Photographs made by Herman J. Viola, depicting the 1973 Institute of American Indian Art meeting, Wolf Robe Hunt and his Acoma pottery, the transfer of Blue Eagle collection from Mae Abbott home to National Anthropological archives, and the 1974 Star Hawk Pow Wow in Watonga, Oklahoma. Additionally, there are photographs of NAA staff and the 1974 Acee Blue Eagle reception at NAA, possibly made by Viola. The collection also contains some photographs of Wounded Knee taken by Rev. Salvatore Genete, and copies of official portraits of Governor Aquillar of San Ildefonso Pueblo made by Harry B. Neufeld. There are also National Archives photographs of Chinese Boxer Rebellion prints, and Young watercolors and Alden sketches of American landscapes.
Much of the collection consists of portraits of participants in the NAA's American Indian Cultural Resources Training Program made by Smithsonian photographers, including Victor Krantz. These individuals include: Harry Walters, Navajo; Anna Walters, Otoe-Pawnee; George Sutton, Southern Arapaho; Sarah Yazzie, Navajo; Rubie Sootkis, Norther Cheyenne; David Fanman, Cheyenne; Augustine Smith, Navajo; Lorraine Bigman, Navajo; Jim Jefferson, Southern Ute; Rose Marie Pierite Gallardo, Tunica-Biloxi; George Horse Capture, Gros Ventre; Violet Zospah, White Mountain Apache; Gloria Anderson, Mille Lacs; Wenonah Silva, Wampanoag; Claire Lamont, Oglala; George Wasson, Coos-Coquille; Virginia Martin, Yakama; Gary Roybal, San Ildefonso; Richard Ground, Sihasapa; Almeda Baker, Hidatsa; June Finley, Hidatsa; Lida Young Wolf, Hidatsa; Christine Webster, Menominee; Rose Marie Roybal, Puyallup; Vivienne Jake, Kaibab-Paiute; Kim Yerton, Hupa; Dean Jacobs, Ojibwa; Lois Nowlin, Shawnee; Bonita McCloud, Nisqually; Gloria Maude Blackbird Cheswalla, Osage; Emily Peake, Ojibwa; Gordon McLester, Oneida; Mary Seth, Nez Perce; Bill Tohee, Oto-Missouria; Frank LaPena, Wintu; Juanita McQuistion, Wyandot; Carson Waterman, Seneca; Elton Stumbling Bear, Kiowa Apache; Patrick Chief Stick, Chippewa-Cree; Lynne Walks-on-Top, Spokane; Ethelyn Garfield, Paiute; Nora Dauenhauer, Tlingit; Caroline B. Jones, Tulalip; Grace F. Thorpe, Sauk and Fox; Dixie Lee Davis, Yavapai; Lynn D. Pauahty, Kiowa; David Lee Harding, Ojibwa; Robert V. Bojorcas, Klamath; Patty Leah Harjo, Seneca-Cayuga; Steven DeCoteau, Clallam; Robert Van Gunten, Ojibwa; Danny K. Marshall, Steilacoom; Meredith P. Flinn, Makah; Rhonda Hulsey, Chickasaw; Betty J. Brown, Choctaw; Vernon Calavaza, Zuni; Jack Bowen Jr., Upper Skagit; and Harry William Jr., Pima.
Herman Joseph Viola is a historian of the American Indian who was director of the National Anthropological Archives from 1972-1989 and founding editor of Prologue: The Journal of the National Archives. In 1973, he launched the American Indian Cultural Resources Training Program, designed to entice American Indians into becoming professional archivists, librarians, curators, and historians through research and internships at the NAA.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 74-17
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives holds Viola's papers from 1980-1981.
Records relating to the American Indian Cultural Resources Training Program can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in the Records of the National Anthropological Archives.
Photo lot 74-17, Herman J. Viola photograph collection of Star Hawk Pow Wow, American Indian Cultural Resources Training Program, and acquisition trips for NAA, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The collection consists of photographs relating to Native Americans, which were submitted to the copyright office of the Library of Congress in and around the early 20th century. Many of the photographs are studio portraits as well as photographs made as part of expeditions and railroad surveys. It includes images of people, dwellings and other structures, agriculture, arts and crafts, burials, ceremonies and dances, games, food preparation, transportation, and scenic views. Some of the photographs were posed to illustrate literary works, including Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's Hiawatha, while others depict paintings or other artwork.
The collection was formed from submissions made to the Library of Congress as part of the copyright registration process. In 1949, arrangements were made to allow the Bureau of American Ethnology to copy the collection and some negatives were made at that time, largely from the Heyn and Matzen photographs. The project was soon abandoned, however, as too large an undertaking for the facilities of the BAE. In 1957-1958, arrangements were begun by William C. Sturtevant of the BAE to transfer all of the photographs from the Library to the BAE.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 59
See others in:
Library of Congress Copyright Office photograph collection of American Indians, 1860s-1930s (bulk 1890s-1920s)
In 1965, the Bureau merged with the Smithsonian's Department of Anthropology to form the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology, and in 1968 the Office of Anthropology Archives transformed into the National Anthropological Archives.
The collection is open for research.
Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Photo Lot 59, Library of Congress Copyright Office photograph collection of American Indians, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Ingenuity and Tradition: The Common Wealth of Massachusetts
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage Search this
Massachusetts, like the rest of the United States, is a complex place where old and new stand side by side on the landscape and where tradition and innovation combine in people's lives to make them whole. The ingenious combination of old and new is repeated throughout Massachusetts by people as varied as black blues musicians, Cambodian craftspeople, Finnish cranberry farmers, Portuguese fisherfolk and Chinese computer assemblers. In examining Massachusetts traditions for the Festival program, scholars found that change, no matter what its cause, challenged individuals and communities to find creative ways to maintain traditions.
Like the great transformations that have shaped Massachusetts and the country as a whole, traditions can undergo change and emerge transformed but still recognizable. Puerto Rican singer Felix Luna of Lowell applied the traditional decima song form to new lyrics about the Challenger disaster. Gospel singer Napolean Stovell of Springfield directed his southern-born quartet to enunciate their words more clearly because the New England audiences like to understand what is being sung. Mario Picardo of Boston incorporated traditional Italian architectural features to make a bandstand but used plywood, foam, tin foil, and cardboard ravioli boxes to erect his towering confection on the streets of the North End as part of an annual saint's day feast, transplanted to the National Mall by a large contingent during the 1988 Festival. These individuals and their communities remolded traditions into usable form because these traditions add meaning to their lives. That's what folklife both in Massachusetts and in the modem world is all about, and what visitors could experience during the Festival of American Folklife.
Betty Belanus was Curator of the Massachusetts program and Barbara Lau was Program Coordinator. Ingenuity and Tradition: the Common Wealth of Massachusetts was made possible by the Massachusetts Council on the Arts and Humanities.
Michael Bell, Dillon Bustin, Louis Carreras, Stephen Cole, Kathleen Dunlay, Janice Gadaire, Heidi Gitelman, Nora Groce, Betty Hillmon, Ellen McHale, Stephen Matchak, Linda Morley, Mario Montaño, Kathy Neustadt, Pioneer Valley Folklore Society, Refugee Arts Group, Mary Jo Sanna, Pam Swing, Joe Thomas, Robert Weir
Dillon Bustin, Louis Carreras, Rena Deth, Janice Gadaire, Rayna Green, Betty Hillmon, Sue Manos, Steve Matchak, Elizabeth Mathias, Ellen McHale, Linda Morley, Mario Montaño, Kathy Neustadt, Jessie Payne, Mary Jo Sanna, Joe Sciorra, Nancy Sweezy, Pam Swing, Annette Thornton, Eleanor Wachs
Karolina Danek, Polish iconographer, Worcester
Bienvenida Figueroa Negron, Puerto Rican needle worker, Lowell
Ann Horkan, Irish needle worker, Watertown
Susan lind-Sinanian, needle worker, dancer, Watertown
Tim Sao, Cambodian kite maker, Lowell
Ruth Thomasian, Armenian photograph collector and historian, Watertown
Sourn Veuk, Cambodian kite maker helper, Lowell
Gladys 'Wild Cranberry" Widdiss, 1914-, Wampanoag Indian potter and bead worker, Gay Head
Urban Ethnic Gardens
Julia Gelowtsky, 1913-1999, Polish gardener, cook, East Cambridge
Paul Piquette, 1954-, metal engraver, Feeding Hills
Anne Zaccari, hand-bordered stationery, Pittsfield
Richard Barzottini, Pittsfield
Anthony Saltamartini, 1935-1999, North Adams
Julie Ford Brown, 1963-, herb farmer, South Dartmouth
Priscilla Davoll, 1929, cook, South Dartmouth
Raymond Davoll, clambake rake-out, South Dartmouth
Burney Gifford, herb farmer, South Dartmouth
Cathi Gonet, clambake food preparation, South Dartmouth
Peter Gonet, bake master, South Dartmouth
Marjorie Macomber, 1914-2008, cook, Acushnet
Ralph Macomber, 1914-2004, clambake rake-out, Acushnet
Wilfred Morrison, 1915-2006, general store proprietor, Dartmouth
Anahid Kazazian, cook, needle worker, Lexington
Albina Martin, 1918-, Acadian cook, Gardner
Stone Wall Building
David Gilson, Groton
Al Doucette, scrimshaw carver, New Bedford
David Francis, 1949-, fisherman, lobster cook, Wellfleet
Frank B. James, 1923-2001, scrimshaw carver, Brewster
Lynne Multer, scrimshaw carver, Brewster
Dan Oldale, boat builder, North Falmouth
Steve Smith, boat builder, South Dartmouth
Steve Sperry, sailmaker, Marion
Carl M. Widdiss, scallop fisherman, Gay Head
Charles York, boat builder, South Dartmouth
Agriculture Fair Area
Grace Andruk, cranberry cook and screener, Bridgewater
Dorothy Angley, cranberry cook and screener, Carver
Josephine Burnett, 1932-, maple sugar producer, Conway
Willis Burnett, maple sugar producer, Conway
Kyle Clark, oxen raiser, logger, Heath
William Clark, 1942-, oxen raiser, logger, Heath
Lawrence Cole, 1916-2004, cranberry grower, North Carver
Daniel Fleuriel, tobacco farmer, Buckland
Preston Horton, maple sugar producer, Cummington
Melvin Longley, 1920-1997, ox yoke maker, Shirley
Alan Sanderson, Jr., tobacco farmer, Whately
Francis Wells, maple sugar producer, Cummington
Fernando Barreto, guitarist for fado singers, New Bedford
Alice Lebre, fado singer, Fall River
Antonio Lebre, 1920-, fado singer, Fall River
Sasha Lima, fado singer, Tiverton, Rhode Island
Sergio Lima, fado singer, Tiverton, Rhode Island
Manuel Antonio Ramos, guitarist for fado singers, Fall River
Natalia Ritchie, 1954-, fado singer, Tiverton, Rhode Island
Edmond Boudreau, guitarist for Acadian fiddler, Waltham
John Campbell, 1929-, Cape Breton fiddle player, Watertown
Seamus Connolly, Irish fiddle player, Watertown
Julie Horkan, Irish step-dancer, Watertown
Helen Kisiel, pianist for Irish fiddle player, Watertown
Mary Jesse MacDonald, pianist for Cape Breton fiddler, Watertown
Gerald Robichaud, Acadian fiddle player, Waltham
Bay State IV, -- Polish polka band -- Bay State IV, Polish polka bandJanice Bajgier, 1949-, polka instructor, South DeerfieldBill Belina, EasthamptonJack Libera, 1955-, trumpet, clarinet, keyboard player, OxfordJohn Libera, 1919-2007, polka instructor, historian, SouthbridgeJim Motyka, PalmerGary Ogulewicz, Westfield
Oscar Lugo Y Su Conjunto Jibaro, -- Puerto Rican -- jibaro -- -- Oscar Lugo Y Su Conjunto Jibaro, Puerto Rican jibaroMiguel Almestica, 1953-, Caribbean musician and cook, WorcesterAngel Figueroa, jibaro musician, HolyokeRamon Lopes, jibaro musician, HolyokeElvin Lugo, jibaro musician, SouthbridgeOscar Lugo, 1942-, jibaro musician, SouthbridgeJose Luna, decima singer and cook, LowellAntonio Peres, jibaro musician, HolyokeDavid Rodrigues, jibaro musician, Holyoke
Silas Hubbard Jr. & The Hot Ribs, -- Blues and Jazz -- Silas Hubbard Jr. & The Hot Ribs, Blues and JazzSilas Hubbard Jr., harmonica player, blues singer, BostonThomas McMullen, guitar player, CambridgeCharles Robinson, drummer, CambridgeEd Williams, bass player, Quincy
The Motivators, -- Afro-American gospel -- The Motivators, Afro-American gospelDavid Bass, SpringfieldGary Bass, SpringfieldJesse Lee Burgess, SpringfieldRev. Robert Leon Winston, SpringfieldJames Edward Milner, SpringfieldJohn Winberly, SpringfieldShowndu Winberly, Springfield
The Contemporary Greek Ensemble, -- Greek -- The Contemporary Greek Ensemble, GreekJohn Bogis, guitar player, BostonGary Gianoukow, bouzouki player, ArlingtonKlotsonis Satirios, bajlama player, ArlingtonKosmas Vrouvlianis, bouzouki player, Newton
Krom Phleang Propeini Prasat Bayon, -- Cambodian -- Krom Phleang Propeini Prasat Bayon, CambodianChann Nhak, takhe player, LowellChorb Chan, tro so player, LowellHong Kla, khim player, LowellCheap Sophal, vocalist, LowellSouen Tim, vocalist and tro ou player, LowellPha Vith, skor player, LowellSorn Veuk, skor player, Lowell
Saints Day Celebration
Cosmas and Damian Society -- Cosmas and Damian SocietyStephen BertonciniCharles DeFrancecsoMarie DiDomenico, co-coordinator, Cosmas and Damian SocietySal DiDomenico, co-coordinator, Cosmas and Damian SocietySalvatore N. DiDomenicoRoland FarinatoAnthony LecceseSalvatore NardellaJoseph NardellaMike NocoloroSalvatore RealeCharles Reale
Filarmónica Santo Antonio -- Filarmónica Santo AntonioDavide Alamo, alto saxophone playerAlvaro Amaral, trombone playerOtilia Amaral, flag girlLuis Arruda, trombone playerAlexandre Bicalho, trumpet playerDinarte Botelho, clarinet playerJoao CardosoEddie Carvalho, trumpet playerJulio Carvalho, trumpet playerCristina Costa, flag girlDavide M. Costa, baritone horn playerJoao Pedro DaPonte, conductorManuel G. DaSilva, baritone horn playerManuel Da Silva, alto horn playerFernando Doo, alto horn playerElizabeth Fagundes, flag girlJose A Fagundes, trumpet playerJohn Feitor, trumpet playerJohn C. Feitor, president, general assemblyLuis GarciaFrancisco Jorge Gil, band presidentCarlos JacomeGabriel Madeiros, alto saxaphone playerAntonio C. Marques, clarinet playerMoises Moreira, clarinet playerJose Pacheco, tuba playerAntonio J. Pacheco, percussionistCarlos A Pascoal, baritone sax playerCarlos Pascoal Jr., alto horn playerJose M. Pinheiro, trombone playerJoseph Ramos, percussionistAntonio Ramos, percussionistMario Raposo, E flat clarinet playerJudith Hothan Riley, trombone playerManuel Rodrigues, tuba playerManuel S. Ramos, percussionistArmando Santos, clarinet playerPaulo Santos, baritone clarinet playerManuel SantosFrancisco M. Soares, alto saxophone playerWalter Silva, alto saxophone playerLuis SimaoAna Sousa, flag girlIvone Sousa, flag girlJoseph SousaRui Sousa, clarinet playerJoao SousaJoe SousaJose M. Tavares, trumpet playerJoao Tavares, clarinet playerPaulo J. Tavares, baritone horn playerManuel Tavares, percussionistWilliam Vasconcelos
North End Italian Band -- North End Italian BandEddie Aloisi, clarinet playerSidney Bomari, trombone playerLeo Brandenburg, clarinet playerMurray Burnstine, clarinet playerHoward Caster, percussionistElaine Corrieri Ziegner, trumpet playerTony DiCiccio, clarinet playerFelix Dicienzo, clarinet playerDavid Dunton, clarinet playerGuy Giarraffa, conductorRickie Gimmelli, percussionistJohn Gimmelli, baritone horn playerNunzio Innocenzo, trumpet playerHeidi Larisch, alto sax playerGuy Laudato, percussionistJoseph Mauro, percussionistCosmo Nardella, French horn playerSammy Pinella, percussionistSalvatore Pugliesi, trumpet playerIrving Shine, trombone playerLyle Shubert, baritone horn playerArthur Spellman, percussionistNeal Sugarman, tenor sax playerChris Teixeira, trumpet playerRobert Vanaria, tenorWilliam Voight, sousaphone player
Saint Anthony's Society -- Saint Anthony's SocietyJoseph AuferoCharles ChicarelloJoseph ColarussoFrank ContradoAnthony DeStefanoPaul DeGregorioGerry DiPrizio, president, Saint Anthony's SocietyPeter Grieco, co, chairman, Feast of Saint AnthonyPhil Pennacchio, Sr.Richard RagoRobert RagucciJames RyanCarl Salvi, co-chairman, Feast of Saint AnthonyRalph StatutoJohn TaminineGeno Testa
The Society of the Madonna del Soccorso di Sciacca -- The Society of the Madonna del Soccorso di SciaccaRichard BeilskiRaymond BonoPeter BrunoAndrew CardinaleVincent CiullaSal DeicidueJames Geany, chairman, Madonna del Soccorso FeastRay Geany, president, Madonna del Soccorso SocietyGus GraffeoJoseph GraffeoJoe GuarinoRaymond GuarinoRichard GuarinoLonnie LangoneMarc LetiziaJames LicataJames MarinoEdward MarinoAnthony PrimoAnthony PrimoJohn PrimoJames PrimoGus PrimoFrank Sclafani
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or firstname.lastname@example.org for additional information.
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1988 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
This collection contains 11 black-and-white negatives and 1 gelatin silver print taken by Gladys I. Tantaquidgeon in 1929. The images are related to Emma Mitchell Safford, a Wampanoag basketmaker from Ipswich, Massachusetts, and depict her work and home.
Negatives:arranged in individual sleeves,organized by image number.
Print: organized in folder.
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Copyright: National Museum of the American Indian.