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Division of Work and Industry Lantern Slide Collection

Creator:
Missionary Catechists of Divine Providence.  Search this
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Civil Engineering Department  Search this
Underwood and Underwood  Search this
Compiler:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Extent:
44 Cubic feet (132 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Blueprints
Drawings
Lantern slides
Photographs
Sketches
Date:
1588-1945, undated
Summary:
A collection primarily of 19th and early 20th century lantern slides relating mostly to engineering, agriculture, railroads, mining, and extractive industries collected by the Division of Work and Industry, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Scope and Contents:
A collection of 19th and early 20th century silver gelatin dry plate lantern slides acquired by the staff of the Division of Work and Industry, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. These materials were collected for research purposes and relate to various subjects.

Condition of the material varies widely with some fragile or broken slides. Poor quality images also exist probably due to either the processing of the slides or unstable storage environments. All slides have been digitized and moved to off-site storage to minimize handling and at the same time increase accessibility.

The collection is arranged in nine series: series 1, engineering; series 2, extractive industries; series 3, chemical; series 4, manufacturing companies; series 5, machinery; series 6, railroads; series 7, agriculture; series 8, travel photography; and 9, miscellaneous materials.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged in nine series.

Series 1: Engineering, undated

Subseries 1.1: Architecture and Structures, undated

Subseries 1.2: Bridges, Cantilever, undated

Subseries 1.3: Bridges, Concrete Arch and Beam, undated

Subseries 1.4: Bridges, Masonry Aqueducts, undated

Subseries 1.5: Bridges, Metal Arc, undated

Subseries 1.6: Bridges, Metal Truss, undated

Subseries 1.7: Bridges, Movable, undated

Subseries 1.8: Bridges, Suspension, undated

Subseries 1.9: Canals, undated

Subseries 1.10: Hydraulic Engineering, undated

Subseries 1.11: Machine Tools, undated

Subseries 1.12: Materials Handling, undated

Subseries 1.13: Power, undated

Subseries 1.14: Railroad Mileage Maps, undated

Subseries 1.15: Steam Boilers, undated

Subseries 1.16: Steam Turbines, undated

Subseries 1.17: Tunneling Machine Tools, undated

Series 2: Extractive Industries, undated

Subseries 2.1: Coal, undated

Subseries 2.1.1: Coke, undated

Subseries 2.1.2: Diagrams and Maps, undated

Subseries 2.1.3: General, undated

Subseries 2.1.4: General, undated

Subseries 2.1.5: Infrastructure and Laborers, undated

Subseries 2.1.6: Internation, undated

Subseries 2.1.7: International Product and Labor Statistics, undated

Subseries 2.1.8: Jack Leg Drilling, undated

Subseries 2.1.9: Lansford Breaker Fire Coal Facilities, undated

Subseries 2.1.10: Loading Machinery, undated

Subseries 2.1.11: Longhole Drilling Method, undated

Subseries 2.1.12: Machinery, undated

Subseries 2.1.13: Mines, undated

Subseries 2.1.14: Mining Communities, undated

Subseries 2.1.15: Subsidence, undated

Subseries 2.1.16: Forepoling Warden Mine, undated

Subseries 2.1.17: Montour Number 10 Mine, undated

Subseries 2.1.18: Conveyors, undated

Subseries 2.1.19: Coal Land Valuation, undated

Subseries 2.2: Iron, undated

Subseries 2.2.1: General, undated

Subseries 2.2.2: Pig Iron, undated

Subseries 2.3: Gemstones, undated

Subseries 2.3.1: Gemstones, undated

Subseries 2.4: Mining, undated

Subseries 2.4.1: Diagrams, undated

Subseries 2.4.2: Hydraulic, undated

Subseries 2.4.3: General, undated

Subseries 2.4.4: Ores and Mines, undated

Subseries 2.4.5: Processing Equipment and Infrastructure, undated

Subseries 2.4.6: Shafts, Drilling, and Loading, undated

Subseries 2.4.7: United States Bureau of Mines, undated

Subseries 2.4.8: L. E. Young, Box C, undated

Subseries 2.4.9: L. E. Young, Box D, undated

Subseries 2.4.10: L. E. Young, Box E, undated

Subseries 2.4.11: L. E. Young, Box F, undated

Subseries 2.4.12: L. E. Young, Box G, undated

Subseries 2.4.13: L. E. Young, Box I, undated

Subseries 2.5: Oil, undated

Subseries 2.5.1: Oil, undated

Subseries 2.6: Rubber, undated

Subseries 2.6.1: Coke Rubber Rails, undated

Subseries 2.6.2: General, undated

Subseries 2.6.3: General, undated

Subseries 2.6.4: General, undated

Subseries 2.7: Steel, undated

Subseries 2.7.1: Newcastle Steel Work, undated

Subseries 2.7.2: General, undated

Subseries 2.8: Timber, undated

Subseries 2.8.1: General, undated

Subseries 2.8.2: Lifts, undated

Series 3: Chemical Processing, undated

Subseries 3.1: Chemical Processes, undated

Subseries 3.2: Laboratory and Studies, undated

Subseries 3.3: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 37A: 1-48, undated

Subseries 3.4: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 47: 1-68, undated

Subseries 3.5: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 52: 1-20, undated

Subseries 3.6: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, undated

Subseries 3.7: Radiation Studies, undated

Subseries 3.8: Visual Aids in Chemical Education, The Museum, undated

Series 4: Manufacturing Companies, undated

Subseries 4.1: American Bosch Company, Fuel Injection Equipment, undated

Subseries 4.2: American Locomotive Company, undated

Subseries 4.3: American Locomotive Company, undated

Subseries 4.4: Atlas-Imperial Diesel Engine Company, undated

Subseries 4.5: Baldwin Locomotive Works, undated

Subseries 4.6: Buda Engine Company, undated

Subseries 4.7: Buda Engine Company, Marine, undated

Subseries 4.8: Cooper-Bessenger Corporation, undated

Subseries 4.9: Cooper-Bessenger Corporation, undated

Subseries 4.10: Fairbanks Morse Marine Diesel General Set, undated

Subseries 4.11: Fairbanks Morse Marine Diesel, undated

Subseries 4.12: Fairbanks Morse Marine Diesel, undated

Subseries 4.13: Fairbanks Morse Marine Diesel, undated

Subseries 4.14: Fairbanks Morse Marine Diesel, undated

Subseries 4.15: Fairbanks Morse Marine Diesel General Set, undated

Subseries 4.16: General Motors Company, undated

Subseries 4.17: General Motors Company, undated

Subseries 4.18: General Motors Company, undated

Subseries 4.19: General Motors Company, undated

Subseries 4.20: General Motors Company, undated

Subseries 4.21: General Motors Company, undated

Subseries 4.22: General Motors Company, undated

Subseries 4.23: General Motors Company, undated

Subseries 4.24: General Motors Company, undated

Subseries 4.25: General Motors Company Miscelleaneous, undated

Subseries 4.26: Hamilton Diesel, undated

Subseries 4.27: Hamilton Diesel, undated

Subseries 4.28: Hamilton Diesel, undated

Subseries 4.29: Hamilton Diesel, undated

Subseries 4.30: Ingersoll Rand Incorporated, undated

Subseries 4.31: International Harvester Fuel Singler Plunger, undated

Subseries 4.32: Long and Alstatler Company, undated

Subseries 4.33: Miscelleaneous Manufacturing Companies, undated

Subseries 4.34: Nordberg Marine Diesel, undated

Series 5: Machinery, undated

Subseries 5.1: Blast Furnances, undated

Subseries 5.2: Construction, undated

Subseries 5.3: Construction - Brick, undated

Subseries 5.4: Construction - Cement, undated

Subseries 5.5: Diagram Miscelleaneous, undated

Subseries 5.6: Diesel Engines, undated

Subseries 5.7: Diesel Engines, General, undated

Subseries 5.8: Diesel Engines, Superior Types KNB, undated

Subseries 5.9: Diesel Installation USS Maumee, undated

Subseries 5.10: Drills, Jumbos, undated

Subseries 5.11: Engine Model D, undated

Subseries 5.12: Factories and Warehouses, undated

Subseries 5.13: Factory Machines, undated

Subseries 5.14: Flywheel Governors, undated

Subseries 5.15: Furnances General, undated

Subseries 5.16: Gas, undated

Subseries 5.17: General Engines, undated

Subseries 5.18: Governors, undated

Subseries 5.19: History of Pumps, undated

Subseries 5.20: Hoisers, undated

Subseries 5.21: Industrial Furnances, undated

Subseries 5.22: Industrial Scenes, undated

Subseries 5.23: Machines Diagrams and Sketches, undated

Subseries 5.24: Machinery Miscelleaneous, undated

Subseries 5.25: Refrigeration, undated

Subseries 5.26: Safety, undated

Subseries 5.27: Steam Engines General Information, undated

Subseries 5.28: Vacuum, undated

Series 6: Railroads and Locomotions, undated

Subseries 6.1: Charts and Graphs, undated

Subseries 6.2: Company Photographs, undated

Subseries 6.3: Drawings, undated

Subseries 6.4: Toppling Over, undated

Subseries 6.5: Interior of Train Cars, undated

Subseries 6.6: Locomotion, undated

Subseries 6.7: Locomotion Miscelleaneous, undated

Subseries 6.8: Repair Report Forms, undated

Subseries 6.9: Shop Scenes, undated

Subseries 6.10: Track Debris, undated

Subseries 6.11: Train Car Component Details, undated

Subseries 6.12: Train Yards, undated

Subseries 6.13: Underside of Locomotives, undated

Subseries 6.14: Yard Scenes, undated

Series 7: Agriculture, undated

Subseries 7.1: Bananas, undated

Subseries 7.2: Butter, undated

Subseries 7.3: Coffee, undated

Subseries 7.4: Corn, undated

Subseries 7.5: Cotton, undated

Subseries 7.6: Machinery, undated

Subseries 7.7: Onions, undated

Subseries 7.8: Potatoes, undated

Subseries 7.9: Poultry, undated

Subseries 7.10: Sugar, undated

Subseries 7.11: Tea, undated

Subseries 7.12: Tobacco, undated

Subseries 7.13: Turpentine, undated

Series 8: Travel Photography, undated

Subseries 8.1: California, undated

Subseries 8.2: Canada, undated

Subseries 8.3: Colorado, undated

Subseries 8.4: General Landscapes, undated

Subseries 8.5: General Locations, undated

Subseries 8.6: Landscapes and Locations General, 186-2-36, undated

Subseries 8.7: Landscapes and Locations General, 187-18-48, undated

Subseries 8.8: New York, undated

Subseries 8.9: United States National Parks, undated

Subseries 8.10: Washington, DC, undated

Series 9: Miscellaneous Materials, undated

Subseries 9.1: Duplicates of Navy Slides, undated

Subseries 9.2: Miscelleaneous

Subseries 9.3: Reliefs, Cravings, and Architecture, undated

Subseries 9.4: Wood Products, undated
Related Materials:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History

For related material on Canals, see the following collections:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Canals, NMAH.AC.0060

Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, NMAH.AC.0143

Roland A. McCrady Photograph Collection, NMAH.AC.0710

Division of Cultural History Lantern Slides and Stereographs, NMAH.AC.0945

Niagara Falls Power Company Records, NMAH.AC.0949

Modjeski and Masters Company Records, NMAH.AC.0976

George Morison Collection, NMAH.AC.0978

Uriah A. Boyden Papers, NMAH.AC.0982

James Forgie Papers, NMAH.AC.0986

William R. Hutton Papers, NMAH.AC.0987

Snake River Irrigation Project Photograph Album, NMAH.AC.1031

Silas H. Woodard Papers, NMAH.AC.1038

Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western Railroad Records, NMAH.AC.1074

Mechanical and Civil Engineering Stereograph Cards, NMAH.AC.1090

New York State Barge Canal Photographs, NMAH.AC.1536

Lackawaxen Canal Survey Profiles, NMAH.AC.1546

Nicaragua Canal Collection, NMAH.AC.1550

For related material on Cantilever Bridges, see the following collections:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Bridges, NMAH.AC.0060

Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, NMAH.AC.0143

Nathan W. Morgan Papers, NMAH.AC.0965

George Morison Collection, NMAH.AC.0978

John A. Roebling Collection, NMAH.AC.0981

Mechanical and Civil Engineering Stereograph Cards, NMAH.AC.1090

Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering Bridges Reference Collection, NMAH.AC.1577

For related material on Concrete Arch and Beam Bridges, see the following collections:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Bridges, NMAH.AC.0060

For related material on Corliss Steam Engine Company, see the following collections:

Frick Company Collection, NMAH.AC.0293

Cooper-Bessemer Corporation Records, NMAH.AC.0961

Robert Wetherill Company Records, NMAH.AC.0992

Evolution of the Corliss Steam Engine Scrapbook, NMAH.AC1016

Mechanical and Civil Engineering Glass Plate Negatives, NMAh.AC.1089

For related material on Hydraulic Engineering, see the following collections:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Engineering, NMAH.AC0060

Charles Richardson Pratt Papers, NMAH.AC.0958

Rudolph Hering Collection, NMAH.AC.0989

Mechanical and Civil Engineering Glass Plate Negatives, NMAH.AC.1089

Mechanical and Civil Engineering Stereograph Cards, NMAH.AC.1090

For related material on Machine Tools, see the following collections:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Tools, NMAH.AC.0060

Pratt & Whitney Company Scrapbook, NMAH.AC.0093

Max Holland Numerical Control Collection, NMAH.AC.0537

Southwark Foundry and Machine Company Records, NMAH.AC.1107

For related material on Materials Handling, see the following collections:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Materials Handling, NMAH.AC.0060

James J. Childs Numerical Control Collection, NMAH.AC.0420

World War Two Bomb Damage Photographs, NMAH.AC.1535

Norton Grinding Machine Company Photograph Collection, NMAH.AC.1551

Paul Steam-Heating System Company Records, NMAH.AC.1554

For related material on Metal Arch Bridges, see the following collections:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Bridges, NMAH.A.C0060

Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering Bridges Reference Collection, NMAH.AC.1577

Mechanical and Civil Engineering Stereograph Cards, NMAH.AC.1090

For related material on Movable Bridges, see the following collections:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Bridges, NMAH.AC.0060

Henry Grattan Tyrrell and Mary Maude Knox Tyrrell Papers, NMAH.AC.0948

Nathan W. Morgan Papers, NMAH.AC.0965

Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering Bridges Reference Collection, NMAH.AC.1577

For related material on Panama Canal, see the following collections:

John Frances Little Panama Canal Scrapbook, NMAH.AC.0708

A.R. Van Tassell Photograph Album, NMAH.AC.1015

W. A. Fishbaugh Panama Canal Photograph Album, NMAH.AC.1021

W. P. Stine Panama Canal Papers, NMAH.AC.1039

Katherine Kingsford Panama Canal Photograph Album, NMAH.AC.1040

Richard Fisher Collection of Panama Canal Materials, NMAH.AC.1045

Robert Dearborn Panama Canal Glass Negatives, NMAH.AC.1111

Charles Edwards Wood Panama Canal Photograph Album, NMAH.AC.1114

Panama Canal Commission Photonegatives, 1903-circa 1939, NMAH.AC.1116

Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering Panama Canal Collection, NMAH.AC.1569

For related material on railroads, see the following collections:

Archives Center Lantern Slide Collection, NMAH.AC.0686

Railroad Bridge Construction Photograph Album, NMAH.AC.1024

Northern Pacific Railroad Bridge Construction Photograph Album, NMAH.AC.1031

Penn Station, New York, Photographs, NMAH.AC.1048

Northern Pacific Railway Photographs, NMAH.AC.1067

New York Central Railway Valuation Negatives, NMAH.AC.1072

Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago, and St. Louis Railroad Photographs (PCC and St. Louis), NMAH.AC.1079

Niagara Railroad Negatives, NMAH.AC.1081

Charles B. Chaney Jr. Railroad Photographic Collection, NMAH.AC.1167

Clayton M. Hall Collection of Railroad Photographs, NMAH.AC.1168

Harry A. McBride Railroad Photographs, NMAH.AC.1171

Thomas Norrell Railroad Photographs Collection, NMAH.AC.1174

Pullman Palace Car Company Photographs, NMAH.AC.1175

Haskell and Barker Car Company Photographic Negatives, NMAH.AC.1183

For related material on Steam Boilers, see the following collections:

Frick Company Collection, NMAH.AC.293

Erasmus D. Leavitt Collection, NMAH.AC.0966

Edwin Rust Papers, NMAH.AC.1070

Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company Records, NMAH.AC.1541

For related material on steam engines, see the following collections:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Engines, NMAH.AC.0060

Frick Company Collection, NMAH.AC.0293

Borsig Steam Engine Records, NMAH.AC.0956

Cooper-Bessemer Corporation Records, NMAH.AC0961

Greville I. Bathe Papers, NMAH.AC.0970

McIntosh, Seymour, and Company Records, NMAH.AC0985

Mechanical and Civil Engineering Glass Plate Negatives, NMAH.AC1089

For related material on Steam Turbines, see the following collections:

Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records, NMAH.AC.0001

Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company Records, NMAH.AC.0977

Skinner Engine Company Records, NMAH.AC.1087

Mechanical and Civil Engineering Glass Plate Negatives, NMAH.AC.1089

For related material on Suspension Bridges, see the following collections:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Bridges, NMAH.AC.0060

Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, NMAH.AC.0143

Nathan W. Morgan Papers, NMAH.AC.0965

Modjeski and Masters Company Records, NMAH.AC.0976

Niagara Falls Bridge Commission Records, NMAH.AC.1060

Mechanical and Civil Engineering Glass Plate Negatives, NMAH.AC.1089

Mechanical and Civil Engineering Stereograph Cards, NMAH.AC.1090

Robinson & Steinman Collection, NMAH.AC.1562

Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering Bridges Reference Collection, NMAH.AC.1577
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American women  Search this
Agriculture -- Corn  Search this
Agricultural crops -- Fields  Search this
Agricultural laborers  Search this
Agricultural machinery  Search this
Agricultural products  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Bananas -- Costa Rica  Search this
Bananas -- Jamaica  Search this
Bearings (Machinery)  Search this
Bridges  Search this
Butter  Search this
Butter -- New York  Search this
Canals  Search this
Children -- 20th century  Search this
Coal mines and mining  Search this
Coffee  Search this
Coffee industry -- Brazil  Search this
Coffee -- Jamaica  Search this
Coffee -- Mexico  Search this
Cotton  Search this
Cotton farming  Search this
Cotton industry  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Hydraulic engineering  Search this
Laborers  Search this
Machine-tools  Search this
Maple sugar  Search this
Materials handling  Search this
Mine shafts  Search this
Mining engineering  Search this
Oil  Search this
Oil industries  Search this
Onions  Search this
Poultry industry  Search this
Potatoes  Search this
Power  Search this
Railroads  Search this
Railroads -- 19th century  Search this
Railroads -- 20th century  Search this
Rubber -- Ceylon  Search this
Rubber -- Congo  Search this
Rubber plantations  Search this
Steam-boilers  Search this
Sugar  Search this
Tires  Search this
Tobacco  Search this
Tunnels  Search this
Turbines  Search this
Turpentine -- North Carolina  Search this
Water-supply  Search this
Genre/Form:
Blueprints
Drawings -- 20th century
Lantern slides
Photographs -- Lantern slides -- 19th century
Photographs -- Lantern slides -- 1900-1950
Sketches
Citation:
Division of Work and Industry Lantern Slide Collection, 1758-1945, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1013
See more items in:
Division of Work and Industry Lantern Slide Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep864c4320f-954c-462f-8434-2b79c0ed7159
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1013

Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection

Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Publisher:
American Stereoscopic Co.  Search this
H. C. White Co.  Search this
Killela, J.J.  Search this
Underwood, Bert, 1862-1943  Search this
Underwood, Elmer, 1859-1947  Search this
Photographer:
Ponting, Herbert George, 1870-1935  Search this
Underwood, Bert, 1862-1943  Search this
Underwood, Elmer, 1859-1947  Search this
White, Clarence W.  Search this
Extent:
160 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Stereographs
Photographs
Stereoscopic photographs
Lantern slides
Date:
1895-1921
Summary:
A collection of approximately 28,000 glass plate negatives showing views of a variety of subjects.
Scope and Contents:
The major part of the collection, series 1-4, contains nearly 28,000 glass plates, including original stereoscopic negatives, interpositives, and both negative and positive non-stereoscopic plates used to produce lantern slides and paper prints. The photographs were taken all over the world. The majority are from the Underwood & Underwood active files, but plates from other publishers are also included. Series 5 is a small collection of paper stereographs. Series 6 contains 4 Underwood & Underwood descriptive sales catalogs and 1 H. C. White & Co. catalog (numbers on the Underwood plates correspond to the numbers on catalog captions). Series 7 is apparatus--four stereoscopes.

The approximately 28,000 glass plates in this collection have not been completely inspected at this point due to handling problems associated with asbestos contamination of the collection. A preliminary survey, however, indicated that the selections of images cover the full range of subject matter encompassed by the "Underwood Travel System." The subject matter is most easily comprehended by consulting one of the Underwood sales catalogs which accompany the collection. The catalog captions are arranged geographically, for the most part, and generally represent an organized "tour" which could be purchased as a boxed set, complete with maps and guide book, although individual images could be purchased separately. The catalogs indicate that the Underwood files were continually updated, for extensive modifications in some of the sets can be seen from edition to edition, and actual inspection of published stereographs shows that alternate views with identical Underwood catalog numbers were substituted from time to time, and that new subjects (with new catalog numbers) were sometimes introduced into the sets and old subjects were retired. There are glass plate negatives as well as positives in this collection. The positive images were probably interpositives used for the production of duplicate negatives. Some of the original stereo negatives were cut apart and the images transposed; they were then bound with an additional glass support (in many cases the tape has deteriorated). Half stereo positives also appear in the collection: these probably were intended for use in lantern slide production. Frequently a drawer of plates contains several incarnations of a single image, including the original negative, a copy negative, an interpositive, and a positive lantern slide. In other cases a drawer may contain only a single mode, e.g., original negatives, while corresponding positives and/or lantern slides appear in separate drawers.

A small quantity of the Underwood & Underwood plates are not from the Travel System, but represent humorous and genre subjects which were cataloged and marketed separately. The work of several other publishers, usually without Underwood catalog numbers, is also represented, including H. C. White, American Stereoscopic Company, and J. J. Killela.

The arrangement of the collection seems to reflect a combination of permanent reference storage as well as active use files. The apparent anomalies or inconsistencies probably indicate the pulling of plates from permanent files into temporary work files, and the collection may consist of a combination of permanent storage and temporary working files. As the drawers do not appear to have been renumbered according to any easily discernible pattern, they have become intermixed and rearranged in storage. The contents of each drawer usually have been found in good order, however, and the plates were nearly always arranged numerically,usually with the low numbers at the rear of the drawer and the highest number at the front. As the plates have been rehoused, the reverse numerical order has been corrected. When all the plates have been rehoused and inventoried, consideration will be given to general collection rearrangement and renumbering of the containers, either strictly in numerical order or topically and/or geographically with a numerical sequence within each group.

The collection is in good condition for the most part, although conservation attention will be required. There is a certain amount of emulsion peeling or frilling at the edges of some plates, but this is a condition to which emulsions on glass frequently are prone. A few plates, bound in a sandwich arrangement between cover glass and acetate facing the emulsion, have suffered severe damage, peeling, and image losses through the apparent ferrotyping and sticking of emulsion to the plastic, probably under conditions of high humidity at some stage. There is surprisingly little glass breakage within the collection.

Most of the stereoscopic negatives and many of the positives are defaced with a double "XI' scratched into the emulsion of either the left or right side, as described above in the historical note. Of particular interest and presumed rarity are cards found interfiled with plates in many of the drawers. These cards, filed by Underwood (i.e., catalog) numbers, bear printing'or production dates and notes, along with the unique, chronological accession numbers which the company assigned to each plate, regardless of the "active" number which it might eventually receive. A check mark on a card usually refers to a plate actually in the collection and with which the card is found physically associated; additional accession numbers without check marks listed on the cards possibly refer to variant views which were discarded or may in fact be in the Keystone Mast Collection (pending further research). For ease of handling and in the interest of conservation, the cards have been separated from the plates within each drawer and are arranged as a group at the rear, but can still be located easily. Frequently when a plate and/or its original envelope does not bear both the "active" and accession numbers, the missing number can be located on one of these cards.

Photographers represented include Herbert G. Ponting and Clarence W. White. A photographer and/or publisher named J. J. Killela is also represented.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in seven series. Series 1, 2, and 3 are each divided into negative and positive subseries. Plates are arranged numerically in groups based on geographical and subject content. Controlled at the series level in the finding aid and at the item level in a computer database.

Series 1, H. C. White glass plates

Series 2, American Stereoscpopic Co. glass plates

Series 3, Underwood & Underwood glass plates

Series 4, Broken glass plates

Series 5, Original company catalogs

Series 6, Paper stereographs

Series 7, stereoscopes (viewers)
Biographical / Historical:
Underwood & Underwood was established at Ottawa, Kansas, by the young brothers Elmer and Bert Underwood in 1882. They initially operated as distributors for eastern photographers' stereographs to new markets in the West. Their activities included door to door canvassing with views by Charles Bierstadt, J. F. Jarvis, and Littleton View Co.(1) Underwood & Underwood, Publishers, opened a branch office in Baltimore in 1887.(2)

Soon Underwood & Underwood and other large stereograph publishers began recruiting college students to work as salesmen during summer months (1890). Underwood and Underwood claimed that their organization alone sent out as many as 3,000 college students in one Summer [sic]. With the other ... big companies each employing more than 1,000, it is easy to understand how the countryside of the Nation literally swarmed with stereograph salesmen throughout the summer months! ... The competition between the salesmen themselves was likewise aggressive, with no holds barred. Many successful business and professional men of today relate with considerable pride that they got their start on their careers in this practical and very effective school of salesmanship.(3)

The company moved its main office from Ottawa, Kansas to New York City (1891),(4) and gradually began to publish its own stereographs. Bert Underwood finally took photography lessons from M. Abel in Mentone, France during the same year.(5) B. L. Singley, erstwhile salesman for the Underwood & Underwood and James M. Davis & Co. firms, in 1892 formed the Keystone View Company of Meadville, Pennsylvania, which was to become Underwood & Underwood's chief competitor and imitator.(6)

Underwood & Underwood entered the education market (1895) by producing packaged sets of 100 or more stereographs with descriptive texts.(7) From 1897 the firm employed full time staff photographers as well as free lancers. By 1901 the Underwoods were publishing 25,000 stereographs per day (i.e.,total number of cards). Increasing production levels led them to gain control of the Jarvis, Bierstadt, and William H. Rau photoprinting facilities in 1897 1898.(8)

The Keystone view Company created its own Educational Department in 1898. This division sustained the Keystone View Company past the period of the stereograph's popularity. In this year Underwood & Underwood reprinted Oliver Wendell Holmes's series on the stereograph and stereoscope which originally appeared in The Atlantic Monthly between 1859 and 1863. This eighty page booklet included testimonials from eminent scholars on the value of the stereograph in education. The company had been test marketing what itlater called "The Underwood Travel System." This consisted of a boxed set of stereo views of a country or region, a guide book describing the significance of the places shown, and a map showing their location and the viewpoints from which the stereographs were taken. Captions on the backs of the stereographs were sometimes printed in six languages.(9) As stereographs began to be used in schools as visual aids, the firm promoted its Travel System with endorsements from prominent educators, citing the usage of the system by various schools and universities.(10)

The H. C. White Company, which had manufactured stereoscopes for several decades, entered the stereo publication field in 1899.(11) Much of its production seemed to imitate Underwood & Underwood cards, including typography and the color of mount stock. Underwood & Underwood expanded into news photography by 1910 and gradually decreased its stereographic work. Few new stereo negatives were added to the file after 1912 except for a flurry of activity during the early war years, 1914 1916. The total number of Underwood & Underwood "titles" in stereo were from 30,000 to 40,000 (there might be a substantially larger number of actual negatives, since the files frequently were updated with newer views for old catalog numbers).(12)

Underwood & Underwood sold a portion of its negative file to the educational division of Keystone View Company in 1912,(13) and between 1921 1923 conveyed to this competitor their remaining stereo stock (presumably both cards and negatives) and rights.(14) In addition to its involvement as a news photographic agency, the company eventually opened portrait studios which flourished during the World war II years. A former Smithsonian employee, Vince Connolly, worked for Underwood & Underwood, which competed with Harris & Ewing in general portrait work during that period: he did portraiture and other photography, but says he was unaware of his employer's earlier stereo publishing activities.

Underwood & Underwood donated approximately 6000 negatives to the Section of Photography of the Division of Graphic Arts (1964). These photographs are primarily 4" x 5", captioned glass plate and film negatives. The subjects are news events and theatrical, sports, and political subjects of the early 20th century. In a letter to the Smithsonian of March 25, 1966 (in accession number 270586), Mrs. John M. Stratton described another collection of Underwood & Underwood photographs, stating that her husband had been a partner in Underwood & Underwood Illustrations and owned Underwood & Underwood News Photos. In November of the same year Mr. and Mrs. Stratton donated this collection of glass plates by Underwood & Underwood and other publishers to the Division of Photographic History (then the Section of Photography of the Division of Graphic Arts) . This material consists of both negative and positive stereographic plates, as well as non stereoscopic plates, chiefly copies made from the stereographs, with some catalogs, stereoscopes, and other material. The donor estimated 12,900 plates, but in 1983 the Smithsonian Institution inventory yielded a total of approximately 28,000 plates.

The Keystone View Company's stereoscopic production continued much later than Underwood & Underwood's. It was not until 1939 when declining interest in stereography led the firm to discontinue stereograph production and enter the field of visual optometrics. The stereoscopic negative collection, including material obtained from Underwood & Underwood and other firms, was placed in storage in concrete vaults. The Mast family of Davenport, Iowa, eventually purchased the collection in 1963, and in 1977 donated the collection to the University of California for its California Museum of Photography in Riverside. The University took physical possession of this vast collection in 1979.(15)

Many of the Underwood & Underwood plates donated by the Strattons (which were transferred to the Archives Center in 1983), in effect have been cancelled by having diagonal lines (double "X" marks) scratched into the emulsion of either the left or right image of each stereo pair (never both sides). These cancellation marks do not appear on the Underwood & Underwood plates in the Keystone Mast Collection in Riverside. This leads to several theories: (a) that these cancellations were in fact the reason that the Smithsonian plates were not purchased by Keystone in either 1912 or 1921, since Keystone clearly intended to use the Underwood material for stereograph production and the defaced plates would be of no value to them for this purpose; or (b), as stereo collector John Waldsmith suggests, that the cancellations were part of an agreement between Underwood & Underwood and Keystone: Keystone may have asked Underwood & Underwood to cancel one side of each stereoscopic plate not being sold to Keystone so that Underwood & Underwood would no longer be able to compete with Keystone in the stereo market. The defaced plates, as well as other material which Keystone did not purchase, apparently remained in Underwood custody and eventually were acquired by Mr. and Mrs. Stratton. The cancellation marks in the Smithsonian's collection are the subject of further conjecture. Edward Earle at Riverside feels that, since Underwood & Underwood sought to abandonded stereograph production much earlier than Keystone's departure from the field in order to enter the non stereoscopic lantern slide market, the cancellation may have served to indicate which side of each sterescopic pair should be converted to lantern slide production use; the existence of the 4" x 5" copy negatives and positives from stereographs in this collection seem to corroborate this. The Underwood & Underwood conversion from stereograph to lantern slide materials seems to coincide with the ascendance of lantern slide projection as visual aids in schools. The company apparently modified the type of photographic product which they published at least partially in recognition of this new educational trend.

NOTES

1. edward W. Earle, ed., Points of View: The Stereograph in America A Cultural @ Visual 'g . E!Ltory, Rochester, F.Y., Th Studies Workshop ress, 1979, p. 60; William Culp Darrah, The World of Stereographs, Gettysburg, Pa., 1979, p. 46.

2. Tbid., p. 62.

3. George E. Hamilton, Oliver Wendell Holmes, His Pioneer SLtuereoscope and Later Industry, New York, New )men Society, 1949, p. 17, quoted in Points of 1=e w:, 6 4 . P.

4. Points of View., p. 66.

5. Darrah, p. 47.

6. points of View, p. 66.

7. Ibid., p. 68.

8. Darrah, p. 47.

9. Points of View, p. 70.

10. Howard S. Becker, "Steteographs: Local, National, and International Art Worlds," in Points of View, p. 95. 11. points of View, p. 72.

12. Darrah, p. 48.

13. Darrah, p. 48, quoted in Points of View, P. 82.

14. Darrah, p. 48.

15. Chris J. Kenney, introduction to "Perspective and the Past: The Keystone Mast Collection," CMP Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1982.
Related Materials:
California Museum of Photography, University of California--Riverside, Riverside, California 92521.

Underwood & Underwood stereographs in this collection and the Smithsonian Underwood & Underwood Collection originally were components of the same company file.
Provenance:
Collection donated by June Stratton (Mrs. John M.) on December 19, 1966.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Traveling sales personnel  Search this
Travel photography -- 1890-1930  Search this
Genre/Form:
Stereographs -- 1890-1930
Photographs -- Interpositives -- Glass -- 1890-1930
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1890-1930
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Stereoscopic photographs -- Glass -- 1890-1930
Lantern slides
Photographs -- 1890-1900
Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0143
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep86e358e26-e305-49a6-bf9b-f2d38d995ae0
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0143
Online Media:

Brad J. Bogart Collection

Creator:
Bogart, Brad J.  Search this
Lark, Frank E.  Search this
Defendant:
Chavez, Andrew  Search this
Dalgish, Rex  Search this
Leobo, Manuel  Search this
Wilson, R.W.  Search this
Names:
Gilbert, W. C.  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Place:
Arizona -- 1910-1930
Mississippi River -- 1910-1920
Ohio River -- 1910-1920
Tennessee River -- 1910-1920
Date:
1911-1927
Summary:
Collection consists of court proceedings in Yuma County, Arizona relating to the remains of W.C. Gilbert and charges against Rex Dalgish, Manuel Leobo, R. W. Wilson, and Andrew Chavez. In addition, there is a scrapbook documenting a trip along the Mississippi, Ohio, and Tennessee Rivers.
Scope and Contents:
Collection consists of material collected by Bogart in his role as a professional writer. It is arranged in two series. Series one is a scrapbook documenting a trip along the Mississippi, Ohio, and Tennessee Rivers. Series two is court proceedings in Yuma County, Arizona relating to the remains of W.C. Gilbert.
Arrangement:
Collection is divided into two series.

Series 1: Frank E. Lark Scrapbook, 1914

Series 2: Court Proceedings, 1911-1927
Biographical / Historical:
Brad Bogart is a Michigan based writer. He acquired the court materials in this collection to write a novel and to pursue the possibility of his work becoming a movie. He was intrigued by the images in the scrapbook of stevedores working along the docks in different cities along the Mississippi, Ohio, and Tennessee Rivers. Bogart furthered researched and planned to build a monument dedicated to these workers in St. Louis, but there is no further evidence of his plans.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Brad J. Bogart on November 12, 1984. Bogart acquired the scrapbook at a flea market in Montague, Michigan and the owner purchased it in Sturgis, Michigan. The immediate source of the court proceedings is unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproducution, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives: fees for commercial use.
Topic:
Colorado River Indian Reservation (Ariz. and Calif.) -- 1910-1930  Search this
Coronors -- 1910-1930  Search this
Court records -- 1910-1930  Search this
Death -- Causes -- 1910-1930  Search this
Travel photography -- 1900-1950  Search this
Travel -- 1910-1920  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 1910-1930
Scrapbooks -- 1900-1950
Diaries -- 20th century
Citation:
Brad J. Bogart Collection, 1911-1927, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0128
See more items in:
Brad J. Bogart Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep862e0fb48-5224-49a0-81be-8c804a76119d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0128

Stephen Haboush Photograph Collection

Creator:
Haboush, Stephen A.  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (11 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Israel
Palestine
Middle East
Date:
circa 1920-1960
Summary:
This collection documents, through lantern slides, slides, prints and negatives, life in Jerusalem, Damascus, Cairo, and other locations in the Middle East. The majority of the photographs were created and assembled by Stephen Haboush, although some were purchased. Haboush routinely traveled to his birthplace of Israel and he photographed his travels. He then used the photographs for lectures about his life as a shepherd and experiences in the Holy Land.
Scope and Contents:
This collection documents, through lantern slides, slides, prints and negatives, life in Jerusalem, Damascus, Cairo, and other locations in the Middle East. The majority of the photographs were created and assembled by Stephen Haboush, although some were purchased. Haboush routinely traveled to his birthplace of Israel and he photographed his travels. He then used the photographs for lectures about his life as a shepherd and experiences in the Holy Land.

There is a specific emphasis on the activity of shepherding, but there are photographs depicting generally landscapes, flora, the Wailing Wall, pottery, sunsets, buildings, altars, churches, mosques, rock formations, boats on the river, camels, market scenes, donkeys, villages, tilework, streetscapes, maps of Egypt and Palestine, and individuals--shepherds, British soldiers, and women at a well.

The collections consists primarily of lantern slides which are loosely organized. Lantern slides are positive images on glass and the exterior glass. Lantern slides were intended to be projected for viewing and were a popular entertainment medium in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Small groupings of slides and photographs were identified, but there is little arrangement and identification of the materials. Some of the materials are identified and numbered, and when this was possible, these materials were grouped together. Many of the numbered groups of slides have great gaps. Some of the miscellaneous slides have been grouped and briefly identified, for example, "British Soldiers."
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into three series.

Series 1, Lantern Slides, undated

Series 2, Negatives and Transparencies and Prints, undated

Series 3, Slides, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Stephen Haboush was born on June 28, 1892 in Galilee, Israel. Haboush emigrated to the United States circa 1914 and became an American citizen in 1923. During the 1920s, Haboush joined the Chautauqua Lyceum Lecture circuit. The Chautauqua idea comes from the original Chautauqua Institution, which was founded in 1874 on Lake Chautauqua in western New York. The original idea was to offer one-to-two week summer retreats for adults to continue their education by attending lectures and performances. The lyceum version of Chautauqua was also offered to adults, but the lectures and performances were held during the fall, winter and spring, and took place in schools, church halls, or opera houses not located at Lake Chautauqua, but around the United States. Haboush died in March 1975.

Haboush lectured widely, sometimes with his wife, presenting slide lectures and musical travelogues about the Holy Land, and his experiences as a shepherd. Haboush photographed his travels throughout the Middle East, especially Jerusalem. He wrote two books, Over the Hills of Galilee (1924) and My Shepherd Life in Galilee: With an Exegesis of the Shepherd Psalm (1949). The latter was Haboush's interpretation of the 23rd Psalm.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Roger M. Lepley on January 1, 2009.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Lecturers  Search this
Travel photography  Search this
Photographers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Lantern slides -- 1900-1950
Slides (photographs) -- 20th century
Slides (photographs)
Citation:
Stephen A. Haboush Photograph Collection, circa 1920-1960, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1143
See more items in:
Stephen Haboush Photograph Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8a12c0d94-b09e-45fe-b6de-f2152c7ddc3a
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1143

Andre De La Varre Collection

Creator:
Varre, Gretl de la, Mrs.  Search this
Holmes, Burton, 1870-1958  Search this
Varre, Andre de la, 1904-  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Cubic feet (4 boxes, 2 loose photographs)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Correspondence
Lecture notes
Posters
Press releases
Place:
Angkor Wat (Cambodia)
Spain
Date:
circa 1920-1930
Scope and Contents note:
Papers relating to the travel writer, photographer and lecturer Burton Holmes, and to De La Varre's own activities as a travel photographer. Includes letters, photographs, printed material, and a set of travel books written by Holmes.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into five series.

Series 1: Letters

Series 2: Photographs

Series 3: Papers relating to appearances of Burton Holmes and Andre La Varre

Series 4: Printed Materials

Series 5: Books
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

The Travel Film Archive

Andre De La Varre

Born in Washington D.C. in 1902, Andre de la Varre quit school at age 17, bought a motion picture camera, and went to Europe to find adventure. He began making his own travel films and in 1924 became a cameraman for Burton Holmes. In the early 1930's, de la Varre went out on his own as "The Screen Traveler" and made theatrical shorts for independent release as well as for many of the major Hollywood Studios. He traveled and filmed constantly. In an autobiographical sketch, he wrote: "During the winter of 1938-39 I drove more than 10,000 miles through Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. I covered not only cities and coastal regions but criss-crossed back and forth over the Atlas, Djurdjura, Kebelie, and Aures mountains. I also visited many of the oases on the Northern Sahara and crossed over trails or no trails in the deserts and mountains." De la Varre continued traveling and making films for the next forty years and died in Vienna, Austria at the age of 87.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Mrs. Gretl de la Varre, June 30, 2001.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bullfights  Search this
Lecturers  Search this
Photographers  Search this
Travel photography -- 1900-1950  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Correspondence -- 20th century
Lecture notes
Posters
Press releases
Citation:
Andre De La Varre Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0782
See more items in:
Andre De La Varre Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8aca82391-efee-4111-b481-3c693b0801db
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0782

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