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Frances Benjamin Johnston and Thomas W. Smillie Glass Plate Negatives

Printer:
MacCormack, Forrest (intern)  Search this
Talman, Hugh (photographer)  Search this
Photographer:
Smillie, T. W. (Thomas William), 1843-1917  Search this
Johnston, Frances Benjamin, 1864-1952  Search this
Collector:
Domestic Life, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Domestic Life, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Names:
World's Columbian Exposition (1893 : Chicago, Ill.) -- Photographs  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (7 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Contact prints
Place:
White House (Washington, D.C.)
Washington (D.C.) -- 1890-1900
Chicago Ill. -- 1890-1900
Date:
1993 - 1993
circa 1888-1899, 1906
Summary:
Twenty glass plate negatives and reference copy prints of the images taken between the late 1880s and the early 1900s by Frances Benjamin Johnston and Thomas W. Smillie. The images depict the skyline of Washington D.C., views from the 1893 World's Fair: Columbian Exposition, blueprints for the Smithsonian Arts and Industries Building, and an unidentified orchestra.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of twenty glass plate negatives and associated reference copy prints depicting scenes from the 1893 World's Fair: Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois as well as images of the Washington D.C. skyline dating from between 1888 and 1899. The glass plate negatives range in size from 17" x 20" to 20" x 24" while the silver gelatin, resin-coated paper prints are all 20" x 24". All the images are black and white.

Series 1, Glass Plate Negatives, 1893, 1906, circa 1888-1899, is arranged by a numbering system, possibly assigned by the Smithsonian Office of Printing and Photographic Services (OPPS). The numbers were etched or written on the negatives, for example 3107. The series begins with the numbered images from Washington DC (#3101-#3107), followed by images without identifying numbers. The numbered images from the 1893 Columbian Exposition (non-inclusive #11302-11359) come next, followed by the images without identifying numbers.

The images of Washington D.C., when arranged in the following sequence, form a panorama of the Washington D.C. city: #3103, #3107, #3104, #3101, #3106, #3105, #3102. The images were taken from the tower of the Smithsonian Castle facing north, beginning with a view of the United States Capitol Building in the east (#3102) and ending with a view of the incomplete Washington Monument in the west (#3103). An unnumbered image of the United States Capitol taken after 1899 from the tower of the Old Post Office and Clock Tower looking down Pennsylvania Avenue is included. Two unnumbered blueprints dated July 19, 1906 show the second and third floor layouts of the Smithsonian Arts and Industries Building.

The images of the 1893 World's Fair: Columbian Exposition show various buildings built for the event as well as a replica of the Battleship Illinois which was constructed to illustrate advances in naval technology. Exterior views of the Administration Building, Government Building, Palace of Fine Arts, Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building as well as an interior view of the World's Fair Post Office in the Government Building are found among the negatives. A number of the images appear to have been taken from atop some of the buildings looking down.

One unnumbered and unidentified picture of a musical orchestra sitting on stage is included at the end of the series.

Series 2, Copy prints, 1993, include duplicate or, in some instances triplicate, photographic copy prints of the images from the glass plate negatives. In the case of #11311 and #11359, no copy prints exist. The silver gelatin prints on resin-coated paper were created in the fall of 1993.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in two series.

Series 1: Glass Plate Negatives, 1893, 1906, circa 1888-1899

Series 2: Copy prints (reference copies), 1993
Biographical / Historical:
While the origin and provenance of some of the glass plate negatives is uncertain, it is likely that the images were created by Smithsonian photographer and curator Thomas W. Smillie and by Frances Benjamin Johnston, a prominent female photographer who was a protege of Smillie's.

Thomas W. Smillie was born in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1843 and emigrated to the United States when he was five years old. He attended Georgetown University, where he studied medicine and chemistry. Shortly thereafter he became a photographer for the Smithsonian and remained with the institution until his death in 1917. In 1896 he was named "custodian" of photography for the Institution, in essence becoming its first photography curator. He staged photographic exhibits and actively collected both images and equipment related to photography.

Frances Benjamin Johnston was an early pioneer for women in the field of photography and photojournalism. Born in 1864 in Grafton, West Virginia, Johnston studied art in Maryland and later at the Académie Julien in Paris. Her high-profile family connection with the Eastman family as well as her insatiable appetite for knowledge about photographic processes quickly propelled her to a formidable professional career. Her work appeared in publications such as The Ladies' Home Journal, Harper's Weekly, and Cosmopolitan, among others. As an apprentice to Thomas W. Smillie, Johnston was engaged to photograph the 1893 World's Fair: Columbian Exposition in Chicago. She made Washington D.C. her home and had the opportunity to photograph a large number of high profile individuals and government officials, including five United States presidents. Her photography often documented mundane and commonplace aspects of life rather than spectacular or prominent ones. Later in her career she focused her photography on colonial architecture, with images of houses, barns, and other buildings that intentionally showed everyday life in the United States South rather than high profile structures which had already been well-documented. She moved to New Orleans in 1940 and died in 1952.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Smithsonian Institution

Smithsonian Institution Archives

Records, circa 1883-1984 (SIA RU000529)

Field Research Photographs, circa 1909-1924 (SIA Acc. 02-086)

Personnel Records, 1892-1952 (SIA Acc. 05-123)

Collected Registers, 1908-1912 and undated (SIA Acc. 06-138)

National Anthropological Archives

Glass Negatives of Indians (Collected by Bureau of American Ethnology)
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Reference photograph copies should be used where possible. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special care is required when handling the glass plate negatives both because of their large size and because some of the negatives are broken.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Washington Monument (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1890-1900
Contact prints -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Frances Benjamin Johnston and Thomas W. Smillie Glass Plate Negatives, 1888-1906, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0416
See more items in:
Frances Benjamin Johnston and Thomas W. Smillie Glass Plate Negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0416

Photographs relating to Native Americans and buildings

Photographer:
Cross, W. R. (William R.)  Search this
Dinwiddie, William, 1867-1934  Search this
Gill, De Lancey, 1859-1940  Search this
Matteson, Sumner W., 1867-1920  Search this
Mcbride, C. C.  Search this
Smillie, T. W. (Thomas William), 1843-1917  Search this
Extent:
49 Prints (albumen and silver gelatin)
5 Copy prints
3 Prints (collotype)
Culture:
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Wanapum Indians  Search this
Tonkawa  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Northwest Coast  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Copy prints
Photographs
Place:
Deadwood (S.D.)
Fort Cummings (N.M.)
White Earth Indian Reservation (Minn.)
Florida
West Virginia
Salt Lake City (Utah)
New Mexico
Charleston (S.C.)
Utah
Washington (State)
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs of various subjects, including portraits of Native Americans made from negatives by the Bureau of American Ethnology and United States National Museum. Depicted individuals include Lamar Richards (also known as Ostin, Tonkawa) and Grant Richards (also known as Sentele, Tonkawa); Turning Hawk, Crow Dog, Spot Tail, Red Leaf, and White Thunder. There are also images of Shuswap people dressing hides; Smohalla and Sokulk followers at Priests Rapids, Washington; and Native Americans around a campfire at Fort Marion, Florida.

Additionally, there are photographs of St. Columba's Church, White Earth Reservation, Minnesota; Otoe Industrial School; a chapel at the Cheyenne Mowerʹs place, with Mower's son; a sketch of Fort Cummings, New Mexico; buildings and a mound at Charleston, West Virginia; the Tabernacle at Salt Lake City; an American Indian camp with hides drying; Native Americans dragging brush in preparation of a medicine lodge; and a wood engraving of a Dakota Ghost Dance, taken from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper.

Photographers include William Dinwiddie; De Lancey W. Gill; Sumner W. Matteson; Thomas William Smillie; Cross, of Hot Springs, South Dakota; and C. C. McBride.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 66F
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs by Dinwiddie can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 14, Photo Lot 60, Photo Lot 78, Photo Lot 89, Photo Lot 141A, Photo Lot 144, Photo Lot 80-18, the BAE historical negatives, and the Herbert William Krieger Papers.
Additional Gill photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 14, Photo Lot 33, Photo Lot 65, Photo Lot 70, Photo Lot 85, Photo Lot 79-4, Photo Lot 87-2P, and Photo Lot 90-1.
The National Museum of the American Indian Archives holds the Sumner W. Matteson collection of photographs, negatives and lantern slides.
Additional Smillie photographs held in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 60, Photo Lot 79, and the BAE historical negatives. The Archives Center, National Museum of American History also holds the Frances Benjamin Johnston and Thomas W. Smillie Glass Plate Negatives.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Camps  Search this
Mounds  Search this
Buildings  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 66F, Photographs relating to Native Americans and buildings, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.66F
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-66f

Jesse Walter Fewkes photograph collection relating to archaeological subjects

Creator:
Fewkes, Jesse Walter, 1850-1930  Search this
Photographer:
Beam, George L. (George Lytle), 1868-1935  Search this
Gill, De Lancey, 1859-1940  Search this
Higley, Elmer Ellsworth  Search this
McKee, Thomas M., 1854-1939  Search this
Poley, H. S. (Horace Swartley)  Search this
Rowland, Wesley R.  Search this
Wittick, Ben, 1845-1903  Search this
Artist:
Gill, Mary W.  Search this
Mullett, G. M.  Search this
Extent:
9 Prints (cromolithograph)
40 Prints (circa, halftone)
77 Prints (circa, albumen)
84 Drawings (circa 84 drawings (some mechanically produced))
1,655 Prints (circa, silver gelatin)
71 Copy negatives
43 Copy prints
363 Negatives (circa, nitrate)
7 Paintings
1 Print (cyanotype)
1 Print (photogravure)
1 Postcard (collotype)
Culture:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Huastec  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Drawings
Copy negatives
Copy prints
Negatives
Paintings
Postcards
Photographs
Place:
Tennessee -- Antiquities
Stikine River (B.C. and Alaska)
South Carolina -- Antiquities
New Mexico -- Antiquities
Huasteca Region (Mexico)
Maryland -- Antiquities
Louisiana -- Antiquities
Alabama -- Antiquities
Arizona -- Antiquities
Colorado -- Antiquities
Cahokia Mounds State Historic Park (Ill.)
Florida -- Antiquities
Mexico -- Antiquities
Hovenweep National Monument (Utah and Colo.)
Utah -- Antiquities
Mesa Verde National Park (Colo.)
Navajo National Monument
Casa Grande (Ariz.)
Date:
circa 1890-1928
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs and drawings mostly relating to archeological subjects, collected and arranged by Jesse Walter Fewkes for his reference. Subjects include burial mounds, excavations, drawn maps, as well as urns, implements, idols, pottery, and other artifacts found in excavations, and Hopi, Zuni, and Piegan ceremonies and dances. Many of the photographs and drawings were probably made by Fewkes. Publication information is noted on some. The collection also includes newspaper clippings and correspondence.

Photographs were taken in Alabama, Arizona (including Casa Grande, Elden Pueblo, Navajo National Monument, and Wupatki National Monument), Colorado (including Mesa Verde and Montezuma Valley), Florida (including Weeden Island), Illinois (Cahokia Mound), Louisiana, Maryland, Mexico (including La Huasteca Region), Mississippi Valley, New Mexico (including Chaco Canyon, Hawikuh, and Mimbres Valley), South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah (including Hill Canyon, McElmo Canyon, and McLean Basin Ruins), Hovenweep National Monument, the West Indies (including Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo, and Cuba), and West Virginia.
Biographical/Historical note:
Jesse Walter Fewkes (1850-1930) was a naturalist, anthropologist, and archeologist, and chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology from 1918 to his death in 1928. Fewkes received a Ph.D. in marine zoology from Harvard in 1877, and acted as curator of lower invertebrates at the Museum of Comparative Zoology until 1887. While on a collecting trip in the western United States, he developed an interest in the culture and history of the Pueblo Indians. In 1891, Fewkes became director of the Hemenway Southwestern Archeological Expedition and editor of the Journal of American Archeology and Ethnology, studying and recording Hopi ceremonials. In 1895, he embarked on various archeological explorations for the Bureau of American Ethnology, excavating ruins in the Southwest, the West Indies, and Florida. He was appointed chief of the Bureau in 1918, and played an important role in the creation of Hovenweep National Monument in Colorado and Wupatki National Monument in Arizona.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 4321
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives also holds the Jesse Walter Fewkes Papers (MS 4408), his photographs of excavations in Mesa Verde (Photo Lot 30), his negatives (Photo Lot 86), and other manuscript collections by and related to Fewkes' ethnological research and archeology and his work with the Bureau of American Ethnology.
Correspondence from Fewkes held in the National Anthropological Archives in the George L. Beam papers (MS 4517), the Henry Bascom Collins, Jr. papers, the Anthropological Society of Washington records (MS 4821), the Herbert William Krieger papers, the J.C. Pilling papers, the Walter Hough Papers (in the records of the Department of Anthropology), and the records of the Bureau of American Ethnology.
The anthropology collections of the National Museum of Natural History hold artifacts collected by Fewkes, including USNM ACC 048761 (relating to Casa Grande excavations) and USNM ACC 050765 (relating to Mesa Verde excavations).
Restrictions:
Original nitrate negatives are in cold storage and require advanced notice for viewing.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Burial  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 4321, Jesse Walter Fewkes photograph collection relating to archaeological subjects, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.4321
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-4321

Oral history interview with Volkmar Kurt Wentzel

Interviewee:
Wentzel, Volkmar Kurt, 1915-2006  Search this
Interviewer:
Berman, Anne Louise, 1975-2016  Search this
Names:
Constantinople, Lely  Search this
Extent:
6 Items (sound discs (5 hr., 36 min.), digital, 2 5/8 in.)
114 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
2002 October 18-2003 January 24
Scope and Contents:
Interview with Volkmar Kurt Wentzel by Anne Louise Bayly Berman for the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, at Wentzel's home in Washington, DC on October 18 and 24, 2002; November 12, 2002; and January 24, 2003.
Wentzel discusses his childhood in Dresden, Germany, and the devastation during bombing of the city in World War II. He recalls a few stories about his fascination with dirigibles, beginning in childhood through his experience taking his first news photograph capturing President Franklin Delano Roosevelt meeting with Germans who traveled in the Hindenburg to unsuccessfully negotiate for helium in the 1930s. Wentzel discusses how his family endured the devastation of Germany toward the end of the World War I, and he recalls his father, Fritz Wentzel, working as a photochemist in Germany, and setting up photo paper factories in the former Czechoslovakia and Spain. Wentzel talks about how his father travelled to the Balkans to take photographs for his hobby before family life, and how he was a contemporary of Alfred Stieglitz, as they both studied under Hermann Vogel in Berlin. Wentzel speaks about how his family immigrated to Binghamton, NY in 1926 for his father's work with the Ansco Company (which later became Agfa-Ansco). Wentzel recalls how his father's home darkroom was his first influence on his photographic career. He talks about his mother passing away of pneumonia at an early age and the effects it had on his family. Wentzel recalls his ambition to travel to South America after graduating Binghamton High School with a friend, but once he arrived in Washington, DC, he ended his journey there. He talks about meeting architects Arved Kundzin and Eric Menke, who lead him to an artist retreat in Aurora, West Virginia. Wentzel discusses how he started making photographs in West Virginia, and a few of the pictures he made into photographs were purchased by First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt on a road trip through the area. Wentzel talks about returning to Washington, DC and working in the darkroom for the portrait studio, Underwood & Underwood. He speaks about documenting Washington at night with his hand-me-down Speed Graphic camera. Wentzel explains that a colleague suggested that he send the photographs to the Royal Photographic Society, and walking into the offices of National Geographic to see their darkroom. He discusses applying for and landing a job in the darkroom of the offices of National Geographic. Wentzel talks about founder Gilbert Grosvenor as a pioneer of printing color photography. He describes National Geographic assignments in Kentucky and West Virginia, and talks about the impact of digital photography on the medium. Wentzel describes his air force service in World War II with the First Photo Squadron, where he helped take photographs to create aerial maps, and talks about ending his service in Okinawa and seeing the destruction of Nagasaki. Wentzel discusses returning to National Geographic after from his military service, and then getting assigned to document India. He speaks vividly of his travels in India, about building a traveling darkroom from a junkyard ambulance. He describes meeting Pandit Nehru, and his travels through Bombay, Jammu, Srinagar, Kashmir, Ladakh, Zoji La pass, Delhi, and Jaipur. He also speaks about his time documenting Africa, including the Weeks Expedition to Central Africa in 1952. He talks of his travels in Namibia, the Etosha Pan, Angola, the Congo, and the Cameroons. Lely Constantinople, Wentzel's studio assistant, also participates in the interview.
Biographical / Historical:
Volkmar Wentzel (1915-2006) was a writer and photographer from Washington, D.C.
General:
Originally recorded on 6 sound discs. Reformatted in 2010 as 12 digital wav files. Duration is 5 hr., 36 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Restrictions:
This transcript is open for research. Access to the entire audio recording is restricted. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Topic:
Photographers -- Washington (D.C.) -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.wentze02
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-wentze02

Charleston -- Thomas Garden

Architect:
Bengston, L. T.  Search this
Marshall, Paul D.  Search this
Contractor:
McCorkle, Alvin, Sr.  Search this
Horticulturist:
Vasale, Thomas A.  Search this
Artist:
Fetty, Jeff  Search this
Former owner:
Thomas, L. Newton  Search this
Thomas, L. Newton, Mrs.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Thomas Garden (Charleston, West Virginia)
United States of America -- West Virginia -- Kanawha County -- Charleston
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes a worksheet and a copy of the garden plan.The garden is noted for its English character, woodland setting, and use of masses of color.
General:
"This 1.5 acre plot was carved out of a 21-acre tract owned by the current owner's grandparents. The house was built for the current owner's parents. Old coal mine tipple timbers were used as beams in one room and in covered porches of the house. The original owners had gardens, but when the current owners moved in in 1986 the existing gardens were expanded and renovated. Beds were double dug and trees and shrubs were added. Plant features include peonies, hostas, hemerocallis, and rudbeckia. Boxwood plantings and a woodland garden are also featured."
Persons associated with the property include: Mr. and Mrs. L. Newton Thomas (former owners, 1938-1985); L. T. Bengston (architect, 1937-38); Alvin McCorkle, Sr. (contractor, 1937-38); Paul D. Marshall (architect, 1985 and following); Thomas A. Vasale (horticulturist, 1985 to date); and Jeff Fetty (artist, 1988).
Related Materials:
Thomas Garden related holdings consist of 1 folder (26 35 mm. slides)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- West Virginia -- Charleston  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File WV006
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / West Virginia
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref11855

Malden -- Kanawha Salines

Former owner:
Dickinson, William Sr.  Search this
Dickinson, WIlliam Jr.  Search this
Dickinson, John Quincy  Search this
Dickinson, John Quincy, Mrs.  Search this
Dickinson, Charles C.  Search this
Dickinson, Charles C., Mrs.  Search this
Landscape designer:
Harman, May S.  Search this
Dillon, Frances  Search this
Ireys, Alice Recknagel, 1911-2000  Search this
Hoffman, Holly  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Kanawha Salines (Malden, West Virginia)
United States of America -- West Virginia -- Kanawha County -- Malden
General:
"The gardens at Kanawha Salines are particularly interesting as the product of female owners Nelle Coleman Alderson Dickinson and her daughter, Mary Price Dickinson Ratrie, as well as female designers and gardeners." The gardens include an immense American Elm, planted by Mrs. Ratrie as a child and a parterre with box hedges, rosebeds, and herbaceous perennial borders."
"Salt was produced here from 1817 until 1945, and shipped by the Kanawha River and later rail as far as New Orleans and Pittsburgh. The farm fields pasture a small herd of Belted Galloway cattle and a number of 'family' horses and ponies. Mrs. Ratrie's garden center and nursery, 'Terra Salis', is located on the edge of the farm."
"The property features a glorious vista of wooded hills, another of the Kanawha River, and an all-white pond garden reached by an allée of Prunus campanulata 'Okame'. There is a viburnum collection of 16 species/varieties; a 60-foot hemerocallis and narcissus border; several beds of species roses and syringa varieties; many specimen trees, both deciduous and evergreen; and a terrace, overlooking tennis courts, sheltered by a 40-foot pergola covered with wisteria, floribunda, and clematis. The house and outbuildings, including a 'garden' building, barns, storehouses, and cottages, are part of a historic property in continuous ownership by the Dickinson family since the early 1800's."
Persons associated with the property include: William Dickinson, Sr., (former owner, 1840-1863); William Dickinson, Jr. (former owner, 1863-1865); Mr. and Mrs. John Quincy Dickinson (former owners, 1865-1896); Mr. and Mrs. Charles C. Dickinson (former owners, 1896-1958); May S. Harman (landscape designer, 1927-1929); Frances Dillon (landscape designer,1958-1969); Alice Recknagel Ireys (landscape designer, 1980 to date); and Holly Hoffman (landscape designer, 1989-1995).
Related Materials:
Kanawha Salines related holdings consist of 1 folder (10 35 mm. slides)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- West Virginia -- Malden  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File WV007
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / West Virginia
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref11861

Photograph collection relating to archeology, burial mounds, and the Southwest

Photographer:
Collins, Henry B. (Henry Bascom), 1899-1987  Search this
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
Milner, James W.  Search this
Mindeleff, Cosmos, 1863-  Search this
Mindeleff, Victor, 1860-1948  Search this
Rennick, L. C. (Leverett C.), 1887-1953  Search this
Artist:
Rogers, W. A. (William Allen), 1854-1931  Search this
Extent:
1 Engraving
1 Print (platinum)
18 Prints (silver gelatin)
38 Prints (albumen)
Culture:
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Engravings
Prints
Place:
Pennsylvania -- Antiquities
West Virginia -- Antiquities
Louisiana -- Antiquities
Alabama -- Antiquities
Chelly, Canyon de (Ariz.)
Zuni Indian Reservation (N.M.)
Wyoming -- Antiquities
Date:
circa 1880s-1920s
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs relating to archeology, most of which were made by Bureau of American Ethnology photographers and ethnologists. Much of the collection consists of photographs by Cosmos and Victor Mindeleff of Southwest pueblos. Images depict mounds and excavations (including Grant Mound in Pennsylvania and additional mounds in West Virginia, Alabama, Louisiana, and elsewhere); Hopi Sipaulovi village; petroglyphs in Wind River, Wyoming; ancient artifacts; Standing Rock; Tohono O'odham Indians; Canyon de Chelly; and Clear Creek. Photographers represented include John K. Hillers; C. H. Bryan of Mt. Sterling, Kentucky; the Mindeleff brothers; Henry Bascom Collins; L. C. Rennick; J. W. Milner; Hattons Studio in Lansing, Michigan; and a drawing by W. A. Rogers.

Collection may contain images of human remains.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 28
Location of Other Archival Materials:
William Dinwiddie photographs documenting Papago Indians, previously filed in Photo Lot 28, have been relocated to National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 89.
Additional Mindeleff photographs can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 4362, Photo Lot 14, Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 40, Photo Lot 78, and the BAE historical negatives.
Additional Hillers photographs can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 14, Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 40, Photo Lot 143, Photo Lot 83-18, Photo Lot 87-2N, Photo Lot 90-1, Photo Lot 92-46, and the BAE historical negatives.
Additional Collins photographs can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 82-23, Photo Lot 86-42, Photo Lot 86-43, and Photo Lot 86-59.
See others in:
Photograph collection relating to archeology, burial mounds, and the Southwest, 1880s-1920s
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Mounds  Search this
Pueblos  Search this
Petroglyphs  Search this
Citation:
Photo Lot 28, Bureau of American Ethnology photograph collection relating to archeology and burial mounds, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.28
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-28

John K. Hillers photographs of Pueblos

Photographer:
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
Artist:
Nichols, Hobart, 1869-1962  Search this
Names:
Powell, John Wesley, 1834-1902  Search this
Extent:
40 Mounted prints (circa, albumen)
Culture:
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Taos Indians  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Mounted prints
Photographs
Place:
Chelly, Canyon de (Ariz.)
Date:
1870s-1880s
bulk 1879-1879
Scope and Contents note:
The collection primarily consists of photographs made by John K. Hillers for the Bureau of American Ethnology documenting pueblos, cliff and rock dwellings, and people in Arizona and New Mexico. The photographs depict Navajo, Zuni, Taos, Oraibi, Walpi, Tesuque, Sichomovi, Cochiti, Mishongnavi, and Shipaulovi Pueblos. There are also pictures of mounds, possibly in West Virginia, and a Hobart Nichols drawing of the interior of a Pueblo dwelling. The bulk of the photographs are on BAE mounts, of which some are stamped "Compliments of J. W. Powell". Several of the images were made during the United States Geological Survey in 1885.
Biographical/Historical note:
John K. Hillers (1843-1925) immigrated to the United States from Germany in 1852. He spent almost twenty years photographing Native Americans, largely for the Bureau of American Ethnology and the United States Geological Survey. He began work on the Survey as a boatman on John Wesley Powell's second expedition down the Colorado River in 1871. He soon became the assistant, and then main photographer (1872) for the expedition. From 1879 to 1900, Hillers served as the first staff photographer of the Bureau of Ethnology, and in 1881 he took pictures for the United States Geological Survey.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 143
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional Hillers photographs in the National Anthropological Archives can be found in Photo Lot 14, Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 28, Photo Lot 40, Photo Lot 83-18, Photo Lot 87-2N, Photo Lot 90-1, Photo Lot 92-46, and the BAE historical negatives.
The National Anthropological Archives also holds Hillers's diary from 1871-1872 and 1874, 1875 (MS 4410).
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Pueblos  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 143, John K. Hillers photographs of Pueblos, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.143
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-143

Frank Maryl Setzler photographs

Creator:
Setzler, Frank M. (Frank Maryl), 1902-1975  Search this
Names:
United States De Soto Expedition Commission  Search this
Holmes, William Henry, 1846-1933  Search this
Extent:
1,889 Prints (silver gelatin)
169 Slides (35mm)
1,204 Negatives (nitrate)
290 Lantern slides
12 Negatives (acetate)
Culture:
Aboriginal Australians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Slides
Negatives
Lantern slides
Photographs
Place:
Chichén Itzá Site (Mexico)
Xochicalco Site (Mexico)
Texas -- Antiquities
Groote Eylandt (N.T.)
Ohio -- Antiquities
Palenque Site (Mexico)
Uxmal Site (Mexico)
West Virginia -- Antiquities
Arizona -- Antiquities
Arkansas -- Antiquities
Louisiana -- Antiquities
Kentucky -- Antiquities
Georgia -- Antiquities
Virginia -- Antiquities
Gunbalanya (N.T.)
Cuzco (Peru)
Yirrkala (N.T.)
Date:
1929-1957
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs relating to or made during Setzler's archaeological work. Images depict surveys and excavations, artifacts and burials, archaeological crew members, and other individuals. They document work in Ohio (including the original Hopewell site on Paint Creek, Turner site, Newark site, High Bank Works, Tremper Mound, Seip Mound, Turner Group, Miamisburg Mound, Serpent Mound, and the Madisonville site), Wisconsin (including the Schwert group, Nicholls mound, and Trempealeau group), Louisiana (including the Marksville works and sites at Saline Point, Johnson place, and West Carroll, Madison, and Union parishes), Arkansas (including the Foster Place site). Some photographs portray the excavation of an Indian canoe on Cumberland Island in Georgia, and a body found in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. Photographs of views in Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Florida relate to the work of the De Soto Commission. Photographs from the 1948 Arnhem Land Expedition largely relate to Yirrkala, Milingimbi, Oenpelli (Gunbalanya), and Groote Eylandt, and include travel scenes, dances, and the preparation of face masks and bark for drawing. Some lantern slides are associated with a lecture at the Smithsonian Institution, while others depict Latin American ruins and artifacts from Jalapa, Palenque, Uxmal, Chichén Ítza, Xochicalco, and Cuzco that once belonged to William Henry Holmes.

Setzler annotated many of the negative enclosures with image information. Photocopies of the enclosures are available in the collection, as well as one box of empty original enclosures. Also in the collection is an index card bibliography on Australia, and an index card catalog of individuals from Groote Eylandt.
Biographical/Historical note:
Frank Maryl Setzler (1902-1975) was an archaeologist with the United States National Museum who served as Head Curator in the Department of Anthropology from 1937 until his retirement in 1960. Setzler specialized in the archeology of the midwestern states, especially the Hopewell mounds, and was also interested in the southeastern states. During his career, he conducted fieldwork throughout the United States, and in 1948 was the deputy leader for the Australian-American Arnhem Land Expedition sponsored by the Smithsonian, the National Geographic Society, and the Australian government.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 36
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives holds the Frank Maryl Setzler papers.
Artifacts collected during the Arnhem Land expedition are held in the anthropology collections of the National Museum of Natural History in accession 178294.
The National Geographic Society holds motion picture film from the Arnhem Land Expedition.
The National Library of Australia Manuscript Collection holds some of Setzler's papers relating to the Arnhem Land Expedition (Frank Maryl Setzler - Records, 1948-1973, MS 5230).
Restrictions:
Original nitrate negatives are in special storage and require advance notice to view.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Lantern slides
Citation:
Photo Lot 36, Frank Maryl Setzler photographs, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.36
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-36

MS 2180 Report of a visit to the Grave Creek Mound, at Moundsville, West Virginia

Creator:
Setzler, Frank M. (Frank Maryl), 1902-1975  Search this
Photographer:
Norona, Delf, 1895-1974  Search this
Extent:
4 Pages
9 Photographs
3 Items (newspaper clippings )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Photographs
Reports
Newspaper clippings
Date:
August 30-31, 1949
Scope and Contents:
Typed report by Frank M. Setzler of a visit to the Grave Creek Mound, at Moundville, West Virginia. Also photographs by Delf Norona showing vertical and horizontal cross section views, (2 -30 cm.) one showing mound, from N.W., and one looking east toward the small building on the south side of mound, (2 - 7 cm.).
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2180
Local Note:
For reasons unknown, at some point before 1954, Setzler's report was separated from MS 2180 to form MS 4346. MS 4346 has since been retired and the report reunited with MS 2180, 9/23/09.
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Mounds  Search this
Grave Creek Mound (Moundsville, West Virginia) -- Archeology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Reports
Newspaper clippings
Citation:
Manuscript 2180, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2180
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2180

Carlos Montezuma lantern slide collection relating to Native Americans

Creator:
Montezuma, Carlos, 1866-1923  Search this
Names:
Phoenix Indian School  Search this
United States Indian School (Carlisle, Pa.)  Search this
Photographer:
Brady, Mathew B., approximately 1823-1896  Search this
Choate, J. N. (John N.), 1848-1902  Search this
Gentile, Carlo, 1835-1893  Search this
Prando, Peter Paul Father  Search this
Sarony, Napoleon, 1821-1896  Search this
Extent:
171 Lantern slides
Culture:
Sioux  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Apache  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Paiute  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Ute  Search this
Yavapai  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Place:
Montezuma Castle National Monument (Ariz.)
Casa Grande (Ariz.)
Date:
circa 1871-1913
Scope and Contents note:
The collection includes hand-colored glass lantern slides collected by Dr. Carlos Montezuma and used for his lectures on Native American rights. Many of the photographs are portraits, some made at Ft. McDowell and Fort Apache. Other images show schools, reservations, dwellings, Charles Dickens (a Yavapai store owner), Montezuma's Castle, Casa Grande, and scenic views. A special series includes photographs made during a 1913 hunting and sightseeing trip that he organized, probably including photographs made by Montezuma's guests, John T. McCutcheon and Charles B. Gibson.

Some of the images were made by Charles (Carlos) Gentile, the photographer and benefactor of Montezuma in his early years. There are also several by Father Peter Paulus Prando and John N. Choate, and one portrait each by Napoleon Sarony and Matthew Brady. Otherwise, the photographers are unidentified.
Biographical/Historical note:
Carlos Montezuma (1866-1923, also called Wassaja) was an Native American activist and physician. He was Yavapai, though he often identified himself as Apache. He was captured by Pima Indians at a young age and sold in 1871 to Italian-immigrant and pioneer photographer Carlo (or Charles) Gentile, who adopted the child and took him to New York. Montezuma graduated from the University of Illinois (1884) and received his MD from the Chicago Medical College (1889). He developed a friendship with Richard Henry Pratt, head of the Carlisle Indian School, and took a post as reservation physician for the Bureau of Indian Services. During this time he developed an opposition to BIA policies and became an Native American advocate, speaking out against reservations. He gave numerous lectures on Native Americans at institutions around the United States, helped organize the Society of American Indians, and published a personal newsletter entitled Wassaja (1916-1922). In 1896, Montezuma established a medical practice in Chicago. He died in Arizona in 1923.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 73
Varying Form of Title:
Carlos Montezuma-Doris Collester Collection of Lantern Slides
General note:
The handwriting on the slides has been identified as that of Dr. Carlos Montezuma by John Larner, the editor of Montezumaʹs papers. Information in this catalog record has been taken from Cesare Marino, Solving the Mystery: The Carlos Montezuma-Doris Collester Collection of Lantern Slides in the NAA : Report of Background Research and Interview with Mrs. Doris Collester, Donor of the Carlos Montezuma Collection of Hand-tinted Lantern Slides to the Smithsonian Institution, conducted in Williamstown, West Virginia, August 2013.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Correspondence from Montezuma is held in the National Anthropological Archives in the records of the Bureau of American Ethnology.
Carlos Montezuma's papers are held in the Newberry Library, Roger and Julie Baskes Department of Special Collections; Arizona State University Libraries, Charles Trumbull Hayden Library; and University of Arizona Libraries, Special Collections.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Dwellings  Search this
Citation:
Photo lot 73, Carlos Montezuma lantern slide collection relating to Native Americans, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.73
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-73
Online Media:

Porter A. McCray papers

Creator:
McCray, Porter A., 1908-2000  Search this
Names:
Asia Society  Search this
Byrd Hoffman Foundation  Search this
Cathedral of St. John the Divine (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Cunningham Dance Foundation  Search this
International Council of the Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Japan Society (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Society of Architectural Historians  Search this
UNESCO  Search this
United States. Foreign Service  Search this
Cutting, Brock  Search this
Humphrey, Hubert H. (Hubert Horatio), 1911-1978  Search this
Kazuko Oshima  Search this
Morley, Grace, 1900-1985  Search this
Paik, Nam June, 1932-2006  Search this
Richie, Donald, 1924-2013  Search this
Rockefeller, John D., 1906-  Search this
Sherfield, Roger Mellor Makins, Baron, 1904-1996  Search this
Thetong, Tenzin  Search this
Extent:
12.3 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Lectures
Interviews
Paintings
Transcripts
Date:
1936-1989
Summary:
The papers of New York City arts administrator Porter A. McCray measure 12.3 linear feet and date from 1936 to 1989. The papers include scattered biographical materials, correspondence, and writings and notes. The bulk of the collection consists of professional files documenting his advisory and consulting work for museums, institutions, organizations, and foundations. Also found within the collection are printed materials and photographs of McCray and artwork.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of New York City arts administrator Porter A. McCray measure 12.3 linear feet and date from 1936 to 1989. The papers include scattered biographical materials, correspondence, and writings and notes. The bulk of the collection consists of professional files documenting his advisory and consulting work for museums, institutions, organizations, and foundations. Also found within the collection are printed materials and photographs of McCray and artwork.

Scattered biographical materials include appointment books, curricula vitae, a transcript of an interview conducted by McCray with Dr. Grace Morley, and an unsigned painting.

Found within the general correspondence are letters that relate to his work as an arts advisor and consultant, but which appear to be more personal in nature. The bulk of correspondence related to specific projects is found within the professional files. Correspondents include Hubert Humphrey, Mrs. John Lockwood, Grace Morely, Kazuko Oshima, Donald Richie, John D. Rockefeller III, and Tenzin Thetong among others.

Writings and notes include lectures by McCray and writings by others including Brock Cutting, Lord Sherfield, and Nam June Paik. Also found are travel notes for McCray's travels throughout Asia, Europe, and the Middle East.

Professional files document McCray's work as an arts advisor and consultant for numerous museums, foundations, organizations, foundations, and special committees, as well as his membership in various arts committees and boards. Files document McCray's work for and/or membership in the Asia Society, Asian Cultural Program of Cultural Exchange, Byrd Hoffman Foundation, Cathedral Church of St. John the Divine, Cunningham Dance Foundation, Indo-United States committees, International Council of Museums, Japan Society, John D. Rockefeller 3rd Fund, Museum of Modern Art, Society of Architectural Historians, UNESCO, and the United States Foreign Service.

Printed materials include clippings and articles, a Drawing and Architecture exhibition catalog, and a book by Robert Wilson. Photographs include personal photographs and oversized photographs of sculptures by an unknown artist.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 6 series.

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1959-1982 (0.5 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1959-1986 (0.5 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 3: Writings and Notes, 1960-1983 (1.5 linear feet; Box 2-3)

Series 4: Professional Files, 1936-1987 (8.2 linear feet; Box 3-11, OVS 12-13)

Series 5: Printed Materials, 1965-1989 (0.5 linear feet; Box 11, OV 14)

Series 6: Photographs, 1945-1980s (0.2 linear feet; Box 11, OV 15)
Biographical / Historical:
Porter A. McCray (1908-2000) was an arts administrator working in New York City, New York.

Born in Clarksburg, West Virginia in 1908, McCray recieved a degree in English literature from the Virginia Military Institute in 1930, and a degree in architecture from Yale University in 1941. McCray traveled extensively throughout Europe, Asia, and the Middle East, developing relationships with individuals and organizations across the world.

In 1941, McCray worked as an exhibition specialist in the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs and collaborated with the Museum of Modern Art on an American exhibition at the Guatemala National Fair. After serving as an ambulance driver in World War II, he was employed by the architectural firm of Harrison and Abramovitz where he worked on some preliminary designs of the present site of the United Nations.

While working for Harrison, McCray met Nelson Rockefeller, who was chairman of the board of the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA). In 1947, Rockefeller asked McCray to serve as the director of circulating exhibitions at MOMA and be responsible for the Museum's national and international traveling exhibition program. McCray accepted and remained at MOMA until 1961. The following year, he orchestrated the preparation of a MOMA exhibition of Mark Rothko's work in Paris in 1962. In 1963, McCray became the executive director of the JDR 3rd Fund, a non-profit started by John D. Rockefeller III to promote artistic and cultural exchanges between the United States and Asia. McCray also worked as a consultant for the Japan Society's visual arts programs, the Asian Cultural Council, for the dean of the Cathedral Church of St. John the Divine's visual and performing arts program, and for MOMA's International Program after retiring.

McCray died in 2000 in Hightstown, New Jersey.
Related Materials:
Also found at the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview of Porter A. McCray conducted by Paul Cummings from September 17 to October 4, 1977.
Provenance:
The collection was donated in 1994 by Porter McCray.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Arts administrators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Arts boards  Search this
Cultural relations  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Lectures
Interviews
Paintings
Transcripts
Citation:
Porter A. McCray Papers, 1936-1989. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.mccrport
See more items in:
Porter A. McCray papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-mccrport
Online Media:

Thomas Anshutz papers

Creator:
Anshutz, Thomas Pollock, 1851-1912  Search this
Names:
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts  Search this
Philadelphia Sketch Club  Search this
Eakins, Thomas, 1844-1916  Search this
Extent:
2.76 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Glass negatives
Photographs
Date:
circa 1870-1942
Summary:
The papers of Thomas Anshutz measure 2.76 linear feet and date from around 1870 to 1942, with the bulk of materials dating from 1880 to 1911. The papers document his education and career as a painter, photographer, and art instructor. The collection is particularly rich in photographs made between approximately 1880 and 1900, when Anshutz and others at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, under the direction of Thomas Eakins (1844-1916), began using photography as an aid in the study of the figure and as studies for paintings. Also found are correspondence, a notebook with scattered sketches, a handful of clippings regarding Anshutz's career, and scattered notes and printed materials.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of Thomas Anshutz measure 2.76 linear feet and document his education and career as a painter, photographer, and art instructor. The collection is particularly rich in photographs made between approximately 1880 and 1900, when Anshutz and others at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, under the direction of Thomas Eakins (1844-1916), began using photography as an aid in the study of the figure and as studies for paintings. Also found are correspondence, a notebook with scattered sketches, a handful of clippings regarding Anshutz's career, and scattered notes and printed materials.

Photographs include vintage, original prints that were made during the period when Anshutz worked closely with Thomas Eakins, between 1880 and 1886, consisting of portraits, figure studies both nude and clothed, and class groups both posed and informal. Among the nude photographs are pastoral figure studies with Eakins himself as the model. This collection does not include any of the photographs from Eakins' so-called "Naked Series," although a triptych of three figure studies of Eadweard Muybridge closely resembles photographs from that series. Prints from this period are small in size and are probably original contact prints.

Also found are 49 glass negatives and 3 prints that Thomas Anshutz likely made in the 1890s, mostly of figures and marine subjects, many of which were used in his paintings of that period. Additional unattributed photographs of similar subjects are also found, as well as professional studio portraits of Eakins and others, and a handful of photographs that seem to have been made at a later time and kept by the family, which depict Anshutz, his studio, the Philadelphia Sketch Club, and Anshutz's artwork.

Dates and attributions made in this finding aid are taken from scholarly and curatorial publications based on primary sources, including Eakins and the Photograph (1994) by Susan Danly and Cheryl Leibold; Thomas Eakins (2002), catalog to the exhibition Thomas Eakins: American Realist at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, especially the chronology by Kathleen Brown; The Photography of Thomas Eakins (1972) by Gordon Hendricks; and Thomas Anshutz: Artist and Teacher (1994) by Randall C. Griffin.

See the series descriptions below for additional information on the attribution and identification of photographs in this collection.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 5 series. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers:

Series 1: Correspondence, c. 1870-1911, 1942 (Box 1; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 2: Writings, 1880s, 1893 (Box 1; 2 folders)

Series 3: Financial Records, 1884-1910 (Box 1; 1 folder)

Series 4: Printed Material, 1884-1942, undated (Box 1; 2 folders)

Series 5: Photographs, circa 1880-1904, 1936 (Boxes 1-3, MGP 2; 2.1 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Thomas Pollock Anshutz was born in Newport, Kentucky in 1851. He grew up in Newport and in Wheeling, then in Virginia, now West Virginia. He received early art instruction at the National Academy of Design in New York in the early 1870s, studying under Lemuel Wilmarth.

In 1875, Anshutz moved to Philadelphia and attended the life class taught by Thomas Eakins at the Philadelphia Sketch Club. Eakins would soon come to be a major influence and close associate of Anshutz. In 1876, both artists joined the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts (PAFA); Eakins as Chief Demonstrator of Anatomy, and Anshutz as a student of Eakins and Christian Schussele. Anshutz became Eakins' assistant in 1878, and then succeeded him as Chief Demonstrator when Eakins was appointed Professor of Drawing and Painting. While he was still a student, Anshutz completed his ambitious painting Ironworkers' Noontime (1880), which was first exhibited at the Philadelphia Sketch Club in 1881 and was compared to Eakins' work by critics. 1881 was also the year that Anshutz became an instructor of drawing and painting at PAFA.

Around 1880, Thomas Eakins bought his first camera. By 1882, when he was appointed Director of Schools, he was using photography as an aid in his own artwork and as a teaching tool in his life classes. Many at the Academy got involved with photography, the cutting-edge medium of the age, a time when new photographic processes, materials, and devices were being introduced at a rapid rate and being put to new uses across many disciplines. At PAFA, Anshutz, Eakins, and others used the medium to carry out Eakins' vision of studying nature from life, posing models and students for the camera and making prints available for study.

Photography at the Academy ranged from informal photographs and class portraits to posed studies of nude or classically-dressed figures. Eakins also carried out a systematic documentation of nudes in seven pre-defined standing poses, which he called "The Naked Series." Anshutz, John Laurie Wallace, and Covington Few Seiss are known to have made photographs for this project, and Eakins himself was among the models. Around this same time, outings were organized with groups including Eakins, Anshutz, Wallace, and others, in which they photographed each other outdoors in the nude, boxing, wrestling, swimming, and in repose. Eakins used photographs from these outings in his Arcadia paintings and reliefs and in his painting, The Swimming Hole. In 1884, Eakins and Anshutz also became involved with the work of Eadweard Muybridge, who had come to Philadelphia to develop his photographic motion studies of animals and people. Eakins and Anshutz helped to build Muybridge's elaborate apparatus and took photographs for his well-known series, Animal Locomotion.

In 1886, when Eakins was dismissed from his position at PAFA for misconduct, Anshutz took over his classes and his leadership role in art instruction at the Academy. With the exception of a brief stint in Europe, teaching dominated Anshutz's remaining years, and may have earned him a more lasting reputation than his own artwork. Anshutz taught an impressive roster of American artists, many of whom would be among the vanguard of modernism in American art, including Robert Henri, John Marin, William Glackens, Everett Shinn, John Sloan, Charles Sheeler, Charles Demuth, and George Luks.

In 1892, Anshutz married Effie Shriver Russell, and the two traveled to Paris, where Anshutz briefly enrolled in the Académie Julian and visited museums, galleries, and the Salon des Indépendants. He returned to Philadelphia in 1893 and resumed teaching at the Pennsylvania Academy. During family vacations at Holly Beach, New Jersey, Anshutz experimented with watercolors, a brighter palette, and simplified compositions. He also continued taking photographic studies of scenes from nature and transcribing them onto canvas. He made dozens of photographs of Holly Beach scenes and other marine views from an 1897 boat trip down the Delaware and Maurice Rivers. Many of these photographs were used in his watercolors and oils of that period.

In 1898, Anshutz opened the Darby School, a summer school northwest of Philadelphia that emphasized plein air painting. He ran the school with Hugh Breckenridge, a former student who had studied at the Académie Julian around the same time as Anshutz. It was in this setting that Anshutz painted his most abstract work, a series of loosely-rendered and bright oil landscapes that were never exhibited. He continued teaching at the Darby School until 1910.

Despite his openness to experimentation and his accomplishments in genre scenes and landscapes, Anshutz was best-known by his contemporaries for his portraiture. In the late 1890s and 1900s, he exhibited his portraits regularly and won several awards for them, including a silver medal at the 1904 World's Fair, the Gold Medal of Honor at the Pennsylvania Academy in 1909, and a gold medal at the Buenos Aires International Exposition in 1910. Around this time he advanced to head instructor at PAFA, was made a member of the National Academy of Design, and was elected president of the Philadelphia Sketch Club. In the fall of 1911 he was forced by ill health to stop teaching, and he died the following June.
Separated Material:
The Archives of American Art also holds microfilm of material lent for microfilming (reel 140) including eighteen illustrated letters written by Thomas Anshutz to his wife in 1897. Loaned materials were returned to the lender, Elizabeth R. Anshutz of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
A portion of the letters, the glass negatives and photographs were donated to the Archives of American Art in 1971 by Robert and Joy McCarty, occupants of the property formerly owned by the Anshutz family in Fort Washington, Pennsylvania. The remaining letters, photographs, and other papers were donated by Elizabeth R. Anshutz, wife of Anshutz's son Edward, in two separate accessions in 1971 and 1972. Eighteen illustrated letters were also loaned by Mrs. Anshutz to the Archives for microfilming (reel 140) and were later returned.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use of the originals requires an appointment. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Photography -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Art, American -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Painters -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Genre/Form:
Glass negatives
Photographs
Citation:
Thomas Anshutz papers, circa 1870-1942. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.anshthom
See more items in:
Thomas Anshutz papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-anshthom
Online Media:

Lester Shanks Collection of Covered Bridge Photographs and Ephemera

Collector:
Shanks, Lester  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet (16 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Maps
Slides (photographs)
Photograph albums
Books
Picture postcards
Photographs
Ephemera
Travel brochures
Pamphlets
Newsletters
Postcards
Place:
Switzerland
Baltimore (Md.) -- 19th century
Date:
1876-2010
bulk 1973-2008
Summary:
The collection is comprised of the results of Shanks's research on covered bridges, mostly in America but also covered bridges in Canada and Switzerland. Included are albums containing color photographs of covered bridges, slides of covered bridges, postcards depicting covered bridges; maps, and guidebooks; newsletters, magazines, and newspaper clippings on the subject of covered bridges.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is comprised of the results of Shanks's research on covered bridges, mostly in America but also covered bridges in Canada and Switzerland. Included are albums containing color photographs of covered bridges, slides of covered bridges, postcards depicting covered bridges; maps, and guidebooks; newsletters, magazines, and newspaper clippings on the subject of covered bridges.

Series 1, Photograph Albums, 1963-2006, consists of bound albums of black-and-white and color photographs by Shanks documenting covered bridges in the United States and other countries. The series is arranged geographically and then alphabetically. Some of the states have documentation preceding the photographs which lists the counties where the covered bridges he photographed were located. Shanks assigned a number to each state and each county for organization purposes. The number 35-04-03 means Ohio-Ashtabula County-third photograph in the group. The majority of photographs are identified.

In some instances, correspondence, brochures, fliers for covered bridge activities, invitations to covered bridge events, and copies or portions of Covered Bridge Topics, a quarterly journal published by the National Society for the Preservation of Covered Bridges, containing articles and information relating to covered bridges, are also included. Wooden Covered Spans, the newsletter for the Theodore Burr Covered Bridge Society of Pennsylvania is also present. The covered bridge photographs from Switzerland were taken by Leonard Reich.

Series 2, Slides, 1971-1997, consists of color slides taken by Shanks documenting covered bridges in Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia, British Columbia, New Brunswick, Ontario, and Quebec, Canada, and Switzerland. The slides depict bridge interiors, side elevations, landscape views surrounding the bridge, river views, views of the road leading up to the bridge, and restoration work. Each slide is labeled with the name of the state/country/province, county and/or township, date, name of bridge and in some instances, the name of the river the bridge spans. Other numbers such as 38-63-22 are also present on the slides and represent a numbering system Shanks applied to his slides, which are keyed to states and counties. Shanks assigned a Roman numeral and Arabic numeral system to some of the slides (e.g. I-1 to I-100) and (13-1 to 13-100). This arrangement has been retained and while there is no key to it, the slides are arranged chronologically.

Series 3, Guide Books, 1876-2009, consists of bound guide books about covered bridges. The most significant of the guide books is theThe Stranger's Guide in Baltimore and its Environs, 1876. This small pocket guide book contains sketches of public buildings, monuments, notable localities, resorts, and suburban drives. The guide book is intended to show strangers where to go and what to see when in Baltimore.

Series 4, Maps, 1850, 1982, contains two maps for the city of Baltimore and Baltimore County, Maryland.

Series 5, National Society for the Preservation of Covered Bridges, Inc, 2005-2010, consists of copies of the Covered Bridges Topics, the official magazine for the National Society for the Preservation of Covered Bridges, Inc. (N.S.P.C.B.) and the newsletter for the N.S.P.C.B.

Series 6, Newsclippings, 2006, 2008, consists of two articles fromThe Post Standard, New York about covered bridges.

Series 7, Postcards, 1963-1985, consists of color postcards of covered bridges from a variety of locations in the United States. The postcards are arranged alphabetically by state. Some bear cancelled postmarks, but the majority are blank.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into seven series.

Series 1, Photograph Albums, 1963-2006

Series 2, Slides, 1971-1977

Series 3, Guide Books, 1876-2009

Series 4, Maps, 1850, 1982

Series 5, National Society for the Preservation of Covered Bridges, Inc., 2005-2010

Series 6, News clippings, 2006, 2008

Series 7, Postcards, 1963-1985
Biographical / Historical:
Shanks, an employee of Baltimore Gas and Electric for over 40 years, was a covered bridge enthusiast and collector. He set a goal of photographing every covered bridge in America. Lester Shanks died October 10, 2010.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Bridges (series), circa 1818-1940 (AC0060)

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Bridges: stereographs, circa 1868-1902 (mostly circa 1875-1880) (AC0060)

Beata Drake Covered Bridge Collection, 1954-1981 (AC0998)

Raymond E. Wilson Covered Bridge Collection, 1958-1974 (AC0999)

Samuel E. Reed Bridge Collection, 1947-1964 (AC1001)

Lucinda Rudell Covered Bridge Collection, 1942-1979 (AC1028)

Robert Bagby Stereographs and Lantern Slides, 1919; circa 1940-1960 (AC1185)
Provenance:
Donated by Eunice C. Shanks on August 11, 2011.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bridges -- Switzerland  Search this
Covered bridges -- Switzerland  Search this
Covered bridges -- United States  Search this
Bridges -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Maps -- 20th century
Slides (photographs) -- 1950-2000
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Books
Picture postcards -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Ephemera -- 19th century
Travel brochures
Photographs -- Color transparencies -- Acetate film -- 20th century
Ephemera -- 20th century
Pamphlets -- 1950-2000
Newsletters -- 2000-2010
Postcards
Citation:
Lester Shanks Collection of Covered Bridge Photographs and Ephemera, 1876-2010 (bulk 1973-2008), Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1244
See more items in:
Lester Shanks Collection of Covered Bridge Photographs and Ephemera
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1244

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