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Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection

Creator:
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Names:
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
United States. Department of the Interior  Search this
Extent:
3,710 Photographic prints (29 photograph albums)
3 Linear feet
1430 Negatives (photographic) (acetate)
325 Lantern slides (colored)
Culture:
Oklahoma Cherokee  Search this
Oklahoma Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Osage  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Sioux [Crow Creek]  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Oklahoma Seminole  Search this
Quapaw  Search this
Miami [Oklahoma]  Search this
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Oto  Search this
Sioux [Crow Creek]  Search this
Chickasaw  Search this
Modoc  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Kaw (Kansa)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Cahuilla  Search this
Chemehuevi  Search this
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Isleta Pueblo  Search this
K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo)  Search this
Kumeyaay (Diegueño)  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Payómkawichum (Luiseño)  Search this
Mescalero Apache  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo)  Search this
Picuris Pueblo  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Puye Pueblo  Search this
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
San Carlos Apache  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Minnesota Chippewa  Search this
Lake Superior Chippewa  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Menominee (Menomini)  Search this
Pechanga Band Luiseño  Search this
Rincon Band Luiseño  Search this
Santa Ysabel (Santa Isabela) Diegueño  Search this
Pala Band Luiseño (Agua Caliente)  Search this
Yuit (Siberian Yup'ik)  Search this
Inupiaq (Alaskan Inupiat Eskimo)  Search this
Bering Strait Inupiaq  Search this
Alutiiq (Pacific Eskimo)  Search this
Tlingit  Search this
Eastern Band of Cherokee  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Wahpetonwan Dakota (Wahpeton Sioux)  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Negatives (photographic)
Lantern slides
Photographs
Photograph albums
Place:
Utah
Alaska
Oklahoma
Washington
Florida
Montana
Arizona
Arkansas
Missouri
North Carolina
Minnesota
New Mexico
California
Date:
1880-1928
bulk 1899-1909
Summary:
The Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection includes photographic negatives, photo albums, lantern slides, journals, scrapbooks and other documents created and compiled by the Churchills over the course of Frank's career as a special agent and Indian Inspector for the Department of the Interior between 1899 and 1909. Initially assigned as a revenue collector to the Cherokee Nation and later as an Indian Inspector reviewing boarding schools, Frank's assignments took him all over the United States including Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), Missouri, Texas, Nebraska, Kansas, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, California, Florida, North Carolina and Alaska. During this time the Churchills visited over 80 different Native communities shooting photographs and taking notes.
Scope and Contents:
The Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection includes 1430 photographic negatives, 29 photo albums containing 3710 photographic prints, 325 lantern slides, and 3 linear feet of journals, scrapbooks, and other documents created and compiled by the Churchills over the course of Frank's career as a special agent and Indian Inspector for the Department of the Interior between 1899 and 1909.

Series 1: Photographs in Indian Territory (Oklahoma): Muskogee, Tahlequah, Sulphur Springs and Other Assignments, 1899-1903, includes 11 photo albums and 357 negatives from Frank Churchill's original assignment as revenue collector to the Cherokee Nation. Locations include Indian Territory (Oklahoma) [bulk], Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, South Dakota, Arkansas, and Missouri. The Native communities visited and photographed in this series include— Oklahoma Cherokee, Oklahoma Muskogee (Creek), Quapaw, Osage, Miami, Wyandotte [Oklahoma], Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne), Winnebago [Nebraska], Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma], Ponca, Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee), Oto, Sioux [Crow Creek], Kaw (Kansa), Chickasaw, Modoc, Kiowa, Choctaw.

Series 2: Photographs in the Southwest and Midwest: Arizona, New Mexico, Califonia, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 1903-1907, includes 9 photo albums and 832 negatives from Frank Churchill's assignment as an Indian Inspector. Because the Churchills visited some of the same locations on multiple occasions, it has been hard to date some of the negatives. For that reason, all the negatives made in the Southwest have been included in this series, though there are two photo albums with Southwest photographs included in Series 4. Locations in this series includes Arizona, New Mexico, California, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The Native Communities visited and photographed in this series include—A:shiwi (Zuni), Diné (Navajo), Acoma Pueblo, Akimel O'odham (Pima), Cahuilla, Chemehuevi, Cochiti Pueblo, Hopi Pueblo, Isleta Pueblo, K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo), Kumeyaay (Diegueño), Laguna Pueblo, Luiseño (Luiseno), Mescalero Apache, Mojave (Mohave), Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo), Picuris Pueblo, Piipaash (Maricopa), Puye Pueblo, Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), San Carlos Apache, Taos Pueblo, Tohono O'odham (Papago).

Series 3: Photographs in Alaska and Oregon, 1905-1910 (bulk 1905), includes four photograph albums and 71 negatives from Frank Churchill's appointment as special agent, by President Roosevelt, to investigate the condition of the school & reindeer service and other affairs in Alaska in the summer and fall of 1905. Two of the albums were not made by the Churchills. The first of these (Box 20) includes photographs by William Hamilton and the second (Box 21) includes photographs by W. T. Lopp. Locations in Alaska include St. Lawrence Island, Nuwukmiut/Point Barrow, Teller, Diomedes Islands, Nome, Kotzebue, Wrangell, Port Clarence Bay, Unalaska Island and Baranof Island. There are a number of photographs aboard the U.S. Cutter "Bear" and aboard the mailboat "Georgia." Native communities photographed include—Yuit (Siberian Yup'ik), Inupiaq (Alaskan Inupiat Eskimo), Bering Strait Inupiaq [Diomedes], Alutiiq (Pacific Eskimo), Tlingit.

Series 4: Photographs in Arizona, Utah, North Carolina, Montana, North Dakota, Florida and Miscellaneous, 1907-1909, includes five photograph albums and 163 negatives from Frank Churchill's assignment at Indian Inspector. Because the Churchills visited some of the same locations in the Southwest (Arizona and Utah) on multiple occasions, it has been hard to date some of the negatives. For that reason, all the negatives made in the Southwest have been included in Series 3. Locations include Arizona, Utah, North Carolina, Montana, North Dakota and Florida. Native communities visited and photographed include-Diné (Navajo), Hopi Pueblo, Kaibab Paiute, Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), Eastern Band of Cherokee, Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan), Wahpetonwan Dakota [Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe], Turtle Mountain Chippewa, Seminole. There is restricted material in Box 23 (Album P23380).

Series 5: Non-Native Photographs: Colorado Vacation, Lebanon, New Hampshire, and other Materials, 1898-1913, includes four photograph albums from vacations and other visits made by the Churchills unrelated to Frank's activities as Indian Inspector.

Series 6: Manuscripts: Journals, Documents and Scrapbooks, 1880-1928 (bulk 1899-1909), includes three linear feet of materials arranged in three subseries. Subseries 6.1, Clara Churchill, includes 16 journals, 12 scrapbooks and various other manuscript materials written and accumulated by Clara Churchill during their travels. Many of the journals include personal writings as well as several photographs that are duplicated in the photograph albums. The journals and scrapbooks encompass the full range of the Churchills' travels and include notes from Indian Territory, Southwest, Midwest, Southeast, Plains and Alaska. Subseries 6.2, Colonel Frank C. Churchill, includes official documents around Churchill's assignments as well as the reports Frank submitted back to the Secretary of the Interior (Box 41 and 42). Subseries 6.3, Churchill Museum and Miscellaneous, includes catalogs and other notes related to the large collection of Native American objects amassed by Frank and Clara. Clara also collected other items such as shells, minerals, and sand.

Series 7: Lantern Slides for Lectures, 1899-1909, includes 325 hand colored glass lantern slides. These were made by the Churchills from existing negatives and used for lectures. Lantern slides #1-#121 include views photographed in Alaska in 1905. Sldes #122-#325 include an assortment of views from Oklahoma (Indian Territory), Nebraska, Montana, Minnesota, California, Arizona and New Mexico photographed between 1900 and 1909.
Arrangement:
The Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection has been arranged in seven series by material type and then chronologically. The first five series are then divided into subseries by "Photo Albums" and "Negatives." These include--Series 1: Photographs in Indian Territory (Oklahoma): Muskogee, Tahlequah, Sulphur Springs and Other Assignments, 1899-1903; Series 2: Photographs in the Southwest and Midwest: Arizona, New Mexico, California, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 1907-1907; Series 3: Photographs in Alaska and Oregon, 1905-1910 (bulk 1905-1905); Series 4: Photographs in Arizona, Utah, North Carolina, Montana, North Dakota, Florida and Miscellaneous, 1907-1909; Series 5: Non-Native Photographs: Colorado Vaction, Lebanon, New Hampshire, and other Materials.

Series 6: Manuscripts: Journals, Documents and Scrapbooks, 1880-1928, is arranged in three subseries. Subseries 6.1: Clara G. Churchill, Subseries 6.2: Frank C. Churchill, and Subseries 6.3: Churchill Museum and Miscellaneous. Series 7: Lantern Slides for Lectures, 1899-1909, is arranged in orginal number order from the Hood Museum at Dartmouth College.
Biographical / Historical:
Frank Carroll Churchill was born August 2, 1850 to Benjamin P. Churchill and Susanna Thompson in West Fairlee, Vermont. Frank was educated at Thetford Academy in Thetford, VT and worked as a clerk for D.C. Churchill & Co. in Lyme, NH between 1869-1870. Between 1870 and 1877, Churchill was employed by H.W. Carter as a wholesale merchant in Lebanon, New Hampshire. During this time, Churchill met Clara Corser Turner and they were married on June 11, 1874.

Clara G. (Turner) Churchill was born December 16, 1851, to Colonel Francis H. Corser and Sarah Hook (Perkins) Corser. Colonel Corser and his wife died young, and Clara was adopted by George and Abby H. Turner of Concord, New Hampshire. In 1877, in association with William S. Carter, Frank Churchill opened the business "Carter & Churchill" which was in this business for 21 years. Churchill held various political offices from 1879-91. He served as chairman of the Republican town committee of Lebanon and of the Republican State committee in 1890 and 1891. He served on the staff of Governor Natt Head in 1879 and 1880, with the rank of Colonel. He was chairman of the New Hampshire delegation at the Republican National Convention which nominated President Harrison and represented the Fourth District in the Executive Council in 1889-1890 during the administration of Governor David. H. Goodell.

In 1899 Frank was appointed revenue inspector for the Cherokee Nation in Indian Territory and was later appointed a special agent for the Interior Department to formulate a system of public schools in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) and across the Southwest. In 1905, he was appointed special agent, by President Roosevelt, to investigate the condition of the school & reindeer service and other affairs in Alaska and was reappointed Indian Inspector between 1905-1909. In 1909, Churchill resigned due to failing health and died November 5, 1912. Clara accompanied Frank on all his travels between 1899 and 1909 (see below chronology for full details) maintaining journals and writing articles for publication in "WHAT." Clara was also a painter, producing watercolors and hand-painting many of the photographs she and Frank made on their travels. Following Frank's death, Clara maintained their collection of Native artifacts and photographs in their home in Lebanon, New Hampshire. Clara died April 16, 1945, bequeathing the full collection to Dartmouth College.
Frank Churchill's assignments as Special agent and Indian Inspector from 1899-1909 took him all over the United States including Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), Missouri, Texas, Nebraska, Kansas, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, California, Florida, North Carolina and Alaska. During this time the Churchills visited over 80 different Native communities. For more details, see the chronology below.

Travels in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) and other assignments, 1899-1903

1899, June 29 -- Churchills arrive in Muskogee, Indian Territory (Oklahoma).

1899, July-October -- Visit to Fort Gibson, Tahlequah, Sallisaw, and Vinita (Indian Territory/Oklahoma). Visit to Noel and South west City, Missouri. Visit to Chelsea and Coffeyville, Kansas. Visit to Fort Smith, Arkansas.

1899, November -- Visit Tahlequah while the Cherokee Nation legislature was in session.

1899, December -- Travel in Colorado.

1900, March -- Return to Muskogee and Fort Gibson.

1900, Sept 17-Oct 5 -- Dawes Commission in Vinita.

1901, Mar-Apr 3 -- Visit to the Quapaw Agency, Wyandotte Reservation and school, Modoc reservation and the town of Miami.

1901, April -- Visit to Denison, Texas. Visit to Checotah, Eufaula, South McAlester (Choctaw nation).

1901, Summer -- Visit to Pawhuska, Osage Nation.

1901, October -- Visit to Tishomingo, seat of government of the Chickasaws.

1902, January -- Trip to the Chickasaw Nation Visit to Anadarko, Indian Agency of the Kiowa, Comanche and Apache, Fort Sill, Wichita Mountains, and Lawton.

1902, May -- Frank is dispatched to Sioux City, Iowa.

1902, May-June -- Visit to Winnebago Agency, Omaha Agency, Santee Agency.

1902, July -- Visit to St. Paul, Minnesota and Eau Claire, Wisconsin, (Chippewa Falls). Frank is sent to Sulphur Springs, Texas, to author a report.

1902, August -- Churchills return to Muskogee, IT.

1902, September-October -- Trip to White Eagle, Ponca Agency for a month. Visit to Otoe school, Pawnee School, Shawnee, Sac and Fox reservations.

1902, November-December -- Visit to Crow Creek Agency.

1903, January -- Return to Sulpher Springs, Texas.

1903, March -- Visit to Pawhuska, Osage Nation.

1903, April -- Visit to Colorado.

1903, May-October -- Visit to 23 towns in Oklahoma (IT) with the Secretary of the Interior.

Travels in New Mexico, Arizona and California, 1903-1905

1903, November -- Frank receives orders to proceed to Zuni Pueblo, New Mexico.

1903, December 9 -- Visit to Zuni, followed by Canyon de Chelly, Hubbell's Ranch, Keams Canyon.

1903, December 21 -- Visit to Hopi Pueblo. Walpi, Polacca Day School, Oraibi, Shumopavi (Shungopavi/Songoopavi), Shipaulovi (Supawlavi) and Mishongnovi (Musungnuvi).

1903, December 28 -- Visit to Fort Defiance.

1904, January -- Travel in New Mexico. Visit to Gallup, Laguna Pueblo, Acomita, Paraje, Acoma, Albuquerque, Isleta Pueblo, Santa Fe, Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo), K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo).

1904, February -- Visit to Sacaton, Akimel O'odham (Pima) Reservation and Casa Grande ruins in Arizona.

1904, March -- Visit to Lehi Day School, Salt River Day School, Phoenix Indian School, Gila River Crossing Day School and Maricopa Day School, Arizona.

1904, March 10-26 -- Visit to Fort Mojave and Chemehuevi.

1904, March 30-April -- Visit to Riverside, California, Sherman Institute and Perris School. Side trip to Yuma, Arizona.

1905, January-February -- Visit to Sulphur, IT.

1905, March -- Visit to Mescalero Apache Agency, San Carlos Apache Agency, Geronimo Settlement, Rice Station School at Talkalai.

1905, April 10-20 -- Return to Sherman Institute in Riverside, California. Visit to San Jacinto, Perris, Saboba, Cahuilla, San Manuella (Band of Mission Indians), Coachella, Torres Reservation, Martinez Reservation Day School, Cabazon Reservation, Protrero Reservation and Day School.

1905, April 22-May -- Visit to Temecula, Pechanga Day School, Pala Mission, Campo Reservation, Mission of San Luis Rey, Rincon Day School, Mesa Grande School, Santa Ysabel (Diegueno), Volcan Mountain Day School.

Travels in Alaska, 1905

1905, June -- Frank receives an assignment in Alaska.

1905, July -- Board the U.S. Revenue Cutter "Bear" in Nome. Visit to Reindeer Station in Teller, Cape Prince of Wales, Kotzebue Sound, Cape Thompson, Point Hope and Point Barrow.

1905, August -- Visit to Wainwright Inlet, return to Nome. Visit to Anvil Creek, Gologin (Golovin) Bay, St. Lawrence Island, Pribilof Islands (Seal Islands), St. George, Dutch Harbor and Unalaska.

1905, September -- Board the "Dora" anchored near Belkofski, Cold Bay, Karluk, Afgonak, and Kodiak. Stop in Homer, Seldovia and Seward. Visit to Sitka.

1905, September 28 -- Board the steamer "Georgia" to Juneau and Skagway via Hoonah.

1905, October -- Return to Lebanon, NH.

Travels in Arizona, New Mexico, Minnesota, Wisconsin, California and Utah, 1906-1907

1906, March-April -- Re-assigned to Southwest and arrive in Tucson, Arizona. Visit to San Xavier Mission, Tohono O'odham (Papago) reservation, Casa Grande, Sacaton, Maricopa, Gila Crossing, Salt River and Phoenix schools.

1906, May -- Return to New Mexico to visit Gallup and Zuni Day School.

1906, June -- Visit to St, Paul, Minnesota and the White Earth (Ojibwe) reservation and Wild Rice River School in Boliere.

1906, July -- Visit to Ashland, Wisconsin, Lac Courte Oreilles, Hayward, and Lac de Flambeau (La Pointe Agency.

1906, July-September -- Return to Lebanon, New Hampshire.

1906, September -- Visit to Fond du Lac (Winnebago Lake), Wabeno, and Carter, Wisconsin.

1906, October -- Visit to Phlox, Wausau, Minocqua, Star Lake, Bark River and Wausaukee, Wisconsin.

1906, November-December -- Visit to Keshena (Green Bay Indian School), Menominee Reservation and Ashland, Wisconsin.

1906, December-January -- Stay in Washington, DC.

1907, February -- Return to Albuquerque, New Mexico.

1907, March -- Visit to Santa Fe and various Pueblos (Cochiti, Tesuque, San Ildefonso, Ohkay Owingeh [San Juan], Toas and Picuris).

1907, April -- Return to Albuquerque, visit to Pueblos (Isleta, Laguna, Mesita, Acomita, Paraje, Acoma, Seama).

1907, April -- Visit to Phoenix, Arizona (Phoenix Indian School), Fort McDowell and Salt River Day School.

1907, May -- Visit to Sacaton, Maricopa, Casa Grande, and Yuma, Arizona.

1907, June -- Visit to Riverside (Sherman Institute), and Pomona, California.

1907, June-July -- Travel to Salt Lake City, Utah. Visit Panguitch, Orton, Kanab, Escalante and Marysvale, Utah.

1907, July-August -- Return to Arizona. Visit Flagstaff, Tuba Indian School, as well as Hopi Pueblo (Walpi, Moencopi, and Oraibi).

1907, September-October -- Return to Lebanon, NH.

Travels in North Carolina, Montana and Florida, 1907-1909

1907, October 22 -- Assigned to Cherokee, North Carolina, to make a new roll of the Eastern Band of Cherokee.

1907, November -- Arrive in Cherokee, North Caolina.

1908, February -- Visit to Robbinsville and Big Cove

1908, April -- Cherokee council meeting regarding Churchill's new roll.

1908, May -- Completes assignment in North Carolina.

1908, June-September -- Return to Washington, DC and Lebanon, New Hampshire.

1908, September-October -- Trip to Montana. Visit to Browning, Blackfeet Reservation, Harlem, Fort Belknap and Fort Peck.

1908, November -- Visit to Spirit Lake (Devil's Lake) and Wahpeton, and Fort Totten, North Dakota.

1908, December -- Visit to Morris, Minnesota.

1909, January -- Trip to Washington, DC for the inauguration of President Taft.

1909, February -- Visit to Carlisle, Pennsylvania.

1909, March-April -- Trip to Florida. Visit to Miami, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Gainesville, and St. Augustine.

1909, May -- Visit to Soco Creek and Cherokee, North Carolina.

1909, July -- Return to Lebanon, New Hampshire.

1909, August -- Resignation as Indian Inspector.
Related Materials:
A large collection of Native American cultural objects and archaeology bequeathed by Clara Churchill can still be found at the Hood Museum at Dartmouth College.
Provenance:
Frederick Dockstader, former director of the Museum of the American Indian (MAI), Heye Foundation, illegally removed the majority of the photographs (photo albums, negatives) and manuscript material (journals, reports) from the Hood Museum of Art at Dartmouth College in 1955, before depositing them at the MAI. Those materials were officially gifted to NMAI in 2018 by the Hood Museum. Additional materials from the Churchill collection that remained at the Hood Museum (lantern slides, photographs, scrapbooks, journals) were donated in 2020. These materials have been noted in the finding aid.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Boarding schools  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Photographic prints
Photograph albums
Negatives (photographic)
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection, NMAI.AC.058, National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.058
See more items in:
Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv45e31a2d8-afd7-4320-96c7-1f596f51c142
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-058
Online Media:

Pawhuska (Osage), Wyandotte, Quapaw and other Views in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) and Nebraska

Collection Creator:
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Extent:
126 Photographic prints
Container:
Box 6
Culture:
Quapaw  Search this
Osage  Search this
Oklahoma Cherokee  Search this
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Miami  Search this
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Date:
1899-1902
bulk 1901-1901
Scope and Contents:
This album contains 126 photographic prints taken by Frank Churchill from 1899 to 1902 and later compiled by Clara Churchill. The majority of the photographs were taken in Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) and Nebraska in 1901-1902 at Various Indian agencies and reservations including—Quapaw, Wyandotte, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Osage, Miami, Cherokee, Winnebago and Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne). The photographs are not arranged in chronological order (see the chronology for a timeline).

The largest number of photographs in this album are from Pawhuska on the Osage reservation in June 1901 around quarterly payments (see also Album 7, P23374). These images include—Osage men, women and children; White Hair and his son with interpreter; Saucy Chief; Mrs. Churchill with a baby on a cradleboard; tents and camp scenes. Other photographs of note include—Wyandotte students at the Seneca Training School; Cherokee Seminaries near Tahlequah; Choctaw Council house; Chief Pleasant Porter (Muskogee Creek); Omaha graves [RESTRICTED]; and photographs of Frank and Clara Churchill. Additional views include—Arkansas River, M.K.T. railroad, Verdigris River, Spring River, Grand River and Neosha River.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection, NMAI.AC.058, National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.058, File P23358
See more items in:
Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection
Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection / Series 1: Photographs in Indian Territory (Oklahoma): Muskogee, Tahlequah, Sulphur Springs and Other Assignments / 1.1: Photograph Albums
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv492a6681b-e92f-456b-a3ed-499e06c16c3f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-058-ref27

Winnebago, Nebraska

Collection Creator:
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Extent:
9 Negatives (photographic)
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
1902
Scope and Contents:
N27071-N27074, N27611-N27615
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection, NMAI.AC.058, National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection
Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection / Series 1: Photographs in Indian Territory (Oklahoma): Muskogee, Tahlequah, Sulphur Springs and Other Assignments / 1.2: Negatives
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv437d86968-a348-4815-81f9-5f3ce6de6d6b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-058-ref693

Journals: Darlington (Oklahoma), Sioux City (Iowa), Winnebago (Nebraska)

Collection Creator:
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Container:
Box 34, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1902
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection, NMAI.AC.058, National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection
Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection / Series 6: Manuscripts: Journals, Documents and Scrapbooks / 6.1: Clara G. Churchill
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4fb77b111-7021-48b7-baf3-6987fe8ac623
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-058-ref702

Two

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Artist/Maker:
Judy Mike, Ho-Chunk (Winnebago), b. 1943  Search this
Previous owner:
Indian Arts and Crafts Board, Department of the Interior (IACB), 1935-  Search this
IACB source:
Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA) Student Sales Center  Search this
Title:
Two
Object Name:
Painting
Media/Materials:
Paper, tempera
Techniques:
Painted
Dimensions:
60.5 x 45.7 cm
Object Type:
Painting/Drawing/Print
Place:
Santa Fe; Santa Fe County; New Mexico; USA (inferred)
Date created:
circa 1965
Catalog Number:
26/2412
Barcode:
262412.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Painting/Drawing/Print
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6b77fc60d-8712-417b-a1cc-236bc7fad5f2
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_278522

Navajo Shepherdess

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Artist/Maker:
Judy Mike, Ho-Chunk (Winnebago), b. 1943  Search this
IACB source:
Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA) Student Sales Center  Search this
Previous owner:
Indian Arts and Crafts Board, Department of the Interior (IACB), 1935-  Search this
Title:
Navajo Shepherdess
Object Name:
Painting
Media/Materials:
Paper, tempera
Techniques:
Painted
Dimensions:
62.8 x 42.4 cm
Object Type:
Painting/Drawing/Print
Place:
Santa Fe; Santa Fe County; New Mexico; USA (inferred)
Date created:
1963
Catalog Number:
26/2455
Barcode:
262455.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Painting/Drawing/Print
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6d3c2db99-c7f1-4deb-8f6e-9929c51978d6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_278565

War bundle (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Collector:
Frank A. Roddy (F. A. Roddy), Non-Indian, 1889-1923  Search this
Seller:
Frank A. Roddy (F. A. Roddy), Non-Indian, 1889-1923  Search this
Object Name:
War bundle (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Hide
Techniques:
Wrapped
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items: Bundles
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
2/8754
Barcode:
028754.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Ceremonial/Ritual items: Bundles
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws601b01a16-c128-4d95-b2b4-5028e6c4b378
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_30774

War bundle (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Collector:
Frank A. Roddy (F. A. Roddy), Non-Indian, 1889-1923  Search this
Seller:
Frank A. Roddy (F. A. Roddy), Non-Indian, 1889-1923  Search this
Object Name:
War bundle (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Wool yarn, brass tacks/bosses, wood
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items: Bundles
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
2/8755
Barcode:
028755.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Ceremonial/Ritual items: Bundles
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws67d8a34e0-466f-4644-83bb-de9b42c05a0f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_30775

War bundle (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Collector:
Frank A. Roddy (F. A. Roddy), Non-Indian, 1889-1923  Search this
Seller:
Frank A. Roddy (F. A. Roddy), Non-Indian, 1889-1923  Search this
Object Name:
War bundle (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Wool yarn, brass tacks/bosses, wood
Techniques:
Wrapped
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items: Bundles
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
2/8755
Barcode:
028755.001
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Ceremonial/Ritual items: Bundles
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6d66a4073-1b01-4292-bbd7-0e69a528aa5d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_30776

Heddle

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Collector:
Frank A. Roddy (F. A. Roddy), Non-Indian, 1889-1923  Search this
Seller:
Frank A. Roddy (F. A. Roddy), Non-Indian, 1889-1923  Search this
Object Name:
Heddle
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Weaving tools/equipment
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
2/8763
Barcode:
028763.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Weaving tools/equipment
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6a722157c-eb99-4390-a267-d78b26897246
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_30785
Online Media:

Heddle

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Collector:
Frank A. Roddy (F. A. Roddy), Non-Indian, 1889-1923  Search this
Seller:
Frank A. Roddy (F. A. Roddy), Non-Indian, 1889-1923  Search this
Object Name:
Heddle
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Weaving tools/equipment
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
2/8764
Barcode:
028764.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Weaving tools/equipment
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws62b0bbe75-7e76-4b58-b9c4-be63b7cc7851
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_30786
Online Media:

Pipe case

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Collector:
Frank A. Roddy (F. A. Roddy), Non-Indian, 1889-1923  Search this
Seller:
Frank A. Roddy (F. A. Roddy), Non-Indian, 1889-1923  Search this
Object Name:
Pipe case
Media/Materials:
Wood, hide
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Pipes and Smoking
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
2/8765
Barcode:
028765.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Pipes and Smoking
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6cba7f487-8588-4534-9fdf-c23e78c1c61c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_30787
Online Media:

Umbilical amulet

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Collector:
Frank A. Roddy (F. A. Roddy), Non-Indian, 1889-1923  Search this
Seller:
Frank A. Roddy (F. A. Roddy), Non-Indian, 1889-1923  Search this
Object Name:
Umbilical amulet
Media/Materials:
Wool yarn, glass bead/beads
Techniques:
Loom beadwork
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
2/8766
Barcode:
028766.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws64fc2ab11-094e-4edc-88f8-f79fbe4ccefe
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_30788
Online Media:

Medicine bag for Midewiwin rituals (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Collector:
Frank A. Roddy (F. A. Roddy), Non-Indian, 1889-1923  Search this
Seller:
Frank A. Roddy (F. A. Roddy), Non-Indian, 1889-1923  Search this
Object Name:
Medicine bag for Midewiwin rituals (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Wool cloth, snakeskin, ribbon
Techniques:
Sewn, appliquéd
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
2/8767
Barcode:
028767.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws660be8ea5-04b0-4b22-9806-10a59a140625
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_30789

Silversmith's toolkit

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Collector:
Frank A. Roddy (F. A. Roddy), Non-Indian, 1889-1923  Search this
Seller:
Frank A. Roddy (F. A. Roddy), Non-Indian, 1889-1923  Search this
Object Name:
Silversmith's toolkit
Media/Materials:
Buffalo hide/skin
Techniques:
Sewn
Object Type:
Metal and Jewelry Tools and Equipment
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
2/8768
Barcode:
028768.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Metal and Jewelry Tools and Equipment
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws64f74b8d9-7870-4392-9e29-a1b75a1189cd
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_30790
Online Media:

Medicine bag for Midewiwin rituals (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Collector:
Frank A. Roddy (F. A. Roddy), Non-Indian, 1889-1923  Search this
Seller:
Frank A. Roddy (F. A. Roddy), Non-Indian, 1889-1923  Search this
Object Name:
Medicine bag for Midewiwin rituals (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Squirrel skin/fur
Techniques:
Sewn
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
2/8769
Barcode:
028769.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws66e612cbc-b27c-4537-95ae-3bc681b47a47
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_30791

Medicine bag for Midewiwin rituals (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Collector:
Frank A. Roddy (F. A. Roddy), Non-Indian, 1889-1923  Search this
Seller:
Frank A. Roddy (F. A. Roddy), Non-Indian, 1889-1923  Search this
Object Name:
Medicine bag for Midewiwin rituals (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Weasel skin/fur
Techniques:
Sewn
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
2/8770
Barcode:
028770.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws625b4ee08-a667-47c0-8bda-992e87e0777c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_30793

Medicine bag for Midewiwin rituals (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Collector:
Frank A. Roddy (F. A. Roddy), Non-Indian, 1889-1923  Search this
Seller:
Frank A. Roddy (F. A. Roddy), Non-Indian, 1889-1923  Search this
Object Name:
Medicine bag for Midewiwin rituals (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Weasel skin/fur
Techniques:
Sewn
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
2/8770
Barcode:
028770.001
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws65a97452a-125d-4460-97a6-a2f4bea80cbd
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_30794

Medicine bundle (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Winnebago [Nebraska]  Search this
Collector:
Frank A. Roddy (F. A. Roddy), Non-Indian, 1889-1923  Search this
Seller:
Frank A. Roddy (F. A. Roddy), Non-Indian, 1889-1923  Search this
Object Name:
Medicine bundle (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Hide
Techniques:
Wrapped
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items: Bundles
Place:
Nebraska; USA
Catalog Number:
2/8771
Barcode:
028771.000
See related items:
Winnebago [Nebraska]
Ceremonial/Ritual items: Bundles
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws63d5b4188-64e3-4fac-8138-83154296ad86
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_30795

Ghost Science

Culture/People:
Meskwaki (Fox)  Search this
Artist/Maker:
Duane Slick, Meskwaki (Fox)/Winnebago [Nebraska], b. 1961  Search this
Previous owner:
Duane Slick, Meskwaki (Fox)/Winnebago [Nebraska], b. 1961  Search this
Seller:
Duane Slick, Meskwaki (Fox)/Winnebago [Nebraska], b. 1961  Search this
Title:
Ghost Science
Object Name:
Painting
Media/Materials:
Linen, acrylic paint
Techniques:
Painted
Dimensions:
68.6 x 99 x 5.7 cm
Object Type:
Painting/Drawing/Print
Place:
Providence; Providence County; Rhode Island; USA
Date created:
2007
Catalog Number:
26/9222
Barcode:
269222.000
See related items:
Meskwaki (Fox)
Painting/Drawing/Print
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws64c408824-d48a-4dcd-a217-0d09f16f3df2
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_409822

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