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Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
New York Giants, American, founded 1925  Search this
National Pan-Hellenic Council, American, founded 1930  Search this
United Negro College Fund, American, founded 1944  Search this
Adam Clayton Powell Jr., American, 1908 - 1972  Search this
President Lyndon Baines Johnson, American, 1908 - 1973  Search this
Jackie Robinson, American, 1919 - 1972  Search this
President Harry S. Truman, American, 1884 - 1972  Search this
National Association of Black Social Workers, American, founded 1968  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Howard University Medical Alumni Association, Inc., American, founded 1871  Search this
Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps, American, founded 1916  Search this
Sovereign Military Order of Malta, founded 1099  Search this
Steven N. Lockett, American  Search this
The Girl Friends, Inc., American, founded 1927  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
Simeon Golar, American, 1929 - 2013  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Gordon Parks, American, 1912 - 2006  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Dr. Kenneth Clark, American, 1914 - 2005  Search this
Whitney Moore Young Jr., American, 1921 - 1971  Search this
National Dental Association, American, founded 1913  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
National Association of Broadcasters, American  Search this
Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., American, 1929 - 1968  Search this
Spelman College, American, founded 1881  Search this
Morehouse College, American, founded 1867  Search this
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, American, founded 1913  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Gladys W. Dixon, American, born 1901  Search this
Daughters of Isis, American, founded 1910  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
National Insurance Association, American, founded 1921  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
Clara Hale, American, 1905 - 1992  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 3/8 × 3/8 in. (27.5 × 21.2 × 0.9 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Jamaica, Caribbean, North and Central America
Bahamas, Caribbean, North and Central America
Date:
1973
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
Travel  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.7
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5cfb9effd-68b5-4246-b12a-9179d2fdce82
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.7
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  • View <I>Delegate</I> digital asset number 1

N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records

Creator:
Ayer (N W) Incorporated.  Search this
Names:
American Telephone and Telegraph Company -- Advertisements  Search this
Cunningham & Walsh.  Search this
Hixson & Jorgenson  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc. -- Advertisements  Search this
Ayer, Francis Wayland  Search this
De Kooning, Willem, 1904-1997  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia , 1887-1986  Search this
Extent:
270 Cubic feet (1463 boxes, 33 map-folders, 7 films)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Interviews
Oral history
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Advertisements
Date:
1817-1851
1869-2006
Summary:
Collection consists of records documenting one of the oldest advertising agencies created in Philadelphia. The company then moves to New York and expanses to international markets. During its history NW Ayer & Sons acquires a number of other advertising agencies and is eventually purchased. The largest portion of the collection is print advertisements but also includes radio and television. NW Ayer is known for some of the slogans created for major American companies.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of proof sheets of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son, Incorporated for their clients. These materials are in series one through thirteen and consist primarily of print advertisements. There are also billboards, radio and television commercials. The advertisements range from consumer to corporate and industrial products. The majority of the advertisements were created for Ayer's New York, Chicago, Los Angeles and international offices. Printed advertisements created by Cunningham & Walsh, Hixson & Jorgensen and Newell-Emmett are also included among these materials. Researchers who are interested in records created by Ayer in the course of operating an advertising agency will find these materials in Series fourteen-nineteen.

Series fourteen consists of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son to promote their services to potential clients.

Series fifteen are scrapbooks of some of the earliest advertisements created by the company. Series sixteen are publications. Some of the publications were created by Ayer while others were about Ayer or the advertising industry in general. Provides good background materials and puts the company in perspective. Series eighteen are the legal records. Materials relating to employees including photographs, oral histories etc. are found in series nineteen.

Series twenty is one of the smallest amounts of materials and includes information relating to the history of NW Ayer & Son.

The container lists for series one-thirteen are part of a database and are searchable. The list has been printed for the convenience of the researcher and is included in this finding aid. Series fourteen-twenty container lists are also a part of the finding aid but are not in a searchable format.

Series 1, Scrapbooks of Client Advertisements, circa 1870-1920, is arranged into three boxes by chronological date. There are two bound scrapbooks and one box of folders containing loose scrapbook pages. NW Ayer & Son compiled an assortment of their earliest ads and placed them into scrapbooks. Besides the earliest advertisements, the scrapbooks contain requests to run advertisements, reading notices and listings of papers Ayer advertised in. The early advertisements themselves range from medical remedies to jewelry to machines to clothing to education and more. Most of the advertisements in the bound scrapbooks are dated.

Series 2, Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930, NW Ayer was fond of creating scrapbooks containing proofsheets. The series contains proofsheets created between 1892 and 1930, organized into 526 boxes. For convenience of storage, access and arrangement, the scrapbooks were disassembled and the pages placed in original order in flat archival storage boxes. The proofsheets are arranged by book number rather than client name. Usually the boxes contain a listing of the clients and sometimes the dates of the advertisements to be found within the box.

Series 3, Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975, is organized into 532 oversize boxes, and contain proofsheets and tearsheets created between 1920 and 1972. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by company name (occasionally subdivided by brand or product), and thereunder chronologically by date of production. Many major, national advertisers are represented, including American Telephone & Telegraph, Armour Company, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Carrier Corporation, Domino Sugar, Caterpillar tractor company, Ford Motor Company, General Electric, Goodyear, Hills Bros. Coffee, Ladies Home Journal, National Dairy, Plymouth (Chrysler Corporation), Steinway, TV Guide, United Airlines and the United States Army. Also contained in this series are three scrapbooks of client advertisements including Canada Dry, Ford Motor, and Victor Talking Machine.

Series 4, 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001, is organized into ninety three oversized boxes,one folder and contains proofsheets for select Ayer clients, created between 1975 and 2001. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by client name and there under chronologically by date of production. Major national advertisers represented include American Telephone & Telegraph, Avon, the United States Army, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Dupont, TV Guide, Sealtest, Kraft Foods, Gillette, General Motors, Cannon Mills.

Series 5, Billboards, circa 1952-1956, consists of mounted and un-mounted original art/mock-ups. Twenty-two pieces of original art created as mock-ups for Texaco billboards.

Series 6, Film and Video Commercials, 1967-1970,

Series 7, Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated, is arranged into eight boxes and includes radio scripts, television scripts, and story boards for commercials.

Subseries 7.1, Scripts and storyboards for Radio and Television Commercials, dates Scripts for radio and television commercials includes title, date, length of commercial, advertising agency, client information

NW Ayer's radio and television materials mainly focus on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Some of Ayer's materials relate to Bell Telephone Hours.

Storyboards are used in television and film to assist the director in working with crew to tell the story. To show the viewer through the use of figures, visual effects and camera angles. When directors first start thinking about their storyboard they create a story in their mind. They think of all the camera angles, visual effects and how the figures will interact in their mind. They try to create an extraordinary story in their head to attract the viewer (YOU) In order for the storyboard to be entirely effective it can't be a passive document. When done properly, a storyboard serves as a central design, meeting the needs of many team members including graphics artists, video personnel and programmers.

Another function of a storyboard is to help the team communicate during the training development process. This communication is very important in working with a large team as in the movie King, produced in 1996. Figures help the director explain to the crew how they are going to record the film and how to present it to the audience. Sometimes the director wants special effects to be added to the film, but his budget might not be that big so the director will have to change the story to fit their budget.

The Visual Effects are an important part in the storyboards it adds a special touch of creativity to your film. Camera angles are an important expects in your film because the camera angles determine where the viewing audience will look. If you want your audience to look at a certain object you must turn their attention to it by focusing on that object and maybe you might try blocking something out. Then you will have your audience's attention and you may do whatever else you have to, it could be scaring them are just surprising them or whatever you do.

Also included is talent information and log sheets relating to the storage of the commercials.

Bell Telephone Hour Program, 1942-[19??], The Bell Telephone Hour, also known as The Telephone Hour, was a five minute musical program which began April 29, 1940 on National Broadcasting Company Radio and was heard on NBC until June 30, 1958. Sponsored by Bell Telephone showcased the best in classical and Broadway music, reaching eight to nine million listeners each week. It continued on television from 1959 to 1968.

Earlier shows featured James Melton and Francia White as soloists. Producer Wallace Magill restructured the format on April 27, 1942 into the "Great Artists Series" of concert and opera performers, beginning with Jascha Heifetz. Records indicate that the list of talents on the program included Marian Anderson, Helen Traubel, Oscar Levant, Lily Pons, Nelson Eddy, Bing Crosby, Margaret Daum, Benny Goodman, José Iturbi, Gladys Swarthout and .The series returned to radio in 1968-1969 as Bell Telephone Hour Encores, also known as Encores from the Bell Telephone Hour, featuring highlights and interviews from the original series.

National Broadcasting television specials sponsored by the Bell System, 1957-1987includes information relating to Science series, Bell system Theshold Series, Bell telephone hour and commercial and public sponsored programs

Series 8, Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989, is arranged alphabetically by the name of the client in ninety boxes and six oversize folders. Clients include Illinois Bell Telephone (1955-1989), Microswitch (1969-1989), Teletype (1975-1984), John Deere (1974-1989) and Caterpillar (1966-1972) are particularly well represented. Other clients of interest include Dr. Scholl's shoes (circa 1968-1972), the Girl Scouts (1976-1980), Sunbeam Personal Products Company (1973-1981), Bell and Howell (1974-1983) and Alberto Culver shampoos (1967-1971), Honeywell, Incorporated, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Associations, Kraft, Incorporated, Sears, Roebuck and Company, and YMCA.

Series 9, Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987, include printed advertisements created by this office and information relating to the employees.

Subseries 9.1, Print Advertisements, 1977-1987, printed advertisements arranged in one box alphabetically by client. There is a sparse sampling of clients from this particular Ayer branch office. The majority of the advertisements contained within this series are from Pizza Hut (1986-1987). Also included are Computer Automation (1977-1978), State of the Art, Incorporated (1982) and Toshiba (1986).

Subseries 9.2, Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s, includes cards of employees who worked in the Los Angeles office. Information on the cards includes name, address, telephone number, birthday, date hired, departure date and why (retired, terminated, resigned, etc) and position. Not all cards have all information. There is also a photograph of the employees on the cards.

Series 10, Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated, NW Ayer maintained partnerships with international companies such as Sloanas Ayer in Argentina, Connaghan & May Paton Ayer in Australia, Moussault Ayer in Belgium, NW Ayer, LTD. in Canada, GMC Ayer in France, Co-Partner Ayer in Germany, Wong Lam Wang in Hong Kong, MacHarman Ayer in New Zealand, Grupo de Diseno Ayer in Spain, Nedeby Ayer in Sweden, and Ayer Barker in United Kingdom. This group of material is a small sampling of advertisements created from these International offices. It is arranged alphabetically by client. There are quite a few automobile advertisements (i.e. Audi, Fiat, General Motors, Mercedes-Benz, and Volkswagen). In addition there are numerous advertisements for various personal items from MacLean's toothpaste to Quick athletic shoes to Labello lip balm, etc. Most of the advertisements have the creator's name printed on the advertisements.

Series 11, Cunningham & Walsh, Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated contains 98 boxes 11 folders materials from the New York advertising agency acquired by NW Ayer in the 1960s. The company began with Newel-Emmett, an agency of nine men which broke up in 1949. Two of the men Fred Walsh and Jack Cunningham formed this agency in bearing their names in 1950. The agency created "let your fingers for the walking campaign for American Telephone & Telegraph, Mother Nature for Chiffon, and Mrs. Olson for Folgers's coffee and let the good times roll for Kawasaki motorcycle. In 1986, NW Ayer Incorporated purchased Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated.

Subseries 11.1, Print Advertisements, 1915-1987, are contained in ninety eight boxes of primarily print advertisements arranged alphabetically by client name. Clients that are particularly well represented are Graybar (electrical implements, circa1926-1937), Johns-Manulle (circa1915-1971), Smith and Corono typewriters (circa 1934-1960), Sunshine Biscuit Company (circa 1925-1961), Texaco Company (circa 1936-1961), Western Electric (circa 1920- 1971) and Yellow Pages (circa 1936-1971). Cunningham and Walsh also represented several travel and tourism industry clients, including Cook Travel Services (circa 1951-1962), Italian Line (circa 1953-1961), Narragansett and Croft (circa 1956-1960) and Northwest Airlines (circa 1946-1955). There are photographs of Texaco advertisements dating from 1913-1962. There is also a scrapbook of advertisements from the Western Electric Company dating from 1920-1922.

Subseries 11.2, Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967, consist of materials created for Western Electric. Materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 11.3, Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated include client lists, information relating to NW Ayer purchase and annual report 1962.

Series 12, Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, a Los Angeles advertising company, merged with Ayer in 1969. This series is housed in one box. Within the box are four scrapbooks and folders with a hodgepodge of materials relating to advertising. Of most interest are the scrapbooks. Two scrapbooks deal with Hixson and Jorgensen's self promotion ad campaign "the right appeal gets action" (1953-1957). The other two scrapbooks contain news clippings about the company and its activities (1959-1971).

Series 13, Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957, founded in 1919 and governed in the 1940s by a partnership of nine men. The partnership broke up in 1949 when the men went their separate ways. The materials consist of print advertisements for one of client, Permutit Company, a water conditioning company. The materials are arranged in one box in chronological order.

Series 14, House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991, 16 boxes consists of advertisements or self-promotion advertisements to campaign for new clients. The series is arranged chronologically by date into fifteen boxes. Within the series are two scrapbooks containing self promotion ads from 1888-1919 and 1892-1895. Numerous house ads relate to Ayer's "Human Contact" campaign. In addition to the self promotion ads, Ayer ran advertisements expounding about particular concepts or themes for example, one month the concept would "understand" while another month would be "teamwork" and yet another would be on "imagination". Some of the self promotion ads target specific groups like Philadelphia businessmen. Other advertisements incorporate the fine arts.

Series 15, Scrapbooks, 1872-1959, relates to company events, records and news clippings about Ayer's history. The six boxes are arranged by chronological date. Two of the boxes focus solely on the death of founder F.W. Ayer (1923). Another box houses a scrapbook that showcases Ayer's annual Typography Exhibition (1931-1959). One box contains a scrapbook that specifically deals with correspondences relating to Ayer's advertising. Yet another box's contents are folders of loose pages from scrapbooks that have newspaper clippings, order forms, correspondences and other company records. In one box, a bound scrapbook houses a variety of materials relating to Ayer and advertising (i.e. newspaper clippings, competitor's advertisements, NW Ayer's advertisements, correspondences for advertisements, clippings regarding the "theory of advertising."

Series 16, Publications, 1849-2006, are housed in thirty four boxes and are arranged into three main categories.

Subseries 16.1, House Publications, 1876-1994, covers diverse topics; some proscriptive works about the Ayer method in advertising, some commemorating people, anniversaries or events in the life of the agency. Materials consist of scattered issues of the employee newsletter The Next Step 1920-1921. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date of publication. Ayer in the News, The Show Windows of an Advertising Agency, 1915, book form of advertisements published on the cover of Printer's Ink, highlighting Ayer's relations with advertisers. The Story of the States, 1916, Reprint in book form of a series of articles published in Printer's Ink for the purpose of adding some pertinent fact, progressive thought and prophetic vision to the Nationalism of Advertising highlights major businesses, manufacturer, natural resources and other qualities or attractions of each state. The Book of the Golden Celebration, 1919, includes welcome address and closing remarks by founder F. Wayland Ayer, The Next Step, 1920 employee newsletter with photographs, employee profiles, in-house jokes, etc., Advertising Advertising: A Series of Fifty-two Advertisements scheduled one time a week. Twenty-seven, thirty and forty inches, a day of the week optional with publisher, 1924

Subseries 16.2, Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-2006, includes a book first published in 1939. Includes articles, documenting events and is arranged chronologically by date of publication.

Subseries 16.3, General Publications about Advertising, 1922-1974, are arranged chronologically by date of publication and relate primarily to the history of advertising.

Subseries 16.4, Publications about Other Subjects, 1948-1964, include four books about the tobacco industry primarily the history of the American Tobacco Company and Lorillard Company from the Cunningham and Walsh library.

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1, Contracts, 1885-1908, undated, are arranged alphabetically and span from 1885-1908. The majority of the contracts are with newspaper and magazine publishers from around the country.

Subseries 17.2, General client information, 1911-1999, undated, including active and cancelled lists with dates, client gains, historical client list, (should move this to series 20) Ayer Plan User Guide Strategic Planning for Human Contact, undated

Subseries 17.3, Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated, contain information used by Ayer to create advertisements for some of its clients. American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate Case History, American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate advertisement memo, commissioned artists for DeBeers advertisements, DeBeers information relating to the creative process and photography credits, a case history for DeBeers Consolidated Mines, Ltd., The Diamond Engagement Ring, Managing Communication at all levels, DuPont publications, JC Penny Marketing Communication Plan Recommendation, Leaf, Incorporated, Saturn presentation, and USAREC oral presentation.

Subseries 17.4, Potential Clients, 1993, includes grouping has a questionnaire sent to Ayer by a potential client. Questionnaire response for Prudential Securities, 1993 Prudential Securities advertising account review, 1993.

Subseries 17.5, Financial Records, 1929-1938, includes balance sheet, 1929 May 1 Balance sheet and adjustments Consolidated statement of assets and liabilities, Expenses 191936-37 Business review and expenses, 1937 and 1938 Business review and expenses comparative statement, 1937 and 1938.

Series 18, Legal Records, circa 1911-1982, Ayer's legal records are arranged by twelve subject groupings within four boxes. The twelve groupings are advertising service agreements (circa 1918-1982), bylaws, copyright claims, correspondences, international correspondences, dissolution of trusts, stock information, agreements between partners, incorporation materials, reduction of capital, property information and miscellaneous materials. The bulk of the materials are the advertising service agreements. These agreements are between Ayer and their clients and state the services Ayer will offer and at what cost. The bylaws are Ayer's company bylaws from 1969 and 1972. The copyright claims are certificates stating Ayer's ownership over certain published materials (i.e. "Policy", Media Equalizer Model, and Don Newman's Washington Square Experiment). The correspondences relate to either the voting trust and receipts for agreement or the New York Corporation. The international correspondences are from either Ayer's Canadian office or London office. The dissolutions of trusts contains materials about the dividend trust of Wilfred F. Fry, the investment trust of Winfred W. Fry, the voting trust, and the New York corporation. The stock information has stock certificates and capital stock information. The agreements between partners (1911-1916) specify the terms between F.W. Ayer and his partners. The incorporation materials (circa 1929-1977) deal with Ayer advertising agency becoming incorporated in the state of Delaware. The reduction of capital grouping is a notification that shares of stock have been retired. The property information grouping contains property deeds and insurance policy (circa 1921-1939), a property appraisal (1934), and a bill of sale (1948). The miscellaneous grouping contains a house memo regarding a set of board meeting minutes and a registry of foreign companies in Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1929-1954).

Subseries 18.1, Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2, Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4, Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5, International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6, Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7, Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8, Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9, Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10, Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11, Property Information, 1921-1948

Subseries 18.12, Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19, Personnel Records, circa 1889-2001, are arranged into eight groupings within eight boxes. The groupings are employee card files, photographs, Ayer alumni, biographies, speeches, recollections, oral histories, and miscellaneous. Typed manuscript of book A Copy Writer Speaks by George Cecil, NW Ayer, Incorporated copy head 1920s-1950s

Subseries 19.1, Employee card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963, consists of index cards with the name, age, job title, date and wage increases, date of hire/fire, as well as remarks about the employee's service and/or reasons for seeking or leaving the job. Materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the employee within three boxes.

Subseries 19.2, Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated, are housed in two boxes. The photographs grouped together by subjects i.e. personnel, company events, Ayer buildings, and miscellaneous. This grouping primarily consists of personnel photographs. Includes a glass plate negative dated 1924 of NW Ayer.

Subseries 19.3, Ayer Alumni, circa 1989-98, include employees who have left Ayer. There is a listing of Ayer "graduates" and their current job. Emeritus, Ayer's alumni newsletter 1989-1996, makes up the majority of materials in this grouping. The newsletter keeps the alumni up to date with the happenings of Ayer and what has become of former Ayer employees. Emeritus is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the activities, thoughts and feelings of Ayer alumni a body of people who consists of retirees and former employees.

Subseries 19.4, Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994, undated, prominent members of Ayer's operations had biographical sketches completed of them. This was true for the bio sketches of Robert Ervin, Louis T. Hagopian, and George A. Rink. There is a substantial file on Dorothy Dignam ("Mis Dig"), a leading woman in the advertising world from the 1930s to the 1950s. Also of interest is a video ("The Siano Man") compiled by Ayer employees to commemorate Jerry Siano's retirement from Ayer in 1994. The series is arranged alphabetically by last name.

Subseries 19.5, Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975, contains speeches made by Wilfred W. Fry and Neal W. O'Connor. Wilfred W. Fry had various speaking engagements connected with Ayer. Contained in this group is a sampling of his speeches from 1919 to 1931. Neal O'Connor's speech "Advertising: Who Says It's a Young People's Business" was given at the Central Region Convention for the American Association of Advertising Agencies in Chicago on November 6, 1975. The speeches are arranged alphabetically by the speaker's last name.

Subseries 19.6, Recollections, 1954-1984, undated, are arranged alphabetically by last name. These are recollections from Ayer employees about the company and its advertisements. Some recollections are specifically about certain types of advertisements, like farm equipment while others reflect on F. W. Ayer and the company.

Subseries 19.7, Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991, include interviews with key NW Ayer personnel, conducted by Ayer alumnae Howard Davis, Brad Lynch and Don Sholl (Vice President creative) for the Oral History Program. The materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.8, Oral History Interview Audio Tapes, 1985-1990, include interviews on audiotape the materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.9, Internal Communications, 1993-1999, includes information sent to employees relating to retirements, management changes, awards won by the company, promotions, potential new accounts, free items, grand opening of Ayer Café, donation events, sponsorship programs, holiday schedules, discounts for employees from clients, Ayer joins MacManus Group.

Subseries 19.10, General Materials, 1940; 1970, includes agency directory entry including a list of the employees, 1970s, annual banquet program for the Curfew Club May 22, 1940 a group formed by the Philadelphia employee in 1938. It sponsored numerous sports, social and educational activities. Groups were formed in public speaking, music appreciation and a series of talks on Monday evenings title the modern woman. The front page was a series of talks for general interest. A list of officers, 1991, Twenty five year club membership, 1973 December 1, List of NW Ayer graduates, 1970, List of Officers, 1991 May 31, Obituary for Leo Lionni, 1999 October 17, List of photographers of advertisements, 2001

Series 20, Background and History Information, 1817-1999, undated includes a chronology, 1817-1990, quick reference timeline, 1848-1923, loose pages from a scrapbook containing examples of correspondence, envelopes, advertisements dating from 1875-1878; slogans coined by NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1899-1990, history of management, 1909-1923, articles and photographs about the building and art galleries, 1926-1976, publications about the Philadelphia building, 1929, pamphlet relating to memories of NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1930s-1950s, television history, 1940-1948, Article about the history of the company, 1950 January, pocket guide, 1982, AdWeek reports about standings for advertising agencies, information relating to Human Contact which is NW Ayer's Information relating to Human Contact, undated which is their philosophy on advertising.

Series 21, Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated, consists of print advertisements collected by Ayer from other major advertising companies. The companies include Doyle Dane Bernback, Incorporated, Leo Burnett Company, Grey Advertising Agency, D'Arcy Ad Agency, Scali, McCabe, Sloves, Incorporated and Erwin Wasey Company. The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by client and include products from Ralston Purina and Van Camp (Chicken of the Sea), Kellogg, American Export Lines and No Nonsense Fashions.

Series 22, 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1999, undated, includes material given to the Archives Center in 2010. It is organized into seventy one oversized boxes and contains proofsheets of print advertisements for select Ayer clients. These are arranged alphabetically by client name and include substantial quantities of materials from American Telephone &Telegraph (1945-1996), Bahamas Ministry of Tourism (1967-1987), Carrier (1971-1981), Citibank (1973-1991), DeBeers (1940s-1960s and1990s), Electric Companies Advertising Program [ECAP] (1942-1970s), General Motors (1989-1998), J.C. Penney (1983-1986), Newsweek (1966-1975), and Proctor and Gamble (1980s-1890s). There are also numerous other clients represented by smaller quantities of materials.

Subseries 22.1, Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2, Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated, include Cannon towels, Cheny Brothers silks, Cornish & Company organs and pianos, Enterprise Manufacturing Company, 1879 sad iron, an ad from Harper's Weekly 1881 for ladies clothing, Ostermoor & Company mattresses, Pear's soap, Porter's cough balsam, Steinway pianos.

Series 23, Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985, consists of three boxes of printed advertisements for the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. Some of the same advertisements might also be found in series two, three and four.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into twenty-three series.

Series 1: Scrapbooks of Client Print Advertisements, circa 1870-1920

Series 2: Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930

Series 3: Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975

Series 4: 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001

Series 5: Billboards, circa 1952-1956

Series 6: Audiovisual Materials

Series 7: Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated

Series 8: Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989

Series 9: Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987

Subseries 9.1: Printed Advertisements, 1977-1987

Subseries 9.2: Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s

Series 10: Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated

Series 11: Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated

Subseries 11.1: Printed Advertisements, 1915-1987

Subseries 11.2: Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967

Subseries 11.3: Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated

Series 12: Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, undated

Series 13: Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957

Series 14: House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991

Series 15: Scrapbooks, 1872-1959

Series 16: Publications, 1849-2006

Subseries 16.1: House Publications, 1876-1994

Subseries 16.2: Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-1995

Subseries 16.3: General Publications about Advertising, 1922-2006

Subseries 16.4: Publications about other Subjects, 1948-1964

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1: Contracts, 1885-1908, undated

Subseries 17.2: General Client Information, 1911-1999, undated

Subseries 17.3: Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated

Subseries 17.4: Potential Clients, 1993

Subseries 17.5: Financial Records, 1929-1938

Series 18: Legal Records, circa 1911-1984

Subseries 18.1: Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2: Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4: Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5: International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6: Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7: Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8: Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9: Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10: Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11: Property Information

Subseries 18.12: Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19: Employee Materials, circa 1889-2001

Subseries 19.1: Employee Card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963

Subseries 19.2: Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated

Subseries 19.3: Alumni Publications, circa 1989-1998

Subseries 19.4: Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994

Subseries 19.5: Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975

Subseries 19.6: Recollections, 1954-1984, undated

Subseries 19.7: Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991

Subseries 19.8: Oral History Audiotapes, 1985-1990

Subseries 19.9: Internal Communications, 1993-1999

Subseries 19.1: General Materials, 1940-2001

Series 20: History and Background Information about the Company, 1817-1999, undated

Series 21: Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated

Series 22: 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1990s, undated

Subseries 22.1: Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2: Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated

Series 23: Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985
Biographical / Historical:
Founded in Philadelphia in 1869, NW Ayer & Son is one of the oldest and largest advertising agencies in America. For most of its history, it was the undisputed leader and innovator in the field of advertising. In 1876, NW Ayer & Son pioneered the "open contract", a revolutionary change in the method of billing for advertising which became the industry standard for the next hundred years. NW Ayer pioneered the use of fine art in advertising and established the industry's first art department. It was the first agency to use a full-time copywriter and the first to institute a copy department. The agency relocated to New York City in 1974. During its long history, the agency's clients included many "blue-chip" clients, including American Telephone & Telegraph, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Ford Motor Company, Nabisco, R. J. Reynolds and United Airlines. However, in later years, the Ayer's inherent conservatism left the agency vulnerable to the creative revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, the advertising industry restructuring of the 1980s and the economic recession of the early 1990s. The agency was bought out by a Korean investor in 1993. In 1996, NW Ayer merged with another struggling top twenty United States advertising agency, Darcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, under the umbrella of the McManus Group. Ayer continues to operate as a separate, full-service agency.

Through a series of buyouts and mergers, Ayer traces its lineage to the first advertising agency founded in the United States, a Philadelphia agency begun by Volney Palmer in 1841. Palmer began his career in advertising as a newspaper agent, acting as middleman between newspaper publishers and advertisers across the country. By 1849, Palmer had founded his own newspaper, V. B. Palmer's Register and Spirit of the Press, and had developed a complete system of advertising which included securing advertising space and placing ads in scores of commercial, political, religious, scientific and agricultural journals across the country. Palmer went one step further than the "space jobbers" of the day when he began offering "advertisements carefully drawn for those who have not the time to prepare an original copy." Always an enthusiastic promoter of advertising as an incentive to trade and American economic growth, Palmer promised advertisers that "every dollar paid for advertising in country newspapers will pay back twenty-fold" and encouraged skeptical consumers that "he who wishes to buy cheap should buy of those who advertise." When Palmer died in 1863, the agency was bought by his bookkeeper, John Joy, who joined with another Philadelphia advertising agency to form Joy, Coe & Sharpe. That agency was bought out again in 1868 and renamed Coe, Wetherill & Company. In 1877, Coe, Wetherill and Company was bought out by the newly formed NW Ayer & Son.

Francis Wayland Ayer was an ambitious young schoolteacher with an entrepreneurial streak. Having worked for a year soliciting advertisements on a commission basis for the publisher of the National Baptist weekly, Francis Ayer saw the potential to turn a profit as an advertising agent. In 1869, Ayer persuaded his father, Nathan Wheeler Ayer, to join him in business, and with an initial investment of only $250.00, NW Ayer & Son was born. Notwithstanding a smallpox epidemic in Philadelphia in 1871 and the general economic depression of the early 1870s, the agency flourished. The senior Ayer died in 1873, leaving his interest in the agency to his wife, but Francis W. Ayer bought her out, consolidating his interest in the company's management. In 1877, with Coe, Wetherill & Company (the successor to Palmer's 1841 agency) on the verge of bankruptcy and heavily indebted to Ayer for advertising it had placed in Ayer publications, Ayer assumed ownership of that agency. Thus did NW Ayer lay claim to being the oldest advertising agency in the country.

Both Nathan Wheeler and Francis Wayland Ayer began their careers as schoolteachers, and one of their legacies was a commitment to the cause of education: correspondence schools and institutions of higher learning were historically well-represented among Ayer clients. Just after World War I, the agency was heralded as "co-founder of more schools than any citizen of this country" for its conspicuous efforts to advertise private schools. Well into the 1960s, an "Education Department" at Ayer prepared advertisements for over three hundred private schools, camps and colleges, representing almost half the regional and national advertising done for such institutions. In fact, to its clients Ayer presented advertising itself as being akin to a system of education. In 1886, Ayer began promoting the virtues of the Ayer way advertising with the slogan, "Keeping Everlastingly at It Brings Success."

The agency's goals were simple: "to make advertising pay the advertiser, to spend the advertiser's money as though it were our own, to develop, magnify and dignify advertising as a business." Initially, Ayer's fortunes were tied to newspapers, and the agency began to make a name for itself as compiler and publisher of a widely used American Newspaper Annual. During the first years, Ayer's singular goal was "to get business, place it [in newspapers] and get money for it"; after several years as an independent space broker, however, Francis Ayer resolved "not to be an order taker any longer." This decision led NW Ayer and Son to a change in its mode of conducting business which would revolutionize the advertising industry: in 1876, Ayer pioneered the "open contract" with Diggee & Conard, Philadelphia raised growers and agricultural suppliers. Prior to the open contract, NW Ayer & Sons and most agencies operated as "space-jobbers," independent wholesalers of advertising space, in which the opportunities for graft and corrupt practices were virtually unlimited. In contrast, the open contract, wherein the advertiser paid a fixed commission based on the volume of advertising placed, aligned the advertising agent firmly on the side of the advertiser and gave advertisers access to the actual rates charged by newspapers and religious journals. The open contract with a fixed commission has been hailed by advertising pioneer Albert Lasker as one of the "three great landmarks in advertising history." (The other two were Lasker's own development of "reason-why" advertising copy and J. Walter Thompson's pioneering of sex appeal in an advertisement for Woodbury's soap.) Although the transition to the open contract did not happen overnight, by 1884, nearly three-quarters of Ayer's advertising billings were on an open contract basis. Since Ayer was, by the 1890s, the largest agency in America, the switch to direct payment by advertisers had a significant impact on the advertising industry, as other agencies were forced to respond to Ayer's higher standard. Just as important, the open contract helped to establish N W Ayer's long-standing reputation for "clean ethics and fair dealing" -- a reputation the agency has guarded jealously for over a century. The open contract also helped to establish Ayer as a full service advertising agency and to regularize the production of advertising in-house. From that point forward, Ayer routinely offered advice and service beyond the mere placement of advertisements. Ayer set another milestone for the industry in 1888, when Jarvis Wood was hired as the industry's first full-time copywriter. Wood was joined by a second full time copywriter four years later, and the Copy Department was formally established in 1900. The industry's first Art Department grew out of the Copy Department when Ayer hired its first commercial artist to assist with copy preparation in 1898; twelve years later Ayer became the first agency to offer the services of a full time art director, whose sole responsibility was the design and illustration of ads.

Ayer's leadership in the use of fine art in advertising has roots in this period, but achieved its highest expression under the guidance of legendary art director Charles Coiner. Coiner joined Ayer in 1924, after graduating from the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. Despite early resistance from some clients, Coiner was adamant that "the use of outstanding palette and original art forms bring a greater return in readership, in impact and prestige for the advertiser." To this end, Coiner marshaled the talents of notable painters, illustrators and photographers, including N.C. Wyeth and Rockwell Kent (Steinway), Georgia O'Keefe (Dole), Leo Lionni (DuPont), Edward Steichen (Steinway, Cannon Mills), Charles Sheeler (Ford), and Irving Penn (DeBeers). Coiner believed that there was a practical side to the use of fine art in advertising, and his success (and Ayer's) lay in the marriage of research and copywriting with fine art, an arrangement Coiner termed "art for business sake." Coiner's efforts won both awards and attention for a series completed in the 1950s for the Container Corporation of America. Titled "Great Ideas of Western Man" the campaign featured abstract and modern paintings and sculpture by leading U.S. and foreign artists, linked with Western philosophical writings in an early example of advertising designed primarily to bolster corporate image. In 1994, Charles Coiner was posthumously named to the American Advertising Federation's Hall of Fame, the first full time art director ever chosen for that honor.

Coiner and fellow art director Paul Darrow also created legendary advertising with the "A Diamond Is Forever" campaign for DeBeers; ads featured the work of Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dali and other modernist painters. The "A Diamond is Forever" tagline was written in 1949 by Frances Gerety, a woman copywriter at Ayer from 1943 to 1970. In 1999, Ad Age magazine cited "A Diamond is Forever" as the most memorable advertising slogan of the twentieth century.

Coiner also earned respect for his volunteer government service during World War II; he designed the armbands for civil defense volunteers and logos for the National Recovery Administration and Community Chest. As a founding member of the Advertising Council in 1945, Ayer has had a long-standing commitment to public service advertising. In the mid-1980s, Ayer became a leading force in the Reagan-era "War on Drugs". Lou Hagopian, Ayer's sixth CEO, brokered the establishment of the Partnership for a Drug-Free America, a media coalition which generated as much as a million dollars a day in donated advertising space and time to prevent the use and abuse of illegal drugs. Famous names appear among NW Ayer's clientele from the very earliest days of the agency. Retailer John Wanamaker, Jay Cooke and Company, and Montgomery Ward's mail-order business were among the first Ayer clients. The agency has represented at least twenty automobile manufacturers, including Cadillac, Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Plymouth, and Rolls-Royce. Other major, long-term clients through the years have included American Telephone & Telegraph, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Kellogg's, R. J. Reynolds, Steinway and Sons, United Airlines, and the United States Army. By the time of Ayer's hundredth anniversary in 1969, some of these companies had been Ayer clients for decades if not generations, and the longevity of those relationships was for many years a source of Ayer's strength.

But the advertising industry began to change in the late 1960s and 1970s, due in part to a "creative revolution." Small advertising agencies won attention with provocative copywriting and art direction that more closely resembled art than advertising. Advances in market research allowed clients to more narrowly tailor their advertising messages to distinct groups of consumers, and this led to a rise in targeted marketing which could more readily be doled out to specialized small agencies than to larger, established firms like NW Ayer & Son. The civil rights and anti-war movements also contributed to increasing public skepticism with the values of corporate America, and by extension, with some national advertising campaigns. Older, more conservative firms like Ayer were hard pressed to meet these new challenges.

About 1970, in an effort to meet these challenges and to establish a foothold on the West Coast, Ayer bought out two smaller agencies--Hixson & Jorgenson (Los Angeles) and Frederick E. Baker (Seattle). The agency relocated from Philadelphia to New York City in 1974 in an attempt both to consolidate operations (Ayer had operated a New York office since the 1920s) and to be closer to the historic center of the advertising industry. Riding the wave of mergers that characterized the advertising industry in the late 1980s and 1990s, Ayer continued to grow through the acquisition of Cunningham & Walsh in 1986 and Rink Wells in 19xx.

During this transitional period, Ayer received widespread acclaim for its work for the United States Army, which included the widely recognized slogan "Be All You Can Be". Ayer first acquired the Army recruitment account in 1967 and with help from its direct marketing arm, the agency was widely credited with helping the Army reach its recruitment goals despite an unpopular war and plummeting enlistments after the elimination of the draft in 1973. Ayer held the account for two decades, from the Vietnam War through the Cold War, but lost the account in 1986 amid government charges that an Ayer employee assigned to the account accepted kickbacks from a New York film production house. Despite Ayer's position as the country's 18th largest agency (with billings of $880 million in 1985), the loss of the agency's second largest account hit hard.

NW Ayer made up for the loss of the $100 million dollar a year Army account and made headlines for being on the winning end of the largest account switch in advertising history to date, when fast food giant Burger King moved its $200 million dollar advertising account from arch-rival J. Walter Thompson in 1987. Burger King must have had drive-thru service in mind, however, and Ayer made headlines again when it lost the account just eighteen months later in another record-breaking account switch. Another devastating blow to the agency was the loss of its lead position on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Ayer pioneered telecommunications advertising in 1908, when the agency was selected to craft advertising for the Bell System's universal telephone service. Despite valiant efforts to keep an account the agency had held for most of the twentieth century, and for which they had written such memorable corporate slogans as American Telephone &Telegraph "The Voice with a Smile" and "Reach Out and Touch Someone", the agency lost the account in 1996.

After a wave of mergers and acquisitions in the late 1980s, the economic recession of the early 1990s hit Madison Avenue hard, and Ayer was particularly vulnerable. Despite the agency's long history and roster of "blue-chip" clients, Ayer was not known for cutting-edge creative work. Moreover, though the agency had offices overseas, Ayer had never built a strong multinational presence, and many of the smaller international offices were sold during the financial turmoil of the 1980s. This left a real void in the new climate of global marketplace consolidation. By about 1990, earnings were declining (although Ayer was still among the top twenty United States agencies in billings), and the agency was suffering from client defections, high management turnover, expensive real estate commitments and deferred executive compensation deals, all fallout of the high-flying 1980s. This was the atmosphere in 1993, when W.Y. Choi, a Korean investor who had already assembled a media and marketing empire in his homeland, began looking for an American partner to form an international advertising network. Jerry Siano, the former creative director who had recently been named Ayer's seventh CEO, was in no position to refuse Choi's offer of $35 million to buy the now floundering agency. The infusion of cash was no magic bullet, however. Choi took a wait-and-see approach, allowing his partner Richard Humphreys to make key decisions about Ayer's future, including the purging of senior executives and the installation of two new CEOs in as many years.

The agency's downward trend continued with the loss of another longtime client, the DeBeers diamond cartel in 1995. Adweek reported that Ayer's billings fell from $892 million in 1990 to less than $850 million in 1995. Several top executives defected abruptly, and the agency failed to attract major new accounts. Ayer was facing the loss not merely of revenue and personnel, but the loss of much of the respect it once commanded. Ayer remained among the twenty largest U.S. agencies, but an aura of uncertainty hung over the agency like a cloud. A new CEO was appointed, and Mary Lou Quinlan became the agency's first woman CEO in 1995. A year later, Ayer and another struggling top twenty agency, D'arcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, combined as part of the McManus Group of companies. In 1998, the McManus Group had worldwide billings of more than $6.5 billion.

Under the McManus Group, Ayer was able to expand its international operations and begin to rebuild a stronger global presence. Several important new clients were won in 1997 and 1998, including Avon, General Motors, Kitchenaid, several Procter & Gamble brands and, most notably, Continental Airlines worldwide accounts. Born in the nineteenth century, Ayer may be one of a very few advertising agencies to successfully weather the economic and cultural transitions of both the twentieth and twentieth first centuries. Ayer was eventually acquired by the Publicis Groupe based in Paris, France which closed down the N.W. Ayer offices in 2002.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

Hills Bros. Coffee Incorporated Records (AC0395)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by N W Ayer ABH International, April 15, 1975 and by Ayer & Partners, October 30, 1996.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must use microfilm copy. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audiovisual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Technical Access: Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire; listening to audio discs requires special arrangement. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply. Publication and production quality duplication is restricted due to complex copyright, publicity rights, and right to privacy issues. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff. Potential users must receive written permission from appropriate rights holders prior to obtaining high quality copies.
Topic:
Advertising agencies  Search this
advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 1840-2000
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Oral history -- 1980-1990
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks -- 1840-1990
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Advertisements
Citation:
NW Ayer & Sons, incorporated Advertising Agency Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0059
See more items in:
N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0059
Online Media:

Herbert J. Nash Aircraft Photograph Collection

Creator:
Nash, Herbert J.  Search this
Names:
Bell Aircraft Corporation  Search this
Boeing Airplane Company  Search this
Northwest Airlines, Inc.  Search this
Pan American World Airways, Inc.  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc.  Search this
United States. Air Force  Search this
United States. Army Air Forces  Search this
Extent:
0.77 Cubic feet (2 legal document boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1949-1969
Summary:
Herbert J. Nash appears to have been an amateur photographer, aviation enthusiast, and airplane photograph collector and based in the New York City area. This collection consists of just over a thousand images collected from a variety of sources and reflects Nash's specific interests: Aero Spacelines Guppies, single-engine Bell fighters and racing conversions, the Boeing B-52 Stratofortress Family (Model 464), the Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter Family (Model 367), the Boeing Model 377 Stratocruiser Family, and aircraft produced by the Naval Aircraft Factory. Photographs are predominantly small-format black and white prints taken in the United States between 1949 and 1969.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of 2.75 x 4.5 inch black and white print photographs, but also includes some color photographs, a few color postcards, and a few three-view drawings. Approximately 95 percent of the images in this collection are less than 4 x 5 inches in size. Most photographs were taken in the United States, with a few likely taken in England (UK). Some photographs appear to have been taken in storage or salvage yards. Topics depicted reflect Nash's specific interests: Aero Spacelines (Aero Spacelines Mini Guppy, Aero Spacelines Pregnant Guppy, and Aero Spacelines Super Guppy); single-engine Bell fighters and racing conversions (Bell P-39 Airacobra Family, Bell P-59 Airacomet Family, Bell P-63 Kingcobra Family, Bell FM-1 Airacuda Family); the Boeing B-52 Stratofortress Family (Model 464); the Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter Family (Model 367); the Boeing Model 377 Stratocruiser Family; and various Naval Aircraft Factory models including the Naval Aircraft Factory N3N Family (XN3N-1, N3N-1, XN3N-2, XN3N-3, N3N-3), Naval Aircraft Factory PBN-1 Nomad, Naval Aircraft Factory SBN-1 (Naval Aircraft Factory version of the Brewster XSBA-1), Naval Aircraft Factory SON-1 Seagull (Naval Aircraft Factory version of the Curtiss SOC-3), Naval Aircraft Factory TS-1, Naval Aircraft Factory XP4N-1 (XP2N-1), Naval Aircraft Factory XP4N-2 (P2N-1), Naval Aircraft Factory XT2N-1, and Naval Aircraft Factory XTN-1. The Boeing Model 377 Stratocruiser section includes airliners in service with several airlines, including Pan American Airways (PAA), British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC), Transocean (TAL), Northwest / Northwest Orient Airlines, United Air Lines, and Rutas Aéreas Nacionales, S.A. (RANSA).
Arrangement:
The photographs are arranged in six subject groups: Aero Spacelines, Bell, Boeing B-52, Boeing C-97, Boeing 377, and Naval Aircraft Factory. Similar aircraft tend to be clumped together within a group, but that is not always the case. In 1984, all items in this collection were reproduced on the first side (Side A) of National Air and Space Museum Archival Videodisc 2, a LaserDisc CAV format 12-inch (30 cm) optical disc published by the Smithsonian Institution. Print numbers applied during videodisc production are used as item-level image numbers (print numbers NASM 00129025 to NASM 00130094, videodisc frame capture numbers VD-2A29025 to VD-2A30094) and the images are stored in videodisc number order.
Biographical / Historical:
Herbert J. Nash appears to have been an amateur photographer, aviation enthusiast, and airplane photograph collector and based in the New York City area. This collection consists of just over a thousand images collected from a variety of sources; most are from private sources (generally other aviation enthusiasts such as himself) but also from aerospace manufacturers, the United States Air Force (USAF), airlines, and the mail-order aviation photography provider Aeroplane Photo Supply. Many of the photographs—particularly those in the Boeing Model 377 Stratocruiser section—were likely taken by Nash himself.
Provenance:
Herbert J. Nash and Peggy Nash Tondu, Gift, 1982, NASM.XXXX.0616
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aero Spacelines Guppy Family  Search this
Bell P-39 Airacobra Family  Search this
Bell P-59 Airacomet Series  Search this
Bell P-63 Kingcobra Family  Search this
Bell YFM-1 Airacuda  Search this
Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter Family (Model 367)  Search this
Boeing B-52 Stratofortress Family (Model 464)  Search this
Boeing Model 377 Stratocruiser Family  Search this
Naval Aircraft Factory Aircraft Family  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Airlines  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Herbert J. Nash Aircraft Photograph Collection, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0616, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0616
See more items in:
Herbert J. Nash Aircraft Photograph Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0616
Online Media:

Correspondence of Glenn Knabenshue regarding A. Roy Knabenshue

Collection Creator:
Knabenshue, A. Roy (Augustus Roy), 1876-1960  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 15
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1965 - 1969
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
A. Roy Knabenshue Collection, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0136, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
A. Roy Knabenshue Collection
A. Roy Knabenshue Collection / Series 1: Personal / 1.3: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0136-ref46
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Airline Menu Collection [Grosdidier de Matons]

Creator:
Grosdidier de Matons, Jean  Search this
Names:
Air France  Search this
Sabena Airlines  Search this
Trans World Airlines  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
2.84 Cubic feet (5 legal document cases, 1 slim box, 1 flat box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Menus
Date:
Circa 1963-2006
Summary:
This collection consists of approximately 2.84 cubic feet of airline menus and other ephemera gathered by Jean Grosdidier de Matons, circa 1963 to 2006.
This collection includes material in multiple languages.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of approximately 2.84 cubic feet of airline menus gathered by Jean Grosdidier de Matons, circa 1963 to 2006. Most of the menus are either for business class or first class service. There are menus from the following airlines: Air Afrique (France); Air France (France); Air India (India); Air Madagascar (Madagascar); Air Mauritius (Republic of Mauritius); Alitalia (Italy); Austrian Airlines (Austria); British Airways (UK); British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) (UK); Continental Airways/Airlines (USA); Iran Air (Iran); Japan Air Lines (JAL) (Japan); Kenya Airways (Kenya); KLM (Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij) (Netherlands); Kuwait Airways (Kuwait); Lufthansa (Germany); Middle East Airlines (MEA) (Air Liban) (Lebanon); Pan American Airways (Pan Am) (USA); Royal Air Maroc (Morocco); SABENA (Belgium); Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS); Singapore Airlines (Singapore); South African Airways (SAA); Spanair (Spain); SwissAir (Switzerland); Thai Airways International (Thailand); Trans World Airlines (TWA) (USA); Tunis Air (Tunisia); Union Transports Aeriens (UTA) (France); and United Air Lines (USA). There are also a few miscellaneous items such as travel brochures and airline stationery.
Arrangement:
This collection is in original order, with materials organized by airline.
Biographical / Historical:
Jean Grosdidier de Matons (d. 2017) joined Force Maritime de l'Aéronautique Navale (French Naval Aviation) in August 1944 as an officer candidate and completed training with the Royal Air Force in Great Britain. Grosdidier de Matons served as a navigation officer in French West Africa before volunteering for service in French Indochina from 1948-1951. Grosdidier de Matons then served as a submarine officer with the French Mediterranean Fleet until 1953. Grosdidier de Matons served as a harbor officer and later harbor master at various ports in Africa until 1968 when he went for training at the Planning Center for Economic and Technical Cooperation in Paris, France which lead to an assignment at the World Bank where he eventually was named Division Chief for Transports in Europe-Middle East and North Africa. After retiring from the World Bank in 1987, Grosdidier de Matons founded his own international consulting company. Grosdidier de Matons was also a Doctor of Law and the author of numerous works on legal and business matters.
Provenance:
Jean Grosdidier de Matons, Gift, 2017, additional material received in 2019, NASM.2018.0003.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Airlines  Search this
Genre/Form:
Menus
Citation:
Airline Menu Collection [Grosdidier de Matons], NASM.2018.0003, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2018.0003
See more items in:
Airline Menu Collection [Grosdidier de Matons]
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2018-0003
Online Media:

Raymond Loewy papers

Creator:
Loewy, Raymond, 1893-1986  Search this
Names:
American Society of Industrial Designers  Search this
Coca-Cola Company  Search this
Cooper-Hewitt Design Archive  Search this
Exxon Corporation  Search this
Gestetner Duplicating Machine Company  Search this
Hallicrafter  Search this
Hupp Motor Company  Search this
International Business Machines Corporation  Search this
Raymond Loewy Associates  Search this
Raymond Loewy/William Snaith, Inc.  Search this
Sears, Roebuck and Co.  Search this
Shell Oil Company  Search this
Studebaker Corporation  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc.  Search this
United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration  Search this
Loewy, Raymond, 1893-1986  Search this
Snaith, William, 1908-1974  Search this
Extent:
3 Boxes (2 letter sized boxes, 1 legal sized box.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Press releases
Speeches
Photographs
Date:
[mid-1940s-early 1960s]
Summary:
This collection spans the period from the mid-1940s to the early-1960s and consists ofnewspaper and magazine articles by and about Loewy, including the 1949 TIME magazine on which he appeared on the cover. Extensive clippings exist pertaining to his designs for automobiles. Also includes many articles and speeches written by and about William Snaith, a partner in the firm which was renamed Raymond Loewy/William Snaith, Inc. in 1961. A catalog from the exhibition, "Ten Automobiles," which took place at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City in 1953, is included. Other materials include brochures printed and designed by the firm, press releases, a listing of projects, honors, and membership. Some photographs of Loewy and his design team are included. The collection does not contain any original design materials or project files.
Arrangement note:
Unprocessed.
Biographical/Historical note:
Industrial Designer. Born Paris, France, November 8, 1893, Loewy initially studied electrical engineering, and by 1909, he has designed and sold a successful airplane model. He immigrated to the United States in 1919 and became a naturalized citizen in 1938. Loewy began working as a freelance window display designer for Macy's and Saks Fifth Avenue, and as an illustrator for Vogue, Harper's Bazaar, and others, from 1919.

He designed the trademark for Neiman-Marcus in 1923. Loewy is identified as one of the founding fathers of industrial design. In 1929, he started Raymond Loewy Associates in New York, and by 1947, he appeared on the cover of TIME magazine. Loewy's designs always stressed the importance of the clean, functional, dynamic design of products. His schooling in electrical engineering translated into his designs for automobiles, trains, airplanes, ships, and spacecraft for NASA. He also designed interiors for many hotels, offices, and supermarkets. He is best known for his designs for the 1947 Studebaker Starlight Coupe; the 1953 Starliner Coupe; the 1961 Avanti; the 1947 line of Hallicrafter radio recievers; the 1929 Gestetner duplicating machine; the 1934 Sears Coldspot refrigerator; and the S-I steam locomotive for the Pennsylvania Railroad.

He also designed logos for Exxon and Shell oil companies, and bottles and refrigerated vending machines for Coca Cola. He became President of the American Society of Industrial Designers in 1946. Loewy established Compagnie de l'Esthetique Industrielle in Paris in 1952. His work has been featured in many exhibitions, including: "An Exhibition for Modern Living", Detroit Institute of Arts, 1949; "The Designs of Raymond Loewy", Renwick Gallery of the National Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1975; and "The Machine Age in America", Brooklyn Museum, 1986, among others. He authored, "The Locomotive: Its Esthetics", 1937; "Never Leave Well Enough Alone", 1951; and "Industrial Design", 1979. In 1961, Loewy went into semi-retirement, became partners with William Snaith, and renamed the company Raymond Loewy/William Snaith, Inc. Loewy died in Monte Carlo, July 14, 1986.
Location of Other Archival Materials Note:
Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. The Raymond Loewy Collection. Drawings, blueprints, sketches, phtographs, slides, and audio and video recordings, covering the period from 1929-1988.
Canadian Center for Architecture, Special Collections. Vertical file docmenting Loewy's work.
Provenance:
The materials in this collection were donated to Cooper-Hewitt by Betty Reese, Loewy's publicist.
Restrictions:
Unprocessed; access is limited. Permission of Library Director required for use.
Occupation:
Industrial designers  Search this
Interior designers  Search this
Packaging designers  Search this
Topic:
Radio -- Receivers and reception -- Design and construction  Search this
Packaging -- Design  Search this
Corporate image -- Design  Search this
Logos (Symbols) -- Design  Search this
Interior decoration -- United States  Search this
Automobiles -- Design and construction  Search this
Design, Industrial -- United States  Search this
Supermarkets -- Design  Search this
Coldspot refrigerator  Search this
Transportation -- Design  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Press releases
Speeches
Photographs
Identifier:
SIL-CH.XXXX-0001
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sil-ch-xxxx-0001

1960 New York Mid-Air Collision Air Traffic Control Testimony Collection

Creator:
United States. National Transportation Safety Board  Search this
Wesche, William A., Jr.  Search this
Names:
Trans World Airlines  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
0.02 Cubic feet (2 legal folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Date:
1946
1960 - 1961
Summary:
This collection consists of material relating the 1960 New York Mid-Air Collision including FAA and CAB reports on the accident and material relating to the National Transportation Safety Board's formal hearing, including testimony by William A. Wesche, Jr.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists mainly of material relating the 1960 New York Mid-Air Collision including FAA and CAB reports on the accident and material relating to the National Transportation Safety Board's formal hearing, including testimony by William A. Wesche, Jr. The testimony is on two reel-to reel tapes, with copies on three cassette tapes, a flash drive and CDR, as well as handwritten statement drafts by Wesche which he used to compose his official testimony, and a video of an air disaster television series highlighting this accident. The collection also contains the Army /Navy/CAA 39-page report, "Standards for the Control of Instrument Flight Rule Traffic" (ANC-IFC), January 1, 1946.
Arrangement:
No arrangement.
Biographical / Historical:
On 16 December 1960, the United Airlines Douglas DC-8 Mainliner Will Rogers (Flight 826), bound for Idlewild Airport (later John F. Kennedy International Airport) in New York City, collided with the TWA Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellation Star of Sicily (Flight 266) as it was descending into the city's LaGuardia Airport. One plane crashed on Staten Island, the other into Park Slope, Brooklyn, killing all 128 people on both aircraft and six people on the ground; at the time, it was the deadliest aviation disaster. The probable cause of the accident was found to be that the United flight proceeded beyond its clearance limit and the confines of the airspace allocated to the flight by Air Traffic Control. William A Wesche, Jr., was a Federal Aviation Agency Supervisory Air Traffic Control Specialist at Idlewild Airport Traffic Control Tower, and was the Watch Supervisor on duty during the accident.
Provenance:
Jeffrey Wesche, Gift, 2019, NASM.2019.0059
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Airlines -- Safety measures  Search this
Airlines  Search this
Aircraft accidents  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings -- Audiotapes -- Audio cassettes -- Music
Citation:
1960 New York Mid-Air Collision Air Traffic Control Testimony Collection, NASM.2019.0059, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2019.0059
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2019-0059

National Air Transport Collection [Hutchinson]

Creator:
National Air Transport  Search this
Names:
Boeing Air Transport  Search this
National Air Transport  Search this
Stout Air Services  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc.  Search this
Addems, Walter J.  Search this
Bitterman, Harry  Search this
Daniels, Beebe  Search this
Gray, E. Brown  Search this
Hopkins, R. T.  Search this
Keys, Clement Melville, 1876-1952  Search this
Lott, Egbert P.  Search this
Robertson, C. T.  Search this
Extent:
0.75 Cubic feet ((1 flatbox and one cassette tape box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Newsletters
Clippings
Notes
Correspondence
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Date:
1927-1937
Summary:
This collection consists of a scrapbook, photographs, correspondence, interviews, and newspaper articles relating to National Air Transport (NAT).
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the following material: NAT scrapbook which includes 110 photographs of NAT pilots, aircraft used by NAT and the service overhaul shop; correspondence and notes by or about Walter J. Addems, E.B. Gray Egbert P. Lott, C.T. Robertson, R.T. Hopkins, and Beebe Daniels; miscellaneous material on Stout Air Services, BAT and NAT; photographs of Stout stewards; tapes of interviews with Harry Bitterman, Egbert P. Lott, and E. Brown Gray; photocopies of newspaper articles on aircraft crashes; copy of a 1933 weather report; photographs of United; and the NAT 1933 newsletter, 'Flypaper'.
Arrangement:
Arrangement by type.
Biographical / Historical:
National Air Transport (NAT), Boeing Air Transport (BAT), and Stout Air Services were three early airmail carriers. NAT was formed in 1925 by Clement Keys, and in 1927 won the bid for the New York to Chicago Airmail route. BAT received the Chicago to San Francisco route in 1927, and also carried passengers. Stout Air Service was formed in 1925 and carried mail and passengers from Detroit to Cleveland. These three companies were all predecessors of United Air Lines, which was formed in 1929.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Joseph D. Hutchinson, Gift, 1990, NASM.1991.0024, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at <extref xlink:href="http://airandspace.si.edu/permissions"
Topic:
Aeronautics, Commercial -- Passenger traffic  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Airlines  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Air travel  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes
Newsletters
Clippings
Notes
Correspondence
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Citation:
National Air Transport Collection [Hutchinson], NASM.1991.0024, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1991.0024
See more items in:
National Air Transport Collection [Hutchinson]
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1991-0024
Online Media:

Lester D. Seymour Collection

Creator:
Seymour, Lester D., 1892-  Search this
Names:
American Airlines  Search this
National Air Transport  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc.  Search this
Seymour, Lester D., 1892-  Search this
Extent:
1.13 Cubic feet ((1 slim legal document box) (2 legal document boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuals
Reports
Newsletters
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
1928-1934
Summary:
Major Lester D. Seymour (1892-1976) was involved in both the military and commercial sides of aviation. After service in World War I, Seymour served as Chief Engineer of National Air Transport, and later become NAT's Vice President and General Manager. From 1933-1934 Seymour was appointed President of American Airlines. The collection includes airline newsletters, annual reports, photographs, and manuals.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the following: copies of the National Air Transport Inc. (NAT) newsletter, "NAT Flypaper", 1928 - 1933; "Survey of Projected Airmail Routes" 1926; annual reports for both NAT and American Airways (later American Airlines); NAT photographs; NAT Regulations; "A Study of Transportation by Airway as related to Competition with Rail Carriers in Continental United States", 1932; NAT Bulletin Board; and the American Airlines Procedures Manual for 1934. In June of 1999, six films were found in the Film Archives that were part of this donation. The films, evidently taken by Seymour during his airline travels, have the following titles: West (Part 1 and 2); Phoenix to Los Angles; Flying Across America with United Airlines in 28 Hours; Memphis to Phoenix; and American Airways: Chicago - New York.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
The Lester D. Seymour Collection is arranged by content type.
Biographical / Historical:
Major Lester D. Seymour (1892-1976) was involved in both the military and commercial sides of aviation. Seymour rose to the rank of 2nd Lieutenant, Aero Engineer-Officer, 85th Aero Squadron during World War I. After the war, he became involved in the Civilian Aero Engineer US Air Service and in the Air Corps Reserve. In 1926, Seymour became involved with the commercial airlines industry. He started as the Chief Engineer at National Air Transport, and later become NAT's Vice President and General Manager. He was also briefly the Vice President of United Air Lines after their 1933 takeover of NAT. From 1933-1934 Seymour was appointed President of American Airlines.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Lester D. Seymour, Gift, unknown, XXXX-0455.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics, Commercial -- Passenger traffic  Search this
Air travel  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Airlines  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuals
Reports
Newsletters
Motion pictures (visual works)
Citation:
Lester D. Seymour Collection, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0455, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0455
See more items in:
Lester D. Seymour Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0455
Online Media:

American and Canadian Airlines Memorabilia

Names:
American Airlines  Search this
Canadian Pacific Airlines  Search this
Northwest Airlines, Inc.  Search this
Pennsylvania Central Airlines  Search this
Trans World Airlines  Search this
Trans-Canada Air Lines (TCA)  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc.  Search this
Western Airlines  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet ((1 slim document box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ephemera
Timetables
Postcards
Brochures
Date:
1943
Summary:
This donation consists of memorabilia, mostly from 1943, from the following American and Canadian airlines: American Airlines; Canadian Pacific Airlines; Northwest Airlines; Pennsylvania Central Airlines; Trans-Canada Air Lines (TCA); TWA; United Air Lines; and Western Air Lines.
Scope and Contents:
This donation consists of memorabilia, mostly from 1943, from the following American and Canadian airlines: American Airlines; Canadian Pacific Airlines; Northwest Airlines; Pennsylvania Central Airlines; Trans-Canada Air Lines (TCA); TWA; United Air Lines; and Western Air Lines. The following types of memorabilia are included: souvenir route maps, souvenir flight packets, menus, baggage labels and decals, seat occupied signs, postcards, tickets, timetable schedules, comment cards, and brochures.
Arrangement:
Arranged by airline.
Biographical / Historical:
Although casual air travel virtually ceased during the conflict, World War II brought new life to the airline industry as many airlines in the Allied countries, including the United States and Canada, were flush from lease contracts to the military. Airlines immediately began working closely with the military, coordinating the transport of aircraft, cargo, and personnel around the world. A tight priority list ensured that only those serving the war effort flew.
Provenance:
J. S. Gregson, Gift, 2002, NASM.2003.0004
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Airlines  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ephemera
Timetables
Postcards -- 1940-1960
Brochures
Citation:
American and Canadian Airlines Memorabilia, NASM.2003.0004, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2003.0004
See more items in:
American and Canadian Airlines Memorabilia
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2003-0004
Online Media:

Alva R. DeGarmo Collection

Creator:
DeGarmo, Alva R., 1899-1988  Search this
Names:
Atlantic Airways  Search this
Boeing Air Transport  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc.  Search this
Western Airlines  Search this
DeGarmo, Alva R., 1899-1988  Search this
Extent:
1.09 Cubic feet ((1 records center box))
1.04 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Publications
Maps
Date:
1916-1986
Summary:
The Alva R. DeGarmo Collection consists of DeGarmo's army records; logbooks; Boeing Air Transport/United Air Lines correspondence; material documenting his World War II activities; newspaper articles; photographs; and Western Air Lines anniversary items.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the following: Army records; logbooks; Boeing Air Transport/United Air Lines correspondence; material documenting his World War II activities; newspaper articles; photographs; and Western Air Lines anniversary items.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
The Alva R. DeGarmo Collection is arranged by content type.
Biographical / Historical:
Alva R. DeGarmo (1899-1988) enlisted in the Army Air Service, soloing in 1920 in a Curtiss JN-4 at March Field, Riverside, CA. He was in the Air Service for three years before joining the Air Reserve Corps. During his service he patrolled the Mexican boarder and spotted forest fires in Oregon. After resigning from the Air Service and a brief stint in barnstorming, he worked for two years with Western Air Lines, being one of their first four pilots, the "Four Horseman." After two years he changed to Boeing Air Transport/United Air Lines, flying with them until 1939. During World War II DeGarmo helped ferry bombers and transport planes across the Atlantic under the Pan American subsidiary, Atlantic Airways, and later during the War he took over a Pan American Miami to Rio De Janeiro passenger route. Towards the end of the war he worked for Curtiss Wright on C-46 fuel problems. He ended his aviation career with a short stint as a Lockheed test pilot after the war.
General:
Other materials: Logbooks. Most of Alva DeGarmo's material was placed in the Delta Air Lines Museum.
NASMrev
Provenance:
Richard and Bernice DeGarmo, gift, 1991, 1992-0049, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Photographs
Publications
Maps
Citation:
Alva R. DeGarmo Collection, Acc. NASM.1992.0049####, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1992.0049
See more items in:
Alva R. DeGarmo Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1992-0049
Online Media:

Civil Aeronautics Board, Certificate Amendement Case

Collection Creator:
Wheatland, Richard, II, 1923-2009  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 16
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1966
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
New York Airways Collection, Acc. NASM.1992.0052, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
New York Airways Collection
New York Airways Collection / Series 1: 1992 Acquisition
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1992-0052-ref520
2 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Civil Aeronautics Board, Certificate Amendement Case digital asset number 1
  • View Civil Aeronautics Board, Certificate Amendement Case digital asset number 2

Manuscripts, "New York; Survival or Decay" (Speech) Robert L. Cummings, Jr.

Collection Creator:
Wheatland, Richard, II, 1923-2009  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 31
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
October 27, 1966
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
New York Airways Collection, Acc. NASM.1992.0052, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
New York Airways Collection
New York Airways Collection / Series 1: 1992 Acquisition
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1992-0052-ref535
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Manuscripts,

United Air Lines Flight Attendant Photograph [Marcelline Amelia Garvis]

Creator:
United Air Lines, Inc.  Search this
Names:
Garvis, Marcelline Amelia, 1910-2001  Search this
Extent:
0.01 Cubic feet (1 folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
Circa 1940
Summary:
This collection consists of one 8 x 10 inch humorously posed photograph of United Air Lines flight attendants Marcelline Amelia Garvis and Ruby Reykalin.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of one 8 x 10 inch humorously posed photograph of United Air Lines flight attendants Marcelline Amelia Garvis and Ruby Reykalin, both in uniform, beside an aircraft wearing feathery wings. Garvis is pretending to "clip" one of Reykalin's wings with large scissors and one has already been removed as part of a mock ceremony after they resigned to get married.
Arrangement:
This collection is in original order.
Biographical / Historical:
Marcelline Amelia Garvis (1910-2001) was a registered nurse and an early flight attendant for United Air Lines. Garvis graduated from Cook County School of Nursing in Chicago, Illinois in 1933 and was selected as a flight attendant for United Air Lines in 1934. During her time with United, Ms. Garvis was frequently selected for public appearances and promotional work including being interviewed and/or photographed for numerous news pieces. Garvis also frequently did speaking engagements, including serving along with other flight attendants as featured speakers at the closing banquet of the First National Aircraft Production meeting (held in Los Angeles in 1936 by the Society of Automotive Engineers along with the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce and the Air Transport Association of America). Garvis also presented at a symposium on employer-employee relations sponsored by the Business and Professional Women's Club in Alameda, California in 1938 and staffed a booth at the 1939-40 New York World's Fair. Garvis left United Air Lines in 1940 to marry.
Provenance:
Kevin Dowling, Gift, 2019, NASM.2019.0053.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Airlines  Search this
Flight attendants  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Citation:
United Air Lines Flight Attendant Photograph [Marcelline Amelia Garvis], NASM.2019.0053, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2019.0053
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2019-0053

Civil Aeronautics Administration, Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization

Collection Creator:
Stanton, Charles Ingram, 1893-1986  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1946-1947
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Charles Ingram Stanton, Sr., Papers, Acc. NASM.1987.0076, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Charles Ingram Stanton, Sr., Papers
Charles Ingram Stanton, Sr., Papers / Series 1: Professional Life / 1.2: Civilian Career
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1987-0076-ref34
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  • View Civil Aeronautics Administration, Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization digital asset number 1

James H. "Jack" Knight Collection

Creator:
Knight, James H. "Jack"  Search this
Names:
United Air Lines, Inc.  Search this
Knight, James H. "Jack"  Search this
Extent:
0.45 Cubic feet ((1 legal document box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1893-1945
bulk 1922-1945
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes a pouch given to passengers on sleeper flights. It contained the instructions 'Just in Case' and the paper slippers. There is also a handwritten (and on hotel stationary) account of flying over the Allegheny Mountains. There are a number of interval publications issued for United pilots, correspondence between Jack Knight and Don Beebe, miscellaneous publications, Knight's business card (United States Air Mail Service) and (possibly) his crib sheets.
Biographical / Historical:
Jack Knight was one of the early airmail pilots and later became a pilot for the United Air Lines (Boeing Air Transport was predecessor). After over two million miles of flying Knight 'retired' from flying to work in the offices of United Air Lines.
General:
Other materials: Paper slippers included in this collection have been accessioned as an artifact.
NASMrev
Provenance:
J. Ted Beebe, gift, 1988, 1989-0011, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Air mail service  Search this
Identifier:
NASM.1989.0011
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1989-0011

John B. Walker Collection

Creator:
Walker, John B. (John Byrnes), 1898-1986  Search this
Names:
Conquistadores del Cielo  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc.  Search this
Walker, John B. (John Byrnes), 1898-1986  Search this
Extent:
0.1 Cubic feet ((2 folders))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Publications
Biographies
Photographs
Date:
[ca. 1930s-1980s]
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of materials from both John B. Walker's personal life and his association with the "Conquistadores del Cielo." Included are a photograph of Walker's office at United Airlines (featuring a large wall map of air routes), an eight page biographical sketch of John Byrnes Walker, a paperback booklet of the "Conquistadores del Cielo Initiation Scenario," a hardcover history of the "Conquistadores del Cielo," printed in 1982, based in part on the original account of John B. Walker, and a commemorative photo souvenir of the 1938 gathering of the "Conquistadores del Cielo" at the Brush... Valley and Forked Valley Ranches in New Mexico.
Biographical / Historical:
John B. Walker (1898-1986) was, at different points in his career, the founding Vice-President of TWA, the Assistant to the President for United Airlines, and the President of Walker & Crenshaw, Inc. Published works included two books, War in the Air and How to: Get Into Aviation. In addition to his professional positions, he was also a member of many associations and clubs, particularly aviation-related, including being an OX 5 Certified member of Aviation Pioneers and a founding member of the Wings Club. Significant to this collection was his extensive involvement with the creation and activities of the "Conquistadores del Cielo" (Conquerors of the Sky), of which he was a founding member, president, and chairman. The Conquistadores del Cielo were first thought up by Walker and TWA President Jack Frye while on a weekend trip to the Forked Lightning Ranch in New Mexico. After inviting fellow aviation executives and enthusiasts to share in a later weekend retreat, Walker and Frye developed the idea to begin a "club" with the spirit of aviation as its centerpiece. The original retreat was held in 1937. Conquistadores del Cielo was organized by the following year's (1938) retreat at the Brush... Valley and Forked Lightning Ranches.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Constance M. Walker, Gift, 2001, 2001-0015, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics -- Societies, etc.  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Publications
Biographies
Photographs
Identifier:
NASM.2001.0015
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2001-0015

United Airlines Boeing B727-100 Collection

Creator:
United Air Lines, Inc.  Search this
Names:
United Air Lines, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
5.45 Cubic feet ((5 records center boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Financial records
Publications
Microfiche
Microfilms
Manuals
Ephemera
Date:
1964-1992
bulk 1990-1991
Scope and Contents:
This collection of documentation accompanied the donation of the actual aircraft to the National Air and Space Museum in 1992. Included here is memorabilia from the last flight of the B727-100 (such as receipts, records, and stationery), as well as compliance records, AMIS monthly histories, cabin maintenance forms, historical records, identification and routing tags, redelivery records, technical data cards, weight and balance records, non-routine maintenance and regular maintenance records from 12 different U.S. airports, an 8-binder 'Wiring Diagram Manual,' and microfilm and microfiche of various United Airlines documents.
Biographical / Historical:
The Boeing B727-100 is a version of the Boeing 727, which was designed in June 1959. A major innovation of the 727 was the choice of a rear-engined layout, with two Pratt & Whitney JT8D turbofan engines mounted on the sides of the rear fuselage and a third at the base of the T-tail assembly. The 727 had an identical upper fuselage to the 707 and 720 series, with many parts interchangeable. The 727-100 version of the 727 provided standard transport for up to 131 passengers.
General:
Additional material: Memorabilia in this collection, i.e. playing cards, magazines, etc., was transferred to the National Air and Space Museum Aeronautics Division.
NASMrev
Provenance:
United Airlines, Inc., Gift, 1992, 1992-0051, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Boeing 727 Family  Search this
Boeing Model 727-100  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- Passenger traffic  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Airlines  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Air travel  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Financial records
Publications
Microfiche
Microfilms
Manuals
Ephemera
Identifier:
NASM.1992.0051
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1992-0051

James Herbert ("Jack") Knight (1892-1945)

Creator:
United Air Lines, Inc  Search this
Subject:
Knight, James H. "Jack"  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc  Search this
Physical description:
Gelatin silver prints
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Date:
1945
March 2, 1945
Topic:
Test pilots  Search this
Local number:
SIA Acc. 90-105 [SIA2008-4888]
Restrictions & Rights:
No access restrictions Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu
Copyright Not Evaluated
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_398235

Kathleen Power

Subject:
Power, Kathleen  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc  Search this
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Topic:
Education  Search this
Local number:
SIA Acc. 90-105 [SIA2009-1571]
Restrictions & Rights:
No access restrictions Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu
Copyright Not Evaluated
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_306398

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