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World Money Crisis

Artist:
Dennis Wheeler, born 1935  Search this
Sitter:
Charles Andre Joseph Marie de Gaulle, 1890 - 1970  Search this
Medium:
Photomontage
Dimensions:
28.2cm x 21.3cm (11 1/8" x 8 3/8"), Accurate
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1968
Topic:
Currency\Coin  Search this
Collage  Search this
Charles Andre Joseph Marie de Gaulle: Male  Search this
Charles Andre Joseph Marie de Gaulle: Politics and Government\Foreign Leader\President\France  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Time magazine
Object number:
NPG.78.TC184
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4fb3a707c-9246-45ba-b278-b8c1567e60a6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.78.TC184

America's New Immigrants

Artist:
Dennis Wheeler, born 1935  Search this
Medium:
Paste-up tearsheet on paper
Dimensions:
27.9cm x 20.9cm (11" x 8 1/4"), Accurate
Type:
Collage
Date:
1976
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Time magazine
Object number:
NPG.84.TC169
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4db49677d-0cc8-44be-839c-1b4f720137b4
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.84.TC169

Communism: House Divided

Artist:
Dennis Wheeler, born 1935  Search this
Sitter:
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, 19 Dec 1906 - Nov 1982  Search this
Fidel Castro, 13 Aug 1926 - 26 Nov 2016  Search this
Nicolae Ceausescu, 26 Jan 1918 - 25 Dec 1989  Search this
Mao Tse-Tung, 26 Dec 1893 - Sep 1976  Search this
Marshal Tito, 7 May 1892 - 4 May 1980  Search this
Medium:
Photo collage on paper
Dimensions:
41.9cm x 35.6cm (16 1/2" x 14"), Accurate
Type:
Collage
Date:
1969
Topic:
Costume\Headgear\Hat  Search this
Personal Attribute\Facial Hair\Beard  Search this
Symbols & Motifs\Star  Search this
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev: Male  Search this
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev: Politics and Government\Foreign Leader\President  Search this
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev: Politics and Government\Foreign Leader\Communist Party Chairman  Search this
Fidel Castro: Male  Search this
Fidel Castro: Society and Social Change\Reformer\Revolutionary  Search this
Fidel Castro: Politics and Government\Foreign Leader\President\Cuba  Search this
Fidel Castro: Politics and Government\Foreign Leader\Premier\Cuba  Search this
Nicolae Ceausescu: Male  Search this
Nicolae Ceausescu: Politics and Government\Foreign Leader  Search this
Marshal Tito: Male  Search this
Marshal Tito: Politics and Government\Foreign Leader\President\Yugoslavia  Search this
Mao Tse-Tung: Male  Search this
Mao Tse-Tung: Society and Social Change\Reformer\Revolutionary  Search this
Mao Tse-Tung: Politics and Government\Foreign Leader\Communist Party Chairman  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Time magazine
Object number:
NPG.78.TC37
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm45ec329c8-d045-44ea-9421-17c33ef83399
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.78.TC37

Deng Xiaoping

Artist:
Dennis Wheeler, born 1935  Search this
Sitter:
Deng Xiaoping, 22 Aug 1904 - 19 Feb 1997  Search this
Medium:
Photographic collage
Dimensions:
Sight: 23.5 x 18.4cm (9 1/4 x 7 1/4")
Type:
Collage
Date:
1977
Topic:
Deng Xiaoping: Male  Search this
Deng Xiaoping: Politics and Government\Politician  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Time magazine
Object number:
NPG.78.TC454
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4f598ff39-0bbc-40dc-bad0-75a24afbf35b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.78.TC454

Leadership in America

Artist:
Dennis Wheeler, born 1935  Search this
Medium:
Cut paper on board
Dimensions:
43.2cm x 55.2cm (17" x 21 3/4"), Accurate
Type:
Collage
Date:
1974
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Time magazine
Object number:
NPG.78.TC80
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4ed718ec5-a03d-452a-b8f2-2266899a244d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.78.TC80

Robert Coles

Artist:
Dennis Wheeler, born 1935  Search this
Sitter:
Robert Coles, born 12 Oct 1929  Search this
Medium:
Color photograph, watercolor and crayon on board
Dimensions:
Sight: 29.8 x 22.2cm (11 3/4 x 8 3/4")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1972
Topic:
Robert Coles: Male  Search this
Robert Coles: Literature\Writer  Search this
Robert Coles: Education\Educator\Lecturer  Search this
Robert Coles: Health and Medicine\Physician\Psychiatrist  Search this
Robert Coles: Health and Medicine\Researcher  Search this
Robert Coles: Pulitzer Prize  Search this
Robert Coles: Presidential Medal of Freedom  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Time magazine
Object number:
NPG.78.TC311
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm42b2e10eb-cd39-4cb1-ac1f-3c5cd5754d8c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.78.TC311

Economy:Battle of the Buck

Artist:
Dennis Wheeler, born 1935  Search this
Medium:
Color halftone and photomechanical relief print on paper mounted overall to paperboard
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 53.3 × 36.4cm (21 × 14 5/16")
Type:
Print
Date:
1970
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Time magazine
Object number:
NPG.78.TC15
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm41161c1ea-eb71-4db0-b6d7-c52a686ac53b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.78.TC15

Sex Explosion

Artist:
Dennis Wheeler, born 1935  Search this
Medium:
Photograph and paper collage on foam board
Dimensions:
Sheet: 47.3 × 36.4 cm (18 5/8 × 14 5/16")
Image: 43.5 × 29.8 cm (17 1/8 × 11 3/4")
Type:
Collage
Date:
1969
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Time magazine
Object number:
NPG.78.TC155
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4af3e419f-6a3c-4e0f-80ad-5f66a936e71c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.78.TC155

Gambling Goes Legit

Artist:
Dennis Wheeler, born 1935  Search this
Medium:
Photos and paint on board
Dimensions:
26.7cm x 21cm (10 1/2" x 8 1/4"), Accurate
Type:
Collage
Date:
1976
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Time magazine
Object number:
NPG.78.TC60
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm41bdbc8f4-b997-4908-bb6f-924d5456e970
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.78.TC60

Nixon's Palace Guard

Artist:
Dennis Wheeler, born 1935  Search this
Sitter:
John Daniel Ehrlichman, 20 Mar 1925 - 14 Feb 1999  Search this
Harry Robbins Haldeman, 1926 - 1993  Search this
Henry Alfred Kissinger, born 27 May 1923  Search this
John Newton Mitchell, 15 Sep 1913 - 9 Nov 1988  Search this
Richard Milhous Nixon, 9 Jan 1913 - 22 Apr 1994  Search this
Medium:
Cut paper and photographs on paperboard
Dimensions:
64.5cm x 50.5cm (25 3/8" x 19 7/8"), Accurate
Type:
Collage
Date:
1970
Topic:
Symbols & Motifs\Seal\Great Seal of the United States  Search this
John Daniel Ehrlichman: Male  Search this
John Daniel Ehrlichman: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
John Daniel Ehrlichman: Literature\Writer  Search this
John Daniel Ehrlichman: Law and Law Enforcement\Criminal  Search this
John Daniel Ehrlichman: Politics and Government\Government Official\Presidential Aide  Search this
John Newton Mitchell: Male  Search this
John Newton Mitchell: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\US Attorney General  Search this
John Newton Mitchell: Politics and Government\Campaign Director  Search this
Harry Robbins Haldeman: Male  Search this
Harry Robbins Haldeman: Law and Law Enforcement\Criminal  Search this
Harry Robbins Haldeman: Politics and Government\Chief of Staff  Search this
Harry Robbins Haldeman: Politics and Government\Government Official\Presidential Aide  Search this
Richard Milhous Nixon: Male  Search this
Richard Milhous Nixon: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Richard Milhous Nixon: Literature\Writer  Search this
Richard Milhous Nixon: Politics and Government\Vice-President of US  Search this
Richard Milhous Nixon: Military\Navy\Officer  Search this
Richard Milhous Nixon: Politics and Government\President of US  Search this
Richard Milhous Nixon: Politics and Government\US Senator\California  Search this
Richard Milhous Nixon: Politics and Government\US Congressman\California  Search this
Henry Alfred Kissinger: Male  Search this
Henry Alfred Kissinger: Education\Educator  Search this
Henry Alfred Kissinger: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Executive  Search this
Henry Alfred Kissinger: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\Secretary of State  Search this
Henry Alfred Kissinger: Communications\Interpreter  Search this
Henry Alfred Kissinger: Nobel Prize  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Time magazine
Object number:
NPG.78.TC646
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Copyright:
© Dennis Wheeler
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4673eecb2-87a1-46ff-a0dc-f0076e156297
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.78.TC646

Student Protest

Artist:
Dennis Wheeler, born 1935  Search this
Medium:
Collage of photomechanical reproductions and printed coated paper on paperboard
Dimensions:
Sight: 26 × 18.4 cm (10 1/4 × 7 1/4")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1970
Topic:
Collage  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Time magazine
Object number:
NPG.78.TC108
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm48acc6ac8-b052-45f4-a3ce-e2a7adda9ebb
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.78.TC108

Chaos in Italy

Artist:
Dennis Wheeler, born 1935  Search this
Sitter:
Giulio Andreotti, 14 Jan 1919 - 6 May 2013  Search this
Enrico Berlinguer, 25 May 1922 - 11 Jun 1984  Search this
Medium:
Color photo collage on board
Dimensions:
40cm x 30.4cm (15 3/4" x 11 15/16"), Image
Type:
Collage
Date:
1978
Topic:
Costume\Dress Accessory\Eyeglasses  Search this
Giulio Andreotti: Male  Search this
Giulio Andreotti: Literature\Writer  Search this
Giulio Andreotti: Politics and Government\Diplomat  Search this
Giulio Andreotti: Politics and Government\Foreign Leader\Prime Minister  Search this
Enrico Berlinguer: Male  Search this
Enrico Berlinguer: Politics and Government\Politician  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Time magazine
Object number:
NPG.84.TC88
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm43ffb7ed7-c8d2-4684-bbfd-6e5e9d31ef8a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.84.TC88

Urban Guerillas

Artist:
Dennis Wheeler, born 1935  Search this
Medium:
Cut paper on paper
Dimensions:
Sight: 26 x 19.1cm (10 1/4 x 7 1/2")
Type:
Collage
Date:
1970
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Time magazine
Object number:
NPG.78.TC158
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4d88da42a-f70d-41c9-9ef5-283ca1bc3321
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.78.TC158

Ho Chi-Minh

Artist:
Dennis Wheeler, born 1935  Search this
Sitter:
Ho Chi Minh, 1892 - Sep 1969  Search this
Medium:
Color transparency
Dimensions:
Sight: 26 x 18.4cm (10 1/4 x 7 1/4")
Type:
Print
Date:
1969
Topic:
Personal Attribute\Facial Hair\Mustache  Search this
Personal Attribute\Facial Hair\Goatee  Search this
Ho Chi Minh: Male  Search this
Ho Chi Minh: Politics and Government\Foreign Leader\President  Search this
Ho Chi Minh: Politics and Government\Foreign Leader\Prime Minister  Search this
Ho Chi Minh: Society and Social Change\Reformer\Revolutionary  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Time magazine
Object number:
NPG.78.TC446
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm46657f122-da68-4d19-86d4-622c4d4b5a0b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.78.TC446

Jimmy Carter

Artist:
Dennis Wheeler, born 1935  Search this
Sitter:
James Earl Carter, Jr., born 1 Oct 1924  Search this
Medium:
Photos, cut paper and graphite pencil on paperboard
Dimensions:
30.5cm x 21.9cm (12" x 8 5/8"), Image
Type:
Collage
Date:
1977
Topic:
Home Furnishings\Lighting Devices\Light bulb  Search this
James Earl Carter, Jr.: Male  Search this
James Earl Carter, Jr.: Literature\Writer  Search this
James Earl Carter, Jr.: Natural Resources\Agriculturist\Farmer  Search this
James Earl Carter, Jr.: Military\Navy\Officer  Search this
James Earl Carter, Jr.: Politics and Government\President of US  Search this
James Earl Carter, Jr.: Politics and Government\Governor\Georgia  Search this
James Earl Carter, Jr.: Society and Social Change\Founder\Charity  Search this
James Earl Carter, Jr.: Politics and Government\State Senator\Georgia  Search this
James Earl Carter, Jr.: Nobel Prize  Search this
James Earl Carter, Jr.: Presidential Medal of Freedom  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Time magazine
Object number:
NPG.78.TC282
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Copyright:
© Dennish Wheeler
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4669819c1-34fb-4d18-8b6d-96a0ed76ef8b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.78.TC282

Robert Smithson and Nancy Holt papers

Creator:
Smithson, Robert  Search this
Names:
Dwan Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art  Search this
Andre, Carl, 1935-  Search this
Atkinson, Terry, 1939-  Search this
Dibbets, Jan, 1941-  Search this
Dwan, Virginia  Search this
Flavin, Dan, 1933-  Search this
Graham, Dan, 1942-  Search this
Haacke, Hans, 1936-  Search this
Heizer, Michael, 1944-  Search this
Holt, Nancy, 1938-  Search this
Insley, Will, 1929-2011  Search this
Jenney, Neil, 1945-  Search this
Johnson, Ray, 1927-  Search this
Kepes, Gyorgy, 1906-2001  Search this
LeWitt, Sol, 1928-2007  Search this
Lippard, Lucy R.  Search this
Long, Richard, 1945-  Search this
Oppenheim, Dennis, 1938-2011  Search this
Valledor, Leo, 1936-1989  Search this
Wheeler, Dennis  Search this
Extent:
15.1 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Sketches
Scrapbooks
Greeting cards
Photographs
Transcripts
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
1905-1987
bulk 1952-1987
Summary:
The papers of sculptor, writer, and earthworks artist Robert Smithson and his wife, sculptor, filmmaker, and earthworks artist Nancy Holt measure 15.1 linear feet and date from 1905 to 1987, with the bulk of the material dating from 1952 to 1987. The papers consist of Smithson's biographical material; business and personal correspondence, much of it with artists; interview transcripts; extensive writings and project files; financial records; printed material; a scrapbook of clippings; holiday cards with original prints and sketches; photographic material; and artifacts. Also found are project files related to Nancy Holt's motion picture film Pine Barrens and her seminal environmental work of art Sun Tunnels, including a video documentary about Sun Tunnels.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of sculptor, writer, and earthworks artist Robert Smithson and his wife, sculptor, filmmaker, and earthworks artist Nancy Holt measure 15.1 linear feet and date from 1905 to 1987, with the bulk of the material dating from 1952 to 1987. The papers consist of Smithson's biographical material; business and personal correspondence, much of it with artists; interview transcripts; extensive writings and project files; financial records; printed material; a scrapbook of clippings; holiday cards with original prints and sketches; photographic material; and artifacts. Also found are project files related to Nancy Holt's film Pine Barrens and her seminal environmental work of art Sun Tunnels, including a video documentary about Sun Tunnels.

Biographical material includes Robert Smithson's curriculum vitae, personal identification and medical documents, eight engagement/day planners Smithson and Holt maintained from 1966 to 1973, and Smithson's funeral register.

Correspondence is primarily with Smithson's family, friends, fellow artists, and business associates discussing personal relationships, proposed art projects, and exhibitions. Correspondents of note include Carl Andre, the Dwan Gallery (Virginia Dwan), Dan Graham, Will Insley, Ray Johnson, Gyorgy Kepes, Sol Lewitt, Lucy Lippard, and Dennis Wheeler. There is also substantial correspondence received by Holt upon Smithson's death in 1973, and between Holt and the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art regarding Smithson's retrospective exhibition in 1982.

There are nine interview transcripts with Smithson discussing his works and his general philosophy on art, and one transcript of the Andrew Dickson White Museum's Earth Art Symposium (1969) featuring the following artists: Mike Hiezer, Dennis Oppenheim, Robert Smithson, Neil Jenney, Gunther Uecker, Jan Dibbets, Richard Long, and Hans Haacke.

Writings are substantial and include 73 drafts of published and unpublished essays by Smithson on art, artists, and works in progress. The series also includes poems by Smithson, six notebooks containing notes and sketches by Smithson, and drafts of writings sent to Smithson and Holt by friends and colleagues, including Carl Andre, Terry Atkinson, Dan Flavin, Dan Graham, and Jack Thibeau.

Project files contain correspondence, project instructions, diagrams and sketches, research materials, photographic material, and maps related to over 50 of Smithson's artworks. These include concepts, proposed projects, sculptures, non-sites, and earthwork projects, including Spiral Jetty, Broken Circle, and Spiral Hill.

Personal business records include gallery related loan arrangements and receipts for miscellaneous art supplies. Financial records include tax forms and preparation documents, including cancelled checks, receipts, statements, and related correspondence.

Printed materials include books, clippings, and periodicals related to Smithson, either containing writings or sketches by him, or containing articles reviewing his work. There are also exhibition announcements and catalogs of Smithson's group and solo shows from 1959 to 1985.

The scrapbook contains clippings of Smithson's published articles from 1966 to 1973 with annotated shorthand notes.

Artwork consists of Christmas cards collaged by Smithson, and sketches by Smithson and Leo Valledor.

Photographic materials include prints and negatives of Smithson with friends, promotional Hollywood movie stills, and original prints and copyprints of other artists' artwork.

Artifacts consist of a paper bag silkscreened with a Campbell's soup can (Warhol), promotional buttons (N.E. Thing Co.), various organic materials, and two art kits.

Nancy Holt's papers consist of correspondence, a grant application, printed materials, and project files and audio visual material related to her motion picture film Pine Barrens (1975) and her seminal environmental work of art Sun Tunnels (1975).
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 13 series:

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1905-1974 (Box 1; 14 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1959-1987 (Boxes 1-2, OV 21; 1.7 linear feet)

Series 3: Interview Transcripts, 1966-1973 (Box 2; 11 folders)

Series 4: Writings, 1959-1975 (Boxes 2-3; 1.1 linear feet)

Series 5: Project Files, circa 1950s-1982 (Boxes 4-5, Boxes 17-18, OV 20, OV 22-26, OV 36, RD 28-30, RD 32-35; 6.5 linear feet)

Series 6: Personal Business Records, circa 1967-1970s (Box 5; 4 folders)

Series 7: Financial Records, 1962-1972 (Box 6; 1 linear foot)

Series 8: Printed Material, 1955-1985 (Boxes 7-11, Box 18, RD 31; 5.6 linear feet)

Series 9: Scrapbook, 1966-1973 (Box 11, Box 16; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 10: Artwork, circa 1950s-1970s (Box 11; 4 folders)

Series 11: Photographs, circa 1950s-1970s (Box 11, Box 18; 5 folders)

Series 12: Artifacts, circa 1950s-1970s (Box 11, Box 14, OV 19; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 13: Nancy Holt Papers, circa 1960s-1980s (Box 12-13, 15, OV 27, FC 37-38; 1.9 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Robert Smithson (1938-1973) was the pioneer of land and earthworks art. He was also a noted sculptor, painter, writer, and lecturer working primarily in New York City. Smithson's wife, Nancy Holt (1938-) was a noted sculptor and filmmaker and also worked as an earthworks artist.

Born in Passaic, New Jersey, Smithson expressed an early interest in art, enrolling in classes at the Brooklyn Museum School and the Art Student's League in New York while still attending high school. Smithson's early works were primarily paintings, drawings, and collages. In 1959, he exhibited his first solo show of paintings at the Artists' Gallery in New York and had his first solo international show in Rome with the Galleria George Lester in 1961.

During the early to mid-1960s, Smithson was perhaps better known as a writer and art critic, writing numerous essays and reviews for Arts Magazine and Artforum. He became affiliated with artists who were identified with the minimalist movement, such as Carl Andre, Donald Judd, Nancy Holt, Sol LeWitt, Robert Morris and others. In 1963, Smithson married sculptor and filmmaker Nancy Holt and a year later started to create his first sculptural works. In 1966, Smithson joined the Dwan Gallery, whose owner Virginia Dwan was an enthusiastic supporter of his work.

Smithson's interest in land art began in the late 1960s while exploring industrial and quarry sites and observing the movement of earth and rocks. This resulted in a series of sculptures called "non-sites" consisting of earth and rocks collected from a specific site and installed in gallery space, often combined with photographs, maps, mirrors, or found materials. In September 1968, Smithson published the essay "A Sedimentation of the Mind: Earth Projects" in Artforum that promoted the work of the first wave of land art artists. Soon thereafter, he began creating his own large scale land art and earthworks.

From 1967 to 1973, Smithson's productivity was constant as he wrote, lectured, and participated in several solo and group shows a year, both at home and abroad. He explored narrative art as essay in "The Monuments of Passaic" and fully committed to his idea of visiting sites and using them as the basis for creating non-sites, Non-Site, Pine Barrens, (1968); incorporated and documented the use of mirrors at sites in Mirror Displacement, Cayuga Salt Mine Project (1968-1969); and created his first site-specific works through liquid pours of mud, asphalt, and concrete, including Asphalt Rundown (1969). In 1969, he also completed his first earth pour at Kent State University with his project Partially Buried Woodshed. Later that year, he created the sculptural artwork for which he is best known, Spiral Jetty (1969) on the Great Salt Lake in Utah. This was the first of his pieces to require the acquisition of land rights and earthmoving equipment, and would be followed two years later by Broken Circle and Spiral Hill in 1971.

On July 20, 1973, while surveying sites in Texas for the proposed Amarillo Ramp, Smithson died in a plane crash at the age of 35. Despite his early death, Smithson's writings and artwork had a major impact on many contemporary artists.

Nancy Holt began her career as a photographer and video artist. Today, Holt is most widely known for her large-scale environmental works, Sun Tunnels and Dark Star Park. Holt has also made a number of films and videos since the late 1960s, including Mono Lake (1968), East Coast, West Coast (1969), and Swamp (1971) in collaboration with her late husband Robert Smithson. Points of View: Clocktower (1974) features conversations between Lucy Lippard and Richard Serra, Liza Bear and Klaus Kertess, Carl Andre and Ruth Kligman and Bruce Brice and Tina Girouard. In 1978, she produced a film about her seminal work Sun Tunnels.
Related Material:
The Archives also holds several collections related to Robert Smithson and Nancy Holt, including an oral history interview with Robert Smithson conducted by Paul Cummings in 1972; an interview with Robert Smithson conducted by Tony Robbin in 1968; Robert Smithson letters to George B. Lester, 1960-1963; and oral history interviews with Nancy Holt conducted by Scott Gutterman in 1992 and Joyce Pomeroy Schwartz in 1993.
Separated Material:
Non-archival library books, periodicals, and phonographs from Robert Smithson's personal library are currently stored offsite.
Provenance:
The papers of Robert Smithson and Nancy Holt were donated by Nancy Holt in several accretions between 1986 and 2011.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Authors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art -- Philosophy  Search this
Earthworks (Art)  Search this
Filmmakers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sketches
Scrapbooks
Greeting cards
Photographs
Transcripts
Motion pictures (visual works)
Citation:
Robert Smithson and Nancy Holt papers, 1905-1987, bulk 1952-1987. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.smitrobe
See more items in:
Robert Smithson and Nancy Holt papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-smitrobe
Online Media:

Robert Smithson and Nancy Holt papers, 1905-1987, bulk 1952-1987

Creator:
Smithson, Robert, 1938-1973  Search this
Holt, Nancy, 1938-  Search this
Subject:
Wheeler, Dennis  Search this
Valledor, Leo  Search this
Dibbets, Jan  Search this
Atkinson, Terry  Search this
Andre, Carl  Search this
Insley, Will  Search this
Heizer, Michael  Search this
Holt, Nancy  Search this
Dwan, Virginia  Search this
Flavin, Dan  Search this
Graham, Dan  Search this
Haacke, Hans  Search this
Lippard, Lucy R.  Search this
Long, Richard  Search this
Oppenheim, Dennis  Search this
Jenney, Neil  Search this
Johnson, Ray  Search this
Kepes, Gyorgy  Search this
LeWitt, Sol  Search this
Dwan Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Sketches
Scrapbooks
Greeting cards
Photographs
Transcripts
Motion pictures (visual works)
Topic:
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Authors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art -- Philosophy  Search this
Earthworks (Art)  Search this
Filmmakers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7105
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209239
AAA_collcode_smitrobe
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209239
Online Media:

Wheeler, Dennis

Collection Creator:
Smithson, Robert  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 37
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1970-1973
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Robert Smithson and Nancy Holt papers, 1905-1987, bulk 1952-1987. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Robert Smithson and Nancy Holt papers
Robert Smithson and Nancy Holt papers / Series 2: Correspondence / 2.2: General
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-smitrobe-ref115

Jack Tworkov papers, circa 1926-1993

Creator:
Tworkov, Jack, 1900-1982  Search this
Subject:
Forge, Andrew  Search this
Dickinson, Edwin Walter  Search this
Demarco, Ricky  Search this
Knaths, Karl  Search this
Katz, Paul  Search this
Herzbrun, Helene  Search this
Hartigan, Grace  Search this
Bartlett, Jennifer  Search this
Ashton, Dore  Search this
Ashbury, John  Search this
Cézanne, Paul  Search this
Cavallon, Giorgio  Search this
Calfee, William H. (William Howard)  Search this
Blinken, Donald M.  Search this
Ponsold, Renate  Search this
Praeger, David A.  Search this
Westenberger, Theo  Search this
Summerford, Joe  Search this
Thorne, Joan  Search this
Matter, Herbert  Search this
Lindeberg, Linda  Search this
Osborn, Robert Chesley  Search this
Newman, Arnold  Search this
Newman, Michael  Search this
Wise, Howard  Search this
Wheeler, Dennis  Search this
Yunkers, Adja  Search this
Rothko, Mark  Search this
Egan Gallery  Search this
Stable Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Nancy Hoffman Gallery  Search this
Leo Castelli Gallery  Search this
Poindexter Gallery  Search this
Zabriskie Gallery  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Video recordings
Interviews
Motion pictures (visual works)
Sound recordings
Sketches
Diaries
Topic:
Painting -- New York (State)  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13402
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211452
AAA_collcode_tworjack2
Theme:
Diaries
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211452
Online Media:

Jack Tworkov papers

Creator:
Tworkov, Jack  Search this
Names:
Egan Gallery  Search this
Leo Castelli Gallery  Search this
Nancy Hoffman Gallery  Search this
Poindexter Gallery  Search this
Stable Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Zabriskie Gallery  Search this
Ashbury, John  Search this
Ashton, Dore  Search this
Bartlett, Jennifer, 1941-  Search this
Blinken, Donald M., 1925-  Search this
Calfee, William H. (William Howard), 1909-1995  Search this
Cavallon, Giorgio, 1904-1989  Search this
Cézanne, Paul, 1839-1906  Search this
Demarco, Ricky  Search this
Dickinson, Edwin Walter, 1891-1978  Search this
Forge, Andrew  Search this
Hartigan, Grace  Search this
Herzbrun, Helene  Search this
Katz, Paul  Search this
Knaths, Karl, 1891-1971  Search this
Lindeberg, Linda, 1915-1973  Search this
Matter, Herbert, 1907-1984  Search this
Newman, Arnold, 1918-2006  Search this
Newman, Michael  Search this
Osborn, Robert Chesley, 1904-1994  Search this
Ponsold, Renate  Search this
Praeger, David A.  Search this
Rothko, Mark, 1903-1970  Search this
Summerford, Joe  Search this
Thorne, Joan, 1943-  Search this
Westenberger, Theo  Search this
Wheeler, Dennis  Search this
Wise, Howard  Search this
Yunkers, Adja, 1900-1983  Search this
Extent:
9.7 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Video recordings
Interviews
Motion pictures (visual works)
Sound recordings
Sketches
Diaries
Date:
1926-1993
Summary:
The Jack Tworkov papers measure 9.7 linear feet and are dated 1926-1993. Tworkov's work as a painter and influential teacher, as well as his personal life, are documented by extensive journals and substantive correspondence that record his ideas about art and teaching, and illuminate his relationships with friends, colleagues, and students. Many sketchbooks, writings, interviews, photographs, and moving images are also included.
Scope and Content Note:
The Jack Tworkov papers measure 9.7 linear feet and are dated 1926-1993, with the bulk from the period 1931-1982. Tworkov's work as a painter and influential teacher, as well as his personal life, are documented by extensive journals and substantive correspondence that record his ideas about art and teaching, and illuminate his relationships with friends, colleagues, and students. Many sketchbooks, writings, interviews, photographs, and moving images are also included.

Biographical material includes Tworkov's citizenship certificate, awards, diplomas, a copy of Jack Tworkov: Video Portrait, produced by Electronic Arts Intermix, and a motion picture film, USA Artists: Jack Tworkov, produced by National Education Television.

Correspondence consists largely of incoming letters. It is both professional and personal in nature and often combines both spheres. Correspondents include artists Jennifer Bartlett, William H. Calfee, Giorgio Cavallon and Linda Lindeberg, Grace Hartigan, Helene Herzbrun (also named Helene McKinsey), Karl Knaths, Joe Summerford, Joan Thorne, and Adja Yunkers; cartoonist Robert C. Osborn; collectors Donald M. Blinken and David A. Praeger (who was also Tworkov's lawyer); illustrator Roger Dovoisin; critics Dore Ashton and Andrew Forge; critic and poet John Ashbury; galleries that represented Tworkov: Egan Gallery, Leo Castelli, Nancy Hoffman Gallery, Poindexter Gallery, Stable Gallery and Zabriskie Gallery; and many museums, arts organizations, colleges and universities.

Interviews with Tworkov include one with Ricky Demarco videotaped in 1979 and two conducted on video by Twokov's daughter Helen in 1975. The remaining interviews are sound recordings, one conducted by Grace Alexander for the show Artists in New York in 1967, one conducted by Michael Newman in 1980, and the remainder by unidentified interviewers. None have transcripts.

All writings are by Tworkov and include poems, an artist's statement, and documentation for two children's books by Tworkov illustrated by Roger Duvoisin. Two additional notebooks contain miscellaneous notes, teaching notes, and some specific to identified courses. Lectures exist as untranscribed sound recordings.

Tworkov's journals (33 volumes) span a period of 35 years, from 1947 until 1982, with the final entry dated a few weeks before his death. They record his reflections on painting, his challenges as a painter, aesthetics, the role of the artist in society, Jewish identity, painters he admired (especially Cézanne and Edwin Dickinson), politics, and teaching. They also recount everyday life: the comings and goings of friends and family members, social engagements, professional activities, illness, and travel.

The lone subject file concerns Mark Rothko and includes a photograph of Rothko and the guest list for the dedication of the Rothko Chapel in Houston.

Artwork consists of a small number of sketches by Tworkov in pencil and ink. Tworkov's sketchbooks (28 volumes) contain sketches and some finished drawings. Most are in pencil, but scattered throughout are a few pencil sketches embellished with colored marker or pastel, and a small number in ink.

Photographs are of people, places and events. Most photographs are of Tworkov alone and with others including Giogio Cavallon, though most friends and students are unidentified. Of note are views of Tworkov producing a series of prints at Tamarind Institute. Also found is an informal portrait of Wally Tworkov. Events recorded include the jurying of "Exhibition Momentum" in Chicago, 1956. Among the places shown are Tworkov's studios at Black Mountain College and in Provincetown. When known, photographers are noted; among them are Paul Katz, Herbert Matter, Arnold Newman, Renate Ponsold, Theo Westenberger, Dennis Wheeler, and Howard Wise.

A separate series of audiovisual recordings was established for those recordings that could not be readily identified to be arranged in other series. They consist of three videocassettes (2 VHS and 1 miniDV).
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 11 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1933-1981 (Boxes 1, 9, 11, FC 13; 0.7 linear ft.)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1926-1993 (Boxes 1-5; 3.8 linear ft.)

Series 3: Interviews, 1978-1982 (Boxes 5, 9-10; 1 linear ft.)

Series 4: Writings, Notes, and Lectures, 1955-1982 (Boxes 5, 9; 0.5 linear ft.)

Series 5: Journals, 1947-1982 (Boxes 5-7; 2.0 linear ft.)

Series 6: Subject File, 1961-1977 (Box 7; 1 folder)

Series 7: Printed Material, 1952-1981 (Box 7, OV 12; 0.1 linear ft.)

Series 8: Artwork, circa 1950s-1960s (Box 7: 3 folders)

Series 9: Sketchbooks, circa 1950s-1960s (Boxes 7-8, 11; 1.0 linear ft.)

Series 10: Photographic Materials, 1941-1981 (Boxes 8-9; 0.5 linear ft.)

Series 11: Audiovisual Recordings, 1961-1975 (Box 9; 0.1 linear ft.)
Biographical Note:
New York School painter Jack Tworkov (1900-1982), best known for his Abstract Expressionist paintings and as a highly regarded teacher, lived and worked in New York City and Provincetown, MA.

At age 13, Tworkov (born Yakov Tworkovsky) emigrated from Poland with his mother and sister to join his father already in the United States. In America, they chose to use the name of distant relatives, the Bernsteins, who were their sponsors. Eventually, Jack and his sister, Janice, reclaimed and shortened their name to Tworkov; later, she adopted the name of their hometown in Poland and became the painter Janice Biala.

As a high school student in New York City, Tworkov attended drawing classes. After graduating from Columbia University, where he had been an English major and considered becoming a writer, Tworkov instead turned to art. He studied with Ivan Olinsky at the National Academy of Design between 1923 and 1925, and from 1925 to 1926 attended painting classes taught by Guy Péne Du Bois and Boardman Robinson at the Art Students League. During his college years, Tworkov began visiting museums and became a great admirer of Cézanne. Tworkov's early paintings - still life, landscapes, and portraits - showed the influence of European modernism and Cézanne.

Tworkov spent his first summer in Provincetown while still a student and subsequently returned to study with Ross Moffet. In Provincetown he met and was greatly influenced by Karl Knaths and developed a lifelong friendship with Edwin Dickinson. By 1929, Tworkov was painting there year round. Over the years, Tworkov and his family continued to return for long stretches, and in 1958 he purchased a house in Provincetown.

During the Great Depression, Tworkov participated in the Treasury Department's Public Works of Art Project until 1934, and then moved to the easel division of the WPA Federal Art Project. He felt uncomfortable with the growing ideological and political influences on art and found it depressing to paint for the WPA rather than for himself, so he left the WPA in 1941. Tworkov, who had studied mechanical drawing while in high school, spent most of the War years employed as a tool designer and draftsman at an engineering firm with government contracts.

By the 1940s, Tworkov was painting in the Abstract Expressionist style. Between 1948 and 1953, he leased a studio on Fourth Avenue that adjoined that of his friend Willem de Kooning. During this time, they mutually influenced each other as they developed into mature Abstract Expressionists. At Yale in the 1960s, Tworkov became close friends with fellow student Josef Albers. Alber's influence on Tworkov resulted in a turn to geometric compositions of small, systematic, and repetitive strokes defined by a grid. He experimented with diagonal compositions, and later geometric work that featured large areas of color and soft texture.

Tworkov's first teaching experience was during 1930-1931 when he served as a part-time painting instructor at the Ethical Culture Fieldston School. His teaching career began in earnest when he joined the faculties of Queens College, 1948-1955, and Pratt Institute, 1955-1958. During the summers he taught at various schools, most notably Black Mountain College's 1952 summer session. Tworkov was a visiting artist at the Yale University School of Art and Architecture, 1961-1963, and became chairman of its Art Department from 1963 until his retirement in 1969. In retirement he lived in Provincetown and was a visiting artist for both short and extended periods at various universities and art schools.

An avid reader of literature and poetry, Tworkov also wrote poems and essays. He published essays in It Is, Art Digest, and Art In America; his most notable piece, "The Wandering Soutine," appeared in Art News, November 1950. Tworkov also kept a journal for 35 years (1947-1982) that recorded his thoughts on a wide range of subjects concerning professional, personal, and philosophical issues, as well as details of everyday life.

Tworkov was among the founders of the Artists' Club or The Club in 1949, and for a decade actively participated in the stimulating discussions for which the group was known. In 1968 he helped to establish the Fine Arts Work Center in Provincetown. Its residency program enabled younger artists and writers to advance their careers and kept Provincetown's historic artists' colony active year round.

He was the recipient of the William A. Clark Award and Corcoran Gold Medal from the Corcoran Gallery of Art, 1963; Skowhegan School of Art's Painter of the Year Award, 1974; and Distinguished Teaching of Art Award from College Art Association, 1976. Tworkov was appointed to serve on the Massachusetts Art Commission, 1970-1971, and in 1981 was named a Fellow of The Cleveland Museum of Art and of the Rhode Island School of Design.

Following his second divorce in 1935, Rachel (Wally) Wolodarsky became Tworkov's third wife and their marriage endured. They had two daughters. Hermine Ford (b. 1939) is an artist married to fellow painter Robert Moskowitz. Helen Tworkov (b. 1943) is the founder of Tricycle: The Buddhist Review and the author of a book about yoga.

Tworkov remained physically and intellectually active after a diagnosis of bone cancer around 1980, and continued to paint until shortly before his death in Provincetown on September 4, 1982.
Related Material:
Among the holdings of the Archives of American Art are two oral history interviews with Jack Tworkov, one conducted by Dorothy Seckler, Aug. 17, 1962, and another by Gerald Silk, May 22, 1981. There is also a small collection of three letters written by Jack Tworkov to friend Troy-Jjohn Bramberger.
Separated Material:
The Archives of American Art also holds material lent for microfilming (reel N70-38 and 62) including writings by Tworkov, notebooks, notes for teaching and talks, notes on art and miscellaneous subjects, poems, artist's statements, biographical data, the transcript of a 1970 interview with Tworkov conducted by Phyllis Tuchman, and a few letters and drafts of letters, 1950-1963. Loaned materials were returned to the lender and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
Jack Tworkov lent the Archives of American Art papers for microfilming in 1970-1971. Jack Tworkov's daughters, Hermine Ford and Helen Tworkov, donated the rest of the collection in 2009, which included some of the material from the original loan.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Jack Tworkov papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Painting -- New York (State)  Search this
Painters -- Massachusetts  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Video recordings
Interviews
Motion pictures (visual works)
Sound recordings
Sketches
Diaries
Citation:
Jack Tworkov papers, 1926-1993. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.tworjack2
See more items in:
Jack Tworkov papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-tworjack2
Online Media:

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