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2008 Native Writers Series #1 - N. Scott Momaday

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2008-05-23T19:48:41.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianVideos
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianVideos
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_ypr3x8uBFgA

Cherokee Days 2014: Cherokee Art with America Meredith

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Lectures
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2014-04-30T13:56:21.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_nhclisBt_as

Valor in Black and White: War Stories of Horace Poolaw

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Conversations and talks
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2016-11-17T15:43:57.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_Npi_Nrw-B9o

Sand Creek Massacre: 03 Causes and Consequences - Gary L. Roberts

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Symposia
Lectures
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2014-10-16T19:49:21.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
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SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_bYzGB0MTBX0

MS 7536 Pochoir prints of ledger drawings by the Kiowa Five

Artist:
Asah, Spencer, approximately 1908-1954  Search this
Auchiah, James, 1906-1974  Search this
Mopope, Stephen, 1898-1974  Search this
Hokeah, Jack, 1902-1969  Search this
Smoky, Lois, 1907-1981  Search this
Tsatoke, Monroe, 1904-1937  Search this
Collector:
Jacobson, Oscar Brousse, 1882-1966  Search this
Extent:
24 Paintings (watercolor applied by pochoir, 89 x 72 cm.)
Culture:
Kiowa  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Paintings
Ledger drawings
Date:
1929
Scope and Contents:
Includes twenty-four prints illustrating dancers, figures in traditional attire, and ceremonial events. Each sheet is numbered in the upper right corner, with numbers 1 through 30, complete except for 3, 5, 7, 22, 26, and 29. The prints are from a portfolio containing 30 plates and an accompanying text by Jacobson published by C. Szwedizicki, Nice, France. There are related prints in the Acee Blue Eagle collection, including the original painting on which Plate 27 is based. The painters are the so-called Kiowa Five, renamed the Kiowa Six: Jack Hokeah, Spencer Asah, Bougetah (Lois) Smoky, Stephen Mopope, and Monroe Tsatoke. For this set of drawings, an electrostatic copy of the text as published in 1979 with an essay by Jamake Highwater and the Jacobson text in French with an added translation in English has been added (Oscar Brousse Jacobson, Kiowa Indian Art: Watercolor Paintings in Color by the Indians of Oklahoma) with an introductory essay by Jamake Highwater, Bell Editions, Santa Fe, ca. 1979). The locations of the missing art and the original 1929 text and covers are not known.
Biographical / Historical:
The Kiowa Five were a group of painters who earned national and international acclaim during the early twentieth century. The group actually consisted of six individuals, Spencer Asah, Jack Hokeah, Stephen Mopope, Monroe Tsatoke, Lois Smoky, and James Auchiah. A number of the artists attended St. Patrick's Mission School in Anadarko, Oklahoma, where they received art instruction from Sister Olivia Taylor. Susan Peters, a government field matron, also took an interest in the young artists' work. She arranged for an artist from Chickasha, Mrs. Willie Baze Lane, to provide art lessons. Eventually Ms. Peters persuaded Dr. Oscar Jacobson, head of the school of art at the University of Oklahoma, to provide additional training for the artists. In 1926, Asah, Hokeah, Tsatoke, and Mopope arrived at the University. The artists were not officially enrolled, but they received special instruction from Jacobson and Dr. Edith Mahier, another professor in the school of art. In January 1927, Lois Smoky, a young Kiowa woman, arrived to study with the other artists. In spring, the artists were compelled to return home to attend to agricultural pursuits. They returned in the fall, accompanied by James Auchiah, the sixth and final student. Shortly thereafter, Lois Smoky withdrew from the program and returned home. Dr. Oscar Jacobson arranged for the Kiowa artists' paintings to be exhibited in 1928 at the First International Art Exposition - formally titled the 1928 International Art Congress (of the International Federation for Art Education, Drawing and Art Applied to Industries)- in Prague, Czechoslovakia. In 1929, Kiowa Art, a portfolio of the artists' paintings was published in France. For additional information on these artists, see: Jeanne O. Snodgrass, American Indian Painters - A Biographical Directory, Museum of the American Indian Heye Foundation, 1968, and John Anson Warner, "Native American Painting in Oklahoma: Continuity and Change." The Journal of Intercultural Studies, 23: 14-129, 1996.
Stephen Mopope also known as Qued Koi (Painted Robe) was born on August 27, 1898 near Red Stone Baptist Church on the Kiowa Reservation. He attended St. Patrick's Mission School in Anadarko, Oklahoma. He died on February 3, 1974.
Spencer Asah also known as Lallo (Little Boy) was born between 1905 and 1910 near Carnegie, Oklahoma. He attended various government Indian schools and St. Patrick's Mission School, Anadarko, Oklahoma. He died in 1954.
James Auchiah was born in 1906 near Medicine Park, Oklahoma. He attended St. Patrick's Mission School in Anadarko, Oklahoma. He died on December 28, 1974.
Jack Hokeah was born in 1902 in western Oklahoma. He attended St. Patrick's Mission School in Anadarko, Oklahoma. He died on December 14, 1969.
Monroe Tsatoke also known as Tsa To Kee (Hunting Horse) was born September 29, 1904 at Saddle Mountain, Oklahoma. He attended Rainy Mountain Indian School near Carnegie, Oklahoma and Bacone College. He died on February 3, 1937.
Lois Smokey also known as Bougetah (Of the Dawn) was born in 1907, near Anadarko, Oklahoma. She died on February 1, 1981.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 7536

NAA INV 09064600-09066900
Local Note:
Information for the collection level record was drawn from Oscar Brousse Jacobson, Kiowa Indian Art: Watercolor Paintings in Color by the Indians of Oklahoma (with an introductory essay by Jamake Highwater), Bell Editions, 1979.
Album Information:
MS 7536 000
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 7536, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS7536
See more items in:
MS 7536 Pochoir prints of ledger drawings by the Kiowa Five
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms7536
Online Media:

Book of Arikara drawings by anonymous artist

Collector:
Hazen, William Babcock, 1830-1887  Search this
Extent:
32 Drawings (17 leaves, graphite and colored pencil, 11 x 19 cm.)
Culture:
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
ca. 1875
Scope and Contents:
Bound volume of drawings containing pictures of individual and scenes of warfare, hunting, domestic activities, and ceremony. One of two similar handbound volumes received as part of the Hazen collection (see also MS 154064A).
Biographical / Historical:
William Babcock Hazen (1830-1887) was born in Vermont and spent his boyhood in Ohio. In 1855, he graduated from the U.S. Military Academy ranked Twenty-eight in his class. Prior to the Civil War, Hazen served with the Fourth and Eighth Infantry regiments, earning distinctions in the field while fighting against Indians in Oregon and southwestern Texas. Hazen went on to serve in the Civil War, where he fought in the Battles of Shiloh and Bentonville. After the war, he served as Inspector General of the Department of the Platte and did a tour at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. In 1869, he was stationed at Fort Sill, Oklahoma and later at Fort Smith, Arkansas, becoming Superintendent of Indian Affairs in 1870. While serving in this capacity, Hazen worked with various tribes in Oklahoma, including the Comanches and the Creeks. After publicly criticizing the role of the U.S. military in the Indian Wars, Hazen was posted to Fort Buford in Dakota Territory, where he stayed off and on from 1875 through 1880. For more information on William Hazen see Great Plains Command: William B. Hazen in the Frontier West by Marvin E. Kroeker, 1976, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 154064 B
Local Note:
Original identification of these books as Sioux has been changed as the style of dress, body decoration, and hair are not consistent with that tribe. They are consistent with an identification as Arikara made by Candace Greene in 2004. During the 1870s many Arikara men enlisted as scouts with the US Army and a number were posted at Fort Buford during the time that the collector was there. Both books contain pictures of friendly encounters with Army officers, and one (08510521) depicts an Indian scout in uniform.
Place:
United States Dakota Territory Fort Buford.
United States South Dakota Fort Buford
Album Information:
MS 154064B 000
Provenance:
Hazen, Mildred McLean
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 154064B, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS154064B
See more items in:
Book of Arikara drawings by anonymous artist
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms154064b
Online Media:

Book of Arikara drawings by anonymous artist

Collector:
Hazen, William Babcock, 1830-1887  Search this
Extent:
36 Drawings (19 leaves, graphite, colored pencil, and crayon, mounted on paper, 12 x 20 cm.)
Culture:
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
ca. 1875
Scope and Contents:
Bound volume of drawings containing pictures of individual men and animals, and scenes of warfare and ceremony. One of two similar handbound volumes received as part of the Hazen collection (see also MS154064B).
Biographical / Historical:
William Babcock Hazen (1830-1887) was born in Vermont and spent his boyhood in Ohio. In 1855, he graduated from the U.S. Military Academy ranked Twenty-eight in his class. Prior to the Civil War, Hazen served with the Fourth and Eighth Infantry regiments, earning distinctions in the field while fighting against Indians in Oregon and southwestern Texas. Hazen went on to serve in the Civil War, where he fought in the Battles of Shiloh and Bentonville. After the war, he served as Inspector General of the Department of the Platte and did a tour at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. In 1869, he was stationed at Fort Sill, Oklahoma and later at Fort Smith, Arkansas, becoming Superintendent of Indian Affairs in 1870. While serving in this capacity, Hazen worked with various tribes in Oklahoma, including the Comanches and the Creeks. After publicly criticizing the role of the U.S. military in the Indian Wars, Hazen was posted to Fort Buford in Dakota Territory, where he stayed off and on from 1875 through 1880. For more information on William Hazen see Great Plains Command: William B. Hazen in the Frontier West by Marvin E. Kroeker, 1976, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 154064 A

USNM ACC 25748
Local Note:
Original identification of these books as Sioux has been changed as the style of dress, body decoration, and hair are not consistent with that tribe. They are consistent with an identification as Arikara made by Candace Greene in 2004. During the 1870s many Arikara men enlisted as scouts with the US Army and a number were posted at Fort Buford during the time that the collector was there. Both books contain pictures of friendly encounters with Army officers, and one (08510521) depicts an Indian scout in uniform.
Place:
United States Dakota Territory Fort Buford.
United States South Dakota Fort Buford
Album Information:
MS 154064A 000
Provenance:
Hazen, Mildred McLean
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 154064A, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS154064A
See more items in:
Book of Arikara drawings by anonymous artist
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms154064a
Online Media:

MS 2002-27 Quitone Kiowa calendar

Extent:
171 Drawings (25 leaves, graphite, watercolor, and ink on card stock, 28 x 22 cm.)
Culture:
Kiowa  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Pictographs
Ledger drawings
Date:
1825-1921
Scope and Contents:
The calendar consists of 171 pictographs on heavy card stock. Each page contains two to four pictographs, arranged top to bottom and left to right. The calendar entries cover the period 1825 - 1921. A red diamond is used to signify winter and a green or yellow bar to signify summer. A depiction of the forked Medicine Lodge pole often accompanies the symbol for summer. No information is known about the original production of this calendar. However, the pictures are a close match to a tracing that Wilbur S. Nye made in the 1920s of a calendar on cloth belonging to Jimmy Quitone, although arranged in a different format, and this may be considered a variant of the Quitone calendar. Nye's tracing is in the collection of the Fort Sill Museum in Oklahoma together with his notes about the version that he examined. He recorded that while Quitone owned the calendar when he made the tracing, it had been produced by Johnny Anko and Hauvahte. Huvahte may be an alternate rendering of Habate, or Haba. Nye believed that the calendar was destroyed when the Quitone home burned in the 1930s.
Biographical / Historical:
Jimmy Quitone (Wolf Tail) was one of the elders from whom W.S. Nye recorded much information about Kiowa history. According to Nye, he was the father of George Hunt and Guy Quitone. Hugh Corwin provides anecdotal information about Quitone, including a note that he died in 1956 at the age of 101. For additional biographical information see: W.S. Nye, Bad Medicine and Good: Tales of the Kiowa, University of Oklahoma, 1962. Hugh Corwin, The Kiowa Indians Their History and Life Stories, 1958.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2002-27
Local Note:
The collection record is based on information presented in Candace S. Greene and Russell Thornton, The Years the Stars Fell: Lakota Winter Counts at the Smithsonian, University of Nebraska Press, in press.
Album Information:
MS 2002-27 000
Genre/Form:
Pictographs
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 2002-27, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2002-27
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2002-27
Online Media:

MS 1998-54 Exercise book containing drawings by anonymous Kiowa artist

Extent:
20 Drawings (18 leaves, graphite and colored pencil, 17 x 20 cm.)
Culture:
Kiowa  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
1875-1878
Scope and Contents:
Twenty drawings in a commercial exercise book that has been rebound. The book had been sewn into a second cover prior to its acquisition by the Smithsonian. This second cover was removed when the book was rebound. It is still with the manuscript. The drawings depict hunting, courtship, dance, social gatherings, Indian scouts, mounted and dismounted warriors, and part of the Kiowa Sun Dance. The inside of the front cover is inscribed, "Capt Pratt USA", "By the Indians", "By the Indians incarcerated in Fort Marion St. Augustine in 1876", "Engaged in the Custer Massacre", "Care of Capt Pratt in charge assisted by the following ladies Mrs Linethurst, Mrs Gibbs - Mrs S' Mother St Augustine Mrs Kingsly Gibbs aunt Mrs Valentine Phila Miss Reed", "Carlisle was the outcome of Capt Pratt's efforts assisted by Mrs Kingsly Gibbs of St Augustine". The back cover is inscribed "Works of the Indians while in prison in Fort Marion St Augustine Florida/ after the Custer Massacre in care of Capt Pratt/ The founder of Carlisle/ These Indians finally taken there for housing and taming/ by the Government/ under the care of Capt Pratt USA". In addition to the inscription, the back cover bears the image of a man wearing a breechcloth, which was scratched into its surface. The name "ZOTOM" appears in stencil block letters on the back cover and the inside of the front cover. Although Zotom was a noted Kiowa artist, it is not clear that he is responsible for the drawings. Candace Greene notes that they are unlike his later work and early documented examples of his drawing style have not been identified.
Biographical / Historical:
Fort Marion, also known as Castillo de San Marco, is a stone fortress in St. Augustine, Florida. Between 1875 and 1878, seventy-two prisoners from the southern plains were incarcerated in the fort. Captain Richard Pratt supervised the prisoners during their incarceration at Fort Marion. The prisoners consisted of 27 Kiowas, 33 Cheyennes, 9 Comanches, 2 Arapahos, and a single Caddo. With the exception of one Cheyenne woman, all the prisoners were men. They had been accused of participating in the recent Red River War, earlier hostilities, or both. With the exception of the wife and daughter of one of the Comanche men, the prisoners families were not allowed to accompany them to Fort Marion. For further information on Fort Marion see Karen Daniels Petersen, Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971 and Richard Pratt, Battlefield and Classroom, ed. by R. M. Utley, Yale University Press, 1964.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 98-54
Place:
United States Florida Fort Marion.
Album Information:
MS 98-54 000
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 98-54, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS1998-54
See more items in:
MS 1998-54 Exercise book containing drawings by anonymous Kiowa artist
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms1998-54
Online Media:

Copies of Christian Barthelmess photographs of American Indians and United States Army

Creator:
Barthelmess, Christian  Search this
Names:
United States. Army. Indian Scouts  Search this
Photographer:
Carpenter, W. J.  Search this
Extent:
119 Copy negatives
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Germans  Search this
Ute  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Copy negatives
Photographs
Studio portraits
Place:
Germany
Colorado
Fort Lewis (Colo.)
Fort Bayard (N.M.)
Lame Deer (Mont.)
Fort Keogh (Mont.)
Santa Fe (N.M.)
Little Bighorn Battlefield (Mont.)
Date:
circa 1876-1898, 1903-1906
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs from an album compiled by Christian Barthelmess for a fellow soldier, O.S. Gordon. The bulk of the images relate to American Indians and the United States army and include studio portraits; images of dwellings and camps; cowboys; Zuni and Navajo performing daily activities; Cheyenne and Zuni dances; a Cheyenne travois; fishing and hunting parties; and American Indian scouts for the army. There are also scenic views of Colorado, Zuni Pueblo, Santa Fe, Custer (Little Bighorn) Battlefield, Camp Proctor, and Forts Merritt and Keogh. The collection also includes some images from Germany, including images of a German singing club and the Bavarian town of Klingenberg on the Main. One photograph was made by W. J. Carpenter, a Colorado photographer.
Biographical/Historical note:
Christian Barthelmess (1854-1906) was born in Bavaria and immigrated to the United States in the early 1870s. Enlisting in the U.S. Army in 1876, he directed military bands and was an official army photographer. Barthelmess retired from the Army in 1903, but remained post photographer for Fort Keogh until his death in 1906.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot R87-1
Reproduction Note:
Copy negatives made by Smithsonian Institution, 1989.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs by Barthelmess can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 4423, Photo Lot 24, and the BAE historical negatives.
The Dr. Kenneth J. LaBudde Department of Special Collections at the University of Missouri-Kansas City and the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University hold photographs by Barthelmess.
The Montana Historical Society Archives holds the Barthelmess Family Papers, 1926-1971, including a series relating to Christian Barthelmess.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
This copy collection has been obtained for reference purposes only. Contact the repository for terms of use and access.
Topic:
Dance  Search this
Soldiers -- United States  Search this
Weaving  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Studio portraits
Citation:
Photo Lot R87-1, Copies of Christian Barthelmess photographs of American Indians and United States Army, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.R87-1
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-r87-1

MS 7500 Tichkematse book of drawings

Creator:
Tichkematse, 1857-1932  Search this
Depicted:
Bliss, Zenas Randall, 1835-1900  Search this
Extent:
21 Drawings (graphite, watercolor, and ink, 14 x 22 cm.)
Culture:
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Photographs
Date:
1887 April
Scope and Contents:
Drawings in a small notebook of ruled paper, now disbound, covers retained. Drawings document an 1887 hunting excursion taken by Colonel Bliss of Fort Supply (in Indian Territory) and Major John Dunlop, a visitor to the fort from Washington D.C.. Included in the manuscript are a cyanotype picture featuring Colonel Bliss, end papers, and covers of the book as well as a typescript note pasted to the inside cover describing the drawings. The inscription reads as follows: "This pictorial history of various hunts made by Cheyenne Indians, and white men, was drawn and painted entirely by Squint Eye, a Cheyenne and Sergeant of the Scouts at Fort Supply, Indian Territory, April 1887. It will be observed that Sergt. Squint Eye, and Major Dunlop are the most important personages represented ; and it will also be observed that the Sergt. never forgets to put on his stripes, or chevrons. If any difference is noticed between the verbal report made by the major, of his encounter with the Catamount, and Squint eye's representation of it, it will please be ascribed to the native Scotch and Cheyenne modesty of the participants. Fort Supply, I.T., April 17, 1887, with compliments of Z.R. Bliss, on this his birthday." Many drawings are inscribed names identifying the figures, most of whom are Cheyenne men who were enlisted as Army scouts.
Biographical / Historical:
Tichkematse a.k.a. Squint Eyes, Quchkeimus (1857-1932) was one of the best known groups of Plains artists was among the men held prisoner at Fort Marion in Saint Augustine, Florida, from 1875-1878. Tichkematse, a Cheyenne, was one of these prisoner artists. While imprisoned, he learned to speak English and to read and write. Upon release he attended school at the Hampton Institute in Virginia for about a year before coming to the Smithsonian. There he was trained in the preparation of bird and mammal specimens for study and display. During his time at the Smithsonian, he also produced drawings illustrating his old life on the Plains, full of buffalo hunts and battles as well as everyday camp life. In 1880 he returned to the Cheyenne and Arapaho Reservation in what is now Oklahoma, but he continued his affiliation with the Smithsonian. He was active in collecting bird and mammal specimens as well as craft items acquired from Cheyenne friends and relatives, which he shipped to the museum. For additional information on Tichkematse, see Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion by Karen Daniels Petersen (University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK 1971), "Squint Eyes: Artist and Indian Scout" by Bob Rea, (2002) www.nmnh.si.edu/naa/scout, and "Tichkematse: A Cheyenne at the Smithsonian" by Candace Greene, (2000) www.nmnh.si.edu/naa/squint_eyes/squint_eyes.htm. For further information on the Cheyenne scouts and their artwork, see "Artists in Blue: the Indian Scouts of Fort Reno and Fort Supply," by Candace S. Greene (American Indian Art Magazine, Winter 1992, pp.50-57) Major John Dunlop was a supply sergeant in San Antonio before the Civil War, then went to Mexico, and later to Washington. While in Washington he met Col. Bliss and the maintained a friendship over time, resulting in his visiting Bliss in Indian Territory and participating in the hunt depicted.
Fort Supply, established in 1868, was initially designated as a supply camp where U.S. Cavalry troops could restock and refresh themselves. It was from this post that Custer and the Seventh Cavalry marched to the Battle of Washita. Over the next twenty-five years, soldiers from Fort Supply performed duties that included peace-keeping and monitoring of the Cheyenne and Arapaho reservation and the Cherokee Outlet as well as monitoring the Land Run of 1893. From 1869 to early 1870, the post served as the temporary location for the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indian Agency. For more information on Fort Supply see Fort Supply, Indian Territory: Frontier Outpost by Robert C. Carriker, 1990 Norman: University of Oklahoma Press; and "History of Fort Supply" at http://www.ok-history.mus.ok.us/mus-sites/fshistory.htm.
Local Numbers:
NAA ACC 91-13

NAA MS 7500
Place:
United States Indian Territory Fort Supply.
United States Oklahoma Fort Supply.
Album Information:
MS 7500 000
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Photographs
Citation:
Manuscript 7500, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS7500
See more items in:
MS 7500 Tichkematse book of drawings
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms7500
Online Media:

MS 4656 Book of anonymous Kiowa drawings

Extent:
1 Drawing (volume of 14 drawings (8 leaves, graphite, colored pencil, and crayon, 21 x 29 cm.)
Culture:
Kiowa  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
ca. 1875-1877
Scope and Contents:
Book of 14 drawings on 8 leaves of unruled paper in a commercial drawing book. The book was rebound by the Bureau of American Ethnology and the original covers are no longer visible. Drawings depict hunting, travelling, and camp scenes. The inside front cover is inscribed "Drawn by Buffalo Meat". The inside back cover is inscribed "Soaring Eegle [sic]". Buffalo Meat and Soaring Eagle were among the Cheyenne men imprisoned at Fort Marion. Although both men were artists, the drawings in this book are Kiowa, not Cheyenne, based on examination of content.
Biographical / Historical:
Fort Marion, also known as Castillo de San Marco, is a stone fortress in St. Augustine, Florida. Between 1875 and 1878, seventy-two prisoners from the southern plains were incarcerated in the fort. Captain Richard Pratt supervised the prisoners during their incarceration at Fort Marion. The prisoners consisted of 27 Kiowas, 33 Cheyennes, 9 Comanches, 2 Arapahos, and a single Caddo. With the exception of one Cheyenne woman, all the prisoners were men. They had been accused of participating in the recent Red River War, earlier hostilities, or both. With the exception of the wife and daughter of one of the Comanche men, the prisoners families were not allowed to accompany them to Fort Marion. For further information on Fort Marion see Karen Daniels Petersen, Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971 and Richard Pratt, Battlefield and Classroom, ed. by R. M. Utley, Yale University Press, 1964.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4656
Local Note:
Although the drawings were originally cataloged as Cheyenne by Buffalo Meat, neither Candace Greene nor Karen Daniels Petersen agree with this attribution. They note that the drawings can be identified as Kiowa based on elements of clothing, as well as shield and tipi designs. Furthermore, Greene compared the drawings with other works by Buffalo Meat and determined that they do not correspond with the artist's style. Both Greene and Petersen note that the drawings are the work of at least two artists. The inside of the front cover is inscribed, "Drawn by Buffalo Meat, Cheyenne." Petersen notes that the handwriting matches an inscription written inside the cover of MS 39-b, a drawing book that is known to have been collected at Fort Marion by George Fox, who inscribed the cover and captioned the drawings. (Candace Greene and Mike Jordan compared the inscriptions in MS 4656 and MS 39-b and agree that the handwriting is the same.) George Fox worked as an interpreter at Fort Marion until March 26, 1877. Consequently, the book dates between May 21, 1875, the date the prisoners arrived at Fort Marion, and March 26, 1877, the date George Fox departed.
Place:
United States Florida Fort Marion.
Album Information:
MS 4656 000
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 4656, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4656
See more items in:
MS 4656 Book of anonymous Kiowa drawings
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4656
Online Media:

MS 4587 Historical Narratives

Creator:
Howell, Myra Lake  Search this
Names:
Big Tree, circa 1850-1929  Search this
Kicking Bird, -1875  Search this
Parker, Quanah, 1845?-1911  Search this
Satanta, Kiowa Chief, approximately 1815-1878  Search this
Culture:
Kiowa  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Contains three typescripts: (a) "The Comanche Centaurs and Quanah Parker," 234 pages; (b) "Kicking Bird, Prince of the Kiowas," 74 pages; (c) "The Jacksboro Trials of Satanta and Big Tree," 48 pages.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4587
Local Note:
Carbon typescripts
Other Title:
The Prairie Centaurs
The Comanche Centaurs and Quanah Parker
Kicking Bird, Prince of the Kiowas
The Jacksboro Trials of Satanta and Big Tree
Topic:
Federal-Indian relations -- Jacksboro Trials  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 4587, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4587
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4587

Dakota agency personnel (including Indian Police), students, and views of Agency buildings, from various Dakota agencies and Carlisle Indian School

Photographer:
Choate, John N., of Carlisle, Pennsylvania  Search this
Anderson, J. A.  Search this
Creator:
Northwestern Photographic Company  Search this
Names:
Anderson, W. W.  Search this
Berht, Stella  Search this
Black Bear, Carrie  Search this
Bordeaux ?, Martha  Search this
Calls Horse Looking  Search this
Cleveland, William Joshua, 1845-1910  Search this
Dion ?, Mose  Search this
Flood, Thomas  Search this
Four Horn, Charlotte  Search this
Galiego, Louisa  Search this
Gallagher, H. D. Col  Search this
Good Nation, Laura  Search this
Hand, Emma  Search this
High Hawk ?  Search this
Horse Looking, Irene  Search this
Iron Eagle Feather  Search this
Jackson, Sheldon, 1834-1909  Search this
Little Bull  Search this
Low, Adelia  Search this
McChesney, Charles E.  Search this
McLaughlin, James Major  Search this
Pratt, Richard Henry, 1840-1924  Search this
Shields, John  Search this
Side ? Bear, Esther  Search this
Spence, L. F. Agent  Search this
Standing Bear, Victoria  Search this
Townsend, Harvey  Search this
Two Dogs, Isabella  Search this
Wells, Mark  Search this
White Bear, Rosa  Search this
White Birch, Katie  Search this
White Horse  Search this
White Thunder, Rosa  Search this
Wilson, Susan  Search this
Wright, John V. Judge  Search this
Extent:
44 Mounted prints
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Mounted prints
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Photographs of Carlisle by J. N. Choate, three Rosebud Agency photographs by J. A. Anderson, the rest unidentified as to photographer. The photographs probably date between 1880 and 1895.
Catalog Number 4574: Letter of 3/21/58 from Richard A. Pohrt (donor): "...eleven photographs from the Indian School at Carlisle. Pa. These I am certain were all taken by J. N. Choates [Choate], a photographer who had a studio at 21 West Main St., Carlisle, Pa." (1) Carlisle Indian School "The dining hall, Indian Training School" (Original Number 45) Photographer: J. H. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (2) Carlisle Indian School "Sheldon Jackson, John Shields and Harvey Townsend, Pueblos." (Original Number 70) J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (3) Carlisle Indian School "Pine Ridge Boys" (Original Number 155) (caption written by hand) J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (4) Carlisle Indian School "After School; Indian Training School, Carlisle, Pa." (written by hand). (Original Number 163) J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (5) Carlisle Indian School Group of students, presumably of Carlisle School. Labeled on back (by hand) as follows: "No. 1 White Horse Little Bull "No. 2 Calls Horse Looking "No. 3 Brule Iron Eagle Feather "No 4 Stella Berht "No. 5 Rosa White Thunder "No 6 Irene Horse Looking "No 7 Laura Good Nation Compliments of Capt. Pratt, E." J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (?) (6) Carlisle Indian School Group of girls, presumably students at Carlisle School. Labled by hand as follows; left to right, row 1 (kneeling) Emma Hand, Rosa White Bear (dead), Isabella Two Dogs, Louisa Galiego (Pine Ridge). Row 2, (sitting) Carrie Black Bear, Susan Wilson (S sister [?]), Charlotte Four Horn, Esther Side [?] Bear. Row 3 (standing) Katie White Birch, Adelia Low, Victoria Standing Bear, Martha Bordeaux [?], Mose Dion [?]. J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (?). (7) Carlisle Indian School Group of boys, presumably students at Carlisle School. J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (?). (8) "Girl's Quarters, Carlisle Barracks" [Choate Broadside, No 78?] J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (?). (9) "School Rooms, Carlisle Barracks." [Choate broadside, No. 80 ?].
Catalog Number 4574: (10) Carlisle Indian School "Cap't Pratt's House and Chapel." [Choate broadside, No. 82 ?] Captain Pratt near steps. J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (11) Carlisle Indian School (?) "Band of Indian Boys at the Government School, Washington, D. C." ("Popular Series"). Stereoscopic view. Probably copy of Choate No. 76, erroneously labeled. [See Choate broadside, B.A.E. Catalog Number 4241.] J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa (?) (See R. A. Pohrt correspondence, 9/24/59). (12) Tribe: Dakota (Oglalla ?) "High Hawk." Resembles closely the man identified as High Hawk in Signal Corps Photograph at National Archives (No. 101549). Only slight resemblance to S. I. Negative 42,827. He must have been considerably older when the latter was taken if they are the same person. J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (13) Dakota:Agency Personnel, various agencies Seated left to right: Reverend William J. Cleveland (Episcopal missionary and sometime agent at Rosebud-- See Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 5, page 20 for biography), Captain Richard Henry Pratt (Chairman), and Judge John V. Wright of Tennessee, -- the three composed the 2nd commission to the Sioux, 1888. (For account of the commission see Eastman, "Pratt, the Redman's Moses," University of Oklahoma Press, 1935). (Identified from BAE Negative Number "Portraits 13-b"). No date, but because of the 3 main figures, suggests ca. 1888. Standing. left to right: , (appears third from left in S. I. Negative 43,563-- identified more clearly in original prints of same group National Archives-- N. A. Numbers 86-1, 86-2, 87), Col. H. D. Gallagher, Agent Pine Ridge (same ident. source), Major W. W. Anderson, agent at Crow Creek and Lower Brule; for a Mark Wells see Negative 3307-c, Dr C. E. McChesney, agent at Cheyenne River Agency (Number 14, in row 5.), Major James McLaughlin, Agent Standing Rock Reservation, Col. L. F. Spence, Agent Rosebud Agency (identified from S. I. Negative 43,563). No date, but because of the 3 main figures, suggests ca. 1888.
Catalog Number 4574: (14) Dakota: Agency Personnel Seated: Col. L. F. Spence, Agent at Rosebud, (identified from S. I. Negative 43,563) Standing: unidentified, but compare with 4574: (28), below. (15) Dakota: Pine Ridge Agency Labeled in pencil, "Agent's Dwelling, Pine Ridge Agency, D. T." (Verified by numerous views of the Agency in the National Archives). Two Indian Policemen on porch. Water tower behind house. (16) Dakota: Pine Ridge Agency ? Distant view of Agency, almost certainly Pine Ridge (compare with original prints catalog Number 4464. "Pine Ridge Agency from the North in 1891"). Print marked in pencil, "Fort Niobrara, Nebraska Territory"-- erroneous ? Northwestern Photographic Co, Chadron, Nebraska (17) Dakota: Rosebud Agency "No. 4 St Francis' Mission, Rosebud Agency, S. D., West Side." Church and school, one wing in process of being built. Print not marked. Received in package marked by donor, "J. A. Anderson." (18) Dakota: Rosebud Agency "No 7. Birds-eye view of St Francis Mission. Rosebud Agency, S. D." Print not marked. Received in package marked by donor,"J. A. Anderson." (19) Dakota: Rosebud Agency "No 8. Fathers and Brothers of St Francis Mission. Rosebud Agency, S. D." J. A. Anderson, Rosebud Agency, S. D. (20) Dakota: Rosebud Agency View of Rosebud Agency, and garden, from the South (if 17 above correct). Must have been taken prior to the Anderson photograph, since the new wing is not in evidence. (Identified from 17 and 18.) (21) Dakota: Rosebud Agency Nuns with large group of students in school uniforms, (St Francis Mission, Rosebud Agency ?) Little white girl in front row looks like one in 4574: (32) below, and possibly same as in 4574: (31).
Catalog Number 4574 (22) Dakota: Rosebud Agency "View at Rosebud Agency. May 8th 1892." This series of "row" houses corresponds, perhaps, to ones in J. A. Anderson's Among the Sioux, "A typical Indian Agency" (BAE temporary 77). Note "Police Station " sign. 1892. (23) Dakota: Rosebud Agency Agent's house, Rosebud Agency (identified from Negative Number 43,791-B). Standing in front, left to right: , , Col. L. F. Spence, Agent (identified from S, I, Negative 43,563 and National Archives' prints of same group), , , . (24) Boy on horse in front of agent's dwelling, Rosebud Agency. (House, and thus agency, identified from S. I. Negative 43,791-B and others). (25) Dakota: Rosebud Agency Group of Indian Police, civilian men, women, and children around flag pole in front of agent's house (identified from S. I. Negative 43,791-B), Rosebud Agency. Reverend William J. Cleveland (with whiskers and derby) in back row, 2nd to right of flagpole. (Indentified from BAE Negative Number "Portraits 13-b.") (26) Dakota: Rosebud Agency Distant view of agent's dwelling and unidentified home and/or school to the left of it. Copy in negative catalog made from another original print. See Negative Number 43,791-C.
Catalog Number 4574: (27) Dakota: Rosebud Agency Unidentified home and/or school to left of agent's dwelling (see 4574:(26) above, then 43,791-B), large group of men in front of building. Possibly Reverend William J. Cleveland, (note whiskers) on porch, 3rd from right. (28) Dakota: Rosebud Agency (?) Agency personnel (?), including Indian police. 4th from left, front row: Col. L. F. Spence, Agent at Rosebud (identified from S. I. Negative 43,563). 5th from left, front row: same as man on right in 4574: (14) (?). 2nd from left, 2nd row: same as man on left in 4574: (14) (?). 2nd from right, 2nd row: Thomas Flood, Interpreter (identified from S. I. Negative 43,563). Indentification as Rosebud Agency rests primarily upon the presence of Spence. See Negative Number 45,793-B. (29) Dakota: Rosebud Agency (?) Large building, with chapel, set in open area. Built 1885 (date on front gable). In front are 5 women (one on horse) 3 children, three men; Rev. William J. Cleveland at extreme left (identified from BAE Negative Number "Portraits" 13-b). May be Saint Mary's Mission Boarding School for Sioux Boys and Girls, 12 miles from Rosebud Agency, on Antelope Creek, Dakota Territory, for the following reasons: 1. The building is a self-contained unit--including a chapel--and there are no other buildings in view. 2. The building is dated 1885. Pilling, in Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 5, 1887 states that Cleveland had at that time been principal of Saint Mary's for 2 years, which fits neatly with the 1885 date. (30) Dakota: Rosebud Agency (?) Side view of same building as in 4574: (29). Several women and children in foreground. Reverend William J. Cleveland holding horses (identified from BAE Negative Number "Portraits" 13-b), and one other man. See 4574:(29) above.
Catalog Number 4574: The following photographs (4574: (31-39)), along with a group of similar photographs in the National Archives, seem to establish a consistent pattern in the location and structure of agency school facilities. In general, the schools were small frame buildings, apparently widely scattered over the agencies, each with a small frame house for the teaching couple and family. (31) Dakota: Agency Unidentified Frame school (?) building. In foreground, group of students with teachers (man and woman--and their little girl ?), and Indian police. (32) Dakota: Agency Unidentified Group of students with teachers (man and woman--and their child) in front of frame school (?) house. Also an Indian Policeman. (33) Dakota: Agency unidentified Group of students with teachers (man and woman) and Indian Police in front of frame school (?) house. White man on right appears to be identical with the first man on left in S. I. Negative 43,563, Sioux delegation to Washington, 1888. (34) Dakota: Agency unidentified Group of students with teachers (man and woman) in front of frame school (?) house. Also an Indian Policeman. (35) Dakota: Agency unidentified Frame school (?) building. In foreground a group of students with teacher(s). (36) Dakota: Agency unidentified Frame school (?) with group of students and teacher in the foreground. The teacher is the same as in 4574:(36), as are many of the pupils. (37) Dakota: Agency unidentified Teachers (and their child) with group of students in front of frame school building. (See 4574: (38) for identity as school.) (38) Dakota: Agency unidentified School building (and teachers' dwelling ?) with man, woman, and child (same ones as in 4574: (37) above) in front, and two Indian men at side. 2 duplicate prints.
Catalog Number 4574: (39) Dakota: Agency unidentified Teacher's dwelling-schoolhouse complex with one or two scattered cabins in the foreground. Follows what appears to be the typical pattern of small, widely scattered schools. (40) Dakota: Agency unidentified Frame building. Function ? Odd door on back and man standing in doorway suggest this might be an exterior view of 4574: (41). (41) Dakota: Agency Unidentified Pine Ridge (?) or Rosebud (?) Slaughter house (?), interior view, with three men, one an Indian. One man looks like Col. H. D. Gallagher, Pine Ridge Agent. But the print was among a group of views mainly from Rosebud Agency. (42) Dakota: Agency Unidentified Large group of uniformed Indian Police on horseback in front of frame buildings. Agency might be: 1. Standing Rock ? Man front row, left looks like Red Tomahawk. 2. Pine Ridge ? But the men aren't posed in same area of agency where other PR Police pictures were taken. Also the men in this picture have more uniform uniforms than are shown in PR pictures. (See Original Prints, "temporary" Number 29, and Catalog Number 4544: (59, 60).) 3. Rosebud ? (43) Dakota: Agency Unidentified Indian Police, same uniform, same agency, same building, as 4574: (42). Also additional evidence for identifying Agency as Standing Rock: compare officers to those in BAE Negative Number 3711-e. See Negative Number 45,793. (44) Dakota Badlands scenery. "In general it seems to resemble the badlands of southwestern South Dakota not far distant from Pine Ridge and Rosebud Reservations."--Information from John C. Ewers, 4/5/60.
Biographical / Historical:
Pohrt states, "I believe they were taken about 1890. Some are identified and many are not, but I have reason to believe that the majority were taken on the Rosebud and Pine Ridge Reservations in South Dakota. They are of school children, Indian Police, Agency buildings, etc." See correspondence in Smithsonian Institution-Bureau of American Ethnology files.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4574
Local Note:
Filed: Original Prints: Carlisle Indian School; Dakota.
Topic:
Photographs  Search this
Dakota Indians  Search this
Federal-Indian relations -- Agencies  Search this
Education -- Carlisle Indian School  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 4574, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4574
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4574

MS 39-a Book of drawings by unidentified Cheyenne artist at Fort Marion, Florida

Extent:
1 Item (disbound volume of 21 drawings (23 leaves, graphite and colored pencil, 21 x 27 cm.)
Culture:
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ledger drawings
Date:
1875 August
Scope and Contents:
Artist's sketchbook, now disbound, containing scenes of daily life, dances, hunting and a picture of birds. Individual leaves numbered 1 through 23. Cover of the drawing book inscribed in pencil "Drawn by Making Medicine, Cheyenne Prisoner, St. Augustine, Fla. Aug. 1875." Inscriptions on individual leaves by same hand, probably Lt. Richard Pratt.
Biographical / Historical:
Fort Marion, also known as Castillo de San Marco, is a stone fortress in St. Augustine, Florida. Between 1875 and 1878, seventy-two prisoners from the southern plains were incarcerated in the fort under supervision of Lt. Richard Pratt. The prisoners consisted of 27 Kiowas, 33 Cheyennes, 9 Comanches, 2 Arapahos, and a single Caddo. With the exception of one Cheyenne woman, all the prisoners were men. They had been accused of participating in the recent Red River War, earlier hostilities, or both. With the exception of the wife and daughter of one of the Comanche men, the prisoners families were not allowed to accompany them to Fort Marion. For further information on Fort Marion see Karen Daniels Petersen, Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971 and Richard Pratt, Battlefield and Classroom, ed. by R. M. Utley, Yale University Press, 1964.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 39A

OPPS NEG 55,025 - 55,046
Local Note:
The original identification of the artist as Making Medicine based on the inscription is in error, based on comparison to other known examples of the artist's work, including Ms. 39B. Re-identified as anonymous Cheyenne artist by Candace Greene, 2002.
Place:
United States Florida Fort Marion.
Album Information:
MS 39A 000
Topic:
Federal-Indian relations  Search this
Dance -- Medicine Dance  Search this
Dance -- Sun Dance  Search this
Amusements -- Wrestling  Search this
Habitations -- Medicine Lodge  Search this
Marriage and family -- courting  Search this
Hunting -- Buffalo  Search this
Hunting -- antelope  Search this
Hunting -- elk  Search this
Hunting -- bear  Search this
Hunting -- Turkey  Search this
War -- warriors  Search this
Zoology -- wild horses  Search this
Zoology -- Buffalo  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 39A, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS39A
See more items in:
MS 39-a Book of drawings by unidentified Cheyenne artist at Fort Marion, Florida
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms39a
Online Media:

MS 39-c Kiowa drawings by Koba, Etahdleuh, and others

Artist:
Doanmoe, Etahdleuh, 1856-1888  Search this
Kobay, (Comanche chief)  Search this
Names:
Fort Marion artists  Search this
Kobay, (Comanche chief)  Search this
Onkoiday  Search this
Sepinta  Search this
White Horse  Search this
Zonekeuk ?  Search this
Zotom  Search this
Extent:
33 Drawings (graphite, colored pencil, crayon, ink, and watercolor, 12 x 18 cm.-20 x 55 cm.)
Culture:
Kiowa  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Pictographs
Ledger drawings
Date:
1875-1878
Scope and Contents:
The manuscript contains 28 drawings depicting warfare, courting, hunting, dances, a horse race, and an intertribal meeting. The drawings also include 5 pages with pictographs representing various words and the names of the prisoners. Included in the manuscript are rosters of the Ft. Marion prisoners listing the prisoners' names and tribal affiliations. Several drawings are inscribed with the name of Koba, some with the name Etahdleuh. Most were probably drawn by Koba.
Biographical / Historical:
Koba (Wild Horse) was born in 1848. During the Red River War he was a member of the Kiowa band that surrendered on February 18, 1875. Following his surrender, he was confined at Fort Sill, Indian Territory. He was accused of stealing horses and mules in Texas and participating in the August 22, 1874 skirmish at the Wichita Agency, one of the opening engagements of the Red River War. He was among the Kiowa prisoners who were incarcerated in Fort Marion in St. Augustine, Florida following the end of the conflict. He arrived at Fort Marion on May 21, 1875. After his release from Ft. Marion, Koba attended the Hampton Institute in Virginia. He arrived at Hampton on April 14, 1878. In June of 1879, he left Hampton to work on a farm in Lee, Massachusetts. He then enrolled in the Carlisle Institute in Pennsylvania, where he studied to be a tinsmith. He arrived at Carlisle on October 7, 1879. On September 10, 1880, Koba left Carlisle on what was intended to be a brief trip to Indian Territory. Although his health was failing, he was deemed fit to travel. He died of consumption on September 24, 1880, only three days after arriving at his destination.
Etahdleuh (1856-1888) was also known as Etahdleeuh, Etadeleuh, Etahdleuh Doanmoe, Boy, and Boy Hunting. He was imprisoned at Fort Marion in St. Augustine, Florida from 1875-1878. After his release from Fort Marion, he attended the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in Virginia, arriving in April, 1878. In 1879, he travelled to the Indian Territory to recruit pupils to attend the Carlisle Institute in Pennsylvania, where he would study and work on and off from 1879 to 1887. He made two extended trips back to the reservation during this period and from February to May 1880, he worked at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC. He was trained as a Presbyterian missionary and returned to the reservation in January 1888 to serve in this capacity.
For further biographical information on Koba or Etahdleuh see Karen Daniels Petersen, Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971.
Fort Marion, also known as Castillo de San Marco, is a stone fortress in St. Augustine, Florida. Between 1875 and 1878, seventy-two prisoners from the southern plains were incarcerated in the fort. Captain Richard Pratt supervised the prisoners during their incarceration at Fort Marion. The prisoners consisted of 27 Kiowas, 33 Cheyennes, 9 Comanches, 2 Arapahos, and a single Caddo. With the exception of one Cheyenne woman, all the prisoners were men. They had been accused of participating in the recent Red River War, earlier hostilities, or both. With the exception of the wife and daughter of one of the Comanche men, the prisoners families were not allowed to accompany them to Fort Marion. For further information on Fort Marion see Karen Daniels Petersen, Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971 and Richard Pratt, Battlefield and Classroom, ed. by R. M. Utley, Yale University Press, 1964.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 39C
Album Information:
MS 39C 000
Provenance:
Reynolds, Mary B.
Topic:
Federal-Indian relations -- Kiowa  Search this
Marriage and family -- Courtship -- Kiowa  Search this
War -- Apache  Search this
War -- Navaho  Search this
War -- Comanche  Search this
Genre/Form:
Pictographs -- Kiowa
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 39C, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS39C
See more items in:
MS 39-c Kiowa drawings by Koba, Etahdleuh, and others
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms39c
Online Media:

Kiowa drawing, possibly by Koba or Etadleuh, of battle scene, with warrior wearing face and body paint and holding a lance and a shield approaching a person, possibly Mexican, inside a wagon

Artist:
Kobay, (Comanche chief)  Search this
Etahdleuh, 1856-1888  Search this
Names:
Fort Marion artists  Search this
Collection Artist:
Doanmoe, Etahdleuh, 1856-1888  Search this
Kobay, (Comanche chief)  Search this
Extent:
1 Drawing (graphite, crayon, and ink on ledger paper, 20 x 25 cm.)
Culture:
Kiowa  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
1875-1877
Scope and Contents:
Inscription reads "Zotom." Drawing is executed on page 122 of a ledger book.
Local Numbers:
NAA INV 08547601

NAA MS 39C

OPPS NEG 91-2000

OPPS NEG 92-11268
Local Note:
This drawing appears to be related to the two subsequent drawings, which according to the inscription depict an attack on a Mexican wagon train, hence the identification of the individual inside the wagon as a Mexican rather than a Euro-American.
Album Information:
MS 39C 001
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 39C, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 39-c Kiowa drawings by Koba, Etahdleuh, and others
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms39c-ref1

Wohaw drawing of tightrope walker

Creator:
Wohaw, 1855-1924  Search this
Annotator:
Pratt, Richard Henry, 1840-1924  Search this
Names:
Fort Marion artists  Search this
Extent:
1 Drawing (graphite, colored pencil, and watercolor, 12 x 18 cm.)
Culture:
Kiowa  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
ca. 1855-1877
Scope and Contents:
The manuscript consists of one drawing of a tight rope walker. It is inscribed on the verso "Drawn by Wohaw Kiowa."It is from a set of 12 drawings donated by Captain Richard Pratt. Three of the drawings are now in the NAA (MS 30,740, 30,747, and 30,750) and 8 are now in the Graphic Arts collection of the National Museum of American History. The location of the twelfth drawing is not known.
Biographical / Historical:
Wohaw, also known as Wo-Haw, Beef, Gu hau de, and Wolf Robe, was a Kiowa born in 1855. He was accused of being a combatant in the Red River War of 1874 and 1875. On October 3, 1874, he surrendered at the Cheyenne-Arapaho Agency at Darlinton, Indian Territory. He was transferred to Ft. Sill, where he was held in the guard house. He was among the Kiowa warriors who were subsequently imprisoned at Ft. Marion in San Augustine, Florida. Following his release in 1878, Wohaw returned to the Indian Territory, arriving in Anadarko on May 1, 1878. He served in the Indian Police between 1879 and 1880 and in Troop L of the 7th U.S. Cavalry from 1891 to 1895. He was a member of the Ohomah society and is believed to have been an adherant of the Ghost Dance and Peyote religions. Wohaw died in Oklahoma in 1924. For further biographical information on Wohaw see Karen Daniels Petersen, Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971 and Moira Harris, Between Two Cultures: Kiowa Art from Fort Marion, Pogo Press, 1989.
Richard Henry Pratt had a long and varied military career, beginning as a soldier in the Civil War and participating in the Indian wars on the frontier. It was his work on the frontier that sparked Pratt's lifelong interests in the American Indian and spurred him to develop his infamous education system devoted to "civilizing" American Indian peoples. It was Pratt's Belief that the American Indian, although leading a savage and uncivilized life, was fully capable of being educated and absorbed into American society. Pratt gained support for this view when he commanded a group of seventy-two Indian prisoners at St. Augustine, Florida, in 1875. While at Fort Marion, Pratt encouraged the prisoners to draw and produce works of art, which he often collected and sold as tourist souvenirs. Some of the drawings he collected were later donated to museums around the country including the Smithsonian Institute and the Yale Library. Information on Pratt taken from http://webtext.library.yale.edu/xml2html/beinecke.PRATT.con.html. For more information about Richard Henry Pratt, see his autobiography Battlefield and Classroom; Four Decades with the American Indian, 1867-1904, 1964, New Haven: Yale University Press.
Fort Marion, also known as Castillo de San Marco, is a stone fortress in St. Augustine, Florida. Between 1875 and 1878, seventy-two prisoners from the southern plains were incarcerated in the fort. Captain Richard Pratt supervised the prisoners during their incarceration at Fort Marion. The prisoners consisted of 27 Kiowas, 33 Cheyennes, 9 Comanches, 2 Arapahos, and a single Caddo. With the exception of one Cheyenne woman, all the prisoners were men. They had been accused of participating in the recent Red River War, earlier hostilities, or both. With the exception of the wife and daughter of one of the Comanche men, the prisoners families were not allowed to accompany them to Fort Marion. For further information on Fort Marion see Karen Daniels Petersen, Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971 and Richard Pratt, Battlefield and Classroom, ed. by R. M. Utley, Yale University Press, 1964.
Local Numbers:
NAA INV 08500300

NAA MS 30750

OPPS NEG 88-19,335

OPPS NEG 92-11256
Place:
United States Florida Fort Marion.
Album Information:
MS 30750
Provenance:
Pratt, R H Capt
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 30750, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS30750
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms30750

MS 4252 Military target record book containing drawings by Silver Horn and others and a pictorial diary by Silver Horn

Creator:
Silver Horn, 1860-1940  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (volume of 186 drawings (129 leaves, graphite, colored pencil, watercolor, ink, 35 x 30 cm.)
Culture:
Kiowa  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ledger drawings
Diaries
Date:
ca. 1884-1897
Scope and Contents:
Bound volume of preprinted US Army forms for recording results of target practice, subsequently filled with drawings of courting, hunting, warfare, Saynday stories, and scenes from the Kiowa Sun Dance by Silver Horn and other Kiowa artists, probably all Army scouts. The book also contains a 30- page pictorial diary by Silver Horn, spanning the period between January 1893 to June 1897. The diary starts near the end of the book and proceeds from the back towards the front. Among the many names inscribed in the book are "Hawgone" (Silver Horn) and "Auchchiah," both of whom served in Troop L of the Seventh Cavalry, an all-Indian troop that was commanded by Scott. The manuscript contains 186 drawings, as well as a number of scribbled images. The pages are hand numbered, 5-356, in red ink in the upper left corner of each page. A second hand pagination in black ink runs from the back of the book toward the front, encompassing the last thirty pages of the book. Previous inscriptions in the book record the results of target practice at Fort Meade, Dakota Territory in 1884. Hugh Scott was stationed at Fort Meade between 1883 to 1886.
Biographical / Historical:
Silver Horn, Haungooah in Kiowa, was born in 1860. His name also appears as Hugone, Hangun or Hawgon. He was a member of a prominent Kiowa family. His residential band, led by his father Agiati (Gathering Feathers), actively opposed the governments efforts to confine the Kiowa to a reservation. Members of his family participated in the Red River War of 1874-1875 and were among the last Kiowa to surrender to the military. In 1891, Silver Horn enlisted in Troop L of the 7th U.S. Cavalry. He served with Troop L, which was part of broader experiment involving the enlistment of all-Indian troops, until 1894. In 1901, Silver Horn secured employment with James Mooney, an ethnologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Mooney was interested in the designs on Kiowa shields and tipis and hired Silver Horn to produce illustrations of the designs and models of the shields and tipis. The project provided Silver Horn with steady work between 1902 and 1904 and occassional employment between 1904 and 1906. Silver Horn also produced illustrations for Hugh Scott, an army officer and avocational ethnologist. Silver Horn was active in the religious life of the Kiowa. He was a Tsaidetalyi bundle keeper and participated in the Sun Dance, Ghost Dance, and Peyote religion. He was also a member of the Ohoma society. Silverhorn died on December 14, 1940. For additional biographic information on Silver Horn, see Candace Greene, Silver Horn: Master Illustrator of the Kiowas, University of Oklahoma Press, 2001.
Hugh Scott was a graduate of the United States Military Academy and served as an officer in the Seventh Cavalry. He was initially stationed in the Dakota Territory. There he learned Plains Indian sign language, a skill that enabled him to communicate more easily with the Cheyenne, Sioux, Crow, and Arikara scouts with whom he worked. He was transferred to Ft. Sill, Indian Territory in 1889. From 1891 to 1893, he commanded Troop L of the Seventh Cavalry, an all-Indian troop that was comprised primarily of Kiowa men. He was an avocational ethnologist and compiled a small collection of Plains Indian material during his service in the West, including paintings and drawings by Silver Horn. In 1911, he published illustrations redrawn from NAA MS 4252 in an article entitled Notes on the Kado, or Sun Dance of the Kiowa, which appeared in American Anthropologist. For additional information on Hugh Scott, see Candace Greene, Silver Horn Master Illustrator of the Kiowas, University of Oklahoma Press, 2001 and Hugh L. Scott, Some Memories of a Soldier, Century Company, 1928.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4252

OPPS NEG 1464-c
Local Note:
Information for the collection record was drawn from Candace Greene, Silver Horn Master Illustrator of the Kiowas, University of Oklahoma Press, 2001.
Place:
United States Oklahoma Territory Fort Sill.
United States Oklahoma. Fort Sill.
United States Oklahoma Territory. Mount Scott.
United States Oklahoma. Mount Scott.
Album Information:
MS 4252 000
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Diaries
Citation:
Manuscript 4252, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4252
See more items in:
MS 4252 Military target record book containing drawings by Silver Horn and others and a pictorial diary by Silver Horn
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4252
Online Media:

Silver Horn drawing of Sun Dancer and Taime, shown inside the Sun Dance lodge

Creator:
Silver Horn, 1860-1940  Search this
Collection Creator:
Silver Horn, 1860-1940  Search this
Extent:
1 Drawing (graphite and watercolor, 30 x 35 cm.)
Culture:
Kiowa  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
ca. 1884-1897
Scope and Contents:
Inscriptions read "Time" and "Man who paints the others 4 of these assistants who act for 4 years are succeeded by 4 others chosen by Medicine keeper".
Local Numbers:
NAA INV 09062700

OPPS NEG 92-11368

NAA MS 4252
Place:
United States Oklahoma Territory Fort Sill.
United States Oklahoma. Fort Sill.
United States Oklahoma Territory. Mount Scott.
United States Oklahoma. Mount Scott.
Album Information:
MS 4252 140
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 4252, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 4252 Military target record book containing drawings by Silver Horn and others and a pictorial diary by Silver Horn
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms4252-ref60

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