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Charles City County -- Upper Weyanoke

Provenance:
Tuckahoe Garden Club of Westhampton  Search this
Former owner:
Minge family  Search this
Orgain, Martha A.  Search this
Douthat, Fielding Louis  Search this
Douthat, Mary Willis Marshall  Search this
Garnett, Alexander Yelverton Peyton  Search this
Bahnsen, Henry Lawrence  Search this
Moon, Louise  Search this
Moon, John  Search this
Gray, Sarah Moon  Search this
Owner:
Gray, Lawrence Lewis  Search this
Gardener:
Edwards, Norman  Search this
Edwards, Wesley  Search this
Landscape architect:
Callaway, Chip  Search this
Landscape designer:
Wharton, Abbie  Search this
Thompson, Sue  Search this
Tosh, Terry  Search this
Arborist:
Girardi, Peter  Search this
Landscaping:
Carter, Ike  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
39 Digital images (color, JPEG file.)
1 Slides (photographs) (color, slide., 35 mm.)
Type:
Archival materials
Digital images
Slides (photographs)
Place:
United States of America -- Virginia -- Charles City County -- Charles City
Upper Weyanoke (Charles City, Virginia)
Scope and Contents:
2 folders, 39 digital images (2019), and 1 35mm slide (reproduction of a 1931 plan).
Varying Form:
Weyanoke
General:
That the 360-foot long garden path was cultivated in the mid-19th century when the two-story Greek Revival brick house was built is undisputed. Less certain is whether there was an earlier version of the garden in colonial times when Upper Weyanoke was settled as a James River plantation. Transport to this location during the colonial period would have been via the river and the owners would have provided a gracious entry. Moreover, there are trees along the garden path that predate 1850, even a live oak not usually grown in this climate. Axial lines and symmetry were features of colonial gardens, and the walk leads directly from the living quarters to the river. The 19th century Colonial Revival garden path may well have been on the site of the original 17th and garden path overlooking terraces. There was a 17th century brick garrison built on the property to defend against native attacks; the second existing house, a 1-1/2 story brick cottage with later additions cited in official documents, was originally built in the first quarter of the 19th century.

Since 2010 the current owners have devoted eight years to restoring and replanting the garden path, a linear grass walkway bordered on each side by southern and saucer magnolia, fig, boxwood, crape myrtle, camellia, vitex, spirea and huge sweet olive that have grown beyond their usual dimensions. After clearing dead vegetation and weeds from the borders they planted 1500 heirloom narcissus, dug a new well and installed a sprinkler system. In 2011 Hurricane Irene toppled 30 trees in this garden and stalled the restoration. With more sunshine reaching the borders previously hidden perennials started blooming again, including peonies, iris, red spider lilies and narcissus. Hundreds of bulbs, shrubs and trees were added to the garden path, especially native varieties favored by pollinators. Weather conditions include strong winds off the James River so non-symmetrical drifts of certain plants have been more successful than trying to sustain matching borders.

The 53-acre property has been inhabited nearly continuously since the 1600's and the word Weyanoke translates to Land of Sassafras in the native language. The sassafras growing at the river end of the garden path is more than 60 feet tall, now at cliff's end due to erosion. The plantation was commandeered by Union troops under Generals Grant and Sheridan during the Civil War; ornamental gardens including terraces would have been trampled. Also, author Mary Johnston used Upper Weyanoke as the setting for To Have and To Hold written in 1900. The property was listed in the Virginia Landmarks Register and the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.

Persons associated with the garden include: the Minge family (former owners, mid-1700's-1840's); Martha A. Orgain (former owner, c. 1842-1854); Fielding Lewis Douthat and Mary Willis Marshall Douthat and family (former owners, 1854-1930's); Dr. and Mrs. Alexander Yelverton Peyton Garnett (former owners, 1930's-1942); Mr. and Mrs. Henry Lawrence Bahnsen (former owners, 1942-1974); Mrs. Louise Moon (former owner, 1974-1997); Mr. and Mrs. John Moon and Sarah Moon Gray (former owners, 1997-2010); Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence Lewis Gray (owners, 2010- ); Norman Edwards and Wesley Edwards (gardeners, 2010- ); Chip Callaway (landscape architect, 2010-2014); Abbie Wharton, Sue Thompson and Terry Tosh (landscape designers, 2011- ); Peter Girardi (arborist, 2010- ); Ike Carter (landscaping, 2010- ).
Additional images of Garden Path before and during restoration and after Hurricane Irene (2011); historic images from the Arthur A. and Sidney Shurcliff collections.
Related Materials:
See the Archives of American Gardens' Eleanor Weller Reade Collection and the Hollerith Family Slide Collection for additional images. Measured drawing (1931) by Arthur Shurcliff located at the Colonial Wiliamsburg Foundation Library.

Related materials found at the Francis Loeb Library, Harvard Graduate School of Design, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Special Collections, John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Library, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Williamsburg, Virginia state.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Virginia -- Charles City  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File VA234
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Virginia
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb699d81bd1-6870-4854-a6f3-71a53e2c0a4e
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref32528

North Carolina's free people of color, 1715-1885 Warren Eugene Milteer Jr

Author:
Milteer, Warren E. Jr  Search this
Physical description:
301 pages illustrations, map 24 cm
Type:
Books
History
Place:
North Carolina
Caroline du Nord
Date:
2020
Topic:
Free African Americans--History  Search this
Racially mixed people--History  Search this
Noirs américains affranchis--Histoire  Search this
Free African Americans  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Racially mixed people  Search this
History  Search this
Relations raciales  Search this
Histoire  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1157226

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
Crispus Attucks, American, 1723 - 1770  Search this
Sojourner Truth, American, 1797 - 1883  Search this
Harriet Tubman, American, 1822 - 1913  Search this
Sarah C. Roberts, American, born 1844  Search this
Susan McKinney Steward, American, 1847 - 1918  Search this
Dred Scott, American, ca 1800 - 1858  Search this
Frederick Douglass, American, 1818 - 1895  Search this
Booker T. Washington, American, 1856 - 1915  Search this
George Washington Carver, American, 1860s - 1943  Search this
W.E.B. Du Bois, American, 1868 - 1963  Search this
Scott Joplin, American, 1867 - 1917  Search this
Marcus Garvey, Jamaican, 1887 - 1940  Search this
James Weldon Johnson, American, 1871 - 1938  Search this
Father Divine, American, ca. 1876 - 1965  Search this
A. Philip Randolph, American, 1889 - 1979  Search this
Adam Clayton Powell Jr., American, 1908 - 1972  Search this
Rosa Parks, American, 1913 - 2005  Search this
Medgar Evers, American, 1925 - 1963  Search this
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., American, 1929 - 1968  Search this
President Lyndon Baines Johnson, American, 1908 - 1973  Search this
Mary McLeod Bethune, American, 1875 - 1955  Search this
National Association of Black Social Workers, American, founded 1968  Search this
Congressional Black Caucus, American, founded 1971  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
National Pan-Hellenic Council, American, founded 1930  Search this
National Dental Association, American, founded 1913  Search this
Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks of the World, American, founded 1898  Search this
Democratic Party, American, founded 1828  Search this
Republican Party, American, founded 1854  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, American, founded 1920  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Eta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1943  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc., founded 1922  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
National Council of Negro Women, founded 1935  Search this
Daughters of Isis, American, founded 1910  Search this
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
Langston Hughes, American, 1902 - 1967  Search this
Paul Robeson, American, 1898 - 1976  Search this
Ezzard Mack Charles, American, 1921 - 1975  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 3/8 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1976
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Black Press  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religion  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
U.S. History, Colonial period, 1600-1775  Search this
United States History  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's organizations  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.10
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5e57ffdd9-2ab1-46da-b6e7-10757007351f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.10

Festival Recordings: Narrative Stage: Cola Boi, Cape Verdean-American Media; Basketwork; Batuku and Cola; Violin Styles

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. Cape Verde Program 1995 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Long, Domi (recorder)  Search this
Patten, Marian (recorder)  Search this
Performer:
da Luz, Frederíco José  Search this
Moacyr, Gabriel  Search this
Medina, Guilherme  Search this
Russell, Al Tootsie  Search this
Andrade, Eddie  Search this
Silva, Romana Ramos  Search this
Almeida, Manuel Fatima  Search this
Brito, Maria Maria Paulo de  Search this
Fortes, Miguel João  Search this
Gomes, Inácia Maria  Search this
Cardoza, Lydia  Search this
Gomes, Simão  Search this
Rodrigues, Américo  Search this
De Pina, Augusto  Search this
Pires, Ivo  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
compact audio cassette
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Cape Verdeans  Search this
Americans  Search this
Cape Verdean Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Cape Verde
Santo Antô Island (Cape Verde)
Sô Nicolau Island (Cape Verde)
Massachusetts
Santiago (Cape Verde)
Roxbury (Boston, Mass.)
Fogo (Cape Verde)
Brava (Cape Verde)
Brockton (Mass.)
Date:
1995 June 26
Track Information:
101 Cola Boi and Other Work Songs / Frederíco José da Luz, Gabriel Moacyr, Guilherme Medina.

102 Cape Verdean-American Media / Al Tootsie Russell, Eddie Andrade, Romana Ramos Silva.

103 Basketwork / Manuel Fatima Almeida, Maria Maria Paulo de Brito, Miguel João Fortes.

104 Drum, Dance, Celebrate: Batuku and Cola Music and Dance / Inácia Maria Gomes, Lydia Cardoza, Simão Gomes.

105 Violin Styles / Américo Rodrigues, Augusto De Pina, Ivo Pires. Violin,Guitar,Cavaquinho,Ukulele,Fiddle.
Local Numbers:
FP-1995-CT-0332
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, June 26, 1995.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. Please visit our website to learn more about submitting a request. The Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections make no guarantees concerning copyright or other intellectual property restrictions. Other usage conditions may apply; please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for more information.
Topic:
World music  Search this
Cola Boi  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Batuku  Search this
Cola  Search this
Violin  Search this
Guitar  Search this
Cavaquinho  Search this
Ukulele  Search this
Sugar factories  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Oxen  Search this
Trapiche  Search this
Press  Search this
Immigrant communities  Search this
Media & society  Search this
language  Search this
Names  Search this
United States -- History -- Colonial period -- Societies  Search this
Basket making  Search this
Cola drinks  Search this
Independence  Search this
Local history  Search this
Batuku (Dance)  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1995 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1995, Item FP-1995-CT-0332
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1995 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1995 Festival of American Folklife / Series 2: The Cape Verdean Connection / 2.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk58ebfb5fe-1974-4a41-b760-d393a64dcfbf
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1995-ref590

Festival Recordings: Narrative Stage: Cape Verdean Immigration; Social Dance Styles; Funana and Coladeira

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. Cape Verde Program 1995 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Golden, Justin (recorder)  Search this
Patten, Marian (recorder)  Search this
Performer:
Almeida, Raymond A.  Search this
Smart, Yvonne  Search this
Rodrigues, Américo  Search this
Simas, Antero  Search this
De Pina, Augusto  Search this
Ramos, Simão  Search this
Lopes, Simão  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
compact audio cassette
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Cape Verdeans  Search this
Americans  Search this
Cape Verdean Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Cape Verde
Fogo (Cape Verde)
Sal (Cape Verde)
Santiago (Cape Verde)
Date:
1995 June 30
Track Information:
101 Cape Verdean Immigration / Raymond A. Almeida, Yvonne Smart.

102 Social Dance Styles / Américo Rodrigues, Antero Simas, Augusto De Pina. Violin,Cavaquinho,Ukulele,Guitar.

103 Funana and Coladeira: Social Commentary / Antero Simas, Simão Ramos, Simão Lopes. Guitar,Gaita,Accordion,Ferriño,Iron bar.
Local Numbers:
FP-1995-CT-0338
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, June 30, 1995.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. Please visit our website to learn more about submitting a request. The Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections make no guarantees concerning copyright or other intellectual property restrictions. Other usage conditions may apply; please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for more information.
Topic:
Oral history  Search this
Funana (Music) -- Cape Verde  Search this
Morna  Search this
World music  Search this
Coladeira  Search this
Protest songs  Search this
Violin  Search this
Cavaquinho  Search this
Ukulele  Search this
Guitar  Search this
Gaita  Search this
Accordion  Search this
Ferriǫ  Search this
Iron bar  Search this
Immigrant communities  Search this
United States -- History -- Colonial period -- Societies  Search this
Emigration & immigration  Search this
Social dancing  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1995 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1995, Item FP-1995-CT-0338
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1995 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1995 Festival of American Folklife / Series 2: The Cape Verdean Connection / 2.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk53903d9c8-82a6-43bd-a046-17b7b49a8e65
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1995-ref596

Early Rhode Island a social history of the people William B. Weeden

Author:
Weeden, William B (William Babcock) 1834-1912  Search this
Physical description:
x, 381 pages illustrations 21 cm
Type:
Books
History
Place:
Rhode Island
Date:
1991
1910
Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775
Ca 1600-1775 (Période coloniale)
Topic:
Manners and customs  Search this
History  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Histoire  Search this
Mœurs et coutumes  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1155380

Savagism and civility : Indians and Englishmen in Colonial Virginia / Bernard W. Sheehan

Author:
Sheehan, Bernard W  Search this
Physical description:
xi, 258 p. ; 22 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Virginia
Great Britain
Date:
1980
C1980
Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775
Topic:
Indians, Treatment of  Search this
First contact with other peoples  Search this
Public opinion  Search this
History  Search this
Call number:
E78.V7 S53X
E78.V7S53X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_123495

Album of American history. James Truslow Adams, editor in chief

Author:
Adams, James Truslow 1878-1949  Search this
Hopkins, Joseph G. E  Search this
Physical description:
6 v. illus. 29 cm
Type:
Books
Pictorial works
Place:
United States
Date:
1969
[1969]
Topic:
History  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Call number:
E178.5 .A34 1969
E178.5.A34 1969
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_16311

Colonial British America essays in the new history of the early modern era edited by Jack P. Greene and J.R. Pole

Author:
Greene, Jack P  Search this
Pole, J. R (Jack Richon)  Search this
Physical description:
ix, 508 pages 24 cm
Type:
Books
Congresses
Congrès
Aufsatzsammlung
Kongress
History
Conference papers and proceedings
Actes de congrès
Place:
United States
États-Unis
Britisch-Nordamerika
Neuengland
Oxford
Date:
1984
Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775
1600-1775 (Période coloniale)
Ca 1600-1775 (Période coloniale)
1981
Topic:
Historiography  Search this
Geschichte  Search this
Kongress  Search this
Aufsatzsammlung  Search this
History  Search this
Histoire  Search this
Historiographie  Search this
United States, 1607-1763--Historiology  Search this
Call number:
E188.C72 1984X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_372543

Colonial North America and the Atlantic world : a history in documents / [edited by] Brett Rushforth, Paul W. Mapp

Author:
Rushforth, Brett  Search this
Mapp, Paul W  Search this
Physical description:
x, 339 p. ; 24 cm
Type:
Sources
Early works to 1800
Place:
North America
America
United States
Date:
2009
C2009
Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775
To 1865
Topic:
Indians of North America--First contact with other peoples  Search this
Colonization  Search this
History  Search this
Discovery and exploration  Search this
Spanish  Search this
French  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_927276

Maryland heritage : five Baltimore institutions celebrate the American bicentennial / Edited by John B. Boles

Author:
Maryland Historical Society  Search this
Boles, John B  Search this
Walters Art Gallery (Baltimore, Md.)  Search this
Baltimore Museum of Art  Search this
Peale Museum  Search this
Maryland Academy of Sciences  Search this
Physical description:
xiv, 253 p. : ill., ports. ; 29 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Place:
Maryland
Baltimore (Md.)
Date:
1976
17th century
18th century
Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775
Revolution, 1775-1783
Topic:
Art, Modern  Search this
Art, American  Search this
History  Search this
Call number:
F178 .M39
N6507 .M39
F178.M39
N6507.M39
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_85816

The Pulse of the people : New Jersey, 1763-1789

Author:
New Jersey State Museum  Search this
New Jersey Historical Society  Search this
New Jersey Historical Commission  Search this
Physical description:
268 p. : ill. ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
Exhibitions
Place:
New Jersey
Date:
1976
C1976
Revolution, 1775-1783
Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775
1775-1865
Topic:
History  Search this
Call number:
F138 .P84X
F138.P84X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_110281

The trials of Thomas Morton an Anglican lawyer, his Puritan foes, and the battle for a New England Peter C. Mancall

Author:
Mancall, Peter C  Search this
Physical description:
ix, 278 pages illustrations, maps 22 cm
Type:
Biography
Biographies
collective biographies
History
Place:
Massachusetts
Date:
2019
17th century
18th century
Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775
Ca 1600-1775 (Période coloniale)
Topic:
British Americans  Search this
Colonists  Search this
Indians of North America--History  Search this
History  Search this
Américains d'origine britannique  Search this
Colons (Colonisation)  Search this
Histoire  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1116284

Historical Records of the DeWolf Family

Creator:
DeWolf, James, 1764-1837  Search this
Names:
Bellin, J.H.  Search this
DeWolf, George  Search this
Elfelt, Peter  Search this
Oliver, Louis  Search this
Extent:
1.8 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Place:
Cuba
Caribbean
Rhode Island
West Indies
Date:
1757-1947
Scope and Contents:
The Papers of the DeWolf Family shed light on one of the wealthiest New England families in the 18th-19th centuries who made their fortune by engaging in each part of the transatlantic slave trade. This collection is comprised of photographs, correspondence, publications, and business records including daily logs and ship manifests. Included in the collection are ship business records and documents from multiple countries including Cuba, the Netherlands, China, and India.
Arrangement:
The materials in this collection have been kept at the folder level and separated into five series. The materials have been ordered and organized based on the content.
Biographical / Historical:
Rhode Island dominated the North American transatlantic slave trade, led by the DeWolf family of Bristol. They financed their wealthy lifestyle by engaging in each part of the triangular trade, which involved the shipping of natural resources from the Caribbean to America and Europe for manufacturing, then using them to fund the purchase of enslaved persons. The DeWolf family owned numerous sugar and coffee plantations in Cuba. Sugar from the Cuba plantations was made into molasses, transported to Rhode Island in DeWolf vessels, and transformed into rum in DeWolf-owned distilleries. The rum was then taken to Africa and used as payment for enslaved captives, who were eventually sold in Cuba and other southern ports for tremendous profit. Between 1769 and 1820, it is believed the DeWolf-owned vessels carried more than 12,000 enslaved Africans across the Middle Passage. The profit generated from these trade endeavors allowed the family to start a bank and insurance company.

The first patriarch of the DeWolf family was Mark Anthony DeWolf (1726-1792). Mark emigrated from Guadeloupe Island in the West Indies after serving as a deckhand on a slave trading ship owned by privateer Simeon Potter. Mark married Potter's sister Abigail and they had 15 children. Their son James DeWolf, born on March 18, 1764 in Bristol, was most apt to take over the family business. James, like his father, worked as a slave trader, privateer, and a politician, including time as an U. S. Senator for Rhode Island. During the Revolutionary War, DeWolf served as a sailor on a private armed vessel that was twice captured by the British. By his early twenties, his past experiences saw him promoted to the rank of captain of a ship. James married Nancy Ann Bradford, daughter of the Massachusetts governor William Bradford, in 1790. Together they had 11 children.

In 1791, DeWolf was indicted for murdering an enslaved woman on his ship. The enslaved woman may have had smallpox and DeWolf claimed that she threatened the lives of all the enslaved persons and crew members on board. DeWolf and two crew members agreed to throw the woman overboard to her death. Judge John Jay discovered the story and reported it to President George Washington who gave orders for DeWolf's immediate arrest, citing violation of the Federal Slave Trade Law of 1790. DeWolf fled to the West Indies and by 1795 the charges were dropped. The judge declared that "this act of James De Wolfe was morally evil, but at the same time physically good and beneficial to a number of beings." Further, it was the "least" of the "two evils," and the accusations against DeWolf were "groundless."

Buoyed by the acquittal, DeWolf's family continued their criminal activity within the slave trading business. In 1794, Congress outlawed Americans carrying slaves between foreign countries or into countries that had statutes against the trade. In order to circumvent these laws, DeWolf called in a favor with Thomas Jefferson to appoint his brother-in-law, Charles Collins, a customs inspector. Collins ignored many of the slave ships moving in and out of the harbor that in turn allowed the DeWolf family to continue profiting from human suffering. DeWolf funneled his slave trading efforts through Cuba, the only open Caribbean trade port with American access. DeWolf continually shipped men, women, and children from American soil to Cuba.

In 1808, Congress banned the importation of enslaved into the United States and DeWolf turned to new ventures to keep his wealth, including privateering. During the War of 1812, his ship Yankee was the most successful privateer of the war, capturing prizes worth over three million dollars. In order to continue to profit off slavery, DeWolf founded the Arkwright Mill in Coventry, Rhode Island, which became a pioneer in the processing and manufacturing of cotton harvested by enslaved people. The family also maintained plantations in Cuba, and James' nephew, George DeWolf, continued trading enslaved persons at least until 1820 when it became punishable by death. From 1817-1821, DeWolf served as a member of the Rhode Island State House of Representatives; he was promoted to Speaker of the House from 1819-1821. In 1821, he was elected a U.S Senator for Rhode Island and served five years of his six-year term. He resigned and returned to the State House of Representatives from 1829 until his death in 1837. James DeWolf died in New York City on December 21, 1837. It was reported at his death that he was the second wealthiest man in America.

Historical Timeline

1726 -- Mark Anthony DeWolf was born

1764 -- James DeWolf was born in Bristol, Rhode Island, son of Mark Anthony and Abigail DeWolf

1775-83 -- James DeWolf served as a sailor in the Revolutionary War

1790 -- James DeWolf married Nancy Bradford, daughter of Massachusetts Governor William Bradford

1791 -- James DeWolf was indicted for murdering an enslaved woman on his slaving ship

1792 -- Mark Anthony DeWolf died leaving the business to his son, James

1795 -- All charges against James in the death of an enslaved woman on-board his ship in 1791 were dismissed

1808 -- Congress abolishes the African slave trade

1812 -- James DeWolf built the Arkwright Mills in Coventry, Rhode Island. He also served a privateer in the War of 1812

1817 -- James DeWolf began serving as a representative in the Rhode Island House of Representatives

1819 -- DeWolf began serving as the Speaker of the House in Rhode Island State General Assembly

1821-25 -- James DeWolf served as U.S. Senator for Rhode Island

1829 -- James DeWolf returned as a member of the State House of Representatives

1837 -- James DeWolf died in New York City, New York
Provenance:
Acquired through a purchase by the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Restrictions:
Portions of this collection are restricted from use as means to further preserve the collection. Digital surrogates are available for portions of this collection.
Rights:
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions may apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.
Topic:
Slavery  Search this
Domestic Slave Trade  Search this
Middle Passage  Search this
Sugar  Search this
Transatlantic Slave Trade  Search this
Coffee  Search this
Rum  Search this
United States -- History -- Revolution, 1775-1783  Search this
United States -- History -- Colonial period -- Societies  Search this
Photography  Search this
Shipping  Search this
United States -- History -- 1815-1861  Search this
United States -- History -- 1783-1815  Search this
United States -- History -- 1865-1921  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Citation:
Historical Records of the DeWolf Family, National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.A2018.17.2
See more items in:
Historical Records of the DeWolf Family
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/io3fc558353-14d8-4cec-ac12-ddf21cf9a8d4
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-a2018-17-2
Online Media:

William Blaxton / by Thomas Coffin Amory

Author:
Amory, Thomas C (Thomas Coffin) 1812-1889  Search this
Subject:
Blackstone, William 1595-1675  Search this
Physical description:
25 p. ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Boston (Mass.)
Date:
1886
C1886
Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775
Topic:
History  Search this
Call number:
F73.4 .A52 1886
F73.4.A52 1886
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_397280

The faithful Mohawks. With a foreword by Lord Tweedsmuir

Author:
Lydekker, John Wolfe  Search this
Subject:
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (Great Britain)  Search this
Physical description:
xii, 206 p. illus., facsims., geneal. table, ports. 23 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Canada
Date:
1968
1938
[1968]
Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775
To 1763 (New France)
Topic:
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_740958

Novum Belgium : an account of New Netherland in 1643-4 / by Rev. Father Isaac Jogues, of the Society of Jesus ; with a facsimile of his original manuscript, his portrait, a map, and notes by John Gilmary Shea

Title:
Jogues Novum Belgium 1643-4
Author:
Jogues, Isaac Saint 1607-1646  Search this
Shea, John Gilmary 1824-1892  Search this
Subject:
Goupil, René d. 1642  Search this
Jogues, Isaac Saint 1607-1646  Search this
Physical description:
16, 53, [3] p., [3] leaves of plates (1 folded) : ill., map, port. ; 33 cm
Type:
Electronic resources
Place:
New York (State)
New Netherland
Date:
1862
17th century
Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775
Topic:
Missions  Search this
Dutch--History  Search this
Description and travel  Search this
History  Search this
Call number:
F1030.8 .J64 1862
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_909914

Buddhist art of Myanmar / edited by Sylvia Fraser-Lu and Donald M. Stadtner

Editor:
Fraser-Lu, Sylvia  Search this
Stadtner, Donald Martin 1947-  Search this
Host institution:
Asia Society Museum  Search this
Physical description:
256 pages : illustrations (chiefly color) ; 27 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Exhibition catalogs
Place:
Burma
Date:
2015
Topic:
Buddhist art  Search this
Art  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1048253

The diary of Samuel Sewall, 1674-1729. Newly edited from the ms. at the Massachusetts Historical Society by M. Halsey Thomas

Author:
Sewall, Samuel 1652-1730  Search this
Thomas, Milton Halsey 1903-  Search this
Subject:
Sewall, Samuel 1652-1730  Search this
Physical description:
2 v. (xxxvii, 1254 p.) illus. 25 cm
Type:
Books
Sources
Place:
Massachusetts
Date:
1973
[1973]
Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775
Topic:
History  Search this
Call number:
CT275.S528 A1
CT275.S528A1
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_37673

Living and dying on the 17th century Patuxent frontier / Julia A. King and Douglas H. Ubelaker, editors

Editor:
King, Julia A. 1956-  Search this
Ubelaker, Douglas H.  Search this
Sponsoring body:
Maryland Historical Trust  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource (ix, 183, 1 pages) : illustrations, maps
Type:
Electronic resources
Place:
Maryland
Calvert County
Patuxent Point Site
Patuxent Point Site (Md.)
Chesapeake Bay Region (Md. and Va.)
Calvert County (Md.)
Date:
1996
17th century
Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775
To 1775
Topic:
Land settlement--History  Search this
Cemeteries  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Human remains (Archaeology)  Search this
History  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Antiquities  Search this
Call number:
F187.C15 L58 1996
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1053221

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