Skip to main content Smithsonian Institution

Search Results

Collections Search Center
35 documents - page 1 of 2

Ruth Landes papers

Correspondent:
Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978  Search this
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Wallis, Ruth Sawtell, 1895-1978  Search this
Wagley, Charles, 1913-1991  Search this
Lopez, Salvador  Search this
Little, Kenneth  Search this
Wilson, Maggie  Search this
Whitecloud, Thomas St. Germain  Search this
Henry, Jules, 1904-1969  Search this
Hellman, Ellen  Search this
Haugen, Einar  Search this
Gough, Kathleen  Search this
Lewis, Oscar  Search this
Kaberry, Phyllis Mary, 1910-  Search this
Imes, Elmer Samuel, 1883-1941  Search this
Strong, William Duncan, 1899-1962  Search this
Steyn, Anna F.  Search this
Spier, Leslie, 1893-1961  Search this
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962  Search this
Solecki, Ralph S.  Search this
Sparta, Francisco  Search this
Rubin, Joan  Search this
Rubin, Vera  Search this
Rodnick, David  Search this
Rogers, Edward S.  Search this
Ritzenthaler, Robert E. (Robert Eugene), 1911-1980  Search this
Roberts, Robert W.  Search this
Ramo, Arthur  Search this
Richards, Audrey  Search this
Preston, Richard J.  Search this
Verger, Pierre  Search this
Vennum, Thomas  Search this
Topash, Mary  Search this
Topash, Joe  Search this
Teskey, Lynn  Search this
Taylor, Beryl  Search this
Tanner, Helen Hornbeck  Search this
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Quain, Buell H. (Buell Halvor), 1912-1939  Search this
Dunning, William  Search this
Douglas, William A.  Search this
Eggan, Fred, 1906-1991  Search this
Edmondson, Munro S.  Search this
Black, Mary B.  Search this
Benedict, Ruth, 1887-1948  Search this
Domengeaux, James  Search this
Feldman, Albert G.  Search this
Feder, Norman  Search this
Gacs, Ute  Search this
Franklin, John Hope  Search this
Ewers, John C. (John Canfield), 1909-1997  Search this
Erickson, Vincent O.  Search this
Falk, Minna R.  Search this
Faitlovitch, V.  Search this
Alberto Torres, Heloisa  Search this
Buck, Pearl  Search this
Bruce, Harold E.  Search this
Borri, Rina  Search this
Boggs, Stephen Taylor  Search this
Arensberg, Conrad M. (Conrad Maynadier), 1910-1997  Search this
Baldus, Herbert  Search this
Barnouw, Victor  Search this
Bateson, Mary Catherine  Search this
Lurie, Nancy Oestreich  Search this
Malherbe, E.G.  Search this
Marks, Eli S.  Search this
Masha, Louise  Search this
Maslow, Will  Search this
Masquat, Joseph M.  Search this
Mayer, Kurt B.  Search this
McWilliams, Carey  Search this
Bunche, Ralph J.  Search this
Carneiro, Edison  Search this
Chilver, E. M.  Search this
Chilver, Richard  Search this
Clifton, James A.  Search this
Colson, Elizabeth F.  Search this
Daveron, Alexander  Search this
Lowenfeld, Margaret, 1890-1973  Search this
Officer, James E.  Search this
Odum, Howard W.  Search this
Park, Alice  Search this
Paredes, Anthony  Search this
Paton, Alan, 1903-1988  Search this
Park, George  Search this
Prado, Idabel do  Search this
Peschel, Keewaydinoquay M.  Search this
Merwe, Hendrik W. van der  Search this
Murphy, Robert Francis  Search this
Messing, Simon D.  Search this
Neumann, Anita  Search this
Nef, Evelyn Stefansson  Search this
Nocktonick, Louise  Search this
Neumann, Walter  Search this
Creator:
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Names:
Columbia University Research in Contemporary Cultures  Search this
Committee on Fair Employment Practices  Search this
Fisk University  Search this
Johnson, Charles S.  Search this
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Park, Robert E.  Search this
Extent:
26.5 Linear feet ((63 document boxes and 1 oversized box))
Culture:
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
African American  Search this
Dakota (Eastern Sioux)  Search this
African  Search this
Acadians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Jews -- American  Search this
Latinos -- California  Search this
Brazilians  Search this
Basques  Search this
American Indians  Search this
Afro-Brazilians  Search this
Africans  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Quebec -- Bilingualism
United Kingdom -- colored immigration
South Africa
Date:
1928-1992
Summary:
Most of Ruth Landes's papers relate directly or indirectly to Landes's American Indian research, her work in Brazil, and her study of bilingualism. There is also a considerable amount of material that relates to her experiences (sometimes fictionalized) at Fisk University. There is only small amount of material related to her other interests. Her collection also has material of and relating to the Brazilian folklorist and journalist Edison Carneiro. There is also noteworthy material concerning Herbert Baldus, Ruth Benedict, Elmer C. Imes, Charles S. Johnson, and Robert E. Park. There is a large amount of printed and processed materials in the collection, mainly in the form of newspaper clippings and a collection of scholarly papers.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is mainly comprised of the professional papers of Ruth Schlossberg Landes. Included are correspondence, journals, published and unpublished manuscripts of writings, research materials including field notes and reading notes, photographs, drawings, scholarly papers and publications by other scholars, and clippings from newspapers and periodicals.

Landes's field research on Candomblé in Brazil is well-represented in this collection, consisting of her field journals, writings, and photographs. Also present are Maggie Wilson's stories that were the basis for Landes's The Ojibwa Woman. Unfortunately, Landes was unable to locate her journals for her early research with the Ojibwa/Chippewa, Potawatomi, and Dakota. There are, however, field photographs of the Ojibwa/Chippewa and Potawatomi in the collection. There is also a great deal of her research on groups, especially minorities, in multilingual states with particular focus on the French of Quebec, Basques of Spain and the United States, Boers and Blacks of South Africa, the several socio-linguistic groups of Switzerland, and Acadians (Cajuns) of Louisiana. In the collection are several drafts of her unpublished manuscript on bilingualism, "Tongues that Defy the State." There is also a small amount of material about Black Jews of New York and considerable material about Landes's experience among African Americans when she taught briefly at Fisk University, including her unpublished manuscript "Now, at Athens," containing fictional and autobiographical accounts of her time at Fisk.

Reflections of other facets of Landes's professional activities are also included. Some materials concern her teaching activities, and there is also documentation of her work with the Fair Employment Practices Commission (a federal government agency during the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt) and a similar private organization which immediately succeeded the FEPA; Gunnar Myrdal's research into the plight of African Americans ("The Negro in America"); the Research in Contemporary Cultures project at Columbia University; and the American Jewish Congress.

Among Landes's correspondents are Ruth Benedict, Franz Boas, Margaret Mead, Ralph Bunche, Herbert Baldus, Edison Carneiro, Sally Chilver, Frances Densmore, Sol Tax, Elmer S. Imes, Charles S. Johnson, Robert E. Park, and Hendrik W. van der Merwe.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into 6 series: (1) Correspondence, 1931-1991; (2) Research Materials, circa 1930s-1990; (3) Writings, circa 1930s-1990; (4) Teaching Materials, 1935-1975, undated; (5) Biographical and Personal Files, 1928-1988; (6) Graphic Materials, 1933-1978, undated
Biographical Note:
Ruth Schlossberg Landes was born on October 8, 1908 in New York City. Her father was Joseph Schlossberg, an activist in the Yiddish labor socialist community and one of the founders of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. She studied sociology at New York University (B.A. 1928) and social work at the New York School of Social Work, Columbia University (M.S.W. 1929). While in graduate school, Landes studied Black Jews in Harlem for her master's thesis, a topic that developed her interests in anthropology.

After graduating in 1929, she worked as a social worker in Harlem and married Victor Landes, a medical student and son of family friends. Their marriage ended after two years when she enrolled in the doctoral program in anthropology at Columbia against her husband's wishes. She kept his surname due to the stigma of being a divorced woman.

At Columbia, Landes studied under Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict, her main advisor. Under the guidance of Benedict, Landes moved away from further study of African Americans to focus on Native American communities. Upon Benedict's suggestion, Landes studied the social organization of the Ojibwa in Manitou Rapids in Ontario from 1932 to 1936 for her Ph.D. fieldwork. Her dissertation, Ojibwa Sociology, was published in 1937. Landes also contributed "The Ojibwa of Canada" in Cooperation and Competition among Primitive Peoples (1937), a volume edited by Margaret Mead. In 1938, Landes published Ojibwa Women (1938), a book written in collaboration with Maggie Wilson, an Ojibwa interpreter and informant.

In addition to studying the Ojibwa in Ontario, Landes also conducted fieldwork with the Chippewa of Red Lake, Minnesota in 1933, working closely with shaman or midé Will Rogers. Her book, Ojibwa Religion and the Midéwiwin (1968) was based largely on her research with Rogers and Maggie Wilson. In 1935 and 1936, she undertook fieldwork with the Santee Dakota in Minnesota and the Potawatomi in Kansas. Like Ojibwa Religion and the Midéwiwin, her books on the Santee Dakota and Potawatomi were not published until several years later—The Mystic Lake Sioux: Sociology of the Mdewakantonwan Sioux was published in 1968 while The Prairie Potawatomi was published in 1970. In between her field research in the 1930s and the publication of The Prairie Potawatomi, Landes returned to Kansas to study the Potawatomi in the 1950s and 1960s.

Landes's plan to continue her studies with the Potawatomi in 1937 changed when Benedict invited her to join a team of researchers from Columbia University in Brazil. Landes was to conduct research on Afro-Brazilians in Bahia, Brazil, while Walter Lipkind, Buell Quain, and Charles Wagley studied indigenous people in the Amazons. To prepare for her research, Landes was at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee in 1937 and 1938 to consult with Robert Park and Donald Pierson and to use the university's library collections of African and African American materials. During that time, Landes also held a teaching position at Fisk and lived in the non-segregated women's residence on campus. Landes later wrote "Now, at Athens," an unpublished memoir containing fictional and true accounts of her experiences at Fisk.

From 1938 to 1939, Landes conducted fieldwork on the role of Afro-Brazilian women and homosexuals in the Candomblé religion in Bahia, Brazil. Unable to move freely by herself in Brazil as a single woman, Landes was accompanied by Edison Carneiro, a Bahian journalist and folklorist. With Carneiro as her companion, Landes was allowed access to rituals and people that would have been closed off to her otherwise. Due to her association with Carneiro, a member of the Brazilian Communist Party, Landes was suspected of being a communist and was forced to leave Bahia early. Publications from her research in Brazil include "A Cult Matriarchate and Male Homosexuality" (1940) and City of Women (1947). She returned to Brazil in 1966 to study the effects of urban development in Rio de Janeiro. In 1967, a Portuguese translation of City of Women was published, a project that Carneiro had commissioned as the first director of the Ministry of Education and Culture's Special National Agency for the Protection of Folklore.

Landes returned to New York in 1939, working briefly as a researcher for Gunnar Myrdal's study of African Americans. Unable to obtain a permanent position at a university, she worked in several other short term positions throughout most of her career. During World War II, Landes was a research director for the Office of the Coordinator for Inter-American Affairs (1941) and consultant for President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Fair Employment Practices Committee on African American and Mexican American cases (1941-44). In 1945, Landes directed a program created by Pearl S. Buck and a group of interdenominational clergy to analyze pending New York anti-discrimination legislation. She moved to California the following year to work for the Los Angeles Metropolitan Welfare Council on a study of race and youth gangs. After her contract ended, she moved back to New York and was hired as a contract researcher for the American Jewish Congress (1948-50). She also participated in Columbia University's Research in Contemporary Cultures (1949-51), studying Jewish families. She coauthored with Mark Zborowski, "Hypothesis concerning the Eastern European Jewish Family." From 1951 to 1952, Landes spent a year in London, funded by a Fulbright fellowship to study colored colonial immigrants and race relations in Great Britain.

After her fellowship ended, Landes returned to the United States and held short term appointments at several universities. She taught at the William Alanson White Psychiatric Institution in New York (1953-54), the New School for Social Research in New York (1953-55), University of Kansas (1957, 1964), University of Southern California (1957-62), Columbia University (1963), Los Angeles State College (1963), and Tulane University (1964). At Claremont Graduate School, Landes helped to develop and direct the Claremont Anthropology and Education Program (1959-62).

It was not until 1965 that Landes obtained a permanent faculty position at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario; she was recruited for the position by Richard Slobodin. Due to Ontario's age retirement law, Landes was forced to retire in 1973 at the age of 65. She continued to teach part-time until 1977, when she became professor emerita.

Landes passed away at the age of 82 on February 11, 1991.

Sources Consulted

Cole, Sally. 2003. Ruth Landes: A Life in Anthropology. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.

Chronology

1908 October 8 -- Born Ruth Schlossberg in New York City

1928 -- B.A. in sociology, New York University

1929 -- M.S.W., New York School of Social Work, Columbia University

1929-1931 -- Social worker in Harlem Married to Victor Landes

1929-1934 -- Studied Black Jews in Harlem

1931 -- Began graduate work in anthropology at Columbia University

1932-1936 -- Studied the Ojibwa in Ontario and Minnesota (in field periodically)

1933-1940 -- Research Fellow, Columbia University

1935 Summer-Fall -- Studied the Santee Sioux (Dakota) in Minnesota

1935-1936 -- Studied the Potawatomi in Kansas

1935 -- Ph.D., Columbia University

1937 -- Instructor, Brooklyn College

1937-1938 -- Instructor, Fisk University

1938-1939 -- Studied Afro-Brazilians and Candomblé in Brazil, especially at Bahia

1939 -- Researcher on Gunnar Myrdal's study, "The Negro in America"

1941 -- Research Director, Office of Inter American Affairs, Washington, D.C.

1941-1945 -- Representative for Negro and Mexican American Affairs, Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC), President Franklin D. Roosevelt Administration

1944 -- Interim Director, Committee Against Racial Discrimination, New York

1946-1947 -- Researcher, study of Mexican American youth, gangs, and families, Los Angeles Metropolitan Council

1948-1951 -- Researcher, American Jewish Congress, New York

1949-1951 -- Research consultant, study on Jewish families in New York for Research in Contemporary Cultures Project, Columbia University

1951-1952 -- Fulbright Scholar, to study colored colonial immigration into Great Britain

1953-1954 -- Lecturer, William Alanson White Psychiatric Institution, New York

1953-1955 -- Lecturer, New School for Social Research, New York

1956-1957 -- Married to Ignacio Lutero Lopez

1957 Summer -- Visiting Professor, University of Kansas

1957-1958 -- Visiting Professor, University of Southern California

1957-1965 -- Consultant, California agencies (Department of Social Work, Bureau of Mental Hygiene, Department of Education, Public Health Department) and San Francisco Police Department

1958-1959 -- Director, Geriatrics Program, Los Angeles City Health Department

1959-1962 -- Visiting Professor and Director of Anthropology and Education Program, Claremont Graduate School

1962 -- Extension Lecturer, University of California, Los Angeles and University of California, Berkeley

1963 -- Extension Lecturer, Columbia University Extension Lecturer, Los Angeles State College

1963-1965 -- Consultant, International Business Machines (IBM)

1964 January-June -- Visiting Professor, Tulane University

1964 Summer -- Field work with Potawatomi in Kansas Professor, University of Kansas

1965-1975 -- Professor at McMaster University

1966 -- Studied urban development in Rio de Janeiro

1968-1975 -- Studied bilingualism and biculturalism in Spain, Switzerland, South Africa, United States, and Canada (in Spain and the United States concentrated on Basques)

1975 -- Became part-time faculty member at McMaster University

1977 -- Professor Emerita, McMaster University

1978 -- Award of Merit from the University of Wisconsin, Green Bay

1991 February 11 -- Died in Hamilton, Ontario

1991 -- Establishment of the Ruth Landes Memorial Research Fund at Research Institute for the Study of Man (RISM)
Related Materials:
Correspondence from Ruth Landes can be found in the William Duncan Strong Papers, the Leonard Bloomfield Papers, and MS 7369. The Ruth Bunzel Papers contains a copy of a grant application by Landes.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Ruth Landes in 1991.
Restrictions:
The Ruth Landes papers are open for research. The nitrate negatives in this collection have been separated from the collection and stored offsite. Access to nitrate negatives is restricted due to preservation concerns.

Access to the Ruth Landes papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Midéwiwin  Search this
Bilingualism  Search this
Aging  Search this
Candomblé (Religion)  Search this
Citation:
Ruth Landes papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1991-04
See more items in:
Ruth Landes papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw37e032ce2-12b4-4c64-83be-ec51796c4bd6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1991-04
Online Media:

Under Mount Saint Elias: The History and Culture of the Yakutat Tlingit: Part One

Author:
Laguna, Frederica de  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
1972
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_113389

Under Mount Saint Elias: The History and Culture of the Yakutat Tlingit: Part Two

Author:
Laguna, Frederica de  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
1972
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_113414

Under Mount Saint Elias: The History and Culture of the Yakutat Tlingit: Part Three

Author:
Laguna, Frederica de  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
1972
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_113415

Oral history interview with J. Fred Woell

Interviewee:
Woell, J. Fred, 1934-  Search this
Interviewer:
Gold, Donna, 1953-  Search this
Creator:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Names:
Boy Scouts of America  Search this
Cranbrook Academy of Art -- Students  Search this
Haystack Mountain School of Crafts -- Faculty  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
University of Wisconsin--Madison -- Students  Search this
Callahan, Harry M.  Search this
Extent:
75 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
2001 June 6-2002 January 19
Scope and Contents:
An interview of J. Fred Woell conducted 2001 June 6-2002 January 19, by Donna Gold, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, in the artist's home and studio, Deer Isle, Maine.
Woell speaks of his childhood and the impact of many moves; his affiliation with the Presbyterian Church; his experiences at Park College and the University of Illinois, Champagne-Urbana, studying economics and political science; and the influence of jewelry teacher Robert Von Neumann. Woell describes his experience in the masters program at the University of Wisconsin at Madison and refers again to his early childhood noting his participation in Boy Scouts and how it engendered his respect for the environment. He also mentions collecting baseball cards and rocks; the absence of a peer group; and his lack of confidence. He discusses his affinity for open space and unpopulated places; his enjoyment of camping, kayaking with his wife Pat; and notes that his views of nature mirror those of Taoists. He cites effective teaching techniques and comments on secondary school curricula. He discusses a cover story about his work in Metalsmith and his mother's response; his early art classes and interest in drawing cartoons; his tendency to be a clown; his participation in an American-Legion-sponsored event called Boys State; artists as purveyors of culture; and the premise for a workshop titled "Art by Accident." Woell speaks of influence of a John Cage performance at University of Illinois and subsequently contacting Cage; and teaching at Boston University, Haystack, and elsewhere. Woell also provides thoughtful commentary on the teaching style and learning process at Cranbrook Academy of Art. He discusses in some detail the strong influence of Vincent Campanella and Frank Gallo on his work; sharing a workbench with Bob von Neumann; recording and saving ideas; drawing preliminary sketches for jewelry; and his early sculptures of helmets and spoons. He describes and interprets his piece, "Come Alive, You're in the Pepsi Generation," and he comments on found-object pieces that were inspired by Scouting and cartooning. Woell explains how his environmental concerns inform his work and argues that art has a healing function. He remarks on meeting and marrying Kathleen, his first wife; his one-man show at Garth Clark Gallery; and how his work is part of an American, rather than international, tradition. Woell discusses his relationship with galleries including Helen Drutt in Philadelphia, Sybaris Gallery in Royal Oak, Michigan, Connell Gallery in Atlanta, and Mobilia in Cambridge, Massachusetts He points out the value of being included in publications such as, "Metalsmith," "Jewelers Circular Keystone," "Ornament," "American Craft," "Craft Horizon," and "Craft Report." He speaks about commissions for institutions and individuals and describes his current obligation to Haystack and his plans for his retirement, which includes exploring photography and making videos. Woell also describes his typical workday and his symptoms of Attention Deficit Disorder and dyslexia. He recalls Peter Voulkos, Jennifer Burton, Francis Sumner Merritt, Ronald Pearson, Georg Jensen, Audrey Handler, Jerry Brown, Jon Wilson, and others.
On January 19, 2002 Woell added an addendum to the interview which included remarks about September 11, 2001 acts of terrorism in the U.S.
Biographical / Historical:
J. Fred Woell (1934-) is a jeweler and metalsmith from Deer Isle, Maine. Donna Gold (1953-) is an art critic from Stockton Springs, Maine.
General:
Originally recorded on 6 sound cassettes. Reformatted in 2010 as 11 digital wav files. Duration is 5 hr., 43 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Topic:
Jewelers -- Maine -- Interviews  Search this
Metal-workers -- Maine -- Interviews  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.woell01
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw939303f25-e810-46cd-b745-00b2cb922419
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-woell01
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Fritz Dreisbach

Interviewee:
Dreisbach, Fritz  Search this
Interviewer:
Frantz, Susanne K.  Search this
Creator:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Names:
Alfred University  Search this
Glass Art Society  Search this
Hiram College -- Students  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Penland School of Crafts -- Faculty  Search this
Pilchuck Glass Center (Stanwood, Wash.) -- Faculty  Search this
Toledo Museum of Art  Search this
University of Iowa -- Students  Search this
University of Wisconsin--Madison -- Students  Search this
Bailey, Clayton, 1939-2020  Search this
Bernstein, William, 1945-  Search this
Boysen, Bill  Search this
Brown, William J. (William Joseph), 1923-1992  Search this
Chihuly, Dale, 1941-  Search this
Dailey, Dan, 1947-  Search this
Eisch, Erwin, 1927-  Search this
Giberson, Dudley  Search this
Halem, Henry  Search this
Labino, Dominick  Search this
Leafgreen, Harvey  Search this
Lipofsky, Marvin, 1938-2016  Search this
Littleton, Harvey K.  Search this
McGlauchlin, Tom, 1934-2011  Search this
Myers, Joel Philip, 1934-  Search this
Noffke, Gary  Search this
Tamura, Ruth  Search this
Voulkos, Peter, 1924-2002  Search this
Extent:
121 Pages (Trancript)
21 Items (Sound recording: 21 sound files (8 hr., 41 min.), digital, wav)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Sound recordings
Place:
Ohio -- Description and Travel
Date:
2004 April 21-22
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Fritz Dreisbach conducted 2004 April 21-22, by Susanne Frantz, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, in Tucson, Arizona.
Dreisbach speaks of growing up in Ohio, in a family of educators and deciding at an early age to become a teacher; taking high school art; pursuing a BA in art and mathematics at Hiram College; getting his MAT and teaching high school math; attending the University of Iowa to study painting; the impact of taking a summer class in glassblowing; visiting Dominick Labino at his studio; researching colored glass and glass chemistry; becoming Harvey K. Littleton's teaching assistant at the University of Wisconsin, Madison; building a hot shop and teaching at the Toledo Museum of Art; teaching at Penland School of Crafts; creating the Glass Art Society with Mark Peiser after attending a NCECA conference; moving to Seattle to make glass colors for The Glass Eye; and working for Spectrum Glass Company. Dreisbach also speaks of the importance of community among glass artists; taking part in glass symposia in Frauenau, Germany; traveling around the country to teach workshops, known as his "Road Show"; making representational pop-style pieces as well as historical reference pieces; collaborating on a stained glass window with Gary Noffke; developing techniques for making goblets; working with Dante Marioni on a series of goblets; his commissioned pieces, including the Corning Pokal; engraving glass; his Mongo series; selling works through galleries; the influence of the Italian glass artists; teaching at Pilchuck Glass School; Dominick Labino's career and innovations in glass technology; being invited to give the Samuel R. Scholes lecture at the New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University; serving twice as Glass Art Society president; inaccuracies in the history of American studio glass; taking part in GAS conferences at Fenton Glass Factory; the importance of the rise of the university-trained glass artist in the 1960s; going to Pilchuck for the first time; meeting international glass artists; attending symposia at Novy Bor, Czech Republic; and his plans for the future. Dreisbach also recalls Tom McGlauchlin, Clayton Bailey, Erwin Eisch, Dale Chihuly, Bill Brown, Marvin Lipofsky, Joel Myers, Billy Bernstein, Dan Dailey, Dudley Giberson, Harvey Leafgreen, Bill Boysen, Henry Halem, Peter Voulkos, Ruth Tamura, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Fritz Dreisbach (1941- ) is a glass artist from Tucson, Arizona. Susanne Frantz is a writer and curator from Paradise Valley, Arizona.
General:
Originally recorded on 8 sound discs. Reformatted in 2010 as 21 digital wav files. Duration is 8 hr., 41 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Occupation:
Glass artists -- Arizona -- Tucson  Search this
Glass artists -- Italy  Search this
Topic:
Decorative arts  Search this
Glass art -- Technique  Search this
Painting -- Study and teaching  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.dreisb04
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9f3b3b115-08fd-40c6-b8a5-8042b0c53c44
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-dreisb04
Online Media:

Race and Rights: Brown v. Board of Education and the Problems of Segregation, Desegregation, and Resegregation in the United States

Collection Collector:
Maltsby, Portia  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Program in African American Culture  Search this
Container:
Box 26, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
2004 February 20-21
Scope and Contents:
Program held February 20, to Saturday, February 21, 2004, in the Carmichael Auditorium, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. The program commemorated the 50th anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education and was presented in conjunction with the exhibition "Separate Is Not Equal: Brown v. Board of Education." The Program in African American Culture cosponsored event with the Howard University School of Law and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Legal Defense Fund, Incorporated. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) presented Race and Rights on Friday. Program included panel discussions, performances, and a video screening.

The Program in African American Culture holds an annual national observance of African American history month in February. The 2004 conference commemorated the 50th anniversary of the Brown v. Board of Education decision of 1954. The Brown decision legally ended the practice of segregated education in the United States. The program highlighted the lawyers that worked on the case and its legacy. It was emphasized throughout the program that much work remained to be done in fulfilling the promise of Brown. Several scholars convened to present papers about the case. There was a video screening of The Road to Brown, which highlighted the life of Charles Hamilton Houston, a civil rights lawyer and key figure in the case. Howard University School of Law hosted a town hall meeting in which there was an intergenerational discussion about Brown and the problems that still exist in education today.

Participants included:

February 20 Program

H. Patrick Swygert, president, Howard University

Kurt L. Schmoke, dean, School of Law, Howard University

Theodore M. Shaw, associate director-counsel, National Association for the Advance ment of Colored People (NAACP); Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Incorporated

Lorraine Miller, president, District of Columbia Branch, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

Vincent G. Harding, professor, religion and social transformation, Iliff School of Theology, Denver, Colorado

February 21 Program: Panel Discussions

Pete Daniel, curator of southern and rural history, National Museum of American History (NMAH); professor of history, University of Maryland

Raymond Gavins, professor of history, Duke University

Linda Sheryl Greene, associate vice chancellor for faculty and staff programs, and Evjue-Bascom professor, law, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Reginald F. Hildebrand, associate professor with a joint appointment in history and Afro-American studies

Genna Rae McNeil, professor of history, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

Dianne Pinderhughes, professor of political science and Afro-American studies, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

J. Clay Smith, professor of law, Howard University

Ronald Walters, distinguished leadership scholar and director, African American Leadership Institute, University of Maryland, College Park

Linda Williams, associate professor of government and politics, University of Maryland, College Park

Frank Wu, professor of law, Howard University; and adjunct professor of law, Columbia University

February 21 Program: Town Hall Meeting

Moderator

Charles J. Ogletree Jr., Climenko professor of law and prominent legal theorist, Harvard University

Panelists

Carrie L. Billy, member of the Navajo nation, attorney from Arizona, and staff of the American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC)

Jaclyn A. Cole, president and co-founder, ROOTS

David Ari Collins, student, school of law, Howard University

Brumit B. De Laine, youngest child of the late Reverend Joseph Armstrong De Laine, who led the Briggs v. Elliot lawsuit from Clarendon County, South Carolina

Marisa J. Demeo, regional counsel of the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund's (MALDEF) DC office

Wade Henderson, executive director, Leadership Conference on Civil Rights; and counsel, Leadership Conference on Civil Rights Education Fund

Henry H. Jones, professor, school of law, Howard University School

Alana Murray, educator-activist, Montgomery County Public Schools, Maryland

John W. Stokes, educational consultant and adjunct professor, Morgan State and Baltimore City Community College

Craig A. Thompson, associate, law offices, Peter Angelos, Baltimore, Maryland

Michael R. Wenger, program consultant, Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies

Lia Wright-Tesconi, senior, School Without Walls Senior High School, George Washington University, Washington, DC

The Howard University Chapel Choir, diversified musical aggregation that provides the Andrew Rankin Memorial Chapel with the finest of sacred music on a consistent basis

Program number AC408.122.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Access and use of audiovisual materials available in the Archives Center reading room or by requesting copies of audiovisual materials at RightsReproductions@si.edu
Collection Rights:
Copyright restrictions exist. Collection items available for reproduction Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Program in African American Culture Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Program in African American Culture Collection
Program in African American Culture Collection / Series 1: Program Files
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d9c35f9c-40ae-4396-bdc7-0f84fc828d2a
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0408-ref1330

Biographical Summaries and Resumes

Collection Creator:
Donaldson, Jeff, 1932-2004  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1990s-circa 2001
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information. Use of archival audiovisual recordings and born-digital records with no duplicate access copies requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Jeff Donaldson papers, 1918-2005, bulk 1960s-2005. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Jeff Donaldson papers
Jeff Donaldson papers / Series 1: Biographical Material
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9c690233e-0988-4d6c-8143-c8701b6e3aee
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-donajeff-ref956
6 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Biographical Summaries and Resumes digital asset number 1
  • View Biographical Summaries and Resumes digital asset number 2
  • View Biographical Summaries and Resumes digital asset number 3
  • View Biographical Summaries and Resumes digital asset number 4
  • View Biographical Summaries and Resumes digital asset number 5
  • View Biographical Summaries and Resumes digital asset number 6

Oral history interview with Tom McGlauchlin

Interviewee:
McGlauchlin, Tom, 1934-2011  Search this
Interviewer:
Byrd, Joan Falconer  Search this
Creator:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Names:
Cornell College (Mount Vernon, Iowa) -- Faculty  Search this
Glass Art Society  Search this
Habatat Galleries  Search this
Heller Gallery  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
National Council on Education for the Ceramic Arts (U.S.)  Search this
Pismo Gallery  Search this
Toledo Art Museum  Search this
University of Toledo  Search this
University of Wisconsin--Madison -- Students  Search this
Vespermann Gallery  Search this
William H. Holston Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Bailey, Clayton, 1939-2020  Search this
Day, Russell  Search this
Dreisbach, Fritz  Search this
Labino, Dominick  Search this
Leafgreen, Harvey  Search this
Littleton, Harvey K.  Search this
Schulman, Norman, 1924-  Search this
Takaezu, Toshiko  Search this
Wittmann, Otto, 1911-2001  Search this
Extent:
39 Pages (Transcript)
2 Items (Sound recording: 2 sound files (1 hr., 58 min.), digital; wav)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Sound recordings
Date:
2006 October 13
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Tom McGlauchlin conducted 2006 October 13, by Joan Falconer Byrd, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, at the Archives of American Art, Washington, D.C.
McGlauchlin speaks of his childhood in Wisconsin; receiving a B.S. and M.S. in Art from the University of Wisconsin, Madison; studying pottery with Harvey Littleton and Toshiko Takaezu; attending the first workshop for glassblowing at the Toledo Museum of Art in Toledo, Ohio in 1962; building his glass studio; teaching experiences at Cornell College; experiences as the Director of the Glass Program at the University of Toledo/Toledo Museum of Art; the rivalry between Harvey Littleton and Dominick Labino; his relationship with galleries throughout the years including Heller Gallery, Habatat Galleries, Holsten Galleries, Vespermann Gallery, Pismo Gallery, and others; his participation in Glass Art Society and National Council on Education for the Ceramic Arts; his interest in textured surfaces; being influenced by Washington Color Field painters; the strong influence jazz has on his artwork; his involvement with the Art Tatum Jazz Heritage Festival in Toledo, Ohio; his plans to stop blowing glass in the near future; and his interest in working in pottery once again. McGlauchlin also recalls Clayton Bailey, Norm Schulman, Harvey Leafgreen, Otto Wittmann, Fritz Dreisbach, Russell Day, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Tom McGlauchlin (1934-2011) is an glass artist and potter from Toledo, Ohio. Joan Falconer Byrd (1939- ) is a ceramics professor from Cullowhee, North Carolina.
General:
Originally recorded on 2 sound discs. Reformatted in 2010 as 2 digital wav files. Duration is 1 hr., 58 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Occupation:
Glass artists -- Ohio  Search this
Topic:
Color-field painting  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Glass blowing and working  Search this
Jazz  Search this
Pottery -- Study and teaching  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.mcglau06
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw99404f59e-e959-4644-bffe-2b078ae0bc72
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-mcglau06
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Mary Merkel-Hess

Interviewee:
Merkel-Hess, Mary  Search this
Interviewer:
Riedel, Mija, 1958-  Search this
Creator:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Names:
Browngrotta Arts (Gallery)  Search this
Marquette University -- Faculty  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
SOFA West Santa Fe  Search this
Santa Fe Armory Show (1977 : Santa Fe, N.M.)  Search this
University of Wisconsin--Madison -- Students  Search this
Barrett, Tim, (Papermaker)  Search this
Choo, Chunghi  Search this
Eikerman, Alma  Search this
Grotta, Thomas  Search this
Larsen, Jack Lenor  Search this
Seppä, Heikki  Search this
Extent:
5 Items (Sound recording: 5 sound files (4 hr., 11 min.), digital, wav)
86 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Place:
Europe -- description and travel
Japan -- Description and Travel
Date:
2010 August 24-25
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Mary Merkel-Hess conducted 2010 August 24 and 25, by Mija Riedel, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, at Merkel-Hess' home, in Iowa City, Iowa.
Mary Merkel-Hess speaks of growing up in the rural Midwest; deciding pursue an artistic career; studying philosophy at Marquette University and earning an MFA the University of Wisconsin-Madison; becoming part of the art community in Iowa City; beginning her artistic career in metalsmithing and later transitioning into fiber mediums; using basketry and papermaking methods along with a variety of materials to devise original techniques; the role of light, balance, juxtaposition in her fiber sculptures; working from both natural and human impacted landscapes; traveling extensively through Europe and Japan; attending the Armory Show and SOFA Santa Fe; interacting with galleries such as Browngrotta Art Gallery and Olson-Larsen Galleries; completing public and residential commissions; supporting herself through the sale of her work. Mary Merkel-Hess also recalls Chungi Choo, Heikki Seppä, Tim Barrett, Alma Eikerman, Shereen LaPlantz, Jack Lenor Larsen, Tom Grotta, Marlene Olson, Wendy Haas, Katie Gingrass and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Mary Merkel-Hess (1949-) is fiber artist in Iowa City, Iowa. Mija Riedel (1958-) is an independent scholar and writer in San Francisco, California.
General:
Originally recorded on 3 memory cards. Reformatted in 2010 as 5 digital wav files. Duration is 4 hr.,11 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Restrictions:
Transcript available on the Archives of American Art website.
Occupation:
Fiber artists -- Iowa City -- Iowa  Search this
Sculptors -- Iowa City -- Iowa  Search this
Topic:
Basket making  Search this
Metalsmithing  Search this
Papermaking  Search this
Philosophy  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women sculptors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.merkel10
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9c1f1defe-8cd9-4137-a8dd-0c36227cdb0e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-merkel10
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Joyce Marquess Carey

Interviewee:
Carey, Joyce Marquess  Search this
Interviewer:
Adamson, Glenn  Search this
Creator:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Names:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
University of Wisconsin--Madison -- Faculty  Search this
University of Wisconsin--Madison -- Students  Search this
Extent:
76 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
2002 June 16
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Joyce Marquess Carey conducted 2002 June 16, by Glenn Adamson, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, at Carey's home, in Madison, Wisconsin.
Carey speaks of growing up in Redding, California; her widowed mother working to support Carey and herself; her "lonesome" childhood and her eagerness to leave Redding to attend the University of California at Berkeley; majoring in English; meeting her husband Harlan (Mark) Marquess in her senior year at Berkeley and marrying him; dropping out of college; regretting her marriage; her life as a housewife and mother in the late 1950s and 1960s; moving to Madison, Wisconsin, for her husband's job as a Russian teacher; taking weaving classes with Larry Edman at the University of Wisconsin-Madison; and meeting fiber artist Claire Zeisler on a field trip to Chicago. Carey discusses experimentation in her work and "stretching the limits of the technique" in Edman's class; receiving her undergraduate degree in textile arts in 1971; working with a computer-driven Dobby Loom; studying with Ruth Gao and Jim Peters at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee for her MFA in the early 1970s; teaching weaving at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, with a focus on technical and design skills; writing articles on the technical aspects of fiber art for "Fiber Arts," "Weaver's Journal," "Shuttle, Spindle, & Dye Pot," and other periodicals; exhibiting with the Wisconsin Designer Craftsmen in the 1970s; participating in the Quilt National Show in 1979; receiving a five-year development grant from the University of Wisconsin and quitting her teaching job; using "systematic" weaving methods in quilting; her involvement with galleries such as the Connell/Great American Gallery in Atlanta, Georgia; working with art consultants; the difference between private and corporate commissions; her use of bright colors and various fabrics; her use of tools and technology including an industrial sewing machine and computer programs such as Photoshop; her second marriage to Phil Carey in 1980 after her divorce to Marquess in the mid-1970s; and the "ephemeral" qualities in art. She considers herself a "collager," assembling fabrics and "embellishments." She also discusses her involvement with the Studio Art Quilt Associates and in the Art Quilt Network; and her piece, "Blue Ribbon," in the collection of the American Craft Museum. Carey recalls Camille Cook, Lia Cook, Martha Connell, Hillary Fletcher, Ted Hallman, Pat Mansfield, Ursula Ilse-Neuman, Yvonne Porcella, [Laurence] Rathsack, Victor Vasarely, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Joyce Marquess Carey (1936- ) is a quilt maker from Madison, Wisconsin. Glenn Adamson is an art historian.
General:
Originally recorded on 2 sound discs. Reformatted in 2010 as 4 digital wav files. Duration is 2 hr., 51 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Restrictions:
Transcript available on the Archives of American Art website.
Occupation:
Quiltmakers -- Wisconsin  Search this
Educators -- Wisconsin  Search this
Topic:
Decorative arts  Search this
Fiberwork  Search this
Textile crafts  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women educators  Search this
Women textile artists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.carey02
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9f3213bc2-a50f-4b55-a7f5-0c9301ff06f5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-carey02
Online Media:

Memorial by the Faculty of the University of Wisconsin, Madison

Collection Creator:
Wilde, John, 1919-2006  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
2006
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. Research Center. One box of letters from Walter Hamady is ACCESS RESTRICTED; use requires written permission. The Walter Hamady letters microfilmed on 2539a, 4710a, and 5661 are also ACCESS RESTRICTED.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
John Wilde Papers, 1935-2011. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
John Wilde papers
John Wilde papers / Series 1: Biographical Materials
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw939251f2e-2c42-4986-beb9-315b9945829c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-wildjohn-ref29

Clippings

Collection Creator:
Davidovich, Jaime, 1936-2016  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 27
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1970-1986
Scope and Contents:
Includes articles about Davidovich, SoHo, garbage art, and art events.
Collection Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Jaime Davidovich papers, 1949-2014. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Jaime Davidovich papers
Jaime Davidovich papers / Series 7: Printed Materials
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9bf5c2d6b-fa28-489c-ad01-900bac4d13c7
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-davijaim-ref62
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Clippings digital asset number 1

Ruth Law Scrapbook

Collection Creator:
Law, Ruth  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1916-1918
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Ruth Law Collection, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0387, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Ruth Law Collection
Ruth Law Collection / Series 1: Ruth Law Scrapbook
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg23c516b67-e52c-4a50-88d4-a1b5e84eba83
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0387-ref517
2 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Ruth Law Scrapbook digital asset number 1
  • View Ruth Law Scrapbook digital asset number 2

Guide to the Beatrice Medicine papers

Creator:
Medicine, Beatrice  Search this
Extent:
28 Linear feet (65 document boxes, 1 box of oversize materials, 1 box of ephemera, 1 shoebox of index cards, 1 map drawer)
Culture:
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Native American  Search this
American Indian -- Education  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Place:
Standing Rock Sioux Tribe of North & South Dakota
Date:
1914, 1932-1949, 1952-2003 (bulk dates, 1945-2003).
Summary:
The Beatrice Medicine papers, 1913-2003 (bulk 1945-2003), document the professional life of Dr. Beatrice "Bea" Medicine (1923-2005), a member of the Standing Rock Sioux tribe, anthropologist, scholar, educator, and Native rights activist. The collection also contains material collected by or given to Medicine to further her research and activism interests. Medicine, whose Lakota name was Hinsha Waste Agli Win, or "Returns Victorious with a Red Horse Woman," focused her research on a variety of topics affecting the Native American community: 1) mental health, 2) women's issues, 3) bilingual education, 4) alcohol and drug use, 5) ethno-methodologies and research needs of Native Americans, and 6) Children and identity issues. The collection represents Medicine's work as an educator for universities and colleges in the United States and in Canada, for which she taught Native American Studies courses. Additionally, because of the large amount of research material and Medicine's correspondence with elected U.S. officials and Native American leaders, and records from Medicine's involvement in Native American organizations, the collection serves to represent issues affecting Native Americans during the second half of the 20th century, and reflects what Native American leaders and organizations did to navigate and mitigate those issues. Collection materials include correspondence; committee, conference, and teaching material; ephemera; manuscripts and poetry; maps; notes; periodicals; photographs; training material; and transcripts.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Beatrice Medicine reflect Medicine's interests as an academic and an activist, and contain correspondence, committee, conference, and teaching material, ephemera, manuscripts and poetry, maps, notes, periodicals, photographs, and training material (see series scope notes for further details on contents). The majority of the material is printed matter that Medicine collected, with less of her own work included. Taken together, the collection reflects issues affecting Native Americans during the second half of the 20th century, as well as the network of Native American leaders and organizations that navigated these issues. Student papers, letters of recommendation, evaluations, and documents containing personally identifiable information are restricted.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into 24 series:

Series 1: Native American Culture and History, 1954-1962, 1967-1975, 1978-1989, 1991-1997, 1999-2002

Series 2: Appropriations, Economics, and Labor, 1955, circa 1970-1980, 1988, 1993, circa 1995-2000

Series 3: Archaeology, 1935-1950, 1952-1973, 1987-1995

Series 4: Native American Artists, Authors, Crafts, Film, and Poets, 1951-1969, 1972-2002

Series 5: Census, Demographic, and Poll Data, 1974, 1984-1986

Series 6: Civil Rights, 1972, 1980, 1983-1997

Series 7: Committee Material: Correspondence, Meeting Minutes, and Memos, 1985-1995

Series 8: Conference Material, 1955-1962, 1965, 1968-1974, 1976-2002

Series 9: Correspondence, 1952, 1959, 1962, 1966-2000

Series 10: Education: Native American Institutions and Teaching Material, 1948-2002

Series 11: Ephemera: Campaign, Pow-Wow, and Other Event Buttons, and Calendars, 1973, 1976, circa 1980-2000

Series 12: Health: Alcohol and Drug Addiction and Recovery, Disabilities, Healthcare, Mental Health, Nutrition, and Wellness, 1955, 1965, 1969-1999, 2004

Series 13: Historic Preservation, 1942, 1956, 1960-1969, 1979, circa 1985-1998

Series 14: Invitations, 1966-1979, 1982, 1991-2002

Series 15: Linguistics: Native American Languages, 1961, 1963, 1975, 1978-1981, 1987-1995

Series 16: Manuscripts, 1964-2003

Series 17: Maps, 1982-1991

Series 18: Museum Material: Native American Museums, Exhibit Preparation, and the National Museum of the American Indian, 1949, 1962, circa 1976-1998

Series 19: Oversized Material, 1962, circa 1965-1996, 1999

Series 20: Published material: Journals, Magazines, Monographs, and Newsletters, 1914, 1932, 1944, 1946-1947, 1952-2003

Series 21: Reports, 1947-1949, 1956-1998

Series 22: Training Material, 1968, 1988-2000

Series 23: Women and Gender, 1962, 1965, circa 1970-1997

Series 24: Restricted Material, 1972, 1978, 1987-1999
Biographical / Historical:
A member of the Standing Rock Sioux tribe, Beatrice "Bea" Medicine—also known by her Lakota name Hinsha Waste Agli Win, or "Returns Victorious with a Red Horse Woman"—was born on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation in Wakpala, South Dakota on August 1, 1923.

As a young adult, she studied at the South Dakota State University on the Laverne Noyes Scholarship, where she attained her B.A. in Anthropology in 1945. Between 1945 and 1951, Medicine worked a variety of teaching positions, including for three American Indian institutions (see Chronology for Medicine's complete work history). In 1951, Medicine went back to school and worked as a research assistant until she earned her master's degree in Sociology and Anthropology from Michigan State University in 1954. For the remainder of her life, Medicine served as faculty, visiting professor, and scholar-in-residence at thirty-one universities and colleges in the United States and Canada, teaching cultural and educational anthropology courses, as well as Native American Studies. As an educator, Medicine carried out her research on a variety of issues affecting Native American and First Nation communities, including: 1) mental health issues, 2) women's issues—professionalization, sterilization, socialization, and aging, 3) bilingual education, 4) alcohol and drug use and abuse, 5) ethno-methodologies and research needs, and 6) socialization of children and identity needs. Medicine's research in American Indian women's and children's issues, as well as her research in gender identity among the LGBT community was among the first to document the narratives of the members of these groups.

In 1974, Medicine testified alongside her cousin, Vine Deloria, Jr., as an expert witness in the Wounded Knee trial (United States v. Banks and Means). Following this, Medicine returned to school to pursue her Ph.D. in Cultural Anthropology, which she completed in 1983 at the University of Wisconsin. With her experience as a researcher, educator, activist, and Lakota woman, medicine sought to create more opportunities for multicultural and bilingual education for minority students, especially those of Native American descent. Such education, she believed, provided students a means to preserve and legitimize their own cultural identity, debase negative stereotyes, and be recognized as individuals who are capable of academic and economic achievement.

Medicine was an active member of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) and pursued her educational agenda further through the establishment of the Committee of Anthropologists in Primarily Minority Institutions (CAPMI) (1987-1995), which brought anthropologists out of retirement to teach at minority institutions. (See Chronology for a complete list of organizations and committees in which Medicine was involved.) The program was short-lived but provided a space for minority students to confront a field that historically misrepresented them, reclaim their narratives and languages, and instigate positive change as potential future anthropologists.

Medicine officially retired on August 1, 1989, but continued to be active in AAA and was honored many times for her contributions to the field of anthropology. Some of her recognitions include the Distinguished Service Award from AAA (1991) and the Bronislaw Malinowski Award from the Society for Applied Anthropology (1996). One of Medicine's highest honors, however, was serving as the Sacred Pipe Woman at the 1977 Sun Dance. Medicine continued her research into retirement, and went on to publish her first book in 2001, Learning to Be an Anthropologist and Remaining "Native": Selected Writings. Medicine died in Bismarck, North Dakota on December 19, 2005. Medicine's final work, Drinking and Sobriety Among the Lakota Sioux was published posthumously in 2006. In honor of her life's work and dedication to education, the Society for Applied Anthropology (SfAA) created the Bea Medicine Award, a scholarship travel grant for students to attend the Annual Meeting of the SfAA.

Chronology: Beatrice Medicine

1923 August 1 -- Beatrice Medicine (also known by her Lakota name, Hinsha Waste Agli Win, or "Returns Victorious with a Red Horse Woman") is born on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation in Wakpala, South Dakota.

1941-1945 -- Receives scholarship: Laverne Noyes Scholarship, South Dakota State University

1945 -- Receives Bachelor of Arts, Anthropology, South Dakota State University.

1945-1946 -- Teacher, Home Economics, Haskell Indian Institute (B.I.A.)

1947-1948 -- Health Education Lecturer, Michigan Tuberculosis Association

1948-1949 -- Teacher, Santo Domingo Pueblo, United Pueblos Agency, Albuquerque, New Mexico

1949-1950 -- Teacher, Navajo Adult Beginner's Program, Albuquerque Indian School

1950-1951 -- Teacher, Home Economics, Flandreau Indian School

1950-1954 -- Fellowship: Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs Fellowships

1951-1954 -- Research Assistant, Sociology and Anthropology, Michigan State University

1953-1954 -- Fellowship: John Hay Whitney Foundation Fellowship

1954 -- Receives Master of Arts, Sociology and Anthropology, Michigan State University. Fellowship: American Council of Learned Societies Fellowship

1954- -- Charter Member, American Indian Women's Service League

1955-1958 -- Teaching and Research Assistant, University of Washington

1956 -- Honor: Outstanding Alumna, South Dakota State University

1960 -- Mentioned as "Who's Who Among American Indians"

circa 1960 -- Alpha Kappa Delta, Sociology Hononary Phi Upsilon Omicron, Home Economic Honorary

1960-1963 -- Lecturer, Anthropology, University of British Columbia

1960-1964 -- Board of Directors, Native Urban Indian Centers in Vancouver, British Columbia and Calgary, Alberta

1963-1964 -- Lecturer/Sociology and Teacher/Counselor, Mount Royal College, Indian Affairs Branch Receives grant: American Council of Learned Societies Research Grant

1965 -- Lecturer, Social Science, Michigan State University

1966 -- Psychiatric Social Worker, Provincial Guidance Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

1966-1967 -- Receives grant: Career Development Grant, National Institute of Mental Health

1966- -- Member, National Congress of American Indians (Education Issues)

1967 -- Receives grant: Ethnological Research Grant, National Museum of Canada

1967-1968 -- Lecturer, Sociology and Anthropology, University of Montana

1968 -- Teacher, "Cultural Enrichment Program," Standing Rock Indian Reservation, South Dakota Cited in "The Role of Racial Minorities in the United States," Seattle, Washington

1968 March -- Speaker: "The Pow-Wow as a Social Factor in the Northern Plains Ceremonialism," Montana Academy of Sciences

1968 May -- Speaker: "Patterns and Periphery of Plains Indian Pow-Wows," Central States Anthropological Society

1968 June -- Speaker: "Magic Among the Stoney Indians," Canadian Sociology and Anthropological Association, Calgary, Alberta

1968 August -- Speaker: "Magic Among the Stoney Indians," International Congress of Americanists, Stuttgart, German Speaker: "The Dynamics of a Dakota Indian Giveaway," International Congress of Americanists, Stuttgart, German

1968-1969 -- Director, American Indian Research, Oral History Project and Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of South Dakota

1968-1970 -- Consultant, Text Book Evaluation Committee, American Indians United

1969 -- Assistant Professor, Teacher Corps, University of Nebraska

1969 September -- Speaker: "The Red Man Yesterday," Governor's Interstate Indian Council, Wichita, Kansas

1969 December -- Speaker: "The Native American in Modern Society," Northwestern State College

1969-1970 -- Assistant Professor, San Francisco State University Speaker: "The Indian in Institutions of Higher Learning," Annual Conference, National Indian Education Association

1969-1975 -- Member, Editorial Board, American Indian Historical Society

1970 -- Mentioned for second time as "Who's Who Among American Indians" Steering Committee Member, Indian Ecumenical Convocation of North America Member, Planning Committee Indian Alcoholism and Drug Use

1970 August -- Speaker: "The Role of the White Indian Expert," 2nd Annual Conference, National Indian Education Association

1970 October -- Speaker: "The Ethnographic Study of Indian Women," Annual Convention, American Ethnohistorical Soceity

1970 November -- Speaker: "The Anthropologists as the Indian's Image Maker," Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association Speaker: "The Anthropologist and Ethnic Studies Programs," Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association

1970-1971 -- Associate Professor, Anthropology, San Francisco State University Member, Mayor's Committee on the Status of Women, San Francisco, California

1971 -- Member, Native American Scholars Board, Steering and Selection, American Indian Historical Society

1971 May -- Speaker: "Ethnic Studies and Native Americans," National Education Association

1971-1973 -- Pre-Doctoral Lecturer, Anthropology, University of Washington Consultant, American Indian Heritage Program

1972 -- Honored in "Potlatch" ceremony by Makah Tribal people at the National Indian Education Conference for contributions to Indian education Receives grant: American Council of Learned Societies Travel Grant, Americanist Annual Meeting, Rome, Italy Curriculum Advisor, Lakota Higher Education Center, Prine Ridge, South Dakota

1972 March -- Speaker: "Warrior Women Societies," Northwest Anthropological Conference

1972 April -- Chairperson and Speaker: "Racism and Ethnic Relations," Society for Applied Anthropology

1972 June -- Chairperson, Native American Studies Symposium, International Congress of Americanists, Mexico

1972 August -- Speaker: "Warrior Women of the Plains," International Congress of Americanists, Rome, Italy

1972 November -- Speaker: "Native Americans in the Modern World," Southwest Minnesota State College

1973 -- Expert Witness, Yvonne Wanro Trial, Spokane, Washington Member, Organization of American States, First Congress of Indigenous Women, Chiapas, Mexico Speaker: "Self-Direction in Sioux Education," American Anthropological Association Speaker: "North American Native Women: The Aspirations and Their Associations," presented as a Delegate to the Inter-American Commission on Indigenous Women, Chiapas, Mexico

1973-1974 -- Visiting Professor, Anthropology, Native American Studies Program, Dartmouth College

1973-1976 -- Member, Committee on Minorities in Anthropology, American Anthropological Association

1973- -- Consultant, Human Services Department, Sinte Gleska Community College

1974 -- Expert Witness, Wounded Knee Trial, Lincoln, Nebraska Speaker: "Indian Women's Roles: Traditional and Contemporary," Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association

1974-1975 -- Visiting Professor, Anthropology, Colorado College

1975-1976 -- Visiting Associate Professor, Anthropology, Stanford University

1975-1977 -- Member, Steering Committee, Council of Anthropology and Education, American Anthropological Association

1976 -- Visiting Professor, Educational Anthropology, University of New Brunswick Expert Witness, Topsky Eagle Feathers Trial, Pocatello, Idaho Panelist, White House Conference on Ethnic Studies, Washington, D.C.

1977 -- Expert Witness, Greybull Grandchildren Custody Case, Portland, Oregon American Indian representative to the World Conference on Indigenous People, Geneva, Switzerland Honor: Outstanding Alumna, South Dakota State University

1977 August 18 -- Medicine serves as Sacred Pipe Woman at the Sun Dance, Green Grass, South Dakota

1977-1980 -- Education Consultant, National Congress of American Indians, Washington, D.C.

1978 -- Cited in the Directory of Significant 20th Century American Minority Women, Gaylord Professional Publications Biographical Sketch in "Moving Forward" of the Bookmark Reading Program, Third Edition

1978 August -- Speaker: "Issues in the Professionalization of Native American Women," Annual Meeting, American Psychological Association

1978-1982 -- Advanced Opportunity Fellow, Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Madison

1979 -- Visiting Professor, Department of Education Policy Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison

1979 August -- Honorary Doctorate of Human Letters, Northern Michigan University Speaker: "The Dakota Indian Memorial Feast: Reservation and Urban Manifestations," International Congress of Americanists, Lima, Peru

1980 -- Member, Nominations Committee, American Anthropological Association Biographical Sketch in "Native American Indian Personalities, Historical and Contemporary," Dansville, New York: The Instructor Publications, Inc.

1981 -- Visiting Professor, Graduate School of Public Affairs, University of Washington-Seattle Speaker: "Linguistically Marginated: The Transformation of Dominated Speech Varieties," American Anthropological Association

1982 -- School of Social and Behavioral Science Academic Planning, California State University Speaker: "Policy Decisions: Federal Regulations and American Indian Identity Issues," Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association

1982-1983 -- Anthropology Department Curriculum Committee, California State University

1982-1985 -- Associate Professor of Anthropology, Coordinator, Interdisciplinary Program in American Indian Studies, California State University Coordinator, Interdisciplinary Program in American Studies Program, California State University

1982- -- President, Assembly of California Indian Women

1983 -- Receives Ph.D., Cultural Anthropology, University of Wisconsin Expert Witness, Fortunate Eagle Trial, Reno, Nevada Award: Outstanding Woman of Color, National Institute of Women of Color, Washingtonton, D.C. (for anthropological contributions) Award: Outstanding Minority Researcher, American Educational Research Association Publishes book with Patricia Albers: The Hidden Half: Indian Women of the Northern Plains Honor: Significant Academic Book (The Hidden Half), Choice, Association of Colleges and Research Libraries, American Library Association

1983-1984 -- Student Affirmative Action Coordinating Council, California State University

1983-1986 -- Member, Executive Board, Southwest Anthropological Association Member, Governing Board, Common Cause

1984 -- Member, Advisory Board of National Research for Handicapped Native Americans, North Arizona University Scholarly Publications Award Selection Committee, California State University Award: Faculty Award for Meritorious Service, California State University Speaker: Field Work Methods: "Ties That Bond," Committee on the Status of Women in Anthropology," Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association Speaker: "Career Patterns of American Indian Women," Council of Education and Anthropology, Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association

1984 November -- Faculty Award for Meritorious Service, California State University

1984-1985 -- Participant, Chancellor's Office Grant to "Cross-Cultural Perspectives in the Social Sciences," California State University

1985 November -- Speaker: Conference on "The Native American: His Arts, His Culture, and His History," West Virginia State College

1985-1986 -- Board of Directors, Naechi Institute on Alcohol and Drug Education

1985-1988 -- Professor, Department of Anthropology and Director, Native Centre, University of Calgary

1985-1989 -- Member, Malinowski Awards Committee, Society for Applied Anthropology

1987 -- Honor: Outstanding Minority Professorship Martin Luther King and Rosa Parks Visiting Professor, University of Michigan

1987-1995 -- Member, Committee of Anthropologists in Primarily Minority Institutions, American Anthropological Association

1988 August 1 -- Medicine officially retires.

1989 -- Volunteer (Committee of Anthropologists in Primarily Minority Institutions, American Anthropological Association), Standing Rock College Honor (twice): Outstanding Minority Professorship Martin Luther King and Rosa Parks Visiting Professor, Wayne State University.

1990 -- Honor: "Outstanding Contributions for the promotion of sex equity in Education," Illinois State Board of Education Honor: Outstanding Lakota Woman, Standing Rock College

1991 -- Honor: Distinguished Service Award, American Anthropological Association. Medicine was the first American Indian to receive this award.

1991 -- Visiting Professor, Saskatchewan Indian Federal College Visiting Professor, Colorado College Visiting Professor, Anthropology, Humboldt State University

1992 -- Visiting Distinguished Professor, Women's Studies, University of Toronto

1993 -- Visiting Professor, Rural Sociology, South Dakota State University Award: Distinguished Native American Alumna Award, South Dakota State University

1993-1994 December -- Research Co-ordinator, Women's Perspectives, Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples

1994- -- Adjunct Professor, University of Alberta

1995 -- Scholar in Residence, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul Visiting Scholar, Museum of Anthropology, University of British Columbia Award: Ohana Award, Multi-Cultural Counseling Excellence, American Association of Counselors

1996 -- Award: Bronislaw Malinowski Award, Society for Applied Anthropology. Buckman Professor, Department of Human Ecology, University of Minnesota

circa 1997- -- Associate Professor of Anthropology Emeritus, Department of Anthropology, California State University

2001 -- Publishes book: Learning to Be an Anthropologist and Remaining "Native": Selected Writings.

2005 -- Award: George and Louise Spindler Award, Council on Anthropology and Education, American Anthropological Association.

2005 December 19 -- Medicine dies during emergency surgery in Bismarck, North Dakota.

2006 -- Book: Drinking and Sobriety Among the Lakota Sioux is published posthumously.

2008 -- The Society for Applied Anthropology creates the Bea Medicine Award.
Provenance:
The papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Beatrice Medicine between 1997 and 2003, and by Ted Garner in 2006.
Restrictions:
Materials relating to student grades, letters of recommendation, and evaluations have been restricted.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Alcohol  Search this
Gender imagery  Search this
Discrimination  Search this
Linguistics -- Research -- United States  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Lakota Indians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Citation:
Beatrice Medicine papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.1997-05
See more items in:
Guide to the Beatrice Medicine papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3cae267e3-888b-46b8-a525-c7c0ad396b59
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1997-05

Psychological Test with Answer Booklet and Directions, The Nelson-Denny Reading Test for Colleges and Senior High Schools Vocabulary and Paragraph. Form B.

Publisher:
Houghton Mifflin Company  Search this
Maker:
Denny, Emerson Charles  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: .1 cm x 20.8 cm x 28 cm; 1/32 in x 8 3/16 in x 11 1/32 in
Object Name:
Psychological Test with Answer Booklet and Directions
Date made:
1930
Subject:
Mathematics  Search this
Psychological Tests  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Samuel Kavruck
ID Number:
1990.0034.120
Accession number:
1990.0034
Catalog number:
1990.0034.120
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Mathematics
Science & Mathematics
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a5-0bbe-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_692409
Online Media:

Scientists Project Precisely How Cold the Last Ice Age Was

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Conversations and talks
Blog posts
Published Date:
Fri, 28 Aug 2020 20:06:42 +0000
Topic:
Custom RSS  Search this
See more posts:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_14b915d0b54b594f5fd6806792ca370b

Frey, David G. (David Grover), 1915-1992

Alternate Name:
Frey, D. G.  Search this
Forename:
David  Search this
Middle Initial:
Grover  Search this
Surname:
Frey  Search this
Occupation:
Limnologists
Zoologists
Record type:
Personal name
See more records associated with this person:
Frey, David G. (David Grover), 1915-1992
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:auth_per_fbr_EACP886

Earth's Magnetic Field Could Take Longer to Flip Than Previously Thought

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Wed, 07 Aug 2019 18:00:00 +0000
Topic:
Custom RSS  Search this
See more posts:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_ba56b99a1a3216346fa38d30b0de91c3

Cats Get Breast Cancer Too, and There's a Lot We Can Learn From It

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Wed, 25 Mar 2015 13:29:24 +0000
Topic:
Search this
See more post:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_13c155f5727c7c2e1d24f24bf89cd1ea

Modify Your Search







or


Narrow By