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Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews

Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004, interviewee  Search this
Extent:
4 audiotapes (Reference copies).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Transcripts
Audiotapes
Date:
1976
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Institution Archives began its Oral History Program in 1973. The purpose of the program is to supplement the written documentation of the Archives' record and manuscript collections with an Oral History Collection, focusing on the history of the Institution, research by its scholars, and contributions of its staff. Program staff conducts interviews with current and retired Smithsonian staff and others who have made significant contributions to the Institution. There are also interviews conducted by researchers or students on topics related to the history of the Smithsonian or the holdings of the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

Whipple was interviewed for the Oral History Collection because of his central role in the modernization of the SAO and his outstanding contributions to science. For additional information, see the following related collections in Smithsonian Archives: the records of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; the Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers; and Record Unit 9542, Multiple Mirror Telescope videohistory interviews.
Descriptive Entry:
Whipple was interviewed on June 24 and 25, 1976 by Pamela M. Henson. The interviews cover his education; radar countermeasure work during World War II; role in the development of national programs for astrophysics and space exploration; research program on comets, meteors, and interplanetary material; administration of SAO; development of Mt. Hopkins, MMT, and optical tracking programs; and reminiscences of colleagues such as Imre G. Izsak, Craig M. Merrihue, and Carlton W. Tillinghast.
Historical Note:
Fred Lawrence Whipple (1906-2004), received the B.A. in mathematics with a minor in physics and astronomy from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1927 and the Ph.D. in astronomy from the University of California at Berkeley in 1931. His early training focused on comet orbits. After teaching for a year at Stanford University, he joined the staff of the Harvard College Observatory in 1931 and remained in Cambridge throughout his career. During the 1930s his work focused on double station meteor research. From 1943 to 1945, he developed radar countermeasures for the U. S. Army Radiation Laboratory of the Office of Scientific Research and Development. After World War II he worked on development of the Super-Schmidt cameras to photograph meteors and continued research on the influx of material from comets into the interplanetary medium. His comet research culminated in publication of the Icy Comet Model in 1950. During the forties he also conducted studies of meteor hazards to spacecraft, inventing the meteor bumper, and served on the Rocket and Satellite Research Panel. In the early fifties, with Wernher von Braun and Cornelius J. Ryan, he coauthored a series of popular articles on the conquest of the space frontier.

His teaching career at Harvard University progressed from Instructor, 1932-1938; Lecturer, 1938-1945; Associate Professor, 1945-1950; Professor, 1950-1970; Chairman of the Department of Astronomy, 1949-1956; to Phillips Professor of Astronomy, 1970-1977. Thus when Whipple was appointed Director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in July 1955, he moved its headquarters to the Cambridge campus and continued as Professor and member of the Harvard College Observatory staff. He reorganized the Smithsonian's observatory and reoriented its research program. Under his directorship, the staff grew from a handful to more than five hundred, including over sixty scientists.

At the request of the National Science Foundation and the National Academy of Sciences, Whipple began development of Baker-Nunn cameras to track artificial satellites during the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958). With the help of Armand N. Spitz, he also developed the Moonwatch optical tracking program, which utilized teams of volunteers observing satellites with hand-held telescopes. When Sputnik was launched in October of 1957, the Moonwatch teams were the only U. S. mechanism available to track the Russian satellite. The SAO subsequently received large contracts from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to operate the Satellite Tracking Program (STP), an optical tracking system with Baker-Nunn camera stations located all over the globe. Whipple's satellite tracking work earned him the 1963 Distinguished Civilian Service Award from President John F. Kennedy.

The Prairie Network, an optical tracking system designed to photograph meteorites and fireballs in order to calculate their orbits, created by Whipple and Richard E. McCrosky, began observations in 1964. Coordination of STP camera observations with Jodrell Bank Observatory radio data on flare stars led to the first identification of radio noise from any star besides the sun.

SAO relied on early computers such as the Mark IV, IBM 7090, and CDC 6400 for rapid processing of massive quantities of data. Baker-Nunn and Super-Schmidt camera data were directly processed by automated means, which made possible the 1966 SAO Star Catalog, coordinated by Katherine L. Haramundanis. Whipple required direct publication from computer tapes, a first for the U. S. Government Printing Office. Observations from the STP were progressively refined during the sixties through new laser tracking techniques and advances in automated data processing, to provide improved geodetic and geophysical data. In the early sixties, stellar atmosphere models were developed with the aid of an IBM 7090 and after 1966 a CDC 6400, in anticipation of far ultraviolet light data from orbiting observatories. Based on this experience in upper atmosphere research, Whipple was appointed project director for the orbiting astronomical observatories from 1958 to 1972.

The telegraph service of the International Astronomical Union came to the SAO in 1965 under the coordination of Owen J. Gingerich and later Brian G. Marsden. It utilized SAO's sophisticated communications network and led eventually to the creation of the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena by Robert A. Citron.

Development of an observatory site at Mt. Hopkins, Arizona, began in 1966. Chosen by Whipple for its altitude and seeing conditions, the site was dedicated in 1981 as the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory. On this site, in conjunction with the U. S. Air Force and University of Arizona, he developed the technically innovative Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT), which commenced observations in May of 1979.

In addition to his own research program on comets, meteors, and interplanetary materials, Whipple coordinated the SAO research programs in celestial mechanics, geodesy, meteoritics, radio astronomy, neutrino searches, stellar atmosphere models, and the atomic clock project to test the theory of relativity. He encouraged NASA's lunar program and development of the space telescope.

Whipple was distinguished both for his theoretical work in astrophysics and his technical innovations in such areas as tracking cameras, multiple mirror telescopes, and meteor bumpers. A member of the National Academy of Sciences, Whipple received the Academy's J. Lawrence Smith Medal in 1949 for his meteor research. He was awarded the Kepler Medal by the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1971 and the Joseph Henry Medal of the Smithsonian Institution in 1973. Through his work on numerous federal and private boards, panels, and commissions, Whipple was influential in the development of national programs for research in astrophysics and creation of a space exploration program.

Whipple retired from administration of SAO in 1973 but continued active research as a Senior Scientist from 1973 to 1977. Upon his retirement in 1977, he was appointed Emeritus Phillips Professor of Astronomy at Harvard.
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Meteorites  Search this
Astronomy  Search this
Astrophysics  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Genre/Form:
Transcripts
Audiotapes
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9520, Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
Identifier:
Record Unit 9520
See more items in:
Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9520

Interviews

Collection Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004, interviewee  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9520, Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
See more items in:
Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru9520-refidd1e242

Interview 1: June 24, 1976

Collection Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004, interviewee  Search this
Container:
Interviews
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9520, Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
See more items in:
Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews / Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru9520-refidd1e249

Covers Whipple's education and early career, c. 1924-1960, including: his early career at Harvard, focusing on double station meteor work in the 1930s and development of Super-Schmidt cameras in the 1940s; satellite work, beginning in 1946 with studies...

Collection Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004, interviewee  Search this
Container:
Interviews
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9520, Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
See more items in:
Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews / Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru9520-refidd1e264
Online Media:

Transcript, pp. 1 - 48, of audio recording, 2.0 hours.

Collection Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004, interviewee  Search this
Container:
Interviews
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9520, Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
See more items in:
Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews / Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru9520-refidd1e291

Recording of Interview: Total Recording Time: 2.0 hours

Collection Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004, interviewee  Search this
Container:
Interviews
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9520, Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
See more items in:
Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews / Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru9520-refidd1e302

Interview 2: June 25, 1976

Collection Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004, interviewee  Search this
Container:
Interviews
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9520, Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
See more items in:
Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews / Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru9520-refidd1e324

Discusses Whipple's research and tenure as director of the SAO, 1955-1976, especially: the Prairie Network, established to photograph meteorites and fireballs in order to calculate their orbits; comparisons of photographic and radio data on flare stars...

Collection Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004, interviewee  Search this
Container:
Interviews
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9520, Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
See more items in:
Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews / Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru9520-refidd1e339

Transcript, pp. 49-88, of audio recording, 1.5 hours.

Collection Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004, interviewee  Search this
Container:
Interviews
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9520, Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
See more items in:
Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews / Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru9520-refidd1e354

Recording of Interview: Total Recording Time: 1.5 hours

Collection Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004, interviewee  Search this
Container:
Interviews
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9520, Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
See more items in:
Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews
Fred L. Whipple Oral History Interviews / Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru9520-refidd1e365

Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers

Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004  Search this
Extent:
23.5 cu. ft. (23 record storage boxes) (1 document box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Place:
Moon
Date:
circa 1927-1983
Introduction:
This finding aid was digitized with funds generously provided by the Smithsonian Institution Women's Committee.
Descriptive Entry:
The papers of Fred Lawrence Whipple document his astronomical research; his professional work in the field of astronomy; his career as director of the SAO; and, to a lesser extent, his activities as a Harvard University faculty member. They include a large file of correspondence with professional colleagues, amateur astronomers, SAO staff scientists, Smithsonian Institution officials, scientific societies and professional groups, government agencies, and Harvard University staff and officials. The papers concern Whipple's research interests, scientific publications, and editorial work; SAO research projects, particularly the Satellite Tracking Program, Project Celescope, the Radio Meteor Project, and the Meteorite Photography and Recovery Project; Whipple's work for professional organizations and government agencies and committees including the International Astronomical Union, the Committee on Space Research, the Committee on Space and Astronautics of the United States House of Representatives, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Academy of Sciences, and the National Science Foundation; SAO relations with the Smithsonian Institution; and his activities at Harvard University and the Harvard College Observatory. Also included are college papers, notes, and a copy of his Ph.D. dissertation; manuscripts of articles, lectures, radio talks, reviews, and notes from his research; research notes on comets; correspondence, notes, reports, minutes and related materials from Whipple's work with professional groups and committees; files documenting the development of the MMT at Mount Hopkins, Arizona; and a set of Whipple's publications. Researchers should also consult Record Unit 9520, Fred Lawrence Whipple Interviews, 1976.
Historical Note:
Fred Lawrence Whipple (1906- ), an astronomer, received his B.A. degree from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1927, and his Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley in 1931. In 1932, he joined the staff of Harvard University as an instructor of astronomy. By 1950, Whipple had received the title of professor and chairman of the Department of Astronomy at Harvard. Whipple was appointed director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) when it moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1955. Since his retirement in 1973, Whipple has continued his research as a senior scientist at SAO.

During his tenure as director, Whipple oversaw SAO research programs in stellar interiors, the upper atmosphere, meteorites, celestial mechanics, and geodesy studies. Major SAO projects under his direction included the Satellite Tracking Program, Project Celescope, the Radio Meteor Project, and the Meteorite Photography and Recovery Project, also known as the Prairie Network. In the late 1960s, Whipple selected Mount Hopkins, Arizona, as the site of a new SAO astronomical facility. Renamed the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in 1981, the facility houses the Multiple-Mirror Telescope (MMT), an innovative, low-cost telescope planned by Whipple and two colleagues.

Whipple is internationally recognized for his research on the moon, meteors, and comets. He has conducted pioneering research in photographically measuring the speeds and decelerations of meteors, computing the orbits of comets and asteroids, and describing the structure of comets. He is the author of more than 150 scientific books and papers, has served as editor of several publications, and has been a member and officer in numerous professional organizations. In 1975, the minor planet no. 1940 was named "Whipple" in recognition of his contributions to astronomy.
Topic:
Asteroids  Search this
Comets  Search this
Astrophysics  Search this
Astronomy  Search this
Astronomers  Search this
Astrophysicists  Search this
Meteors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7431, Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
Identifier:
Record Unit 7431
See more items in:
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru7431

Comet Geddes, 1932 (2 folders)

Collection Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004  Search this
Container:
Box 19 of 24
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7431, Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
See more items in:
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers / Series 4: NOTES ON COMETS, 1928-1968. / Box 19
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7431-refidd1e10009

Comet Reinmuth, 1928. Notes, calculations, and observations.

Collection Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004  Search this
Container:
Box 19 of 24
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7431, Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
See more items in:
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers / Series 4: NOTES ON COMETS, 1928-1968. / Box 19
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7431-refidd1e10021

Comet Whipple, 1937B

Collection Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004  Search this
Container:
Box 19 of 24
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7431, Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
See more items in:
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers / Series 4: NOTES ON COMETS, 1928-1968. / Box 19
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7431-refidd1e10033

Daniels Comet, 1937A

Collection Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004  Search this
Container:
Box 19 of 24
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7431, Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
See more items in:
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers / Series 4: NOTES ON COMETS, 1928-1968. / Box 19
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7431-refidd1e10045

Comet Kaho, 1936

Collection Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004  Search this
Container:
Box 19 of 24
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7431, Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
See more items in:
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers / Series 4: NOTES ON COMETS, 1928-1968. / Box 19
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7431-refidd1e10057

Delparte Object, 1936 CA

Collection Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004  Search this
Container:
Box 19 of 24
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7431, Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
See more items in:
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers / Series 4: NOTES ON COMETS, 1928-1968. / Box 19
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7431-refidd1e10070

Comet Peltier, 1936A

Collection Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004  Search this
Container:
Box 19 of 24
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7431, Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
See more items in:
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers / Series 4: NOTES ON COMETS, 1928-1968. / Box 19
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7431-refidd1e10082

Comet Jackson, 1935b

Collection Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004  Search this
Container:
Box 19 of 24
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7431, Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
See more items in:
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers / Series 4: NOTES ON COMETS, 1928-1968. / Box 19
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7431-refidd1e10094

Comet Johnson, 1935a

Collection Creator::
Whipple, Fred L. (Fred Lawrence), 1906-2004  Search this
Container:
Box 19 of 24
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7431, Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
See more items in:
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers
Fred Lawrence Whipple Papers / Series 4: NOTES ON COMETS, 1928-1968. / Box 19
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7431-refidd1e10106

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