appliqué
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Footwear
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
17/5271
Barcode:
175271.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Clothing/Garments: Footwear
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6a49e0939-f7e2-4f10-bd56-cd7527a62963
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_187638
Online Media:

Spoon/Ladle

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Previous owner:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Seller:
Dr. William Clark Barnard (Dr. W. C. Barnard), Non-Indian, 1870-1945  Search this
Object Name:
Spoon/Ladle
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Food/Beverage Serving
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
16/9439
Barcode:
169439.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Food/Beverage Serving
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6e6251663-0bfd-415f-ab01-d4db5b86ddcd
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_181567
Online Media:

Cupping horn

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Collector:
Melvin R. Gilmore (Melvin Randolph Gilmore), Non-Indian, 1868-1940  Search this
Object Name:
Cupping horn
Media/Materials:
Cow horn
Techniques:
Cut
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items: Doctor's items
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
12/6124
Barcode:
126124.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Ceremonial/Ritual items: Doctor's items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6284db8b9-897e-44ae-b234-94f61ecafd77
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_135667
Online Media:

Necklace

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Previous owner:
Oliver La Mere (Oliver LaMere), Winnebago [Nebraska], 1879-1930  Search this
Collector:
Melvin R. Gilmore (Melvin Randolph Gilmore), Non-Indian, 1868-1940  Search this
Object Name:
Necklace
Media/Materials:
Mescal beans, twine/string
Techniques:
Strung
Object Type:
Adornment/Jewelry
Place:
Winnebago, Winnebago Reservation; Thurston County; Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
12/6256
Barcode:
126256.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Adornment/Jewelry
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws61c0cb03d-4f0d-4684-ba28-db59893bea14
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_135829
Online Media:

Man's leggings

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Possible collector:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Previous owner:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Seller:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Object Name:
Man's leggings
Media/Materials:
Wool cloth, ribbon, glass bead/beads
Techniques:
Sewn, overlay beadwork
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
14/932
Barcode:
140932.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Clothing/Garments
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6042fdff5-8418-440d-9523-688fe6269c0a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_151072
Online Media:

Charm bag (No image available)

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Previous owner:
David T. Vernon (David Thomas Vernon/David C. Vernon), Non-Indian, 1900-1973  Search this
Jackson Hole Preserve, Inc. (Jackson Hole Preserve, Incorporated), 1940-  Search this
Object Name:
Charm bag (No image available)
Media/Materials:
Glass bead/beads
Techniques:
Sewn
Object Type:
Personal items
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
24/2320
Barcode:
242320.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Personal items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6a4cabac1-f237-4990-9c8c-2594b7a82fd4
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_258017

Hide-tanning paddle

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Possible collector:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Previous owner:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Seller:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Object Name:
Hide-tanning paddle
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Hide working tools
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
14/964
Barcode:
140964.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Hide working tools
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6e520ccec-eec8-49a9-84f1-5d59dd1e3966
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_151106
Online Media:

Garters/Legbands

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Possible collector:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Previous owner:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Seller:
Milford G. Chandler (M.G. Chandler), Non-Indian, 1889-1981  Search this
Object Name:
Garters/Legbands
Media/Materials:
Glass bead/beads, wool yarn
Techniques:
Loom beadwork
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Accessories
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
14/1058
Barcode:
141058.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Clothing/Garments: Accessories
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws67f85fc89-1fb4-499d-86d9-a702c20e179c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_151201
Online Media:

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