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James E. Taylor scrapbook of the American West

Creator:
Taylor, James E., 1839-1901 (artist and collector)  Search this
Names:
Geological Survey (U.S.)  Search this
United States. Army  Search this
Buffalo Bill, 1846-1917  Search this
Crook, George, 1829-1890  Search this
Custer, George Armstrong, 1839-1876  Search this
Hickok, Wild Bill, 1837-1876  Search this
Juárez, Benito, 1806-1872  Search this
Kinman, Seth  Search this
Miles, Nelson Appleton, 1839-1925  Search this
Powell, John Wesley, 1834-1902  Search this
Red Cloud, 1822-1909  Search this
Richard, Louis  Search this
Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888  Search this
Sitting Bull, 1831-1890  Search this
Spotted Tail, 1823-1881  Search this
Photographer:
Barry, D. F. (David Francis), 1854-1934  Search this
Easterly, Thomas M. (Thomas Martin), 1809-1882  Search this
Eaton, E. L. (Edric L.), b. ca. 1836  Search this
Ebell, Adrian J. (Adrian John), 1840-1877  Search this
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
M'Clees, Jas. E. (James E.)  Search this
O'Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882  Search this
Pywell, Wm. R. (William Redish), 1843-1886  Search this
Vannerson, Julian, 1827-  Search this
Whitney, Joel E. (Joel Emmons), 1822-1886  Search this
Extent:
4 Tintypes
3 Chromolithographs
3 Lithographs (3 chalk-manner lithographs)
1 Print (photogravure)
118 Pages (Scrapbook)
685 Prints (circa, albumen)
80 Items (circa 80 relief prints (including woodcuts and wood engraving))
30 Items (circa 30 intaglio prints (including etchings and engravings))
Culture:
Apache  Search this
Pueblo  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Fox  Search this
A'aninin (Gros Ventre)  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Modoc  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Sauk  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Ute  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Tintypes
Chromolithographs
Lithographs
Prints
Pages
Photographs
Newspapers
Woodcuts
Place:
Mexico
Taos Pueblo (N.M.)
California
Oregon
Fort Davis (Tex.)
New Mexico
Fort Snelling (Minn.)
Arizona
Texas
San Juan Pueblo (N.M.)
Zuni (N.M.)
Kansas
Colorado
Date:
circa 1863-1900
Summary:
Scrapbook entitled "Our Wild Indians in Peace and War: Surveys, Expeditions, Mining and Scenery of the Great West," compiled by James E. Taylor, possibly as a source for his own illustrations.
Scope and Contents:
Scrapbook entitled "Our Wild Indians in Peace and War: Surveys, Expeditions, Mining and Scenery of the Great West," compiled by James E. Taylor, possibly as a source for his own illustrations. The album includes photographs (mostly albumen with three tintypes), newsclippings, wood engravings, and lithographs, some of which are reproductions of Taylor's own illustrations and paintings. Photographs depict American Indians, US Army soldiers and scouts, historical sites, forts, and scenery. Some were made on expeditions, including the Hayden and Powell surveys, and created from published stereographs. Many of Taylor's illustrations are signed, and some are inscribed with dates and "N. Y." The scrapbook also includes clippings from newspapers and other written sources relating to illustrations and photographs in the album.
Biographical Note:
James E. Taylor (1839-1901) was an artist-correspondent for Leslie's Illustrated Weekly Newspaper from 1863-1883. Born in Cincinatti, Ohio, he graduated from Notre Dame University by the age of sixteen. Taylor enlisted in the 10th New York Infantry in 1861 and the next year was hired by Leslie's Illustrated newspaper as a "Special Artist" and war correspondent. In 1864 he covered the Shenandoah Valley campaign, and was later one of the illustrator-correspondents at the 1867 treaty negotiations at Medicine Lodge, Kansas. He soon earned the moniker "Indian Artist" because of his vast number of drawings of American Indians. In 1883 Taylor retired from Leslie's to work as a freelance illustrator. Colonel Richard Irving Dodge used Taylor's drawings to illustrate his memoir, "Our Wild Indians: Thirty-three Years' Personal Experience among the Red Men of the Great West" (1882).
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 4605
Related Materials:
The National Anthropolgical Archives holds additional photographs by photographers represented in this collection (including original negatives for some of these prints), particularly in Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 37, Photo Lot 60, Photo Lot 87.

Additional photographs by Whitney, Gardner, and Barry held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 80-18.

Julian Vannerson and James E. McClees photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 4286.

Pywell photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 4498.

O'Sullivan photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo lot 4501.

Additional Hillers photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 83-18 and Photo Lot 87-2N.
Provenance:
Donated or transferred by John Witthoft from the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, April 14, 1961.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Church buildings  Search this
Mines and mineral resources  Search this
Dance  Search this
White River Massacre, Colo., 1879  Search this
Painting  Search this
Washita Campaign, 1868-1869  Search this
Mormon Church -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Newspapers
Woodcuts
Tintypes
Citation:
MS 4605, James E. Taylor scrapbook of the American West, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4605
See more items in:
James E. Taylor scrapbook of the American West
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw33fa281bf-1e72-4f26-ae86-8c8389244b4e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4605
Online Media:

Code Talker: Book Talk

Creator:
National Air and Space Museum  Search this
Type:
Conversations and talks
Lesson Plans
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2020-09-07T15:45:00.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Aeronautics;Flight;Space Sciences  Search this
See more by:
airandspace
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
YouTube Channel:
airandspace
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_2B-pjw_Buxs

Native American Code Talkers: A Lasting Legacy

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Conversations and talks
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2021-11-10T20:31:44.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt__tzSb_o_QP4

Indian cities histories of indigenous urbanization edited by Kent Blansett, Cathleen D. Cahill, and Andrew Needham

Editor:
Blansett, Kent  Search this
Cahill, Cathleen D  Search this
Needham, Andrew 1971-  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource (ix, 332 pages) illustrations
Type:
Electronic resources
Electronic books
History
Place:
North America
Amérique du Nord
Date:
2022
Topic:
Social conditions  Search this
Ethnic identity  Search this
Urbanization--History  Search this
City and town life--History  Search this
Urbanisation--Histoire  Search this
Vie urbaine--Histoire  Search this
Urban Indians  Search this
City and town life  Search this
Indians of North America--Ethnic identity  Search this
Indians of North America--Social conditions  Search this
Urbanization  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1157022

Laura Thompson papers

Creator:
Thompson, Laura, 1905-2000  Search this
Names:
Indian Personality, Education and Administration Research Project  Search this
Saint Mary's University (Halifax, N.S.). Institute of Human Values  Search this
United States. Office of Indian Affairs  Search this
Extent:
27 Linear feet (50 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Germany
Guam
Fiji
Iceland
Date:
1905-1997
Summary:
The papers of Laura Thompson reflect the professional and personal life of an active and pioneering anthropologist. In the 1930s, Thompson began her work in applied anthropology, producing studies of Fiji, Guam and Hawaii intended to aid administrators of economic, educational and political development and pioneering approaches now known as "administrative" and "educational" anthropology. In the 1940s, Thompson applied her skills to the Indian Personality, Education and Administration Research Project, a study of eleven communities of five Native American tribes. From the 1950s until the end of her career, Thompson sought to formulate and demonstrate a theoretical anthropological synthesis of man and culture, while pursuing fieldwork in Iceland and Germany, teaching, and consulting for numerous institutions.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Laura Thompson reflect the professional and personal life of an active and pioneering anthropologist. In the 1930s, Thompson began her work in applied anthropology, producing studies of Fiji, Guam and Hawaii intended to aid administrators of economic, educational and political development and pioneering approaches now known as "administrative" and "educational" anthropology. In the 1940s, Thompson applied her skills to the Indian Personality, Education and Administration Research Project, a study of eleven communities of five Native American tribes. From the 1950s until the end of her career, Thompson sought to formulate and demonstrate a theoretical anthropological synthesis of man and culture, while pursuing fieldwork in Iceland and Germany, teaching, and consulting for numerous institutions.

Included in this collection are field diaries, numerous manuscripts and lectures, research materials, correspondence, sound recordings and ethnographic photographs. Also included are various subject and index files maintained by Thompson for her many research projects. The collection is particularly rich in unpublished manuscripts that Thompson created from 1950 to the mid 1990s. Manuscript topics include particular field sites, such as Fiji and West Germany, as well as Thompson's critical and theoretical exposition regarding the future of applied anthropology, variously titled "Clinical" and "Holistic Anthropology."

Numerous materials pertaining to Thompson's personal life are also located in the collection, including personal diaries and professional awards, correspondence with friends and family, and personal photographs of Thompson from infancy to old age. Located in Thompson's personal papers are her writings from late in life, in which she addressed aging through her anthropological sensibilities, recorded formative memories from her youth, and projected the future of a world rife with injustice and environmental destruction. A large portion of the Laura Thompson papers include documents from the Indian Personality, Education and Administration (IPEA) Project, initiated by the Office of Indian Affairs and the University of Chicago Committee on Human Development. This investigation of five Native American tribes includes the results of over 1000 psychological studies of native children. Materials included encompass the protocols for and implementation of the project, as well as field reports, psychological tests, correspondence, worker supervision reports and final analyses of findings. Included is a copy of the project's published final report, Personality and Government (1951). The bulk of the records date between 1941and 47; related material spans as late as 1992. Correspondents primarily include project members and consultants, particularly: John Collier, A. I. Hallowell, Maud Hallowell, Royal Hassrick, Robert Havinghurst, Alice Joseph, Bruno Klopfer, Clyde Kluckhohn, Dorothea Leighton, D'Arcy McNickle, Trude Schmidl-Waehner, Heinrich Schultz, Ruth Underhill, and W. Lloyd Warner. The papers of the IPEA Project are restricted in use.

Additional material in the NAA relating to the IPEA Research Project can be found in the following collections: Indian Personality and Administration Research Project Papers, donated by Robert J. Havighurst, and the Dorothea Cross Leighton papers. A list of publications resulting from findings of the project can be found in the Thompson collection accession folder.

Nearly absent from the collection are materials reflecting Thompson's fieldwork in Hawaii, her marriages to Bernhard Tüting and John Collier, and manuscripts of her early publications.

Correspondents in Thompson's papers include: Ruth BENEDICT, Charles W. COLLIER, John COLLIER, Malcolm COLLIER, Cora DUBOIS, Fred EGGAN, Alfred EMERSON, Kenneth EMORY, Frederick V. FIELD, Roland W. FORCE, Derek FREEMAN, Ann Pinson GILL, Peggy GOLDE, A. I. HALLOWELL, Maude HALLOWELL, Royal HASSRICK, Robert HAVINGHURST, Alice JOSEPH, Felix KEESING, Lawrence KELLY, Bruno KLOPFER, Clyde KLUCKHOHN, A. L. KROEBER, Harry S. LADD, Bruno LASKER, Dorothy LEE, Dorothea LEIGHTON, Charles F. LOOMIS, Katherine LOUMALA, Robert H. LOWIE, John R. MACCORMACK, Bronislaw MALINOWSKI, D'Arcy MCNICKLE, Margaret MEAD, Robert REDFIELD, Trude SCHMIDL-WAEHNER, Heinrich SCHULTZ, Leslie SPIER, George D. SPINDLER, Rebecca STEVENSON, Ratu J. L. V. SUKUNA (District Commissioner of Lau), Alfred TOZZER, W. Lloyd WARNER and Alvin WOLFE.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
Arranged in 11 series: (1) Fiji, 1933-1995; (2) Germany, 1934-1991; (3) Guam, 1938-1996; (4) Indian Personality, Education and Administration Research Project, 1941-1992; (5) Iceland, 1952-1981; (6) Institute of Human Values, 1973-1982; (8) Manuscripts and research, 1935-1994; (9) Professional correspondence, 1943-1992; (10) Publications, 1932-1991; (11) Personal Papers, 1905-1997.
Biographical Note:
Laura Thompson (1905-2000) conducted fieldwork in Oceania, the Southwestern United States and Europe; she taught at numerous institutions and served as a consultant for many organizations, including the Naval Government of Guam and the Office of Indian Affairs, throughout her career. Thompson's papers reflect her involvement in each of these activities as well as her desire to formulate a unifying theory of applied anthropology that would address issues including environmentalism and overpopulation.

1905 -- Born in Honolulu, Hawaii on January 23.

1923 -- Graduated from Punahou Academy, Hawaii.

1927 -- Bachelor of Arts, Mills College, California.

1928 -- Graduate studies in anthropology, Radcliffe College and Harvard University, Massachusetts.

1929-33 -- Graduate studies in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley.

1929-34 -- Assistant Ethnologist, Bishop Museum, Hawaii.

1931-32 -- Fellow, Bishop Museum, Hawaii.

1933 -- Ph.D. in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley.

1933-34 -- Lau Islands, Fiji, fieldwork.

1934-37 -- Germany, travel and research.

1938-39 -- Guam, fieldwork under U.S. Naval Government and University of Hawaii.

1938-40 -- Consultant, U. S. Naval Government of Guam.

1940-41 -- Social Scientist, Community Survey of Education, Hawaii.

1941 -- Co-founder, Society for Applied Anthropology. Graduate work in Human Development, University of Chicago, Illinois.

1941-47 -- Coordinator, Indian Personality, Education, and Administration Research Project.

1941-43 -- Papago Indians, fieldwork. Pine Ridge Sioux Indians, fieldwork. Hopi Indians, fieldwork. Navaho Indians, fieldwork. Poston War Relocation Camp, fieldwork. Zuni Indians, fieldwork.

1942-44 -- Consultant, U. S. Office of Indian Affairs.

1946 -- Papago Indians, fieldwork.

1946-54 -- Research consultant, Institute of Ethnic Affairs (Washington DC and New York).

1952 -- Iceland, fieldwork.

1954-56 -- Professor of Anthropology, City College of New York.

1957-58 -- Visiting Professor of Anthropology, University of North Carolina.

1958-59 -- Research fellow, Laboratories of Anthropology, University of North Carolina.

1959-60 -- Visiting Professor, North Carolina State College.

1960 -- Iceland, fieldwork.

1961 -- Visiting professor, Utah State University (summer). Distinguished Visiting Professor, Pennsylvania State University.

1961-62 -- Professor of Anthropology, University of Southern Illinois.

1962 -- Visiting Professor, University of Hawaii (summer).

1962-63 -- Professor of Anthropology, San Francisco State College.

1964 -- Lecturer, Brooklyn College, CUNY.

1974 -- Honorary Ll.D., Mills College, CA.

1976 -- Board of Governors, Institute of Human Values, St. Mary's University, Halifax.

1977 -- Ancient Order of the Chammori (Honor for public service in Guam).

1979 -- Malinowski Award, Society for Applied Anthropology.

1985 -- Returned to Hawaii.

2000 -- Died January 29.
Related Materials:
Additional material in the NAA relating to the IPEA Research Project can be found in the following collections: Indian Personality and Administration Research Project Papers, donated by Robert J. Havighurst, and the Dorothea Cross Leighton papers. A list of publications resulting from findings of the project can be found in the Thompson collection accession folder.
Provenance:
Thompson's papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by the creator periodically over 25 years.
Restrictions:
Portions of the collection, in particular materials from the Indian Personality, Education and Administration Research Project, are restricted in use.

Access to the Laura Thompson papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Citation:
Laura Thompson papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1983-51
See more items in:
Laura Thompson papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw368b0c5ca-b0b1-4f61-b59e-b87cf0b0ff5b
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1983-51

Newspaper clippings

Collection Creator:
Ya-Ching, Lee  Search this
Container:
Box 11, Folder 9
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1935-09 - 1935-12
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers, NASM.2008.0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers
Lee Ya-Ching Papers / Series 2: Professional
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2ca5fa7e2-b689-4c6f-bc76-20f574a97d06
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2008-0009-ref114

William Henry Jackson photograph albums based on his Descriptive Catalogue of Photographs of North American Indians

Creator:
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
Photographer:
Geological Survey (U.S.)  Search this
J. Gurney & Son  Search this
Savage & Ottinger  Search this
Bell, C. M. (Charles Milton), approximately 1849-1893  Search this
Carter, C. W., 1832-1918  Search this
Chamberlain, W. G. (William Gunnison)  Search this
Easterly, Thomas M. (Thomas Martin), 1809-1882  Search this
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
M'Clees, Jas. E. (James E.)  Search this
Shindler, A. Zeno (Antonio Zeno), 1823-1899  Search this
Ulke, Henry, 1821-1910  Search this
Vannerson, Julian, 1827-  Search this
Westmann, Orloff R.  Search this
Whitney, Joel E. (Joel Emmons), 1822-1886  Search this
Names:
Geological Survey of the Territories (U.S.) (1862-1872) (Hayden Survey)  Search this
Powell-Thompson Survey  Search this
Extent:
9 Albums (circa 4000 prints, albumen (some copies))
Culture:
White Mountain Apache  Search this
Warm Springs Chiricahua Apache (New Mexico)  Search this
Wahpetonwan Dakota (Wahpeton Sioux)  Search this
Waco Indians  Search this
White River Ute (Yampa)  Search this
Wyandot  Search this
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
Wichita  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Tewa Pueblos  Search this
Taos Indians  Search this
Stockbridge Indians  Search this
Sisitonwan Dakota (Sisseton Sioux)  Search this
Ute  Search this
Uintah Ute  Search this
Tonkawa  Search this
Pueblo  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Yanktonnai Nakota (Yankton Sioux)  Search this
Montauk  Search this
Bannock  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Brotherton Indians  Search this
Modoc  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Minneconjou Lakota (Minniconjou Sioux)  Search this
Missouria (Missouri)  Search this
Apache  Search this
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Chiricahua Apache  Search this
Miami  Search this
Oto  Search this
Kitchai Wichita  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Osage  Search this
Chickasaw  Search this
Odawa (Ottawa)  Search this
Jicarilla Apache  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Niimíipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Caddo  Search this
Hunkpapa Lakota (Hunkpapa Sioux)  Search this
Iowa  Search this
Sauk  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Dakota (Eastern Sioux)  Search this
Shawnee  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Sihasapa Lakota (Blackfoot Sioux)  Search this
Choctaw  Search this
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Lenape (Delaware)  Search this
Fox  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Seneca  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Albums
Photographs
Date:
circa 1877
Scope and Contents note:
Albums probably assembled by William Henry Jackson, mostly containing portraits of Native American delegates in Washington, D.C. and photographs made on US Geological Surveys (including the Hayden and Powell surveys). Photographs from the field include John K. Hillers' photographs of the Southwest, photographs of Fort Laramie (possibly by Alexander Gardner), Orloff R. Westmann's photographs of Taos Pueblo, and Jackson's photographs of Crow, Shoshoni, Pawnee, and Nez Perce Tribes and related sites. Most of the photographs were made circa 1860s-1870s.

The albums were probably by Jackson while working under Ferdinand V. Hayden for the United States Geological Survey of the Territories. The reason for their creation is uncertain, though it may have been a project set up by Hayden or a continuation of William Henry Blackmore's tradition of publishing albums. Some of the albums include captions pasted from Jackson's Descriptive Catalogue of Photographs of North American Indians (1877) while others have handwritten captions.
Biographical/Historical note:
William Henry Jackson (1843-1942) was an American painter, photographer and explorer. Born in New York, he sold drawings and retouched photographs from an early age. After serving in the Civil War, he opened a photography studio in Omaha, Nebraska, with his brother Edward. As photographer for the US Geological and Geographical Surveys (1870-1878), he documented the American west and published the first photographs of Yellowstone. When the surveys lost funding in 1879, Jackson opened a studio in Denver, Colorado, and also worked for various railroad companies. Many of Jackson's photographs were displayed at the World's Columbian Exhibition in Chicago (1893), for which he was the official photographer.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 4420
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Original negatives for many of the photographs in this collection can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in the BAE historical negatives.
The National Museum of the American Indian Archives holds William Henry Jackson photographs and negatives.
Additional Jackson photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 4605, MS 4801, Photo Lot 14, Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 29, Photo Lot 37, Photo Lot 40, Photo Lot 60, Photo Lot 93, Photo lot 143, Photo Lot 87-2P, Photo Lot 87-20, and Photo Lot 90-1.
Correspondence from Jackson held in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 4517, MS 4881, MS 4821, and collections of personal papers.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Pueblos  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 4420, William Henry Jackson photograph albums based on his Descriptive Catalogue of Photographs of North American Indians, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.4420
See more items in:
William Henry Jackson photograph albums based on his Descriptive Catalogue of Photographs of North American Indians
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3579a455e-5931-4e6e-9659-42bb7718b6fd
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-4420
Online Media:

Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
Extent:
245 Linear feet ((375 boxes and 10 map drawers))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1878-1965
Summary:
The records in this collection embody the administrative functions of the Bureau of American Ethnology from 1879 to 1965. The collection consists of correspondence, card files, registers, official notices, annual and monthly work reports, research statements, research proposals, grant applications, personnel action requests, notices of personnel action, meeting minutes, purchase orders and requisitions, property records, biographical sketches, resolutions, newspaper clippings, reviews of publications, drafts of publications, circulars, programs, pamphlets, announcements, illustrations, cartographic materials, photographic prints, photographic negatives, bibliographies, and reprinted publications.
Scope and Contents:
The records in this collection embody the administrative functions of the Bureau of American Ethnology from 1879 to 1965. The collection consists of correspondence, card files, registers, official notices, annual and monthly work reports, research statements, research proposals, grant applications, personnel action requests, notices of personnel action, meeting minutes, purchase orders and requisitions, property records, biographical sketches, resolutions, newspaper clippings, reviews of publications, drafts of publications, circulars, programs, pamphlets, announcements, illustrations, cartographic materials, photographic prints, photographic negatives, bibliographies, and reprinted publications.

Correspondence comprises the bulk of this collection. A significant portion of this correspondence originates from the Bureau's duty to field inquiries regarding North American aboriginal cultures and respond to requests relating to the duplication of BAE library and archival materials. Inquiries and requests, received from all parts of the world, were submitted by colleagues, museum curators and directors, students, professors, amateur archaeologists, government agents, military officials, Smithsonian Institution officials, artists, and members of the general public. Other correspondence reflects the Bureau's day-to-day operations and internal affairs. Subjects discussed in this correspondence include research projects, field expeditions, annual budgets, personnel matters, the acquisition of manuscripts, the disbursement of specimens, and production of BAE publications. Correspondence is occasionally accompanied by announcements, circulars, programs, pamphlets, photographs, drawings, diagrams, bibliographies, lists, newspaper clippings, and maps. Also among these records are the card files and registers of incoming and outgoing correspondence maintained by early BAE administrative staff. For a list of correspondents, see the appendix to this finding aid, available in the NAA reading room.

The majority of illustrations, artwork, and photographs that appear in this collection are associated with BAE publications, including BAE Annual Reports, BAE Bulletins, Contributions to North American Ethnology and Smithsonian Institution, Miscellaneous Collection. Maps located among the collection originate, by and large, from BAE field expeditions and research projects. BAE staff also amassed great quantities of newspaper clippings that concerned BAE research or points of interest. Of particular note are three scrapbooks comprised of clippings that relate to "mound builders" and the work of the BAE's Division of Mound Explorations.

Also worthy of note are the various records relating to the 1903 investigation of the BAE. Records related to the investigation highlight the Smithsonian Institution's longstanding dissatisfaction with the internal management of the BAE, its concerns over the BAE's loose relationship with the parent organization, and displeasure with the manner in which BAE scientific research was developing. Other materials of special interest are the various administrative records covering the period 1929 to 1946 and 1949 to 1965. The majority cover personnel matters; however, others justify the work of the BAE and bear witness to growing concerns that the BAE would eventually be absorbed by the Department of Anthropology within the United States National Museum.
Arrangement:
The collection has been arranged into the following 12 series: (1) Correspondence, 1897-1965; (2) Cooperative Ethnological Investigations, 1928-1935; (3) Miscellaneous Administrative Files, 1929-1946; (4) Miscellaneous Administrative Files, 1949-1965; (5) Records Concerning the Photographic Print Collection, 1899-1919; (6) Records Concerning Employees; (7) Fiscal Records, 1901-1902 and 1945-1968; (8) Records Relating to the 1903 Investigation of the BAE; (9) Property Records and Requisitions; (10) Clippings; (11) Publications; (12) BAE Library Materials, Pamphlets and Reprints
Administrative History:
The Bureau of Ethnology was established by an act of the United States Congress on March 3, 1879, but it was largely the personal creation of the geologist and explorer Major John Wesley Powell. His earlier explorations of the Colorado River and Grand Canyon formed the basis of the Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region. While exploring the area, Powell became alarmed at what he perceived to be the decline of the aboriginal way of life due to rapid depopulation. In a letter to the Secretary of the Interior, he warned that "in a few years, it will be impossible to study…Indians in their primitive condition, except from recorded history" (Hinsley). He urged swift government action; the result of which was the appropriation of $20,000 (20 Stat. 397) to transfer all documents relating to North American Indians from the Department of Interior to the Smithsonian Institution and its Secretary's appointment of Powell as director of the newly established Bureau of Ethnology, a position he held until his death in 1902. In 1897, its name was changed to the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) to underscore the limits of its geographical reaches.

Under Powell, the BAE organized the nation's earliest anthropological field expeditions, in which the characteristics and customs of native North Americans were observed firsthand and documented in official reports. Images of Indian life were captured on photographic glass plate negatives, and their songs on wax cylinder recordings. Histories, vocabularies and myths were gathered, along with material objects excavated from archaeological sites, and brought back to Washington for inclusion in the BAE manuscript library or the United States National Museum.

The fruits of these investigations were disseminated via a series of highly regarded and widely distributed publications, most notably BAE Annual Reports, BAE Bulletins, and Contributions to North American Ethnology. BAE research staff also responded routinely to inquiries posed by colleagues, government agencies, and the general public on matters ranging from artwork to warfare. Moreover, the BAE prepared exhibits on the various cultural groups it studied not only for the Smithsonian Institution, but also for large expositions held nationwide.

In 1882 Powell, under instruction of Congress, established the Division of Mound Explorations for the purpose of discovering the true origin of earthen mounds found predominately throughout the eastern United States. It was the first of three temporary, yet significant, subunits supported by the Bureau. Cyrus Thomas, head of the Division, published his conclusions in the Bureau's Annual Report of 1894, which is considered to be the last word in the controversy over the mounds' origins. With the publication of Thomas' findings, the Division's work came to a close.

The course of BAE operations remained largely the same under Powell's successors: W.J. McGee (acting director) 1902; William Henry Holmes, 1902-1910; Frederick W. Hodge, 1910-1918; J. Walter Fewkes, 1918-1928; Matthew W. Stirling, 1928-1957; Frank H.H. Roberts, Jr., 1957-1964; and Henry B. Collins (acting director), 1964-1965. However, following a 1903 internal investigation of the Bureau's administrative activities, Smithsonian officials called for a broader scope of ethnological inquiry and greater application of anthropological research methodologies. The BAE responded in 1904 by expanding agency activities to include investigations in Hawaii, the Philippines, and the Caribbean.

The BAE extended its geographical reaches once again, in the 1940s, to include Central and South America. In 1943, the Institute of Social Anthropology (ISA) was established as an independent subunit of the Bureau for the purpose of developing and promoting ethnological research throughout the American Republics. The findings of ISA-sponsored investigations were published in the six volume series, Handbook of South American Indians (BAE Bulletin 143). Julian H. Steward, editor of the Handbook, was appointed director of ISA operations and held the position until 1946 when George M. Foster assumed responsibility. The ISA was absorbed by the Institute of Inter-American Affairs in 1952, thus terminating its relationship with the BAE.

In 1946 the BAE assumed partial administrative control of the recently established River Basin Surveys (RBS), its third and final autonomous subunit. The purpose of the RBS was to salvage and preserve archaeological evidence threatened by post-World War II public works programs, more specifically the rapid construction of dams and reservoirs occurring throughout the country. Excavations conducted under the RBS yielded considerable data on early North American Indian settlements, and subsequent deliberations on this data were published as reports in various BAE Bulletins.

In 1965, the BAE merged administratively with the Smithsonian Institution's Department of Anthropology to form the Office of Anthropology within the United States National Museum (now the Department of Anthropology within the National Museum of Natural History). The BAE manuscript library, also absorbed by the Department of Anthropology, became the foundation of what is today the National Anthropological Archives (NAA).

In its 86 year existence, the BAE played a significant role in the advancement of American anthropology. Its staff included some of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries' most distinguished anthropologists, including Jeremiah Curtain, Frank Hamilton Cushing, J.O. Dorsey, Jesse Walter Fewkes, Alice Cunningham Fletcher, Albert H. Gatschet, John Peabody Harrington, John N.B. Hewitt, William Henry Holmes, Ales Hrdlicka, Neil Judd, Francis LaFlesche, Victor and Cosmo Mindeleff, James Mooney, James Pilling, Matilda Coxe Stevenson, Matthew Williams Stirling, William Duncan Strong, and William Sturtevant. The BAE also collaborated with and supported the work of many non-Smithsonian researchers, most notably Franz Boas, Frances Densmore, Gerard Fowke, Garrick Mallery, Washington Matthews, Paul Radin, John Swanton, Cyrus Thomas, and T.T. Waterman, as well as America's earliest field photographers such as Charles Bell, John K. Hillers, Timothy O'Sullivan, and William Dinwiddie. Several of its staff founded the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1880, which later became the American Anthropological Association in 1899. What is more, its seminal research continues to be drawn upon by contemporary anthropologists and government agents through the use of BAE manuscripts now housed in the NAA.

Sources Consulted:

Hinsley, Curtis. Savages and Scientists: The Smithsonian Institution and the Development of American Anthropology, 1846-1910. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1981.

McGee, WJ. "Bureau of American Ethnology." The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896, The History of its First Half-Century, pp. 367-396. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1897.

Sturtevant, William. "Why a Bureau of American Ethnology?" Box 286, Functions of the BAE, Series IV: Miscellaneous Administrative Files, 1948-1965, Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology, National Anthropological Archives.
Related Materials:
Additional material relating to BAE administrative affairs and research projects can be found among the National Anthropological Archives' vast collection of numbered manuscripts. Too numerous to list in this space, these include official correspondence, monthly and annual work reports, fiscal records, field notes, personal diaries, expedition logs, catalogues of specimens, vocabularies, historical sketches, maps, diagrams, drawings, bibliographies, working papers and published writings, among various other material. Most of these documents are dispersed throughout the numbered manuscript collection as single items; however, some have been culled and unified into larger units (e.g., MS 2400 is comprised of documents relating to the Division of Mound Explorations). Artwork and illustrations produced for BAE publications are also located among the NAA's numbered manuscript collection as well as its photograph collection (e.g., Photo Lot 78-51 and Photo Lot 80-6).

Photographs concerning BAE research interests can be found among the following NAA photographic lots: Photo Lot 14, Bureau of American Ethnology Subject and Geographic File ca. 1870s-1930s; Photo Lot 24, BAE Photographs of American Indians 1840s to 1960s (also known as the Source Print Collection); Photo Lot 60, BAE Reference Albums 1858-1905; and Photo Lot 85, BAE Miscellaneous Photographs 1895 to 1930. Other photographic lots include portraits of BAE staff and collaborators, namely Photo Lot 33, Portraits of Anthropologists and others 1860s-1960s; Photo Lot 68, Portraits of John Wesley Powell ca. 1890 and 1898; and Photo Lot 70, Department of Anthropology Portrait File ca. 1864-1921.

Additional materials in the NAA relating to the work of the BAE can be found among the professional papers of its staff, collaborators and USNM anthropologists. These include the papers of Ales Hrdlicka, John Peabody Harrington, Otis Mason, J.C. Pilling, Matthew Williams Stirling, and William Duncan Strong. Documents relating to the work of the BAE can be found among the records of the River Basin Surveys (1928-1969) and the Institute of Social Anthropology (1941-1952).

Records related to this collection can also be found in the Smithsonian Institution Archives (SIA). SIA accession 05-124 includes information regarding the 1942 transfer of six audio recordings related to the Chumash Indian language from the Bureau of American Ethnology to the National Archives, nine pages of Chumash translations, and "The Story of Candalaria, the Old Indian Basket-Maker." The Fiscal and Payroll Records of the Office of the Secretary, 1847 to 1942 (Record Unit 93), includes voucher logs, disbursement journals and daybooks of money paid out to the BAE from 1890 to 1910. BAE correspondence can also be found among the Records of the Office of the Secretary (Record Unit 776, accession 05-162). The Papers of William Henry Holmes, second director of the BAE, are also located among the SIA (Record Unit 7084).

Accession records concerning artifacts and specimens collected by the BAE are located in the registrar's office of the National Museum of Natural History.

Related collections can also be found at the National Archives and Records Administration. RG 57.3.1, the Administrative Records of the United States Geological Survey, includes register of applications for BAE ethnological expositions conducted between 1879-1882. RG 75.29, Still Pictures among the Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, includes 22 photographs of Arapaho, Cheyenne, Kiowa, Comanche, Navajo, and Apache Indians taken by William S. Soule for the BAE during 1868-1875. RG 106, Records of the Smithsonian Institution, includes cartographic records (106.2) relating to Indian land cessions in Indiana created for the First Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1881 (1 item); a distribution of American Indian linguistic stock in North America and Greenland, by John Wesley Powell, for the Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, ca. 1887 (1 item); a distribution of Indian tribal and linguistic groups in South America, 1950 (1 item); the Indian tribes in North America, for Bulletin 145, Bureau of American Ethnology, 1952 (4 items). Sound Recordings (106.4) include songs and linguistic material relating to the Aleut, Mission, Chumash, and Creek, gather by the BAE in 1912, 1914, 1930-41. Some include translations (122 items).
Provenance:
The Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology were transferred to the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Archives with the merger of the BAE and the Department of Anthropology of the National Museum of Natural History in 1965. The Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Archives was renamed the National Anthropological Archives in 1968.
Restrictions:
The Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology are open for research.

Access to the Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Citation:
Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.XXXX.0155
See more items in:
Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw391046c25-21e2-4334-a01f-9a6f734ae9cd
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-xxxx-0155
Online Media:

United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls

Creator:
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Names:
Billings, John Shaw, 1838-1913  Search this
Matthews, Washington, 1843-1905  Search this
Extent:
78 Prints (circa, albumen)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Minitari (Hidatsa)  Search this
Eskimos  Search this
Apache  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Paiute  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Hawaiians  Search this
African Americans  Search this
Unangan (Aleut)  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Wichita  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Date:
circa 1884-1885
Scope and Contents note:
Army Medical Museum photographs prepared under the supervision of John Shaw Billings and Washington Matthews, and created by superimposing images of several skulls for comparative purposes. Each image has a caption that includes tribal or racial identification, number of skulls photographed, photograph number, negative number, and data on photographic technique.

The collection represents of Aleut, Apache, Arapaho, Cheyenne, Comanche, Dakota, Eskimo, Hidatsa, Navajo, Oglala, Ojibwa, Paiute, Piegan, Ponca, Wichita, African American, Hawaiian, people, and people of San Miguel and San Nicholas Islands (California).
Biographical/Historical note:
The United States Army Medical Museum (AMM, renamed the National Museum of Health and Medicine in 1989) was established by US Army Surgeon General William A. Hammond in 1862. Its initial focus was on collecting specimens of unusual pathology, mostly taken from victims of the American Civil War. By 1867, the museum had expanded to include medical, microsopical, anatomical, comparative anatomics, and other sections. The anatomical collection grew in part as a result of Circular No. 2 of 1867, which authorized military medical officers to collect cranial specimens from deceased Native Americans. Additionally, the AMM made an arrangement with the Smithsonian Institution, by which the Smithsonian transferred their collection of human remains in exchange for ethnological artifacts. AMM photographed and measured many of the specimens in its collection as part of the museum's anthropological research.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 6A
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional Army Medical Museum photographs of skulls can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 6B, Photo Lot 73-26C, Photo Lot 78-42, Photo Lot 83-41, and Photo Lot 97.
The National Anthropological Archives holds microfilm of the papers of Washington Matthews, circa 1864-1905, and records concerning skeletal material transferred to the Smithsonian Institution from the Army Medical Museum.
See others in:
United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls, circa 1884-1885
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
anthropometry  Search this
Skull  Search this
Citation:
Photo lot 6A, United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.6A
See more items in:
United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3ef9d6018-15b7-4236-8483-bb120980893e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-6a

Five adult male Navajo skulls (superimposed; frontal view); Numbers 178, 326, 784, 785, 1085

Creator:
United States. Department of War. United States Army Medical Museum  Search this
Matthews, Washington, 1843-1905  Search this
Billings, John Shaw, 1838-1913  Search this
Collection Creator:
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print (006 1/4 in x 006 1/4 in mounted on 011 in x 014 in)
Culture:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photographs
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.09716600
Local Note:
Exposure 12 seconds each; Dryplate Dallmeyer triplet 4 1/2 inch lens, Diaphragm 1 1/4 inch; plate not removed from camera until negative was complete
Black and white photoprint on cardboard mount
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Physical anthropology -- anthropometry  Search this
Skull  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Collection Citation:
Photo lot 6A, United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3dc4e2608-93b5-43c2-83e9-8920d58b5eab
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-6a-ref557

Five adult male Navajo skulls (superimposed; frontal view); Numbers 178, 326, 784, 785, 1085

Creator:
United States. Department of War. United States Army Medical Museum  Search this
Matthews, Washington, 1843-1905  Search this
Billings, John Shaw, 1838-1913  Search this
Collection Creator:
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print (006 in x 006 1/4 in mounted on 011 in x 014 in)
Culture:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photographs
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.09716700
Local Note:
Exposure 12 seconds each; Dry plate, Dallmeyer triplet 4 1/2 inch lens, Diaphragm 1 1/4 inch; plate not removed from camera until negative was complete
Black and white photoprint on cardboard mount
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Physical anthropology -- anthropometry  Search this
Skull  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Collection Citation:
Photo lot 6A, United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3486fb2b6-3baa-49a0-a144-2cab37540bdd
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-6a-ref558

Five adult male Navajo skulls (superimposed; lateral view); Numbers and conditions same as 14, A

Creator:
United States. Department of War. United States Army Medical Museum  Search this
Matthews, Washington, 1843-1905  Search this
Billings, John Shaw, 1838-1913  Search this
Collection Creator:
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print (006 in x 006 1/4 in mounted on 011 in x 014 in)
Culture:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photographs
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.09716800
Local Note:
Black and white photoprint on cardboard mount
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Physical anthropology -- anthropometry  Search this
Skull  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Collection Citation:
Photo lot 6A, United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw30a3038d8-8ddf-461b-b057-9ce1bb5992f2
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-6a-ref559

Five adult male Navaho skulls (superimposed; lateral view); Numbers and conditions same as 14, A

Creator:
United States. Department of War. United States Army Medical Museum  Search this
Matthews, Washington, 1843-1905  Search this
Billings, John Shaw, 1838-1913  Search this
Collection Creator:
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print (006 in x 006 1/4 in mounted on 011 in x 014 in)
Culture:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photographs
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.09716900
Local Note:
Black and white photoprint on cardboard mount
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Physical anthropology -- anthropometry  Search this
Skull  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Collection Citation:
Photo lot 6A, United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw31cc0d225-a8f6-4ea2-ad62-2a6e0a172f1d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-6a-ref560

Five adult male Navajo skulls (superimposed; back view); Numbers and conditions same as 14.A

Creator:
United States. Department of War. United States Army Medical Museum  Search this
Matthews, Washington, 1843-1905  Search this
Billings, John Shaw, 1838-1913  Search this
Collection Creator:
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print (006 in x 006 1/2 in mounted on 011 in x 014 in)
Culture:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photographs
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.09717000
Local Note:
Black and white photoprint on cardboard mount
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Physical anthropology -- anthropometry  Search this
Skull  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Collection Citation:
Photo lot 6A, United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw31f725d49-25e3-40ca-8b5c-6468dd8f18c3
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-6a-ref561

Five adult male Navajo skulls (superimposed; back view)

Creator:
United States. Department of War. United States Army Medical Museum  Search this
Matthews, Washington, 1843-1905  Search this
Billings, John Shaw, 1838-1913  Search this
Collection Creator:
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print (006 1/4 in x 006 1/4 in mounted on 011 in x 014 in)
Culture:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photographs
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.09717100
Local Note:
Negative 34
For numbers and conditions see Number 14 A
Black and white photoprint on cardboard mount
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Physical anthropology -- anthropometry  Search this
Skull  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Collection Citation:
Photo lot 6A, United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
United States Army Medical Museum composite photographs of skulls
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3e8af530e-52ee-4625-ab7f-88be7c98cdd0
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-6a-ref562

MS 2932 Notes on sign language and miscellaneous ethnographic notes on Plains Indians

Creator:
Scott, Hugh Lenox, 1853-1934  Search this
Dunbar, John Brown, 1841-1914  Search this
He Dog  Search this
Red Feather  Search this
Whirling  Search this
Addressee:
Wissler, Clark, 1870-1947  Search this
Names:
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
Bruguiere, Johnnie, 1849-1898  Search this
Petalesharo, 1797-1836  Search this
Extent:
4 Boxes
2,736 Items (2,736 pages)
Culture:
Dakota Indians  Search this
Blackfoot  Search this
Chippewa  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Niitsitapii (Blackfoot/Blackfeet)  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Paiute  Search this
Salish (Flathead)  Search this
A'aninin (Gros Ventre)  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Wichita  Search this
Osage  Search this
Apache  Search this
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Minitari (Hidatsa)  Search this
Cree  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Niimíipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Bannock  Search this
Ute  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Lenape (Delaware)  Search this
Slave  Search this
Denésoliné (Chipewyan)  Search this
Caddo  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Sarsi Indians  Search this
Plains Apache (Kiowa Apache)  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Ponca  Search this
White River Ute (Yampa)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Northwest Coast  Search this
Kootenai (Kutenai)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1934
Scope and Contents:
Much of this material is relevant to the Dakotas. Includes: miscellaneous notes on Dakota history, bands, and sign for "Dakota," Autograph Document. Approximately 100 pages. (Box 2); account of the Battle of Little Big Horn by He Dog, Red Feather, and Whirling, Autograph Document. 7 pages. (Box 3); "The Custer Battle with the Sioux, Autograph Document. 10 pages. (Box 3); notes on sign language in general, its history and distribution, Autograph and Typescript Document, 1 box (Box 4).
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2932
Local Note:
manuscript document
Topic:
Sign language  Search this
Marriage and family -- Berdache  Search this
Weapons -- bow  Search this
Dance -- calumet  Search this
American Indian  Search this
Rituals, formulas and ceremonies  Search this
Zoology -- Buffalo  Search this
Dance -- grass  Search this
War -- Battle of Little Bighorn  Search this
Medicine  Search this
Names, place  Search this
Dance -- Ghost dance  Search this
Religion -- soul, concept of  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Navaho  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Ute  Search this
White River (Parusanuch and Yampa)  Search this
Lenape  Search this
Assiniboin  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Plains Apache  Search this
Sarcee  Search this
Kootenai  Search this
Kutenai  Search this
Blackfeet  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 2932, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2932
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3febc7aa5-2cb3-42c2-a107-dfb270046f91
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2932

MS 4959 Photographs of drawings made for Captain Bethel in 1888

Depicted:
Kill Bear, Cheyenne  Search this
Making Medicine, 1844?-1931  Search this
Tall Bull, circa 1853-  Search this
Extent:
21 Negatives (19 prints)
Culture:
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Ute  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives
Photographs
Drawings
Date:
1969
Scope and Contents:
Titles include: 1.Tall Bull, Cheyenne, escaping from the Utes. 2.Common occurrence in Running Buffalo. 3.Tall Bull, a Cheyenne Brave, Killing Two Pawnees. 4.Crow and Cheyenne Warriors. 5.Kill Bear. 6.Tall Bull, Cheyenne, Killing a Navaho. 7.Cheyenne Brave Killing a Crow. 8.Fight between Soldiers and Cheyennes. 9.Cheyenne Killing a Pawnee. 10.Cheyenne Killing a Ute. 11.Cheyenne Killing two Kiowa women. 12.Kiowa Brave. 13.Making Medicine. 14.Dance of the Cheyenne Soldiers. 15.Untitled (dance with chiefs and musicians). 16.Sioux Indian hunting deer. 17.Sioux Woman and Cheyenne man. 18.Cheyenne to the Rescue. 19.Cheyenne Chiefs Reviewing their young men. 20.Sho-sho-nees in pursuit of Cheyennes. 21.Grand War Dance in Costume of the Cheyennes.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4959
Local Note:
photographs
Restrictions:
Restricted
Rights:
Negatives made 11/26/1969. For reference purposes only. Requests for prints should be directed to the Fort Leavenworth Museum.
Topic:
War -- Cheyenne  Search this
War -- Crow  Search this
War -- Pawnee  Search this
War -- Navaho  Search this
War -- Ute  Search this
War -- Kiowa  Search this
War -- Shoshoni  Search this
Grand War Dance -- Cheyenne  Search this
Hunting -- Cheyenne  Search this
Music -- Cheyenne  Search this
Navaho  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 4959, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4959
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw34e0c5d84-529c-4427-9652-063dcef78137
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4959

Ruth Landes papers

Correspondent:
Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978  Search this
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Wallis, Ruth Sawtell, 1895-1978  Search this
Wagley, Charles, 1913-1991  Search this
Lopez, Salvador  Search this
Little, Kenneth  Search this
Wilson, Maggie  Search this
Whitecloud, Thomas St. Germain  Search this
Henry, Jules, 1904-1969  Search this
Hellman, Ellen  Search this
Haugen, Einar  Search this
Gough, Kathleen  Search this
Lewis, Oscar  Search this
Kaberry, Phyllis Mary, 1910-  Search this
Imes, Elmer Samuel, 1883-1941  Search this
Strong, William Duncan, 1899-1962  Search this
Steyn, Anna F.  Search this
Spier, Leslie, 1893-1961  Search this
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962  Search this
Solecki, Ralph S.  Search this
Sparta, Francisco  Search this
Rubin, Joan  Search this
Rubin, Vera  Search this
Rodnick, David  Search this
Rogers, Edward S.  Search this
Ritzenthaler, Robert E. (Robert Eugene), 1911-1980  Search this
Roberts, Robert W.  Search this
Ramo, Arthur  Search this
Richards, Audrey  Search this
Preston, Richard J.  Search this
Verger, Pierre  Search this
Vennum, Thomas  Search this
Topash, Mary  Search this
Topash, Joe  Search this
Teskey, Lynn  Search this
Taylor, Beryl  Search this
Tanner, Helen Hornbeck  Search this
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Quain, Buell H. (Buell Halvor), 1912-1939  Search this
Dunning, William  Search this
Douglas, William A.  Search this
Eggan, Fred, 1906-1991  Search this
Edmondson, Munro S.  Search this
Black, Mary B.  Search this
Benedict, Ruth, 1887-1948  Search this
Domengeaux, James  Search this
Feldman, Albert G.  Search this
Feder, Norman  Search this
Gacs, Ute  Search this
Franklin, John Hope  Search this
Ewers, John C. (John Canfield), 1909-1997  Search this
Erickson, Vincent O.  Search this
Falk, Minna R.  Search this
Faitlovitch, V.  Search this
Alberto Torres, Heloisa  Search this
Buck, Pearl  Search this
Bruce, Harold E.  Search this
Borri, Rina  Search this
Boggs, Stephen Taylor  Search this
Arensberg, Conrad M. (Conrad Maynadier), 1910-1997  Search this
Baldus, Herbert  Search this
Barnouw, Victor  Search this
Bateson, Mary Catherine  Search this
Lurie, Nancy Oestreich  Search this
Malherbe, E. G. (Ernst Gideon), 1895-  Search this
Marks, Eli S.  Search this
Masha, Louise  Search this
Maslow, Will  Search this
Masquat, Joseph M.  Search this
Mayer, Kurt B.  Search this
McWilliams, Carey  Search this
Bunche, Ralph J.  Search this
Carneiro, Edison  Search this
Chilver, E. M.  Search this
Chilver, Richard  Search this
Clifton, James A.  Search this
Colson, Elizabeth F.  Search this
Daveron, Alexander  Search this
Lowenfeld, Margaret, 1890-1973  Search this
Officer, James E.  Search this
Odum, Howard W.  Search this
Park, Alice  Search this
Paredes, Anthony  Search this
Paton, Alan, 1903-1988  Search this
Park, George  Search this
Prado, Idabel do  Search this
Peschel, Keewaydinoquay M.  Search this
Merwe, Hendrik W. van der  Search this
Murphy, Robert Francis  Search this
Messing, Simon D.  Search this
Neumann, Anita  Search this
Nef, Evelyn Stefansson  Search this
Nocktonick, Louise  Search this
Neumann, Walter  Search this
Creator:
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Names:
Columbia University Research in Contemporary Cultures  Search this
Committee on Fair Employment Practices  Search this
Fisk University  Search this
Johnson, Charles S.  Search this
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Park, Robert E.  Search this
Extent:
26.5 Linear feet ((63 document boxes and 1 oversized box))
Culture:
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Dakota (Eastern Sioux)  Search this
African  Search this
Acadians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Jews -- American  Search this
Latinos -- California  Search this
Brazilians  Search this
Basques  Search this
American Indians  Search this
Afro-Brazilians  Search this
Africans  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Quebec -- Bilingualism
United Kingdom -- colored immigration
South Africa
Date:
1928-1992
Summary:
Most of Ruth Landes's papers relate directly or indirectly to Landes's American Indian research, her work in Brazil, and her study of bilingualism. There is also a considerable amount of material that relates to her experiences (sometimes fictionalized) at Fisk University. There is only small amount of material related to her other interests. Her collection also has material of and relating to the Brazilian folklorist and journalist Edison Carneiro. There is also noteworthy material concerning Herbert Baldus, Ruth Benedict, Elmer C. Imes, Charles S. Johnson, and Robert E. Park. There is a large amount of printed and processed materials in the collection, mainly in the form of newspaper clippings and a collection of scholarly papers.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is mainly comprised of the professional papers of Ruth Schlossberg Landes. Included are correspondence, journals, published and unpublished manuscripts of writings, research materials including field notes and reading notes, photographs, drawings, scholarly papers and publications by other scholars, and clippings from newspapers and periodicals.

Landes's field research on Candomblé in Brazil is well-represented in this collection, consisting of her field journals, writings, and photographs. Also present are Maggie Wilson's stories that were the basis for Landes's The Ojibwa Woman. Unfortunately, Landes was unable to locate her journals for her early research with the Ojibwa/Chippewa, Potawatomi, and Dakota. There are, however, field photographs of the Ojibwa/Chippewa and Potawatomi in the collection. There is also a great deal of her research on groups, especially minorities, in multilingual states with particular focus on the French of Quebec, Basques of Spain and the United States, Boers and Blacks of South Africa, the several socio-linguistic groups of Switzerland, and Acadians (Cajuns) of Louisiana. In the collection are several drafts of her unpublished manuscript on bilingualism, "Tongues that Defy the State." There is also a small amount of material about Black Jews of New York and considerable material about Landes's experience among African Americans when she taught briefly at Fisk University, including her unpublished manuscript "Now, at Athens," containing fictional and autobiographical accounts of her time at Fisk.

Reflections of other facets of Landes's professional activities are also included. Some materials concern her teaching activities, and there is also documentation of her work with the Fair Employment Practices Commission (a federal government agency during the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt) and a similar private organization which immediately succeeded the FEPA; Gunnar Myrdal's research into the plight of African Americans ("The Negro in America"); the Research in Contemporary Cultures project at Columbia University; and the American Jewish Congress.

Among Landes's correspondents are Ruth Benedict, Franz Boas, Margaret Mead, Ralph Bunche, Herbert Baldus, Edison Carneiro, Sally Chilver, Frances Densmore, Sol Tax, Elmer S. Imes, Charles S. Johnson, Robert E. Park, and Hendrik W. van der Merwe.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into 6 series: (1) Correspondence, 1931-1991; (2) Research Materials, circa 1930s-1990; (3) Writings, circa 1930s-1990; (4) Teaching Materials, 1935-1975, undated; (5) Biographical and Personal Files, 1928-1988; (6) Graphic Materials, 1933-1978, undated
Biographical Note:
Ruth Schlossberg Landes was born on October 8, 1908 in New York City. Her father was Joseph Schlossberg, an activist in the Yiddish labor socialist community and one of the founders of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. She studied sociology at New York University (B.A. 1928) and social work at the New York School of Social Work, Columbia University (M.S.W. 1929). While in graduate school, Landes studied Black Jews in Harlem for her master's thesis, a topic that developed her interests in anthropology.

After graduating in 1929, she worked as a social worker in Harlem and married Victor Landes, a medical student and son of family friends. Their marriage ended after two years when she enrolled in the doctoral program in anthropology at Columbia against her husband's wishes. She kept his surname due to the stigma of being a divorced woman.

At Columbia, Landes studied under Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict, her main advisor. Under the guidance of Benedict, Landes moved away from further study of African Americans to focus on Native American communities. Upon Benedict's suggestion, Landes studied the social organization of the Ojibwa in Manitou Rapids in Ontario from 1932 to 1936 for her Ph.D. fieldwork. Her dissertation, Ojibwa Sociology, was published in 1937. Landes also contributed "The Ojibwa of Canada" in Cooperation and Competition among Primitive Peoples (1937), a volume edited by Margaret Mead. In 1938, Landes published Ojibwa Women (1938), a book written in collaboration with Maggie Wilson, an Ojibwa interpreter and informant.

In addition to studying the Ojibwa in Ontario, Landes also conducted fieldwork with the Chippewa of Red Lake, Minnesota in 1933, working closely with shaman or midé Will Rogers. Her book, Ojibwa Religion and the Midéwiwin (1968) was based largely on her research with Rogers and Maggie Wilson. In 1935 and 1936, she undertook fieldwork with the Santee Dakota in Minnesota and the Potawatomi in Kansas. Like Ojibwa Religion and the Midéwiwin, her books on the Santee Dakota and Potawatomi were not published until several years later—The Mystic Lake Sioux: Sociology of the Mdewakantonwan Sioux was published in 1968 while The Prairie Potawatomi was published in 1970. In between her field research in the 1930s and the publication of The Prairie Potawatomi, Landes returned to Kansas to study the Potawatomi in the 1950s and 1960s.

Landes's plan to continue her studies with the Potawatomi in 1937 changed when Benedict invited her to join a team of researchers from Columbia University in Brazil. Landes was to conduct research on Afro-Brazilians in Bahia, Brazil, while Walter Lipkind, Buell Quain, and Charles Wagley studied indigenous people in the Amazons. To prepare for her research, Landes was at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee in 1937 and 1938 to consult with Robert Park and Donald Pierson and to use the university's library collections of African and African American materials. During that time, Landes also held a teaching position at Fisk and lived in the non-segregated women's residence on campus. Landes later wrote "Now, at Athens," an unpublished memoir containing fictional and true accounts of her experiences at Fisk.

From 1938 to 1939, Landes conducted fieldwork on the role of Afro-Brazilian women and homosexuals in the Candomblé religion in Bahia, Brazil. Unable to move freely by herself in Brazil as a single woman, Landes was accompanied by Edison Carneiro, a Bahian journalist and folklorist. With Carneiro as her companion, Landes was allowed access to rituals and people that would have been closed off to her otherwise. Due to her association with Carneiro, a member of the Brazilian Communist Party, Landes was suspected of being a communist and was forced to leave Bahia early. Publications from her research in Brazil include "A Cult Matriarchate and Male Homosexuality" (1940) and City of Women (1947). She returned to Brazil in 1966 to study the effects of urban development in Rio de Janeiro. In 1967, a Portuguese translation of City of Women was published, a project that Carneiro had commissioned as the first director of the Ministry of Education and Culture's Special National Agency for the Protection of Folklore.

Landes returned to New York in 1939, working briefly as a researcher for Gunnar Myrdal's study of African Americans. Unable to obtain a permanent position at a university, she worked in several other short term positions throughout most of her career. During World War II, Landes was a research director for the Office of the Coordinator for Inter-American Affairs (1941) and consultant for President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Fair Employment Practices Committee on African American and Mexican American cases (1941-44). In 1945, Landes directed a program created by Pearl S. Buck and a group of interdenominational clergy to analyze pending New York anti-discrimination legislation. She moved to California the following year to work for the Los Angeles Metropolitan Welfare Council on a study of race and youth gangs. After her contract ended, she moved back to New York and was hired as a contract researcher for the American Jewish Congress (1948-50). She also participated in Columbia University's Research in Contemporary Cultures (1949-51), studying Jewish families. She coauthored with Mark Zborowski, "Hypothesis concerning the Eastern European Jewish Family." From 1951 to 1952, Landes spent a year in London, funded by a Fulbright fellowship to study colored colonial immigrants and race relations in Great Britain.

After her fellowship ended, Landes returned to the United States and held short term appointments at several universities. She taught at the William Alanson White Psychiatric Institution in New York (1953-54), the New School for Social Research in New York (1953-55), University of Kansas (1957, 1964), University of Southern California (1957-62), Columbia University (1963), Los Angeles State College (1963), and Tulane University (1964). At Claremont Graduate School, Landes helped to develop and direct the Claremont Anthropology and Education Program (1959-62).

It was not until 1965 that Landes obtained a permanent faculty position at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario; she was recruited for the position by Richard Slobodin. Due to Ontario's age retirement law, Landes was forced to retire in 1973 at the age of 65. She continued to teach part-time until 1977, when she became professor emerita.

Landes passed away at the age of 82 on February 11, 1991.

Sources Consulted

Cole, Sally. 2003. Ruth Landes: A Life in Anthropology. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.

Chronology

1908 October 8 -- Born Ruth Schlossberg in New York City

1928 -- B.A. in sociology, New York University

1929 -- M.S.W., New York School of Social Work, Columbia University

1929-1931 -- Social worker in Harlem Married to Victor Landes

1929-1934 -- Studied Black Jews in Harlem

1931 -- Began graduate work in anthropology at Columbia University

1932-1936 -- Studied the Ojibwa in Ontario and Minnesota (in field periodically)

1933-1940 -- Research Fellow, Columbia University

1935 Summer-Fall -- Studied the Santee Sioux (Dakota) in Minnesota

1935-1936 -- Studied the Potawatomi in Kansas

1935 -- Ph.D., Columbia University

1937 -- Instructor, Brooklyn College

1937-1938 -- Instructor, Fisk University

1938-1939 -- Studied Afro-Brazilians and Candomblé in Brazil, especially at Bahia

1939 -- Researcher on Gunnar Myrdal's study, "The Negro in America"

1941 -- Research Director, Office of Inter American Affairs, Washington, D.C.

1941-1945 -- Representative for Negro and Mexican American Affairs, Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC), President Franklin D. Roosevelt Administration

1944 -- Interim Director, Committee Against Racial Discrimination, New York

1946-1947 -- Researcher, study of Mexican American youth, gangs, and families, Los Angeles Metropolitan Council

1948-1951 -- Researcher, American Jewish Congress, New York

1949-1951 -- Research consultant, study on Jewish families in New York for Research in Contemporary Cultures Project, Columbia University

1951-1952 -- Fulbright Scholar, to study colored colonial immigration into Great Britain

1953-1954 -- Lecturer, William Alanson White Psychiatric Institution, New York

1953-1955 -- Lecturer, New School for Social Research, New York

1956-1957 -- Married to Ignacio Lutero Lopez

1957 Summer -- Visiting Professor, University of Kansas

1957-1958 -- Visiting Professor, University of Southern California

1957-1965 -- Consultant, California agencies (Department of Social Work, Bureau of Mental Hygiene, Department of Education, Public Health Department) and San Francisco Police Department

1958-1959 -- Director, Geriatrics Program, Los Angeles City Health Department

1959-1962 -- Visiting Professor and Director of Anthropology and Education Program, Claremont Graduate School

1962 -- Extension Lecturer, University of California, Los Angeles and University of California, Berkeley

1963 -- Extension Lecturer, Columbia University Extension Lecturer, Los Angeles State College

1963-1965 -- Consultant, International Business Machines (IBM)

1964 January-June -- Visiting Professor, Tulane University

1964 Summer -- Field work with Potawatomi in Kansas Professor, University of Kansas

1965-1975 -- Professor at McMaster University

1966 -- Studied urban development in Rio de Janeiro

1968-1975 -- Studied bilingualism and biculturalism in Spain, Switzerland, South Africa, United States, and Canada (in Spain and the United States concentrated on Basques)

1975 -- Became part-time faculty member at McMaster University

1977 -- Professor Emerita, McMaster University

1978 -- Award of Merit from the University of Wisconsin, Green Bay

1991 February 11 -- Died in Hamilton, Ontario

1991 -- Establishment of the Ruth Landes Memorial Research Fund at Research Institute for the Study of Man (RISM)
Related Materials:
Correspondence from Ruth Landes can be found in the William Duncan Strong Papers, the Leonard Bloomfield Papers, and MS 7369. The Ruth Bunzel Papers contains a copy of a grant application by Landes.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Ruth Landes in 1991.
Restrictions:
The Ruth Landes papers are open for research. The nitrate negatives in this collection have been separated from the collection and stored offsite. Access to nitrate negatives is restricted due to preservation concerns.

Access to the Ruth Landes papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Midéwiwin  Search this
Bilingualism  Search this
Aging  Search this
Candomblé (Religion)  Search this
Citation:
Ruth Landes papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1991-04
See more items in:
Ruth Landes papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw37e032ce2-12b4-4c64-83be-ec51796c4bd6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1991-04
Online Media:

George Eastman House copies of photographs of Native Americans

Collector:
George Eastman House  Search this
Photographer:
Alvord, Kellogg, & Campbell  Search this
Bell & Bro. (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Boorne & May  Search this
Boyd and Braas  Search this
Caswell & Davy  Search this
Central Pacific Railroad Company  Search this
Continent Stereoscopic Company  Search this
E. & H.T. Anthony (Firm)  Search this
Henry L. Shepard & Co.  Search this
Ingersoll View Company (St. Paul, Minnesota)  Search this
Keystone View Company  Search this
Kilburn Brothers  Search this
Liberty Brand Stereo Views  Search this
Littleton View Co.  Search this
Lovejoy & Foster  Search this
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Whitney & Zimmerman  Search this
Wilson & Havens  Search this
Woodward Stereoscopic Co. (Rochester, N.Y.)  Search this
Barker, George, 1844-1894  Search this
Beaman, Edward O.  Search this
Bennett, G. C., 1846-1915  Search this
Bennett, H. H. (Henry Hamilton), 1843-1908  Search this
Bierstadt, Charles, 1819-1903  Search this
Bonine, Elias A., 1843-1916  Search this
Brown, William Henry, 1844-1886  Search this
Brubaker, Christian B. (of Marquette, Michigan)  Search this
Buehman, Henry, 1851-1912  Search this
Chamberlain, W. G. (William Gunnison)  Search this
Chase, D. B. (Dana B.)  Search this
Childs, B. F. (Brainard F.), ca. 1841-1921  Search this
Conklin, E (Enoch)  Search this
Cross, W. R. (William R.)  Search this
Goff, O. S. (Orlando Scott), 1843-1917  Search this
Harris, George H.  Search this
Haynes, F. Jay (Frank Jay), 1853-1921  Search this
Ingersoll, T. W. (Truman Ward), 1862-1922  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
Jacoby, W. H. (William H.), 1841-1905  Search this
Jarvis, J. F. (John F.), b. 1850  Search this
Jones, James  Search this
Kent, J. H.  Search this
Lingley, B. L.  Search this
Morrow, Stanley J.  Search this
Muybridge, Eadweard, 1830-1904  Search this
O'Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882  Search this
Pratt, D. C.  Search this
Rinehart, F. A. (Frank A.)  Search this
Savage, C. R. (Charles Roscoe), 1832-1909  Search this
Smillie, T. W. (Thomas William), 1843-1917  Search this
Upton, B. F. (Benjamin Franklin)  Search this
Watkins, Carleton E., 1829-1916  Search this
Zimmerman, Charles A., 1844-1909  Search this
Depicted:
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Douglass, Frederick, 1817?-1895  Search this
Logan, John Alexander, 1826-1886  Search this
Names:
Barnard, George N., 1819-1902  Search this
Publisher:
Forsyth, N. A. (Norman A.), 1869-1949  Search this
Extent:
248 Negatives (circa, 35mm)
248 Copy prints (circa)
Culture:
Kiowa  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Tuscarora  Search this
Tsuu T'ina (Sarcee)  Search this
Hunkpapa Lakota (Hunkpapa Sioux)  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
Duwamish (Dwamish)  Search this
Kickapoo  Search this
Modoc  Search this
Apache  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Ute  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Sihasapa Lakota (Blackfoot Sioux)  Search this
Paiute  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Chiricahua Apache  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives
Copy prints
Place:
Yosemite National Park (Calif.)
Washington (D.C.)
Florida
Yellowstone National Park
Colorado
Date:
mid-19th - early 20th century
Scope and Contents note:
Copies of photogaphs selected from the George Eastman House collection by Bureau of American Ethnology archivist Margaret Blaker in 1962. Many of the photographs are individual or group portraits of American Indians and some highlight pottery, baskets, and cradleboards. There are also images of American Indian dwellings, including tipis and hogans; pueblos; dances; and an encampment during the Modoc War and Plains Indian prisoners at Fort Marion, Florida (1870s).

Expedition photos in the collection were made on T. O. Selfridgeʹs Darien Expedition (1870-1871), the Wheeler surveys (1871-1874), and the Hayden Geological Survey (1871). The collection also includes portraits of Frederick Douglass, Sitting Bull, and John A. Logan; and images from Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show; Company F of New York's 140th Volunteer Infantry; and the Smithsonian in Washington, DC.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot R79
Reproduction Note:
Copy negatives made by George Eastman House, 1962.
Copy prints made by the Smithsonian, 1962-1963.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives holds vintage prints for many of the photographs copied in this collection, including in Photo lot 4501, Photo Lot 4605, and Photo Lot 90-1.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
The images were acquired for reference purposes and cannot be reproduced. Copies may be obtained from George Eastman House, International Museum of Photography and Film.
Topic:
Pottery  Search this
Dwellings  Search this
Soldiers  Search this
Baskets  Search this
Dance  Search this
Citation:
Photo lot R79, George Eastman House copies of photographs of Native Americans, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.R79
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw34d853ca2-263a-4eec-b717-8d8b034db61f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-r79

Philleo Nash papers

Creator:
Nash, Philleo, 1909-1987  Search this
Names:
American Anthropological Association  Search this
East Bay Area United Indian Council -- Oakland, California  Search this
DuBois, Cora -- Klamath notes (copies)  Search this
Correspondent:
Eggan, Fred, 1906-1991  Search this
Gower, Charlotte  Search this
Hill, W. W. (Willard Williams), 1902-1974  Search this
Opler, Morris Edward  Search this
Redfield, Robert, 1897-1958  Search this
Depicted:
Humphrey, Hubert  Search this
Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald), 1917-1963  Search this
Extent:
12 Linear feet (24 boxes)
Culture:
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Minnesota Chippewa [Red Lake, Minnesota]  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Cocopa  Search this
Colville  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Hualapai (Walapai)  Search this
American Indians -- Religion  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Maya  Search this
Oneida  Search this
Jews -- Toronto, Ontario  Search this
Eskimos  Search this
Klamath  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Spokan  Search this
Walla Walla (Wallawalla)  Search this
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Oraons  Search this
Puyallup  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Samoan  Search this
Quileute  Search this
Shawnee  Search this
Samoans  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Havasupai (Coconino)  Search this
Modoc  Search this
Apache  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Canada -- Ontario -- Lake Alymer -- archeology
Date:
1931-1986
Summary:
The Philleo Nash papers attest to Nash's interest in anthropology, not only research and teaching but also in its application to public service. His papers can be separated into four main areas: undergraduate and graduate education, research, teaching, and public service. Files contain class notes from Nash's undergraduate and graduate studies as well as papers by well-known professors lecturing at the University of Chicago including Ralph Linton, Robert Redfield, and R.A. Radcliffe-Brown. The bulk of his research was conducted in the Pacific Northwest where he studied the Klamath-Modoc culture on the reservation, focusing on revivalism and socio-political organization (1935-1937). Other research included archeology at two sites, a study of the Toronto Jewish community, and a continuing interest in minority issues. Nash taugh at the University of Toronto (1937- 1941) and at American University in Washington, D.C. (1971-1977). Teaching files contain lecture notes from his work at the University of Toronto. Public service files include correspondence from the period when he was Lieutenant Governor of Wisconsin (1959-1961) as well as reports and photos from the years as Commissioner of Indian Affairs (1961-1966). Other public service and business positions are not represented in these files.
Scope and Contents:
The Philleo Nash Papers attest to Nash's interest in anthropology, not only research and teaching but also in its application to public service. His papers can be separated into four main areas: undergraduate and graduate education, research, teaching, and public service. Files contain class notes from Nash's undergraduate and graduate studies as well as papers by well-known professors lecturing at the University of Chicago including Ralph Linton, Robert Redfield, and R.A. Radcliffe-Brown. The bulk of his research was conducted in the Pacific Northwest where he studied the Klamath-Modoc culture on the reservation, focusing on revivalism and socio-political organization (1935-1937). Other research included archeology at two sites, a study of the Toronto Jewish community, and a continuing interest in minority issues. Nash taugh at the University of Toronto (1937-1941) and at American University in Washington, D.C. (1971-1977). Teaching files contain lecture notes from his work at the University of Toronto. Public service files include correspondence from the period when he was Lieutenant Governor of Wisconsin (1959-1961) as well as reports and photos from the years as Commissioner of Indian Affairs (1961-1966). Other public service and business positions are not represented in these files.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
Arranged in 6 series: (I) Education (1931-1937), (II) Klamath-Modoc Culture (1930s), (III) Teaching (1937-1942, 1971-1977), (IV) Miscellaneous (1936-1986), (V) Non-Academic Positions (1939-1970), (VI) Photos (1931-1967).
Biographical Note:
Philleo Nash was born on October 25, 1909, in Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin. He studied at the University of Wisconsin, taking a year off to study music at the Curtis Institute in Philadelphia. On his return to the University of Wisconsin, Nash completed his undergraduate degree in anthropology (1932) and went on to the University of Chicago for a Ph.D. in anthropology (1937). His doctoral dissertation explored the concepts of revivalism and social change with a focus on the Klamath Ghost Dance activities of the 1870s.

Nash held positions in teaching as well as in government and his family business. He was a lecturer in anthropology at the University of Toronto (1937-1941). He also lectured at the University of Wisconsin (1941-1942) and at American University in Washington, D.C. (1971-1977).

From 1942 to 1953, Nash served in various positions in the federal government, first in the Office of War Information and later as Assistant to President Truman, focusing on minority affairs and as liaison to the Department of the Interior. During this period in Washington, Nash also acted as President of the Georgetown Day School (1945-1952), where he was one of the founders of this racially integrated cooperative school. In 1953, Nash returned to Wisconsin where his interest in politics continued, and he became Lieutenant Governor of Wisconsin from 1959 to 1961. In 1961, he returned to Washington, DC as U.S. Commissioner of Indian Affairs, a position he held until 1966.

Following his work as Commissioner, Nash remained in Washington where he acted as a consultant in applied anthropology and held offices in various associations including hte Society for Applied Anthropology (SfAA), the American Anthropological Association (AAA), and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). During all the years of professional responsibilities, Nash also held positions in the family business, Biron Cranberry Company. He returned to Wisconsin in 1977 to be President and Manager of the Company.

Throughout his life Nash was active in various associations for science and anthropology. He was awarded the AAA's Distinguished Service Award in 1984. In 1986, the SfAA presented him with the Bronislaw Malinowski Award in recognition of outstanding scholarship and long term commitment in applying the social sciences to contemporary issues.

Philleo Nash died in 1987. Some years before his death Nash sent his archaeological research material from the Pound Village Site (1938-1939) to Toronto and his research material from the DuBay Village Site (1940) to the Milwaukee Public Museum. According to the terms of his will, his government and political papers are housed at the Harry S. Truman Library in Independence, Missouri.

Reference: Landman, Ruth H. and Katherine S. Halpern (eds.). Applied Anthropologist and Public Servant: the Life and Work of Philleo Nash. NAPA Bulletin #7. Washington, DC: American Anthropological Association, 1989.
Related Materials:
According to the terms of his will, Nash's government and political papers are housed at the Harry S. Truman Library in Independence, Missouri.
Restrictions:
The Philleo Nash papers are open for research.

Access to the Philleo Nash papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Ghost dance -- Klamath  Search this
Nativistic religions -- American Indians  Search this
Citation:
Philleo Nash papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1990-23
See more items in:
Philleo Nash papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3ac739603-097f-4085-8ae3-6b4213d44974
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1990-23

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