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South American Languages

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Correspondent:
Steward, Julian Haynes, 1902-1972  Search this
Mason, John Alden, 1885-1967  Search this
Farfán, José M. B.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
18 Boxes
Container:
Box 1054
Culture:
Indians of South America  Search this
Aymara Indians  Search this
Bora Indians  Search this
Asháninka (Campa/Chuncha)  Search this
Cocama Indians  Search this
Guarani Indians  Search this
Shuar  Search this
Kaingang Indians  Search this
Mataco Indians  Search this
Otomí (Otomi)  Search this
Quechua Indians  Search this
Puquina Indians  Search this
Uru Indians  Search this
Witoto Indians  Search this
Yagua Indians  Search this
Yunca Indians  Search this
Zaparo Indians  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Manuscripts
Correspondence
Vocabulary
Date:
1941-1948
Scope and Contents note:
Microfilm Reel: 3
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Mexico/Central America/South America series contains Harrington's records relating to South American languages. His research covered the following languages: Awishira, Aymara, Campa, Cholon, Cocama, Guarani, Jivaro, Kaingang, Mataco, Miranya, Otomi, Quechua, Uru-Puquina, Witoto, Yagua, Yunca, and Zaparo.

Harrington's records relating to Quechua are the most extensive set he compiled on a South American language. The first section of notes, labeled "Quechua Springboard," is a semantically arranged file consisting of lexical items extracted from Ernst W. Middendorf's Quechua dictionary. Harrington copied his entire dictionary, one item per page, in order to have a basic vocabulary for comparison with other languages of the region. The remainder of Harrington's Quechua records have to do with articles which he was preparing for publication. These include notes and drafts for the papers on Quechua phonetics and grammar that he coauthored with Valcarcel, a paper titled "Hokan Discovered in South America," and a review of "Poesia Folklorica Quechua" by J. M. B. Farfan.

Harrington's Witoto files also form a large section of this subseries. Materials include files of data for analysis as well as drafts of several papers. The first paper, titled "The Sounds of Witoto," is a brief undated article referring to the work of Preuss. Included are a two-page final version, a one-page carbon of a variant version, a two-page carbon of a Spanish translation, and a page of miscellaneous notes on phonetics. There are notes and rough drafts for articles on Witoto, Miranya, and Cocama. The highly unorganized records include excerpts from Harrington's "Cocama Grammarlet" and personal communications with Julian Steward and J. Alden Mason. There is also a comparative vocabulary of Witoto, Miranya, and Cocama. This so-called "analphabetikon" includes notes arranged under numerous semantic headings: age, rank, kinship, plants, animals, material culture, etc. This file was used in preparing vocabulary lists for inclusion in Harrington's second large paper on Witoto.

Harrington prepared at least four papers on Jivaro (abbreviated "Jiv."), a language which he felt was a "very divergent type of Arawakan." While most other linguists gave it an independent status, he felt that the resemblances with Arawak were genetic. The first article, "Jibaro Epitome," consists of a review of Juan Ghinassi's grammar (1938). The file continues with notes and drafts of "The Jivaro Language." Harrington presents ethnological data of the Jivaro by way of introduction and proceeds to give an outline of the language. A draft of a third paper, "Vocabulary of the Jivaro Language," actually consists of a working copy of a Jivaro vocabulary. The title page, labeled "Jivaro Spingboard" lists the dictionary by Ghinassi (Gh. or Ghin.) as the major source of the semantically arranged vocabulary. The file concludes with notes and a draft for the article "The Jivaro Indians."

The materials which Harrington compiled on the Miranya language are fairly extensive. The files begin with a comparative vocabulary organized in what he termed a "loose-leaf system." Miranya terms, as well as Witoto, Guarani, Cocama, and Arawak forms, are arranged in a number of standard semantic and grammatical categories. Extracts were taken from the works of Adam, Farabee, Kinder, Preuss, Rivet, Ruiz de Montoya, Tessman, and Whiffen. There are also three separate sections labeled "Farabee M. Voc.," "Tessman M. Voc.," and "Whiffen M. Voc." in which lexical items from these sources are listed, one word per page. Writings based on Harrington's study of the secondary sources follow. The file concludes with a short draft by Mason of a write-upon Miranya for "The Languages of the South American Indians" and a letter from Harrington to Steward dated April 4, 1943. Enclosed with the letter are pages one to four of a paper and pages 10 and 11 of a bibliography. They deal with a review of the problem of assigning Miranya to a larger linguistic stock.

The remaining materials on the other South American languages consist of notes from secondary sources, drafts of papers, and some correspondence. His notes on Otomi include field notes recorded by Harrington from Pablo Galicia, a native of San Juan Tutxtepec, interviewed in Xochimilco, Mexico in 1951. The miscellaneous notes section contains materials of a more general nature and include notes from conversations Harrington had with Mason and Steward. There are also notes on various South American languages with subsections on: Awishira (Abishira), Aymara, Arawakan, Campa, Chipaya, Cholon, Fitita, Guaranian, Mataco, Miranya, Okaina, Quechua, Resigaro, Tupi, Uru-Puquina, Witoto, Yunca, and Zaparo. Harrington's notes include general observations, bibliographic references, extracts from secondary sources, and partial drafts of papers. Of particular interest is an item filed under Quechua: a letter to Julian Steward from J. M. B. Farfan, dated July 9, 1943, enclosing a list of one hundred basic words in Quechua. The last four files of miscellany consist of drafts of various writings.
Biographical / Historical:
Harrington's earliest work in the field of South American languages resulted in a paper which he coauthored with Luis E. Valcarcel, director of the Museo Nacional in Lima, Peru. Correspondence indicates that the two men met during a visit which Valcarcel made to Washington in March 1941. By April 6 Harrington had already drafted a manuscript of the article "Quichua Phonetics. A Shortcut to the Scientific Writing of the Language of the Incas of Peru," which he then forwarded to Valcarcel in New York City for translation. In July Harrington rewrote the paper in English and sent it to Peru for publication.

In early 1943 Harrington was called back from the field to B.A.E. headquarters in Washington, D.C. Among his official duties at the bureau was the examination of data for the linguistic sections of the "Handbook of South American Indians." The bureau had accepted responsibility for preparing the handbook and had begun work on it in 1940 under the editorship of Julian H. Steward. J. Alden Mason of the University Museum in Philadelphia was given the task of "classifying and tabulating the languages of South America." As it was possible for Mason to make only a few independent studies of these languages himself, he relied on the assistance of scholars such as Harrington to provide information to him through correspondence. He inserted a number of Harrington's findings into his final report as notes.

For the most part Harrington's method entailed examining secondary sources, extracting and compiling linguistic and morphological data from them, and comparing these data for various languages with a view to establishing linguistic affiliations. He also had limited opportunities to obtain first-hand information from native speakers of Guarani, Quechua, and Otomi and from a non-native speaker of Jivaro.

In May 1943 Harrington undertook an extensive study of the Jivaro language. The vocabulary which he compiled and reheard was used for comparison with that of the Zaparo language. During the same year Harrington examined data on Campa and Witoto and compiled working vocabularies (which he called "springboards") for Cocama and Quechua. He also found preliminary evidence of the interrelationships of several groups of languages. He felt that Miranya was related to Tupi-Guarani, that Uru-Puquina should be grouped with Arawakan, and that Aymara should be assigned to the Hokan family. He also published "Hokan Discovered in South America," a discussion of the affinity of Quechua with Hokan in terms of phonetics, morphology, and vocabulary. Comparisons were drawn from a number of Hokan languages of North and Central America: Chimariko, Choctaw, Salinan, and Subtiaba, several of which Harrington had studied at earlier periods.

Harrington reported "winding up" a comparison of Witoto, Miranya, and Guarani in January 1944. By April he had undertaken a study of Cholon, finished a paper on Witoto ("Sobre fonetico Witoto"), and was at work on an article on Zaparo. He also prepared "a long screed on Yunca" which was later published as "Yunka, Language of the Peruvian Coastal Culture."

During the 1944-1945 fiscal year, Harrington proceeded to work on Guarani and Quechua, which he described as "the Indian languages of South America." He made use of a publication by Dr. Bertoni with whom he met briefly. In addition, he published three papers relating to Quechua: "Earliest Navajo and Quechua," "La lengua Aynlara, hermana mayor de la Quichua," and "Quechua Grammarlet."

Harrington continued to work intermittently on South American languages for the next several years. At the end of fiscal year 1947-1948 he submitted a large report on Guarani, which held official status with Spanish in Paraguay, as well as a smaller paper on Mataco which was published under the title "Matako of the Gran Chaco." He also wrote another piece on the phonetics of Quechua.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Indians of South America -- Languages  Search this
Aymara language  Search this
Bora language  Search this
Campa language  Search this
Cholon language  Search this
Cocama language  Search this
Guarani language  Search this
Shuar language  Search this
Kaingang language  Search this
Mataco language  Search this
Otomi language  Search this
Quechua language  Search this
Puquina language  Search this
Uru language  Search this
Witoto language  Search this
Yagua language  Search this
Yunca language  Search this
Zaparo language  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Phonetics  Search this
Grammar, Comparative and general  Search this
Wichi  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Manuscripts
Correspondence
Vocabulary
Collection Citation:
Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
See more items in:
John P. Harrington Papers
John P. Harrington Papers / Series 8: Notes and Writings on Special Linguistic Studies / 8.7: Supplemental Material on Mexico /Central America/South America
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref15322
Online Media:

MS 2000 Atimoke: Texts, linguistic and historic notes

Creator:
Gatschet, Albert S. (Albert Samuel), 1832-1907  Search this
Extent:
1 Volume
60 Pages
Culture:
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Tupi-Guarani  Search this
Chayona  Search this
Cumanagota  Search this
Tumanaco  Search this
Carib  Search this
Euchee (Yuchi)  Search this
Timucua (archaeological)  Search this
Wayuu (Guajira/Goajiro)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Volumes
Pages
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Extracts from published Timucua texts by Morilla and Pareja, notes on historical sources on Timucua and South Florida, suggested comparisons and etymologies for Fontaneda's Calusa words; comparisons of Timucua vocabulary with Creek, Yuchi, Island Carib, Calibi, Tupi-Guarani, Guajiro, Chayona, Cumanagota and Tumanaco.
Above correction and additional information supplied by W.C. Sturtevant.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2000
Local Note:
Autograph document
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 2000, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2000
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2000

Translated (from Portuguese). The sociological significance of some Tupi-Guarani kinship terms, by J.J. Philipson. Acta Americana 5

Collection Creator:
Watson, Virginia  Search this
Watson, James B. (James Bennett), 1918-2009  Search this
Cole, J. David, 1941-  Search this
Container:
Box 16
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1947
Collection Restrictions:
The Virginia Drew Watson papers are open for research.

Access to the Virginia Drew Watson papers requires and appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Virginia Drew Watson papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Virginia Drew Watson papers
Virginia Drew Watson papers / Series 4: Manuscripts / 4.3: Published Articles
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2002-12-ref206

Justicia sp.

Biogeographical Region:
84 - Brazil North  Search this
Collector:
W. Balee  Search this
Place:
Xingu River, Assurini Indians, Tupi-Guarani Indians Project., Pará, Brazil, South America - Neotropics
Collection Date:
17 Jun 1986
Common name:
i3ta2 ndu3ku2 kwi3in4
watter-willow
Taxonomy:
Plantae Dicotyledonae Scrophulariales Acanthaceae
Published Name:
Justicia sp.
Barcode:
02881419
USNM Number:
3170332
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3e32765a0-8c7d-4067-a999-3b77b1436bf8
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_14153404

La Tragédie cannibale chez les anciens Tupi-Guarani / Isabelle Combès

Author:
Combès, Isabelle  Search this
Physical description:
276 p. : ill ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Brazil
Date:
1992
Topic:
Tupi Indians--Rites et ceremonies  Search this
Guarani Indians--Rites et ceremonies  Search this
Cannibalism--History  Search this
Call number:
F2230.2.T84 C66 1992
F2230.2.T84 C65 1992
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_899105

Les langues de la famille tupi-guarani / Čestmir Loukotka

Author:
Loukotka, Čestmír  Search this
Universidade da São Paulo Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras  Search this
Physical description:
42 p. ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1950
Topic:
Tupi languages  Search this
Guarani languages  Search this
Call number:
PM7171 .L88 1950
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_501567

Description and classification of Sirionó [microform] : a Tupí-Guaraní language / by Homer L. Firestone

Author:
Firestone, Homer L  Search this
Physical description:
69, [3] p. : ill., map ; 26 cm
Type:
Microforms
Date:
1965
Topic:
Siriano language  Search this
Call number:
mfc 006082.03
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_547004

The Amazonian languages / edited by R.M.W. Dixon and Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald

Author:
Dixon, Robert M. W  Search this
Aĭkhenvalʹd, A. IU (Aleksandra IUrʹevna)  Search this
Physical description:
xxviii, 446 p. : maps ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Amazon River Region
Date:
1999
Topic:
Languages  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_591365

Similarity and variation in plant names in five Tupi-Guarani languages (Eastern Amazonia) / William Balée and Denny Moore

Author:
Balée, William L. 1954-  Search this
Moore, Denny  Search this
Physical description:
p. [209]-262 : ill., map ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Brazil
Date:
1991
Topic:
Plant names, Popular  Search this
Tupi languages  Search this
Call number:
QK13 .B18 1991
QK13.B18 1991
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_421872

Die Pauserna-Guaraŝug wä; Monographie eines Tupí-Guaraní-Volkes in Ostbolivien

Author:
Riester, Jürgen 1941-  Search this
Physical description:
xvii, 562 p. illus., maps. 24 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1972
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_482724

The Land-without-Evil : Tupí-Guaraní prophetism / Hélène Clastres ; translated from the French by Jacqueline Grenez Brovender ; foreword by Jonathan D. Hill

Author:
Clastres, Hélène  Search this
Physical description:
xi, 129 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Brazil
Date:
1995
C1995
Topic:
Politics and government  Search this
Religion  Search this
Tupi mythology  Search this
Guarani mythology  Search this
Nativistic movements--History  Search this
Chiefdoms--History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_485870

Etnografia e lingua tupí-guaraní

Author:
Universidade de São Paulo Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras  Search this
Physical description:
v. ; 24 cm
Type:
Periodicals
Place:
Brazil
Date:
1941
1941-
Topic:
Tupi language  Search this
Guarani language  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Call number:
E54.B8S34
E54 .B8S34
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_316587

Araweté : os deuses canibais / Eduardo Viveiros de Castro

Author:
Castro, Eduardo Batalha Viveiros de  Search this
Physical description:
744 p., [8] p. of plates : ill. ; 27 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Brazil
Date:
1986
Topic:
Religion  Search this
Cannibalism  Search this
Call number:
F2520.1.A77C37 1986X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_342609

Etnografía de la antigua provincia del Uruguay

Author:
Serrano, Antonio 1899-  Search this
Physical description:
207 p., 2 l. incl. illus. (incl. maps) pl. front. (port.) 19 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Uruguay
Brazil
Argentina
Date:
1936
Topic:
Antiquities  Search this
Languages  Search this
Call number:
F2719.S47X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_264545

Vocabulario nheengatú (vernaculizado pelo portuguez falado em São Paulo) (lingua tupi-guarani) Publicação posthuma dirigida por Affonso de Freitas Junior

Author:
Freitas, Affonso A. de (Affonso Antonio) 1868-1930  Search this
Freitas Júnior, Affonso de  Search this
Physical description:
206 p. front. (port.) illus. (incl. plan) pl. 19 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1936
Topic:
Tupi language--Glossaries, vocabularies, etc  Search this
Call number:
PM7176.F7X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_267025

La musicalidad de los tupi guaraní

Author:
Viggiano Esaín, Julio  Search this
Physical description:
40 p. 23 cm
Type:
Music
Date:
1954
Call number:
ML3575.I5 V5X
ML3575.I5V5X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_196265

Description and classification of Sirionó, a Tupí-Guaraní language, by Homer L. Firestone

Author:
Firestone, Homer L  Search this
Physical description:
69, [3] p. illus., map. 26 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1965
Topic:
Siriano language  Search this
Call number:
PM7074 .F52
PM7074.F52
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_49062

Dispersión Tupí-Guaraní prehistórica : ensayo analítico / Branislava Susnik

Author:
Sušnik, Branislava  Search this
Physical description:
171 p., 2 fold. leaves of plates : maps ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1975
Call number:
F2230.2.T84 S87X
F2230.2.T84S87X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_73059

Die Urnenbestattung bei den Tupi-Guarani

Author:
César, José Vicente 1927-  Search this
Physical description:
173 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1965
Topic:
Funeral customs and rites  Search this
Urn burial  Search this
Call number:
F2230.1.M6 C46
F2230.1.M6C46
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_76081

La terre sans mal : le prophétisme tupi-guarani / Hélène Clastres

Author:
Clastres, Hélène  Search this
Physical description:
153 p. ; 21 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1975
Topic:
Religion  Search this
Call number:
F2230.2.T84 C614
F2230.2.T84C614
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_89145

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