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Paul Cadwell Banjo Collection

Source:
Musical History, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Creator:
Cadwell, Paul, 1889-1985  Search this
Reed, Frances  Search this
Names:
American Banjo Fraternity.  Search this
Bowen, Bill  Search this
Bradbury, Frank  Search this
Cadwell, Joyce  Search this
Denton, Harry  Search this
Farland, Alfred  Search this
Van Eps, Fred, 1878-1960  Search this
Former owner:
Musical History, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Extent:
12 Cubic feet (28 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sheet music
Sound recordings
Photographs
Ephemera
Correspondence
Place:
New York (N.Y.)
Date:
1883-1980
Summary:
The bulk of the collection is music for the five-string banjo, often with piano and/or second banjo accompaniments. Almost no sheets have cover illustrations. Many editions are British and rarely have copyright dates.
Scope and Contents note:
The collection documents banjoist Paul Cadwell (1889 1985). Most of the material originally belonged to him; exceptions to this include photographs of Frances Reed (Cadwell's first wife), travel ephemera of Frances Reed, banjo music of William Brewer, and banjo history writings of Brewer. British banjoist William Brewer corresponded regularly with Cadwell through the 1950s. Though they never met, a close friendship developed between the men. After Brewer's death, Brewer's son mailed his father's banjo materials to Cadwell (see correspondence from Basil Brewer). Series 8, "Reed Travel Ephemera," is largely unrelated to both Cadwell and the banjo most items date from before Reed's marriage to Cadwell. This series is unprocessed as of this writing. Most of Cadwell's audio recordings (both discs and tapes) fell outside the museum's collections scope and so were not kept. A complete inventory, however, has been attached at the end of this register.

The bulk of the collection consists of music for the five string banjo, often with piano and/or second banjo accompaniments. The Cadwell and the Brewer banjo music have been placed in separate subseries. The Cadwell music is organized alphabetically by title of composition; much of this material is fragile and a majority of the music is in manuscript rather than published scores. The Brewer subseries maintains his careful organization: alphabetical by composer or arranger separating the American from the British composers/ arrangers. Almost no sheets have cover illustrations. Many of the editions are British (which rarely give a copywrite date).

Bluegrass and folk banjo music from the second half of the 20th century, when written, was written in tablature. "Classic" five-string banjo music is written in standard notation with some adaptations. The Brooks and Denton compositions were given in both standard notation and tablature and an arrangement of "Dueling Banjos" is in tablature. All other banjo compositions are written in standard notation. Some compositions are in C notation, others were transposed to A. Earlier in the 19th century, the banjo sounded in A and the music was written in A. With the technological changes in banjo construction of the late 19th century, the pitch of the banjo went up and generally sounded in C. The British were quick to switch to C notation, but American banjoists, wedded to tradition, were slow to make the change.

Cadwell had music in both C and A notation; presumably, he could play both. Adaptations to standard notation include the following indications for which finger should pluck the string: + = thumb, = first finger, = second finger. "12 B " indicates that the marked section should be played using a barre at the 12th fret. A sixteenth note flag up high G (high E in A notation) is used when the note should be played on the short thumb string.

Most of the music is for standard five-string banjo. There is a small amount of music for four-string tenor or plectrum banjo (as well as a few selections for mandolin and guitar). Two forms of the five string banjo appear in the music collection: the banjeurine and the zither banjo. The banjeurine was popular in banjo clubs, slightly smaller, tuned higher, and usually played lead. The zither banjo is peculiar to Britain. The two highest strings are of metal and the lower strings of the "classic" standard gut, nylon, or wound silk. The banjo has a resonator, but unlike American banjos with resonators, the head sits flush with the resonator. Many of the British compositions are labeled for zither banjo and are intended to take advantage of the peculiarities of that instrument's sound.
Arrangement:
The collection has been organized into the following series:

Series 1: Correspondence, 1941-1976 Series 2: Photographs, circa 1895-1980 Series 3: Ephemera, 1922-1978 Series 4: Banjo Music, circa 1883-1975 Series 5: Magazines and Journals, 1886-1977

Series 6; Banjo History Sources, circa 1951-1975

Series 7: Audio Recordings, circa 1895-1976

Series 8: Reed Travel Ephemera, circa 1930-1970

The Cadwell music is organized alphabetically by title of composition; much is fragile and in manuscript rather than published scores. The Brewer subseries maintains his careful organization: alphabetical by composer or arranger, separating American from British composers/arrangers.
Biographical/Historical note:
Paul Cadwell was born in 1889 in Westfield, New Jersey. He lived nearly all of his life in New Jersey and New York City. He began playing banjo at the age of ten. His first teacher was Fred Van Eps, a young man who already had been making commercial recordings of banjo ragtime and popular tunes. Van Eps continued to record frequently through the 1920s.

From the 1880s to the 1910s most American Universities and all of the Ivy League schools had banjo clubs. These organizations played orchestra style with various sizes of banjos. Cadwell played with college banjo clubs at both Princeton (class of 1910) and Harvard Law School. After law school, Cadwell studied for a time in England at Trinity College, Oxford. He spent his adult life working as a lawyer and in various business dealings.

After his schooling, Cadwell continued to perform on the five string banjo. In the 1920s he organized and performed in minstrel shows for the American Legion and the Masonic Lodge. During the 1930s he played occasionally on the "Dutch Masters" radio hour as a member of the "Van Eps Trio." Cadwell began his involvement with American folk music in the 1940s playing for the American Folk Dance Society and on NBC radio for "Music of the New World." During the 1950s, Cadwell became involved in the folk music revival and he befriended revivalist and bluegrass musicians, notably Roger Sprung.

In 1949, a group of older "finger style" five string banjoists created a formal organization; the American Banjo Fraternity (ABF) still meets twice a year in Lewistown, Pennsylvania though the original banjo notables are now deceased. Paul Cadwell, Fred Van Eps, Alfred Farland, Harry Denton, Bill Bowen, and Frank Bradbury (names familiar to fans of this style of banjo playing) were all members. Cadwell was a bit younger than the others and also had never made his living playing vaudeville or making commercial recordings as had these other men. The heyday of their music surely had passed, but they banded together to keep the tradition.

Cadwell sensed in the folk revival of the 1950s a revitalization of the five string banjo. Most of the other ABF members saw these young banjo players as a threat to their music; they played with metal stringed instruments and with what seemed to them a simplistic technique. The correspondence in series 1 traces the painful conflict between Cadwell and the ABF members over the folk music revival. Cadwell continued to perform in folk revival events into the 1970s.

Cadwell married Frances Reed in 1956 (they had been a couple, though, for many years). Many of the photographs in series 2 and most of the travel ephemera of series 8 were hers. In 1965 he married Joyce. Paul Cadwell died in 1985.
Related Materials:
The Division of Culture and the Arts holds related musical instrument parts (banjo head, banjo strings, and banjo bridges).
Provenance:
Collection donated by Joyce Cadwell, 1991.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Travel photography  Search this
Musicians  Search this
Musical groups  Search this
Banjo  Search this
Banjoists  Search this
Banjo music  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sheet music
Sound recordings
Photographs -- 20th century
Ephemera
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Citation:
Paul Cadwell Banjo Collection, 1883-1980, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0387
See more items in:
Paul Cadwell Banjo Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0387

Ragtime #1 [sound recording] : the city: banjos, brass bands, and nickel pianos / compiled and annotated by Samuel Charters

Compiler:
Charters, Samuel Barclay 1929-2015  Search this
Performer:
Williams, Steve  Search this
Van Eps, Fred 1878-1960  Search this
Banta, Frank E. 1897-1969  Search this
Ossman, Vess L. 1868-1923  Search this
Moskovitz, Joseph  Search this
Lent, James I. (James Irving)  Search this
Collins, Arthur  Search this
Meyers, Vic  Search this
Morton, Jelly Roll d. 1941  Search this
Celestin, Oscar  Search this
Madison, Shots  Search this
Palmer, Roy 1892-1963  Search this
Ossman-Dudley Trio  Search this
Prince's Band  Search this
Celestin's Original Tuxedo Orchestra  Search this
State Street Ramblers  Search this
Producer:
Charters, Samuel Barclay 1929-2015  Search this
Physical description:
1 phonograph record : analog, 33 1/3 rpm ; 12 in
Culture:
Americans  Search this
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Phonograph records
Date:
1971
Topic:
Ragtime music  Search this
Jazz  Search this
Local number:
FWRBF17
Folkways RBF 17
Restrictions & Rights:
Access by appointment
See more items in:
Folkways Records Collection 1948-1986
Data Source:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_231663
Online Media:

Jazz [sound recording] : some beginnings / compiled and annotated by Samuel Charters

Producer:
Charters, Samuel Barclay 1929-2015  Search this
Charters, Samuel Barclay 1929-2015  Search this
Performer:
Williams, Bert 1874-1922  Search this
Europe, James Reese 1881-1919  Search this
Smith, Cricket  Search this
Van Eps, Fred 1878-1960  Search this
Dabney, Ford  Search this
Hunter, Eddie  Search this
Rogers, Alex  Search this
Roberts, C. Luckyeth  Search this
Fosdick, Gene  Search this
Rose, Joe  Search this
Brunies, Merritt  Search this
Matson, Charles A.  Search this
Johnson, Margaret  Search this
Martin, Sara 1884-1955  Search this
Miley, Bubber  Search this
Worde, Phil  Search this
DeDroit, Johnny  Search this
Stratakos, Ellis  Search this
Meyers, Vic  Search this
Smith, Mamie  Search this
Dunn, Johnny  Search this
Sannella, Andy  Search this
Europe's Society Orchestra  Search this
Dabney's Band  Search this
Gene Fosdick's Hoosiers  Search this
Friar's Inn Orchestra  Search this
Matson's Creole Serenaders  Search this
Black and Blue Trio  Search this
New Orleans Orchestra  Search this
Vic Meyers Orchestra  Search this
Jazz Hounds  Search this
Good Time Band  Search this
Physical description:
1 phonograph record : analog, 33 1/3 rpm ; 12 in
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Americans  Search this
Type:
Phonograph records
Place:
New York (State)
New York
Date:
1977
1910-1930
Topic:
Jazz  Search this
Novelty songs  Search this
Ragtime music  Search this
Local number:
FW0RF31
FLP 36389
Folkways RF31
Restrictions & Rights:
Access by appointment
See more items in:
Folkways Records Collection 1948-1986
Data Source:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_231459
Online Media:

Those ragtime banjos [sound recording] / compiled and annotated by David A. Jasen

Producer:
Jasen, David A  Search this
Performer:
Van Eps, Fred 1878-1960  Search this
Ossman, Vess L. 1868-1923  Search this
Morse, Theodore  Search this
Banta, Frank E. 1897-1969  Search this
Glantz, Matjam  Search this
Ross, Black Face Eddie  Search this
Mandell, Pete  Search this
Smeck, Roy 1904-1994  Search this
Kahn, Art  Search this
Fillis, Len  Search this
Bright, Sid  Search this
Reser, Harry 1896-1965  Search this
Lange, Henry  Search this
Russell, Phil  Search this
Roberts, Dick  Search this
Roundtree, Red  Search this
Savoy Orpheans  Search this
Banjo Kings  Search this
Physical description:
1 phonograph record : analog, 33 1/3 rpm ; 12 in
Type:
Phonograph records
Date:
1979
Topic:
Ragtime music  Search this
Banjo music  Search this
Ukulele  Search this
Local number:
FWRBF40
Folkways RBF 40
Restrictions & Rights:
Restrictions on access
See more items in:
Folkways Records Collection 1948-1986
Data Source:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_231466
Online Media:

Razzberries/The Darktown Strutters' Ball [sound recording]

Artist:
Van Eps Trio/Six Brown Brothers  Search this
Creator:
Van Eps, Fred 1878-1960  Search this
Physical description:
1 phonograph record : analog, 78 rpm ; 10 in
Type:
Musical sound recordings
Local number:
FW-ASCH-78-3728
Victor 18376
Restrictions & Rights:
Restrictions on access. No duplication allowed listening and viewing for research purposes only
See more items in:
Moses and Frances Asch Collection, 1939-1986 228428
Data Source:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_324208

Cocoanut Dance/ Persiflage [sound recording]

Performer:
Van Eps, Fred 1878-1960  Search this
Physical description:
1 phonograph record : analog, 78 rpm ; 10 in
Culture:
Americans  Search this
Anglo-American  Search this
Type:
Musical sound recordings
Place:
United States
Topic:
Popular music  Search this
Banjo  Search this
Local number:
Columbia 2983
Restrictions & Rights:
Restrictions on access. No duplication allowed listening and viewing for research purposes only
Data Source:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_346550

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