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Delegate

Subject of:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Lou Rawls, American, 1933 - 2006  Search this
United Negro College Fund, American, founded 1944  Search this
President Jimmy Carter, American, born 1924  Search this
Wilma Rudolph, American, 1940 - 1994  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
American Association of Blacks in Energy, American, founded 1977  Search this
One Hundred Black Men, Inc., American, founded 1963  Search this
National Association of Black Social Workers, American, founded 1968  Search this
Interracial Council for Business Opportunity, American, founded 1963  Search this
National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education, American, founded 1969  Search this
American Bridge Association, American, founded 1932  Search this
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, American, founded 1821  Search this
National Association of Market Developers, American, founded 1953  Search this
The Girl Friends, Inc., American, founded 1927  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
Sears, Roebuck & Co., American, founded 1893  Search this
Morehouse College, American, founded 1867  Search this
Opportunities Industrialization Center of America, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
National Pharmaceutical Association, American, founded 1947  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
Top Ladies of Distinction, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
National Association of Negro Musicians, Inc., founded 1919  Search this
The Links, Incorporated, American, founded 1946  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
Republican Party, American, founded 1854  Search this
Charms, Inc., American, founded 1952  Search this
Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated, founded 1908  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, American, founded 1920  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc., founded 1922  Search this
Eta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1943  Search this
National Pharmaceutical Association, American, founded 1947  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
National Association of Negro Musicians, Inc., founded 1919  Search this
National Association of University Women, American, founded 1910  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Daughters of Isis, American, founded 1910  Search this
American Tennis Association, American, founded 1916  Search this
Democratic Party, American, founded 1828  Search this
CBS Broadcasting, Inc., American, founded 1927  Search this
A. Philip Randolph, American, 1889 - 1979  Search this
Iota Phi Lambda Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1929  Search this
Congressional Black Caucus, American, founded 1971  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Benjamin Hooks, American, 1925 - 2010  Search this
National Bankers Association, American, founded 1927  Search this
Association for the Study of African American Life and History, American, founded 1915  Search this
Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
Alliance for Women in Media, American, founded 1951  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 7/16 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1.1 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1980
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Caricature and cartoons  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
Television  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.14
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd533a4aa5f-52b1-4ee7-8dd0-1df51498bd61
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.14
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  • View <I>Delegate</I> digital asset number 1

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
Sigma Phi Rho Fraternity, American, founded 1978  Search this
National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education, American, founded 1969  Search this
Association of Black Women Attorneys, American, founded 1976  Search this
National Urban Affairs Council, American, founded 1971  Search this
Raymond A. Jordan Jr., American, born 1943  Search this
National Association of Market Developers, American, founded 1953  Search this
The Links, Incorporated, American, founded 1946  Search this
Northside Center for Child Development, Inc., founded 1946  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
Top Ladies of Distinction, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
Carats, Inc., American, founded 1959  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Iota Phi Lambda Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1929  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Dr. Leslie L. Alexander, Jamaican American, 1917 - 2002  Search this
Smithsonian Institution, American, founded 1846  Search this
National Sorority of Phi Delta Kappa, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Morehouse College, American, founded 1867  Search this
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, American, founded 1913  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Dr. Benjamin Elijah Mays, American, 1894 - 1984  Search this
Count Basie, American, 1904 - 1984  Search this
National Coalition of 100 Black Women, American, founded 1981  Search this
National Bankers Association, American, founded 1927  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
One Hundred Black Men, Inc., American, founded 1963  Search this
Association for the Study of African American Life and History, American, founded 1915  Search this
Signed by:
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 9/16 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1.5 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Martha's Vineyard, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1985
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Caricature and cartoons  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.19
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5ee110782-b949-43b4-bbec-56a00d4f086e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.19
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  • View <I>Delegate</I> digital asset number 1

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
New York Giants, American, founded 1925  Search this
National Pan-Hellenic Council, American, founded 1930  Search this
United Negro College Fund, American, founded 1944  Search this
Adam Clayton Powell Jr., American, 1908 - 1972  Search this
President Lyndon Baines Johnson, American, 1908 - 1973  Search this
Jackie Robinson, American, 1919 - 1972  Search this
President Harry S. Truman, American, 1884 - 1972  Search this
National Association of Black Social Workers, American, founded 1968  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Howard University Medical Alumni Association, Inc., American, founded 1871  Search this
Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps, American, founded 1916  Search this
Sovereign Military Order of Malta, founded 1099  Search this
Steven N. Lockett, American  Search this
The Girl Friends, Inc., American, founded 1927  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
Simeon Golar, American, 1929 - 2013  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Gordon Parks, American, 1912 - 2006  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Dr. Kenneth Clark, American, 1914 - 2005  Search this
Whitney Moore Young Jr., American, 1921 - 1971  Search this
National Dental Association, American, founded 1913  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
National Association of Broadcasters, American  Search this
Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., American, 1929 - 1968  Search this
Spelman College, American, founded 1881  Search this
Morehouse College, American, founded 1867  Search this
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, American, founded 1913  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Gladys W. Dixon, American, born 1901  Search this
Daughters of Isis, American, founded 1910  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
National Insurance Association, American, founded 1921  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
Clara Hale, American, 1905 - 1992  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 3/8 × 3/8 in. (27.5 × 21.2 × 0.9 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Jamaica, Caribbean, North and Central America
Bahamas, Caribbean, North and Central America
Date:
1973
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Caricature and cartoons  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
Travel  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.7
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5cfb9effd-68b5-4246-b12a-9179d2fdce82
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.7
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  • View <I>Delegate</I> digital asset number 1

The Crisis Vol. 9 No. 5

Published by:
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Edited by:
W.E.B. Du Bois, American, 1868 - 1963  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
9 3/4 x 6 3/4 x 1/8 in. (24.8 x 17.1 x 0.3 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place printed:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
March 1915
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Caricature and cartoons  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Education  Search this
Literature  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Poetry  Search this
Politics  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Bobbie Ross in memory of Elizabeth Dillard
Object number:
2012.84.16
Restrictions & Rights:
Public Domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd58bc64d58-cb0f-40ab-ba98-6f24d2815ef2
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.84.16
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  • View <I>The Crisis Vol. 9 No. 5</I> digital asset number 1

Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records

Creator:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art  Search this
Names:
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
Buffalo Fine Arts Academy  Search this
Corcoran Gallery of Art  Search this
Gallery of William Macbeth  Search this
M. Knoedler & Co.  Search this
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Alexander, John White, 1856-1915  Search this
Beatty, John W. (John Wesley), 1851-1924  Search this
Beaux, Cecilia, 1855-1942  Search this
Brush, George de Forest, 1855-1941  Search this
Chase, William Merritt, 1849-1916  Search this
Church, Samuel Harden  Search this
East, Alfred, Sir, 1849-1913  Search this
Hassam, Childe, 1859-1935  Search this
Homer, Winslow, 1836-1910  Search this
Saint-Gaudens, Homer, b. 1880  Search this
Thayer, Abbott Handerson, 1849-1921  Search this
Extent:
265.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Letterpress books
Museum records
Place:
Spain -- History -- Civil War, 1936-1939
Date:
1883-1962
bulk 1885-1962
Summary:
The records of the Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art measure 265.8 linear feet and date from 1883-1962, with the bulk of the material dating from 1885-1940. The collection includes extensive correspondence between the museum's founding director, John Beatty, and his successor, Homer Saint-Gaudens, with artists, dealers, galleries, collectors, museum directors, representatives abroad, shipping and insurance agents, and museum trustees. The collection also includes Department of Fine Arts interoffice memoranda and reports; loan exhibition files; Carnegie International planning, jury, shipping, and sale records; Department of Fine Arts letterpress copy books, and a copy of the original card catalog index to these records.
Scope and Contents:
The records of the Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art measure 265.8 linear feet and date from 1883-1962, with the bulk of the material dating from 1885-1940. The collection includes extensive correspondence between the museum's founding director, John Beatty, and his successor, Homer Saint-Gaudens, with artists, dealers, galleries, collectors, museum directors, representatives abroad, shipping and insurance agents, and museum trustees. The collection also includes Department of Fine Arts interoffice memoranda and reports; loan exhibition files; Carnegie International planning, jury, shipping, and sale records; Department of Fine Arts letterpress copy books, and a copy of the original card catalog index to these records.

This collection is a complete record of the museum's work, starting with the planning of the first loan exhibition in 1885 and ending with the cancellation of the International at the start of World War II in 1940. The museum's day-to-day relationships with all aspects of the contemporary art world are documented within the historical context of artists' reactions to World War I; the economic repercussions of the Great Depression on art sales and museum budgets; the ramifications of fascism on German, Italian, and European art; the impact of civil war on Spanish art; and the tensions introduced by the rise of 'radical' modernist art in Europe.

Correspondence (Series 1) is the largest series in the collection (152.5 linear feet) and is comprised of extensive correspondence between the Museum of Art and over 8700 correspondents, with over 3600 correspondents specifically related to art and artists.

Correspondents related to the art world include museum staff, artists, collectors, museums, galleries, dealers, shippers, insurance agencies, art directors, associations, societies, clubs, critics, press, and governments. These exchanges include general requests for information; requests related to the museum's exhibitions, including the International; letters regarding the museum's involvement in the events of other art organizations; loan, sales, and provenance information for specific works of art; and information regarding the events of other art organizations.

The correspondence of the museum's staff provides the greatest insight into understanding the museum's evolution into an international cultural institution. Both directors' correspondence touch on their personal opinions on art, their rationale behind policy decisions, and their understanding of the extent to which the museum's work was dependent on the good relations they maintained in the art world. Additionally, the extensive, opinionated correspondence between Saint-Gaudens' European agents and museum staff during the 1920s and 1930s provide a unique perspective on emerging art trends and the skill, growth, and personalities of individual artists.

The most prolific of the museum staff correspondents include museum directors John Beatty and Homer Saint-Gaudens, Board of Trustees president Samuel Harden Church, assistant director Edward Balken, and European agents Guillaume Lerolle , Ilario Neri, Arnold Palmer, Margaret Palmer, and Charlotte Weidler. Additional prominent staff members include Helen Beatty, Robert Harshe, Caroline Lapsley, Henry Jack Nash, John O'Connor, Charles Ramsey, George Shaw, George Sheers, August Zeller, and Fine Arts Committee members John Caldwell, William Frew, William Hyett, and John Porter.

The most prolific artist correspondents include John White Alexander, George Grey Barnard, Cecilia Beaux, Frank Benson, George de Forest Brush, William Merritt Chase, William Coffin, Bruce Crane, Andre Dauchez, Charles H. Davis, Alfred East, Ben Foster, Daniel Garber, Charles P. Gruppe, John Johansen, Johanna Hailman, John McLure Hamilton, Birge Harrison, Childe Hassam, Winslow Homer, Laura Knight, John la Farge, Gaston la Touche, John Lavery, Henri le Sidaner, Jonas Lie, Hermon A. MacNeil, Antonio Mancini, Gari Melchers, Emile Menard, Henry R. Poore, Edward Redfield, W. Elmer Schofield, Leopold Seyffert, Lucien Simon, Eugene Speicher, Abbott Handerson Thayer, Robert Vonnoh, J. Alden Weir, Irving R. Wiles, and Ignacio Zuloaga. Other artists of note include: Edwin Austen Abbey, George Bellows, Edwin Blashfield, Frank Brangwyn, Mary Cassatt, Kenyon Cox, Thomas Wilmer Dewing, Thomas Eakins, William Glackens, Robert Henri, Eastman Johnson, Rockwell Kent, Paul Manship, Henry Ranger, John Singer Sargent, Edward Steichen, Alfred Stieglitz, Edmund Tarbell, James McNeil Whistler, N.C. Wyeth, and Charles Morris Young.

Frequent museum collaborators include the Art Institute of Chicago, Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Brooklyn Museum, Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, Cleveland Museum of Art, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Detroit Institute of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Museum of Modern Art, Saint Louis Museum of Fine Arts, Toledo Museum of Art, and Worcester Art Museum.

Other prolific correspondents include collectors Chauncey Blair, Andrew Carnegie, Charles Lang Freer, George Hearn, Alexander Humphreys, Roy Hunt, Mrs. B.F. Jones, Burton Mansfield, Frank Nicola, Duncan Phillips, John Stevenson, and William Stimmel; dealers and galleries M. Knoedler, William Macbeth, Central Art Gallery, Charles A. Walker, C.W. Kraushaar Art Galleries, Downtown Gallery, Durand-Ruel and Sons, Ehrich Galleries, Ferargil Galleries, Frank Rehn, Frederick Keppel, Haseltine Art Gallery, R.C. Vose Galleries, and W. Scott Thurber Fine Arts; insurance agent Macomber Co.; and shippers Dicksee and Co., J.W. Hampton, P. Navel/R. Lerondelle, Stedman and Wilder, and W.S. Budworth and Son.

Correspondents not specifically related to the contemporary art world include businesses, educational institutions, libraries, and the general public. These exchanges detail the daily work of the museum, including the estimates and work orders of office suppliers, contractors, printers, and etc.; programming and research inquiries of k-12 and college/university institutions; acknowledgements of the receipt of Museum of Art publications; and general public inquiries regarding museum policies, exhibitions, and the permanent collection. Companies and institutions who worked particularly closely with the museum include Alden and Harlow (architects), Detroit Publishing Co., and Tiffany and Co.

Department of Fine Arts (Series 2) consists of art and artist lists, correspondence, memoranda, notes, and reports. These files were begun under John Beatty's tenure and streamlined under Homer Saint-Gaudens' directorship to track activities directly related to the museum's interoffice affairs. File headings continued under Saint-Gaudens focus on art considered and purchased for the permanent collection, employee records, exhibition proposals and loans, Fine Arts Committee minutes, museum programming, museum publications, press releases, requests for images, and requests for general information.

Under Saint-Gaudens, the Fine Arts Committee files contain voluminous impressions of contemporary European artists, which he composed during his annual studio tours of the continent in the early 1920s and late 1930s. These informal reports provide insight into the shaping of the International and include a running commentary on historical events of the time. The Fine Arts Committee files also document the artistic and budgetary compromises that were struck, particularly during the Great Depression and early run-up to World War II.

Exhibitions (Series 3) includes correspondence with collectors, museums, galleries, dealers, shippers, and many of the artists themselves. Additional documents include catalogs, lists, planning notes, and telegrams related to 185 traveling and loan exhibitions held at the Museum of Art from 1901 to 1940. Of these, over 100 are one-artist shows and 82 are group, survey, regional, or topical shows. The one-artist exhibitions tend to showcase contemporary artists of the time. Regional shows focused on American and European art, with two shows featuring the art of Canada and Mexico. Survey themes focused on animals, children, cities, gardens, landscapes, Old Masters, and portraitures. Many of the genre shows venture into art not typically collected by the Museum of Art, including architecture, crafts, engravings, figure studies, graphic arts, illustrations, miniatures, mural decorations, oriental rugs, prints, printed books, sculpture, small reliefs, stained glass, theater models, watercolors, and wood engravings.

The most important shows organized and curated by Museum of Art staff include the Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1915), American Sculpture Show (1915, 1920), Applied Arts Show (1917), Original Illustrations Show (1921), Mexican Art Show (1929), Garden Club Show (1922), Industrial Art Show (1924), Pittsburgh Artists Show (1935), French Survey Show (1936), English Painting Survey Show (1937), American Paintings, Royal Academy Show (1938), and Survey of American Painting Show (1940).

Important one-artist shows include Abbot Handerson Thayer (1919), George de Forest Brush (1922), Frank W. Benson (1923), Rockwell Kent (1923, 1939), Anders Zorn (1924), John Lavery (1925), Paul Manship (1925), Mary Cassatt (1925), Laura Knight (1925), Edouard Manet (1932), Edward Hopper (1936), Winslow Homer (1922, 1936), Paul Cezanne (1936), Charles Burchfield (1937), and William Glackens (1938).

International (Series 4) is comprised of catalogs, correspondence, art and artist lists, itineraries, jury selection ballots, minutes, notes, and reports related to the planning, logistics, and promotion of the International Exhibition from 1895 to 1940. These documents were originally grouped and filed separately under John Beatty and were more rigorously streamlined under Homer Saint-Gaudens. The folder headings continued under Saint-Gaudens focus on art purchases, artists' invitations, artists' request for information, general exhibition planning, Foreign Advisory Committees, foreign governments, jury reception planning, loan requests, and touring logistics.

Letterpress books (Series 5) consist of 75 volumes that chronologically collect all of the Museum of Art's outgoing correspondence from 1896 to 1917. Volumes 1-8 contain the only copy of outgoing correspondence from 1896 to 1900. Duplicate copies of all outgoing correspondence dating from 1901 to 1917 were filed in Correspondence (Series 1) by museum staff.

Card catalogs (Series 6) also include three sets of catalogs created by the Museum of Art to track the outgoing and incoming correspondence contained in this collection. Set 1 (1895-1906) consists of the original cards. Set 2 (1907-1917) and Set 3 (1918-1940) consists of photocopies of the original cards that were merged together into one contiguous set.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series:

Series 1: Correspondence, 1883-1962, (Boxes 1-153, OV 267; 152.5 linear feet)

Series 2: Department of Fine Arts, 1896-1940, (Boxes 153-184, OV 268; 31.6 linear feet)

Series 3: Exhibitions, 1901-1940, (Boxes 184-204; 20 linear feet)

Series 4: International, 1895-1940, (Boxes 204-234, 265-266; 30.2 linear feet)

Series 5: Letterpress Books, 1900-1917, (Boxes 235-251; 17 linear feet)

Series 6: Card Catalogs, 1895-1940, (Box 252-264; 11 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
The Carnegie Institute Museum of Art was established in 1895 by industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. One of the first modern contemporary art museums in the United States, its flagship exhibition, the Carnegie International, is recognized as the longest running contemporary exhibition of international art in North America and is the second oldest in the world.

Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) was born in Dumfermline, Scotland and migrated to America with his family in 1848. Often regarded as the second-richest man in history behind John D. Rockerfeller, Carnegie built his industrialist fortunes in the steel industry and spent the remainder of his life in support of major philanthropic projects. By the age of 33, he had developed his personal philosophy of philanthropy, which saw it as the responsibility of the wealthy to foster educational opportunities and disseminate the ideals of high culture among all levels of society. In addition to establishing over 2500 free public libraries, in 1895, he provided the funds to build the Carnegie Institute, located in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Carnegie Institute originally maintained three separate departments under the auspices of the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, and the Carnegie Museum of Art.

The Carnegie Institute was administered by a Board of Trustees selected by Carnegie, all prominent professional men of Pittsburgh. Within this group, eight men were selected to serve on the Museum of Art's Fine Arts Committee, which was initially granted the final say on gallery affairs. The first Fine Arts Committee was composed of two artists, Alfred Bryan Wall and Joseph Ryan Woodwell, and six businessmen. Among the latter group, John Caldwell, Henry Clay Frick, William Nimick Frew, and David Thompson Watson were also knowledgeable art patrons and collectors. Over time, the Fine Arts Committee's sway over gallery affairs would be measured by the dedication of its various members and tempered by the vision and authority of the Museum's directors, John Beatty and Homer Saint-Gaudens, and the Carnegie Institute Board of Trustees president, Samuel Harden Church.

From 1896 to 1921, John Wesley Beatty (1851-1924) served as the first director of the Museum of Art. A native Pittsburgher and an accomplished silver engraver, illustrator, and painter, Beatty attended the Royal Bavarian Academy in Munich and upon his return to America, made a living as an artist. He also taught at the Pittsburgh School of Design for Women and co-founded a small school of art with fellow local artist George Hetzel. In 1890, while serving as the secretary of the Pittsburgh Art Society, he became the primary organizer of a loan exhibition to be displayed at the opening of the Carnegie Free Library in Allegheny, Pennsylvania. In 1895, when the Carnegie Institute trustees began discussing the possibility of a similar loan exhibition for the opening of their new institution, Beatty was contacted and eventually enlisted to take on the task. Upon the success of that exhibition, he was invited to direct the gallery's affairs and served as the Museum of Art's director until his retirement.

Beatty was an enthusiastic supporter of Impressionism, Realism, Tonalism, Symbolism, and the critically acclaimed contemporary art of the 1890s. He also shared Carnegie's vision for the Museum of Art and believed in the educational and uplifting role aesthetic beauty could provide to the general public. Pursuant to the stated goals of Andrew Carnegie, under Beatty's direction the museum began to purchase important contemporary works to add to its chronological collection of "Old Masters of tomorrow" and almost immediately began planning the first of its Internationals.

The Internationals were viewed as the primary means of showcasing the Museum of Art's selection of the best in contemporary American and European painting, thereby elevating its role as an influential cultural institution on a national and international level. Juried monetary prizes would be awarded to the two best works by American artists, additional awards would be offered to artists of all nationalities, and the Museum of Art's purchases for the year would be selected from the exhibition. Certain artists and collectors were tapped to serve as unofficial representatives of the Museum of Art at home and abroad, among them John White Alexander, William Coffin, I.M. Gaugengigl, Walter Shirlaw, and Edmund Tarbell. Many of the most prominent Pittsburgh art collectors were also asked to lend works to the exhibition. While details of the jury and artist selection process, number of representatives, exhibition show dates, and amount and total number of prizes would change over the years, the planning template was set and would remain the same for future Internationals.

Beatty continued to rely on a stable of close friends and confidantes to help smooth over relations with artists, dealers, shipping agents, and galleries alike, relying heavily on John White Alexander and W. Elmer Schofield, in addition to artists Thomas Shields Clarke, Walter Gay, Robert Henri, Frank D. Millet, and critic Charles M. Kurtz. Over time, many of the artists who served on International juries or Foreign Advisory Committees also became reliable friends and advocates of the International, including Edwin Austen Abbey, Edmond Aman-Jean, Edwin Howland Blashfield, William Merritt Chase, Charles Cottet, Kenyon Cox, Charles Harold Davis, Alfred East, Ben Foster, Charles Hopkinson, John la Farge, Gari Melchers, Leonard Ochtman, Irving R. Wiles, and Robert W. Vonnoh.

From 1896 to 1921, the Museum of Art held twenty-one Internationals, with the only exceptions coming in 1906 (construction of the Hall of Architecture, Hall of Sculpture, and Bruce Galleries), 1915 (deference to the San Francisco Panama-Pacific International), and 1916-1919 (World War I). During these years, the scope and administration of the International slowly expanded, though not without growing pains. At the turn of the century, new modernist styles of art that were appearing in galleries across Europe had not yet entered major American museums and the Carnegie Museum of Art maintained this trend. The museum's generally conservative selection policies, combined with criticism regarding the timing of the exhibition and the jury selection process, led to increasingly tense relations with artists, and were only partially resolved by changes made to the format of the International. In spite of these challenges, the Carnegie International retained its reputation as a preeminent venue for contemporary art and awarded top prizes to John White Alexander, Cecilia Beaux, George W. Bellows, Frank W. Benson, Andre Dauchez, Thomas Wilmer Dewing, Thomas Eakins, Childe Hassam, Winslow Homer, John Lavery, Henri le Sidaner, Edward W. Redfield, W. Elmer Schofield, Edmund C. Tarbell, Abbot Handerson Thayer, Dwight W. Tryon, and J. Alden Weir.

In addition to the International, Carnegie's mission of bringing cultural and educational opportunities to Pittsburgh was a central priority of the museum's daily operations. Beatty cultivated relationships with fellow museum directors, which allowed for the easy co-ordination and planning of traveling exhibitions benefiting the city. The museum developed educational programs for children and adults, including lectures, gallery talks, Saturday morning classes, fine art extension classes, guided tours, and outreach to local schools. As popular Pittsburgh art societies and clubs formed, the museum also provided meeting and exhibition spaces for groups such as the Associated Artists of Pittsburgh, the Art Society of Pittsburgh, the Art Students League, the Garden Club of Allegheny County, and the Junior League.

After more than 25 years of service, Beatty made the decision to retire and put out an informal call for candidates. Being the right man at the right time, in 1921, Homer Schiff Saint-Gaudens (1880-1958) became the Museum of Art's second director.

The only child of American sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens and his wife and artist, Augusta Fisher Homer, Saint-Gaudens frequently traveled abroad and grew up in the company of his parents' wide circle of friends, many of them artists, poets, writers, and performers who frequented the Cornish Artists' Colony. More intimate friends of the family included former students, assistants, and colleagues, the architect Stanford White, and successful artist-couples who resided near the family's Cornish, New Hampshire home, among them Louise and Kenyon Cox, Maria and Thomas Dewing, Florence and Everett Shinn, and Emma and Abbott Thayer.

Homer Saint-Gaudens attended the preparatory school Lawrenceville, graduated from Harvard in 1903, married the artist and suffragist Carlota Dolley (1884-1927) in 1905, and remarried to Mary Louise McBride (n.d.-1974) in 1929. He began his professional career as a journalist and worked as assistant editor of The Critic (1903) and managing editor of Metropolitan Magazine (1905). During those years, he was introduced to a number of the Ash Can school artists, wrote articles on contemporary art, and honed his abilities as a writer. In 1907, Saint-Gaudens took a break from professional editing and began a second career as the stage manager for Maude Adams, the most highly paid and successful stage actress of her day, with a yearly income of over one million dollars at the peak of her popularity. Working in theater and as Adams' manager for over ten years, Saint-Gaudens learned the ins and outs of event promotion and logistics, media coverage, and maintaining diplomatic relations through compromise, ideal skills he would later use in organizing the Carnegie Internationals.

With the United States' entry into World War I, Saint-Gaudens served as the chief of the U.S. Army's first camouflage unit and was awarded the Bronze Star. After his discharge, he managed Adams' 1918 final season and simultaneously helped his mother organize a major retrospective of his father's sculptures. While organizing a section of his father's work for the 1921 International, he was invited to step into the position of assistant director of the Carnegie Museum of Art, and was promoted to the directorship upon John Beatty's retirement.

Throughout his tenure, Saint-Gaudens was able to call upon long-standing family friendships with artists and art patrons to the museum's benefit. His connections to the art world can clearly be seen in his first major stand-alone exhibition, the Garden Club Show (1922). In this, he enlisted the aid of Elizabeth Alexander, wife of John White Alexander, and Johanna Hailman, artist and wife of John Hailman, who reached out to their circle of artists and art collecting friends in search of works appropriate for the show. Their efforts, combined with the relationships Beatty had established with museum directors, galleries, and dealers, as well as Saint-Gaudens' own friendships with Kenyon Cox, Thomas Dewing, Barry Faulkner, and Gari Melchers, resulted in an assemblage of 150 paintings of note. Coming immediately upon the heels of the 1922 International, the show was a resounding success. The exhibition's opening attracted over 300 delegates of the Garden Club of America and the entirety of Pittsburgh high society, settling any concerns regarding his leadership abilities.

As director of the Museum of Art, Saint-Gaudens instituted measures intended to streamline the Internationals and improve diplomatic relations with artists. Though the basic format of the juried exhibition remained the same, his solutions to the complaints many artists raised with the artist invitation, art selection, and jury systems reformed the International's reputation at a critical time. Though he was naturally inclined to appreciate the art and artists he had grown up with, Saint-Gaudens understood the immediate necessity of introducing modernist contemporary art into the museum's exhibitions and galleries. He circumvented the conservative Fine Arts Committee's resistance to the accolades of European modernists by choosing the tamest of the new 'radical' works. Eventually, he balanced the Internationals with a mix of conservative, moderate, and advanced works that appealed to a large range of audiences and increased the status and diversity of the Internationals.

To aid in his reformation of the International, Saint-Gaudens formalized a team of European agents who worked year round to scout artists' studios, recommend suitable art and artists, navigate local politics, arrange local transportation and logistics, and maintain cordial relations with artists abroad. In the spring, Saint-Gaudens would travel to Europe to meet with his agents in person, tour the most promising studios, and meet with artists personally. His team was headed by Guillaume Lerolle, who shared Saint-Gaudens' distinction of being the son of a well regarded national artist, Henry Lerolle. Like Saint-Gaudens, Lerolle was able and willing to call upon longstanding family friendships and networks on behalf of the Museum of Art. The other core members of the team were Ilario Neri (Italy), Arnold Palmer (England), Margaret Palmer (Spain), and Charlotte Weidler (Germany).

From 1922 to 1940, the Museum of Art held seventeen Internationals, with the exceptions coming in 1932 (Great Depression) and 1940 (World War II). After a brief period of change, growth, and experimentation in the early 1920s, the museum eventually settled on a routine of planning the Internationals, arranging for traveling exhibitions, and expanding upon the most popular of their educational programs. In addition to those programs put into place under Beatty's tenure, Saint-Gaudens paved the way for a revamped lecture series featuring visiting critics and traveled as a visiting lecturer himself.

During the 1930s, financial difficulties and increasing political tensions in Europe presented ample challenges to the diplomatic skills of Saint-Gaudens and his agents, and they found themselves increasingly forced to navigate through political minefields presented by the fascist ideologies of Germany and Italy, the chaos of the Spanish civil war, and the eventual outbreak of World War II in Europe. In spite of these challenges, under Saint-Gaudens' direction, the museum remained true to Andrew Carnegie's vision. The International was expanded to accept on average over sixty additional works of art, and at its peak, included art from twenty-one countries. Beginning in 1927, top prizes and recognition were awarded to Georges Braque, Marc Chagall, Salvador Dali, Andre Derain, Raoul Dufy, Karl Hofer, Rockwell Kent, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, and Edouard Vuillard.

Works by Arthur B. Davies, Charles Hawthorne, Edward Hopper, Augustus John, Oskar Kokoschka, Leon Kroll, Ernest Lawson, and William Orpen were added to the museum's permanent collection. And, as under Beatty's tenure, many of the artists selected to serve on the Jury of Award became advocates and friends of the museum, including Emil Carlsen, Anto Carte, Bruce Crane, Charles C. Curran, Daniel Garber, Charles Hopkinson, Laura Knight, Jonas Lie, Julius Olsson, Leopold Seyffert, Lucien Simon, Eugene Speicher, Maurice Sterne, Gardner Symons, Horatio Walker, and Charles H. Woodbury.

The monumental task of establishing the Carnegie Institute Museum of Art and the Carnegie International has left an archival record that is unique and unparalleled in documenting its relations with every aspect of the contemporary art world from the turn of the century through the first forty years of the twentieth century.
Provenance:
The Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records were loaned for microfilming in 1966 and later donated to the Archives of American Art in 1972. A small addition of corrrespondence was donated in 2017 by Elizabeth Tufts Brown.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Carnegie Institute Museum of Art records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Art museums -- Pennsylvania -- Pittsburgh  Search this
Depressions -- 1929  Search this
Art, Modern -- Exhibitions  Search this
Fascism  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Museum directors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Letterpress books
Museum records
Citation:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records, 1883-1962, bulk 1885-1940. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.carninst
See more items in:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-carninst
Online Media:

Elmer Livingston MacRae papers related to the Association of American Painters and Sculptors

Creator:
MacRae, Elmer Livingston, 1875-1953  Search this
Names:
Armory Show (1913: New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Association of American Painters and Sculptors (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden  Search this
Davies, Arthur B. (Arthur Bowen), 1862-1928  Search this
Kuhn, Walt, 1877-1949  Search this
Pach, Walter, 1883-1958  Search this
Extent:
1.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1899-circa 2013
bulk 1912-1916
Summary:
The Elmer Livingston MacRae papers related to the Association of American Painters and Sculptors, Inc., (AAPS) measure 1.8 linear feet and date from 1899 to circa 2013, with the bulk of the material dating from 1912-1916. Elmer Livingston MacRae served as Treasurer of the AAPS when the association organized the International Exhibition of Modern Art, also known as the Armory Show of 1913. The bulk of this collection concerns MacRae's involvement with the AAPS and the Armory Show and includes administrative files, correspondence, exhibition files, financial records, printed materials, and artifacts.
Scope and Contents:
The Elmer Livingston MacRae papers related to the Association of American Painters and Sculptors, Inc., (AAPS) measure 1.8 linear feet and date from 1899 to circa 2013, with the bulk of the material dating from 1912-1916. Elmer Livingston MacRae served as Treasurer of the AAPS when the association organized the International Exhibition of Modern Art, also known as the Armory Show of 1913. The bulk of this collection concerns MacRae's involvement with the AAPS and the Armory Show and includes administrative files, correspondence, exhibition files, financial records, printed materials, and artifacts.

Biographical material includes an old collection inventory from the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, two annotated appointment books, and a small handbook with notes.

Correspondence consists of letters addressed to Elmer MacRae from AAPS members such as Arthur B. Davies, Walt Kuhn, and Walter Pach, as well as other various artists, dealers, lenders, and buyers. Most letters concern AAPS business and organizing the Armory Show.

AAPS administration records include the organization's constitution, letterhead, meeting minutes, a report, and a membership list.

The Armory Show exhibition tour files consist of materials related to openings in Chicago and Boston. Materials include lists that track sales of tickets and pamphlets, insurance lists, a contract, an art inventory, and other items.

Financial records consist of AAPS and exhibition expenses in the form of sales lists of artwork, payroll information, shipping and transportation invoices, bills, rescinded dues, cashiers' journals, ledgers, a receipt book, and a checkbook.

Printed material includes copies of Armory Show exhibition catalogs, AAPS pamphlets, newspapers, magazines, clippings, postcards, and a poster.

Artifacts consist of AAPS memorabilia from the exhibition. There are button pins, calling cards, event invitations, mailing cards, signs, tickets, and other miscellany.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 7 series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1899-1913, circa 1988 (0.1 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1911-1915, 1958 (0.2 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 3: Administration Records, circa 1911-circa 1916 (0.1 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 4: Armory Show Tour Files, 1913 (0.1 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 5: Financial Records, 1912-1916 (0.5 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 6: Printed Material, 1911-1959 (0.6 linear feet; Box 2, OV 4-5)

Series 7: Artifacts, 1913, circa 2013 (0.2 linear feet; Box 3)
Biographical / Historical:
Elmer MacRae (1875-1953) was a New York and Connecticut-based painter and served as treasurer of the Association of American Painters and Sculptors when the association organized the 1913 Armory Show.

Elmer Livingston MacRae was born in New York City in 1875. In the late 1890s, MacRae summered in an artist's community in Cos Cob, Connecticut, where he met his wife Emma Constant Holley. He moved full time to Cos Cob in 1899. MacRae became active in the Pastellists group. He was affiliated with the Macbeth and Madison Galleries in New York, where he was on friendly terms with fellow painters Jerome Myers and Walt Kuhn. In 1911, MacRae became a member of the Association of American Painters and Sculptors (AAPS), Inc. From 1912 to 1916, MacRae served as Treasurer of the AAPS, the organization which organized the seminal 1913 Armory Show exhibition of modern American and European art. Formally titled the International Exhibition of Modern Art, the exhibition introduced many Americans to modern art for the first time. The Armory Show began at New York City's 69th Street Armory, then continued on to the Art Institute of Chicago, and Boston's Copley Society of Art. The latter venue did not include the American art due to space constraints.
Related Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds the Walt Kuhn, Walt Kuhn family papers and Armory Show records as well as the Joseph Hirshhorn papers regarding the Elmer MacRae papers.
Provenance:
The Elmer Livingston MacRae papers were donated to the Archives of American Art in 2016 by the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Elmer Livingston MacRae papers related to the American Association of Painters and Sculptors are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Occupation:
Painters -- Connecticut  Search this
Painters -- New York (State)  Search this
Topic:
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- Exhibitions  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- societies, etc  Search this
Citation:
Elmer Livingston MacRae papers related to the American Association of Painters and Sculptors, 1899-circa 2013, bulk 1912-1916. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.macrelme
See more items in:
Elmer Livingston MacRae papers related to the Association of American Painters and Sculptors
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-macrelme
Online Media:

William R. Hutton Papers

Creator:
Hutton, William R., 1826-1901  Search this
Extent:
30 Cubic feet (33 boxes, 21 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Letterpress copybooks
Blueprints
Diaries
Drawings
Cashbooks
Business records
Business letters
Notebooks
Topographic maps
Tax records
Technical drawings
Stock certificates
Technical literature
Photoengravings
Notes
Maps
Microfilms
Linen tracings
Letter books
Letters
Land titles
Legal documents
Sketches
Salted paper prints
Reports
Receipts
Plans (drawings)
Photostats
Photographic prints
Architectural drawings
Administrative records
Albumen prints
Albums
Annual reports
Booklets
Account books
Books
Family papers
Financial records
Cyanotypes
Correspondence
Deeds
Printed material
Contracts
Harlem river bridge
Photograph albums
Specifications
Christmas cards
Menus
Place:
France
Maryland
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal
Panama Canal (Panama)
New Jersey
New York (N.Y.)
Hudson River
Baltimore (Md.)
Georgetown (Washington, D.C.)
New York
Washington Bridge
New Croton Aqueduct
Kanawha River Canal
Washington Aqueduct
Potomac River -- 19th century
Washington Memorial Bridge
Hudson River Tunnel
Date:
1830-1965
Summary:
The papers document the life and work of William R. Hutton, a civil engineer during the late 1800s to the early 1900s. Materials include diaries, notebooks, correspondence, letterpress copy book, printed materials, publications, specifications, photographs, drawings, and maps that document the construction of several architectural and engineering projects during this period. Most notable are the records containing information related to the construction of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Hudson River Tunnel, the Washington Aqueduct, the Kanawha River Canal, and the Washington/Harlem River Bridge. There are also several records about railroads in the state of Maryland, the District of Columbia and elsewhere, including the Western Maryland Railroad, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Colorado Midlands Railway, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, the Northern Adirondack Railroad, and the Pittsfield and Williamstown Railroad. The records can be used to track the progression of these projects, and engineering innovation during the late 1800s to the early 1900s.
Scope and Contents:
These papers document William R. Hutton's professional career as a civil engineer and his personal affairs. Although the personal materials in the collection provide insight into a man and a family that have been largely forgotten by biographers, it is the professional materials that are perhaps the most interesting to researchers. They provide a compelling narrative of the push to the West that occurred in 19th century America and the internal improvements movement typified by the American System plan proposed by Henry Clay. Perhaps best remembered for the high tariffs that accompanied it, the American System plan was also concerned with the advancement of internal improvements, such as canals, that would unite the East and West in communication, travel, and trade. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal can be seen as one of the products of this movement (1) and was in fact initially heralded as the first great work of national improvement (2).

The papers in this collection that are related to the construction and maintenance of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal are an invaluable documentation of efforts during this turbulent time to unite the eastern and western United States. They provide details of the canal from its initial construction to its decline with the incline at Georgetown project. The canal also serves as an example, or perhaps a warning against, federal involvement in state improvement efforts as it was the first project to be directly funded and staffed by the federal government (3). The groundbreaking ceremony was attended by then President John Quincy Adams whose toast, "to the canal: perseverance," (4) became an ironic omen, as construction of the canal took over twenty-two years to be completed. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal materials can be used as a case study for the problems encountered during canal building (5). These problems are best typified in the collection by the papers relating to the Georgetown incline. This project was headed by Hutton and was plagued with construction problems, boating accidents, and obsolescence from the moment of its completion. Despite these issues, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal remains a structure of historical significance in America. As the third and last effort to construct an all-water route to the West (6), the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal is an important artifact of 19th century attitudes and efforts towards commerce, trade, travel, and communication between the eastern and western United States. Other significant canals and water structures represented in the collection are the Kanawha Canal, the Washington Aqueduct, and a large collection of materials relating to the Kingston Water Supply (New York).

One of the most significant internal improvements made during this time was the railroad. The legal conflicts that arose between the canal companies and railroads is also represented in the materials relating to the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. These materials specifically deal with the legal conflict's between the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The development and construction of the railroads is also represented in the materials documenting the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, the Northern Adirondack Railroad, the Western Maryland Railroad, the Mexican National Railroad, the Colorado Midlands Railroad, and the Columbia Railroad.

The collection also demonstrates the spirit of innovation and invention that was prevalent in the engineering field in the nineteenth century. Joseph Gies writes, "...one of the distinctive characteristics of the great nineteenth century engineering adventurers was their readiness to gamble on the translation of theory into practice" (7). In this quote, he is speaking of the civil engineer Dewitt Clinton Haskins and a project that truly encapsulates engineering invention in the nineteenth century, the Hudson River Tunnel. Responding to the increase in the population of the City of New York in the late nineteenth century from sixty thousand to three and a half million, the Hudson River Tunnel was originally devised as a way to alleviate traffic and to transport train passengers directly across the Hudson River (8). Beginning with records dating from 1881 to 1901, the Hutton papers can be used to document not only the advances in engineering during this time but also the costs of progress. Haskins' initial efforts to build the tunnel using submerged air pressurized caissons were marked by failure and in some cases fatalities. Workers on the tunnel often suffered from what came to be known as "caisson disease" or "the bends," caused by the immense forces of compression and decompression experienced while working in the tunnels (9). This problem was so prevalent that as construction progressed the rate of worker deaths caused by "the bends" rose to twenty-five percent (10). Materials in the collection document worker complaints and deaths resulting from this disease as well as providing a technical record of the construction of the tunnel. The highlight of the materials relating to the Hudson River Tunnel is an album that contains photographs of workers in the tunnel and a detailed daily report of the construction progress on the tunnel that was maintained by Hutton's assistant, Walton Aims. The first hand account in these reports provides insight not only into the construction of the tunnel, but also the problems encountered.

Another project featured in the Hutton collection that was devised in response to the population explosion in the City of New York in the nineteenth century is the Harlem River Bridge, or as it is now known, the Washington Bridge. Known as one of the longest steel arch bridges of its time, the Harlem River Bridge also represents that spirit of invention and innovation that was prevalent in the civil engineering field during the nineteenth century. The collection provides an invaluable resource for those wishing to track the construction of the bridge from early concept drawings and proposals to finalized plans. Also present are photographs of the construction and workers. Societal response to the bridge in the form of newspaper and magazine clippings help to create the narrative of the Washington Bridge, and these are supplemented by correspondence from the builders, suppliers, and planners.

This collection also includes diaries, 1866-1901; letterpress copybooks, 1858-1901; correspondence on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Hudson River Tunnel, Washington Bridge over the Harlem River, and Maryland and Colorado railroads, 1861-1901, and on Hutton's financial and real estate affairs, 1835-1921; construction photographs of the Harlem River, Cairo, Poughkeepsie, Niagara bridges and the Hudson River Tunnel, Washington Aqueduct, and Capitol Dome (in the form of albumen, cyanotype, salted paper print); data and drawings; rolled land profile drawings; canal notes, 1828-1892; Hudson River Tunnel construction reports, 1889-1891; publications, drawings, and maps of railroad routes; pamphlets and reprints on hydraulic works and water supply; road, railway, bridge, and hydraulic construction specifications, 1870-1900; drawings (linen, oil cloth, and heavy drawing paper), and blueprints; account books, 1891-1899; and plans, drawings, field notebooks, and publications on American and European construction projects, especially in Maryland, New York, and France; personal correspondence detailing his role as executor for the estates of Benjamin H. Hutton, Joseph Hutton, Annie Theller, and the Countess H. De Moltke-Hvitfeldt and his relationships with his children, siblings, cousins, and colleagues, 1850-1942.

Materials are handwritten, typed, and printed.

Special note should be made that any materials dated after the year 1901 were added to the collection by another creator who is unidentified. It can be speculated that professional materials added after this date were contributed by his brother and colleague Nathanial Hutton or his son Frank Hutton. Personal materials contributed after this date may have been added by his wife, daughters, or other members of his extended family.

Series 1, Letterpress Copybooks, 1858-1901, consists of twenty seven letterpress copybooks containing correspondence between Hutton and other engineers, architects, and building suppliers. The letterpress copybooks in this series have been arranged chronologically. The books involve a process by which ink is transferred through direct contact with the original using moisture and pressure in a copy press. The majority of the correspondence is business- related. Some letterpress copybooks are devoted to specific projects such as the Washington/Harlem River Bridge, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, Annapolis and Elk Ridge Railroad, and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The letterpress copybooks provide a record of correspondence written by Hutton, which makes it distinctive from the other correspondence in the collection. Most of the other correspondence has Hutton as recipient.

The letterpress copybooks also document Hutton's various residences throughout his life and provide a glimpse into the civil engineering profession at the time by demonstrating how engineers shared ideas and comments about projects. This can be supplemented with the printed materials in the collection as many of the authors also appear in the correspondence. Other topics covered in the letterpress copybooks include business reports (specifically the report of the president and directors of the Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad), records of people and companies involved in projects, pasted in engineering sketches, engineering specifications and notes, travel expenses and estimates, construction histories and progress, legal issues with family estates, tax information, Colorado Railroad, payment certificate schedules, St. Paul Railroad, personal correspondence, title guarantees, Hudson River Tunnel, financial matters, real estate matters, insurance information, sketches and drawings, supply lists, cost estimates, the Memorial Bridge, Coffin Valve Company, engineering expenses, engineering calculations, payroll notes for Kingston Water Supply, proposals, account information, Hutton Park, reservoirs, contract drafts, French Society of Civil Engineers, inspection results (specifically Piedmont Bridge), land descriptions, damage reports, Morse Bridge, Illinois Central Railroad, North Sea Canal, moveable dams, iron works, site histories, Potomac Lock and Dock Company, Kanawha River canal (lock quantities, specifications, payroll information), Pennsylvania Canal, and bills for services.

Series 2, Professional Correspondence, 1861-1901, consists of correspondence that relates to Hutton's architectural and engineering projects. This series is further subdivided into two subseries: Project Correspondence and General Correspondence. Subseries 1, Project Correspondence, 1876-1899, correspondence is divided by project and arranged alphabetically. Subseries 2, General Correspondence, 1861-1901, is arranged chronologically. Both series contain handwritten and typed letters. Some letters are on letterpress copybook pages and are most likely copies. Some materials are in French and Spanish. Special note should be made that this series does not contain all of the professional correspondence in the collection. Some correspondence has been separated according to project and placed in Series 8, Professional Projects, 1830-1965, in order to make it easier for researchers to access materials related to those subjects.

Subseries 1, professional correspondence topics include comparisons between construction projects (specifically comparisons of the Kanawha River Canal to other canals), supply lists, location recommendations, sketches, construction plans and modifications, bills for supplies and works, leaks in the gates, cost estimates, Brooklyn Water Supply, use of lake storage (Ramapo Water Supply), water supply to states and counties, damages to water supply pipes, estimates of water quantities, responses to construction reports, legal issues related to projects, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and payment for services.

Subseries 2, general correspondence topics include employment opportunities, committee meetings and elections, land surveys, sketches, engineering plans and ideas, work on projects, dismissal from projects, notes on supplies, Washington Aqueduct, construction progress, land purchases, Civil War, Jones Falls, cost of water pumps, steam drills, lots divisions and prices, repairs, report of the engineering bureau, tidewater connection at Annapolis, bridge construction, construction costs, statement of vessels that entered and cleared Baltimore, technical questions from colleagues, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, supply costs, letters of introduction, requests for reference, changes to plans and designs, survey reports, St. Andrew's lot, Canal Coal Company, publication process, American Society of Civil Engineers and its members, responses to project inquiries, Graving Dock gross revenue, job offers, specifications, trade figures, contracts, water levels, appointment dates and times, moveable dams, proposals for membership, salaries, Piedmont Coal Lands, maps, land profiles, Washington Bridge, board payments, Nicaragua Canal, Grant Coal Company, statistics, engineering notes, Hartford Bridge, water pressures, coal deposits, Colorado Coal, pipe lines, reservoirs, boat costs for canals, floods, bridges, letters of resignation, engines, Ruxton Viaduct, Colorado and Midland Railroad, Morse Bridge, share values, railroad locations, membership invitations, call for submissions, structural tests, record of accounts for room and board, appointments, water rights (Putnam County), publications, blueprints, visitation programs, cotton compresses, street trenches, pressures in dams, level tests, Portland Transportation bureau, trade information, concrete steel, Chicago drainage canal, ship canals, Augusta Cotton and Compress Company, Sooysmith case, Consolidated Gas Company, masonry, book binding, Columbia Railway Company, jetties, land grades, Chesapeake and Delaware canal, water wheels, pneumatic lock, tunnel arches, rifton power, Hutton's health, elevators, Brooklyn Bridge Terminals, girder weights, legal issues and their results, rating table for the Potomac, land profiles, transmission lines, transformers, water turbines, and water power on the Potomac River.

Correspondents for this series include the following: Captain Montgomery C. Meigs, Captain T.W. Symons, William Bryan, Ernest Flagg, John Hurd, Jake Wolfe, J.C. Saunders, J.H. Dolph, Charles J. Allen, G.H. Mendell, Virgil S. Bogue, B.A. Mounnerlyn, Edward Burr, H.G. Prout, R. William, H. Dodge, C.R. Suter, M. Mink, W.R. King, John Lyons, Alex Brown and Sons, John G. Butler, D. Condon, Bernard Carter, R.P. McCormick, D.R. Magruder, Andrew Banks, Isaac Solomon, C.J. Mayer, C.W. Kern, John Herring, James S. Mackie, D.R. Magunde, D. Rittaguide, R.S. Stevens, J.L. Raudolph (Baltimore and Ohio Railroad), J.M. Lane, W.D. Stuart, W.G.P. Palmer (Committee Church of the Ascension), C. Crozet, General W. Hughes, V.R. Maus, J.M. Hood (Western Maryland Railroad Company), Ernest Pontzen, M. Haus, William F. Craighill, Harry Hutton, John W. Pearce, Reverend James A. Harrald, William Watson, A.L. Rives, Thomas Monro, A.F. Croswan (Commander United States Navy), H.R. Garden, William McAlpine, James Forrest, Wm. Bloomsfield, Daniel Ammen, Linel Wells, A. and Otto Sibeth, Alfred Noble, Clemens Hershel, Sidney Warner, E.H. de Rheville, Theodore Cooper, William Findlay Shunk, Lewis S. Wolfe, Rufus Mead, Theodore F. Taylor, John Bogart, J. Whaler, B. Williamson, Colonel F.V. Greene, Robert H. Sayre (Lehigh Valley Railroad Company), Charles W. Pussey, Louis Q. Rissel, V.C. Bogue, H.C. Eckenberger, Melville E.G. Leston, Edwin Parson, Rudolph Hering, R.S. Hale, F.M. Turner, Thosl Martindale, Justus C. Strawbridge, William M. Ayresm, R.L. Austin, A.M. Miller, P. Livingston Dunn, T.J. Cleaver, C.S. Dutton, H.A. Carson, William Bainbridge Jaudon, H.A. Presset, Thomas H. McCann, Russel Sturgis, H.G. Prout, Alexis H. French, John K. Cowen, F.W. Williams, J. Waldorf, B.H. Byrant, B.H. Jones, M.H. Rogers, J.W. Ogden, General W. Cashing, William Longhudge, A.J. Cameron, T.L. Patterson, J.J. Hagerman, H. Wigglesworth, Charles B. Rowland, E. Bantz, W.G. Lathrop, Clarence King, George Rowland, George A. Tibbals (Continental Iron Works), George N. Vanderbilt, Eugene C. Lewis, F.P. Burt, Colonel John C. Clarke, Lieutenant Thomas Turtle, W.S.M. Scott, E. Bates Dorsey, Bernard Carter, George M. Shriver (Baltimore and Ohio Railroad), Russel Sturgis, Macmillan Publishing, James Abernethy, B. Baker, J.G.W. Fynje, A. Mallet, Jean Hersuy, L.F. Vernon Horcourt, Robert Lilley, A.J. Johnson, F.M. Colby, Henry D. Loney, A.S. Cameron, James A. Harrald, William Watson, John B. Lervis, A.L. Rives, Edwin F. Bidell, Frank H. Stockett, E. McMahon, C.F. Elgin, Enrique Budge, G. Clayton Gardiner, Dwight Porter, William A. Chapman, T.E. Sickels, Theodore Cooper, C.J. Warner, Institution of Civil Engineers, Robert Gordon, United States Coast of Geodetic Survey Office, C.P. Pattun, J.N. Putnam, Sidney B. Warner, H.D. Fisher, Union Pacific Railway Company, Lewis S. Wolle, George E. Waring Junior, The American Exhibition, G.F. Swain, American Society of Civil Engineers, N.H. Whitten, U.S. Engineer Office, Government Works Committee, J.J. Hagerman, D. Jackson, Sterling Iron and Railway Company, E.P. Alexander, E. Williamson, Central Railway Company of New Jersey, William A. Underwood, F. Collingwood, James Dun (Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad Company), Henry F. Kilburn, Louis A. Bissell, Virgil G. Boque, H.C. Eckenberger, Melville Egleston, Charles Parson, George Swain, Continental Iron Works, Rudolph Hering, J.B. Gordon, Mayor's Office (Baltimore), Harry Robinson, Pennsylvania Railway Company, W.H. Gahagan, L. Luiggi, B.H. Bryant, T.J. Cleaver (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Company), H.A. Carson, H.A. Presset (Department of the Interior, United States Geological Survey), John K. Cowen, Vernon H. Brown, J. Waldorf, B.H. Bryant, L.F. Root, P.W. White, Metropolitan Railroad Company, Charles F. Mayer (Consolidated Coal Company, Cumberland and Pennsylvania Railroad Company), J.M. Lane (Western Maryland Railroad), Dr. R.S. Stewart (Annapolis and Elk Ridge Railroad), Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad (John Lyons, John G. Butler, D. Candon, R.P. McCormick, Andrew Banks), Thomas F. Rowland, J.A. Bensel, Walton Aims, S.D. Coykendall, H.C. Rogers, John F. Ward, T.B. Jewell, H.A. Pressey, C.S. Armstrong, J. Nennett, V.G. Bague.

Series 3, Personal Correspondence, 1850-1942, contains correspondence with immediate and extended family, specifically the heirs to the Benjamin H. Hutton and Joseph Hutton estates and Adele Gorman. Correspondence is primarily arranged chronologically, but some files have been divided based on subject or author (the Deer Park and Adele Gorman files), or by form (the Telegrams, and Cablegrams file). Special note is made of the posthumous correspondence file, which includes correspondence both relating to Hutton's death and correspondence that was written by family members after the years of his death. The series contains both hand written and typed letters. Some correspondence is in French. The correspondence demonstrates his relationship with his children specifically Elizabeth (Bessie) Hutton, and illuminates his role in his family. This series also provides details about nineteenth century upper class society and activities. Special note should be made that this folder does not contain all of the personal correspondence contained in the collection. Some correspondence has been separated according to recipient, or subject in order to make researching these recipients or subjects easier.

Series 3 correspondence topics include: estate payments, distribution of assets, funds transfers, estate lines, conflicts with tenants, sketches, lot maintenance, real estate sales, deeds, real estate sales negotiations, congratulations wishes on new babies, family illnesses, family affairs and travels, traveling directions, personal investments, invitations for social occasions, family debts, professional interests, professional and personal appointments, family issues, requests for money, sketches, advice to children (specifically Frank Hutton), life insurance, books, letters of introduction, legal issues, funeral expenses, charity donations, advertisements, minutes from professional organizations, army enlistment, deaths of friends and family, recipes, estimates of personal expenses, renovations, stock certificates (Great Northern Railway Company, New York), food, social activities, the weather, marriages, real estate and construction plans, and loan agreements.

Correspondents include the following: Frank Hutton, Thomas B. Brookes, J.L. Marcauley, C.M. Matthews, Edward J. Hancy, John M. Wilson, H.A. Carson, William H. Wiley (of John Wiley and Sons Scientific Publishers, New York), Georgina Hutton, Pierre and Jane Casson, George McNaughlin, Henrietta Hutton, Aaron Pennington Whitehead, J.B. Wheeler, B. Williamson, Robert De Forest, Elizabeth (Bessie) Hutton, Grace Beukard, J.C. Saunders, Mary Hutton, William J. Pennington, C.S. Hurd, Henry C. Cooper, Henry J. Segers, S.F. Miller, Annie Theller, Alfred Noble, Maria Burton, Joseph Hobson, E. Lennon, F. Hulberg, Charles Gordon Hutton, Edward C. Ebert, A. William Lewin, E.R. Dunn, William P. Craighill, Theodore Cooper, P.I. Chapelle, Anita McAlpine, Clarence King, Victoria Raymond, and Adele Gorman.

Series 4, Personal Materials, 1835-1946, contains documentation about Hutton's personal finances, role as executor of the Benjamin H. Hutton, Joseph Hutton, Annie Theller, and Countess H. De Moltke-Hvitfeldt estates, Mary Augusta Hutton (wife), Mary Hutton (daughter), Frank Hutton, John Caulfield (son-in-law), and B.F. and C.H. Hutton. The series has been divided into four subseries: Financial Records, 1876-1901, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921, Other Huttons, 1876-1936, and Personal Material, 1878-1946. Subseries 2, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921, contains correspondence relating to specific family estates and family members. This correspondence was separated from Series 3, Personal Correspondence, 1850-1942, to make it easier for researchers to access all records relating to the family estates. This series includes hand written, typed, and printed materials. Some materials are in French. All material dated after 1901 has been added to the collection by other creators such as Hutton's wife and children.

Subseries 1, Financial Records, 1876-1901, includes account books, account records, correspondence related to bank accounts, bank statements, financial notes, bills and proofs of payment, rent receipts, tax bills (New York, Flatbush, Montgomery County), checks, money exchanges, receipts for tax payments, real estate receipts, stock and bond certificates, loan agreements, executor accounts, rebate calculation sheet, and tax and insurance payments.

Subseries 2, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921, includes property maps and information (rent, mortgage costs, deeds), correspondence, notes on estate distribution, estate assets, value of estate and estate payments, account records, loan agreements, receipts, proof of payments, checks, financial records, legal documents, insurance documents, tax bills, auction receipts, and wills relating to the estates of Benjamin H. Hutton, Joseph Hutton, Countess H. de Moltke-Hivtfeldt, Annie Theller, and William R. Hutton. Also included are correspondence, property maps and information, and deeds and mortgages on Hutton properties.

Subseries 2, the estate and real estate records correspondence topics include: Virginia state building codes, construction costs, construction notices, purchasing offers for property, real estate prices, receipts of payments, property lines, real estate purchases and sales, real estate sales negotiations, deeds insurance estimates and costs, loan costs, property estimates, renovation costs, mortgages, property damages and repairs, property tax payments, insurance rates and payments, rent payments, telephone installation, building permits, rental agreements, reports on property condition, contracts of sale, conflicts with tenants, changes of address, deeds, distribution of estate monies, details about the Countess' illness, estate arrangements, changes of address, problems arising out of estate distribution, payment of debts, will details, selling of mortgage shares, accounts, estate settlement, money cables and transfers, dealings with lawyers, rent on Hutton Park property, legal and accounting fees, power of attorney transfer, investments, property security, land appraisals, lists of assets, legacy taxes, mortgages transfers, property management, Flatbush property, property rent and values, and physicians bills.

Correspondents include the following: A.C. Weeks, Walter I. Green, John D. Probsh, A.G. Darwin, Thomas H. McCann, Allan Farguhar, Thomas Dawson, Potter and Crandall Real Estate and Insurance Brokers, George C. Tilyou, H.D. Olephant, F. Winston, Richard E. Calbraith, Frank P. Martin, Henry DeForest, Henry C. Cooper, Metropolitan Telephone and Telegraph Company, John Ecker, C.K. Avevill, Georgina Hutton, Edward J. Hancy, Robert Graham, W.M. Bennett, Willis E. Merriman, Nathan L. Miller, Harry Hutton, Marquise de Portes (Adele Gorman), Annie Theller, Samuel L. Theller, Mrs. R. Locke, Frank Z. Adams, John Palmer (Secretary of State, New York), J.T. Cammeyer, Frank P. Martin, Florence Theller, Francis H. Seger, Henry C. Cooper, D.W.G. Cammeyer, Campbell W. Adams, Jane Casson, Elizabeth Hutton, Rene de Portes, H.G. Atkins, Grace Beukard, Aaron Pennington Muikhead, J.E. Delapalme, T.H. Powers, Egerton L. Winthrop Junior, George B. Glover, William Jay and Robert W. Candler, B. Williamson, J.E. Knaff, Cornelius C. Vermeule, S.V. Hayden, Charles G. Landon[?], H.A. Hurlbert, F.A. Black, John L. Calwalder, the Health Department of New York, A.G. Darwin, William Laue, Frederick Frelinghuysen, Charles S. Brown, Henrietta Hutton, Edward Gelon.

Subseries 3, Other Huttons, 1874-1936, includes professional drawings and proposals, checks, insurance information, correspondence, tax information, medical information, tax bills, relating to Mary Augusta Hutton (wife), Mary Hutton (daughter), Henry and Harry Hutton, Frank Hutton (son), John Caulfield (son-in-law), B.F. Hutton, and C.H. Hutton.

Subseries 4, Personal Materials, 1878-1946, contains handwritten property notes, school notes, sermons, travel documents, menus, Christmas cards, jewelry box, postal guide, typed religious materials and flyers.

Series 5, Diaries, 1866-1901, contains twenty nine diary books that document both Hutton's personal and professional life. These diaries provide not only a record of Hutton's life, but were also used by Hutton himself as a reference tool. When working on projects he would refer to notes and observations he made in his diary (as evidenced by notes made in his diaries). The first pages of the diaries often list his height, weight and clothing sizes as they varied from year to year. A researcher could probably use the cashbooks (see Series 7) and the diaries in conjunction as both detail the purchases made by Hutton. Many of the diaries also include a short record of accounts in the back. The diaries are arranged chronologically.

Topics found in the diaries include short form accounts of daily activities and appointments, records of the weather, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project, construction progress on projects, steam pumps, sketches and calculations, extension of Washington railroads, cost of food, work supplies, travel costs, costs of goods and food, work deadlines, home renovations, visits to family, cash accounts, accounts of household duties, produce on Woodlands property, records of deaths, debts owed, account of clearing Woodlands property, church visits, Hancock and Tonoloway Aqueduct, canals, Drum Point Railroad, Montgomery C. Meigs, Washington Aqueduct, Annapolis Water Works, telegram costs, wages for Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project, William Craighill, Morris Canal, Annapolis Railroad and Canal, professional duties (inspections), Kanawha River Canal, travel schedules, professional expenses, cash received from Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, John's Dam, cathedral construction (St. Patricks?), Piedmont Bridge, Cumberland, account of farm property belonging to Major Campbell Bruns, Cunard Pier, Marquise de Portes, rent costs, Baltimore Canal, Kingston Water Supply, Croton Orange Estate, Pierre Casson, Hudson River Tunnel, Washington/Harlem River Bridge, entertainment costs, Greenwood cemetery, train schedule, notes on illness, real estate sales, Hutton Park, Benjamin H. Hutton estate and heirs, estimates, accounts of correspondence received and sent, Central Railroad, rent on Orange properties, addresses, contracts and building supplies for projects, personal finances, Joseph Hutton property on Vanderbilt Avenue, New York, amounts paid and received, medical appointments, Ramapo Water Company, drawing progress of maps and diagrams, Harbor Board (New York), property repairs, inspection and test reports, reservoirs, lists of birthdays, Boston Tunnel, family financial issues, tax payments, and prayers.

Series 6, Notebooks, 1860-1900, document the engineering and architectural projects worked on by Hutton. The series has been divided into three subseries: Subseries 1, Engineering and Survey Field Notes, 1860-1899; Subseries 2, Notebooks, 1871-1886; and Subseries 3, Notes, 1863-1900. Subseries 1, Engineering and Survey Field Notes, 1860-1899, contains sixteen field notebooks used by Hutton. Subseries 2, Notebooks, 1871-1886, contains seven notebooks. Subseries three, Notes, 1863-1900, contains four documents.

Some notebooks correspond to specific projects such as the Kanawha River Canal (lockgate and Phoenix Waterline), Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Buffalo Reservoir, Potomac Lock and Dock Company, Northern Adirondack Railroad account, Washington Aqueduct, Little Rock Bridge, Wilson-Adam Dock, Croten Brick Works, Hutton Park, Centennial Iron Works, Cumberland Canal, Williamsport Aqueduct, Catoctin Aqueduct, Alexandria Canal, Miller's Saw Mill, Seneca Dam, Union Tunnel, Cumberland Waterworks, Victoria Bridge, Welland Canal, North Sea Canal, Ramapo Water Company, Annapolis Water Company, Antietam Aqueduct, Interoceanic Canal, San Quentin Canal, Suez Canal, Amsterdam Canal, Harlem Bulkhead, Morris Canal, Blue Lake Canal, and Nicaragua Canal.

These notebooks should be used in conjunction with the other materials in the collection related to professional projects, as they often provide more detailed accounts of the construction and land surveys. Some of the notebooks contain entries from several different sources. The notebooks were probably shared among the engineers working on these projects. The notebooks also contain looseleaf ephemera such as hand written calculations, newspaper clippings, and blueprints. Languages found in this series are English and French.

Notebook topics include construction projects, supply needs, costs for labor, sketches (Woodland Mills, landscapes, dams, railway cars, Noland Tunnel), costs of crops, survey measurements, cost of livestock, aqueducts, inspections, canal bridges, seed prices, dams, measurements, coffer dam, canal maintenance, worker salaries, calculations, towpath sketches and measurements, shipping rates, worker accidents, water and coal used, geometrical sketches (Washington Aqueduct), locks, damage reports, interactions with other engineers (William Reading), coal shipments on the canal, travel expenses, land survey notes, drafts for correspondence, William Craighill, Victoria docks, lists of personal supplies used, construction time estimates, surveying expenses, telegram costs, sand pump, canal from Sherling to Tuxedo Bay, analysis of several artificial lakes and reservoirs, distances of reservoirs to main pipes, calculations for the Austin Wheel, engine construction, bridges, gauging water depth, results and observations of tests and performance, problems with construction, to-do lists, cost of land surrounding towpaths, Fawcett's Lock, Tarman's Lock, comparison of costs in transporting coal by water and by rail, inspection notes, iron work, drainages, leaks, cost of supplies, watergates, harbor ferries, railroad station distances, flood protection, Panama Canal via the Nicaraguan route, cost of jetties, water levels, pressure of steam, boilers, steam and water cycle, water depth, cement, Great Falls, Virginia, waterflow, soundings, time of floats, flow of currents, rain fall measurements, tunnel measurements, cost of trenching San Francisco water supply, record of livestock, cost of food, rates of sawing woods and mills, preliminary railroad line measurements, profile of final line, and railroad line profiles.

Series 7, Cash Books, 1856-1899, contains seven cashbooks which list prices for personal items purchased by Hutton. Topics include groceries, church dues, clothes, hygiene products, cigars, some short journal entries about his work (Williamstown), concerts, dinners, family addresses, cakes, meals, cars, stamps, office supplies (pencils and papers), valentines, glasses, gloves, fabric, medicine, needles, diapers, tobacco, shoes (adult and childrens), travel expenses, telegrams, candles, newspapers, liquor, coal oil, jewelry, allowances given to family members, bank deposits, monies paid and received, taxes, subscriptions, tailoring costs, deposits and payments into estate trusts, and notes about payments to Benjamin H. Hutton heirs. The cashbooks also contain some personal loose leaf ephemera such as prayers, sketches, and engineering notes collected by Hutton.

Series 8, Professional Projects, 1830-1965, contains documents about engineering and architectural projects throughout Hutton's career, including information about the professional organizations and the legal issues in which he was involved. This series has been divided into eight subseries based on project, document form, and document subject. Some materials are in French and Italian.

Series 8, Professional Projects, also includes correspondence related to specific projects, primarily the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, the Hudson River Tunnel, the Washington/Harlem River Bridge, and the Georgetown Incline.

Topics include construction and repair to the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, engineering and use of Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, worker contracts, supply and labor purchases, design plans and proposals, construction and repair costs, supply notes and costs of supplies, water pressure and power, shipping materials and routes (specifically the shipping of coal), inspections and their findings, condition of canal dam and locks, water supply, drainage, sketches, board proceedings, business meetings, deeds, cost comparisons to other shipping methods, hiring processes, wages, cost estimates, Hutton's consulting fees, measurements and calculations, funding issues, worker conflicts, negotiations with municipal governments, payment schedules, bills for services, air pressure in Hudson River Tunnel, permission for construction, specifications, mortality rate among workers on the Hudson River Tunnel, construction reports, outlet incline, proposals for construction, letters of introduction, railroad versus water for trade, controversy with Tiersey, construction contracts, construction schedules, construction issues, construction progress, construction damage, basis for estimates, supply requests, internal politics, changes to construction plans, contract and price adjustments, issues with suppliers, construction delays, work permits, bills, worker issues, engineering notes, construction excavations, expenses, construction instructions, Union Bridge Company, lighting installations, construction processes, hiring practices, electrical conductors, water proofing, hydraulics, cement, concrete, payment of contributors, processes of approval for construction, meeting dates of the Harlem River Bridge Commission, and contract restrictions.

Correspondents include the following: W.W.M. Kaig, Henry Dodge, E. Mulvany, John Shay, James Clarke, H.D. Whitcomb, Horace Benton, J. Rellan, J.R. Maus, W.E. Merrill, A.P. Gorman, J.H. Staats, Vernon H. Brown, Charles H. Fisher (New York Central and Hudson River Railway Company), B. Baker, John Fowler, Benjamin and John Dos Passos, Charles B. Colby, Charles B. Brush, S. Pearson, Stanford White, Horace E. Golding, R.H. Smith, Daniel Lord, A. Fteley, Herbert Hinds, J.R. Bartlett, D.M. Hirsch, M.H. Bartholomew, Thomas O. Driscoll, W.E. Porter, Thomas F. Rowland, George Edward Harding, R.H. Dames, William Watson, James B. Eads, J.D. Bright, H. Aston, Charles Suley, A.M. Maynard, W.R. Henton, G. Geddes, H.P. Gilbut, Malcolm W. Niver (Secretary of the Harlem River Bridge Commission), J.D. Patterson, George Devin (Assistant Engineer Washington/ Harlem River Bridge), J.B. Wheeler, John Bogart, Charles Burns, J. McClellon, Rob Bassee, B. Williamson, Theodore Cooper, Lewis Cass Ledyard, R.M. Hunt, John Cooper, Henry Wilson, A.A. Caille, Myles Tierney, W. Pentzen, L.B. Cantfield, George Q. Grumstaid Junior, M.J. Funton, George Pierce, W.O. Fayerweather, Noah S. Belthen, Herbert Steward, W.M. Habirsham. Subseries 1, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 1828-1965, consists of plans, blueprints, land profiles, drawings, boat rates, contract forms, order forms, descriptions of the canal, design information, engineering data, sketches, cost estimates, land titles, microfilm, business papers, supply bills, patent bills, news clippings, reports, specifications, stockholder's reports, receipts, water leases, printed materials, and correspondence.

The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project was started in 1828 and completed twenty two years later in 1850. The canal's main objective was to connect Georgetown to the coal banks above Cumberland, Maryland, providing a short and cheap trade route between the eastern and western United States. It was also hoped that the canal would provide greater communication and travel between these two regions. Plagued by natural disasters, and construction setbacks, the canal was never completed in time to be useful and became obsolete shortly after its completion. Canal trade was eventually put out of business by the increase of railroads. Although it was an important development in engineering at its inception, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal is no longer in use and has become what locals affectionately refer to as "the old ditch." The canal was designated a National Historical Park in 1971 and consists of 184.5 miles of hiking and biking trails.

Subseries 2, Hudson River Tunnel, 1887-1901, consists of agreements for construction, certificates, contracts, and cost estimates, construction reports, engineering notebooks, engineering notes, sketches, land profiles, maps, progress profiles, plans, proposals, printed material, statements of expenses, and correspondence.

The Hudson River Tunnel project was started in 1874, and the final tubes were opened in 1910 after several construction setbacks. The tunnel connects Weehawken, New Jersey and Pennsylvania Station in Manhattan, New York City. Today the Hudson River Tunnel, known as the North River Tunnels is used by Amtrak's Northeast Corridor and New Jersey Transit rail lines.

Subseries 3, Harlem River Bridge, 1878-1982, consists of blueprints, printed materials, photographs, engineer's estimates, schedules, costs, reports, proposals, contracts, specifications, and correspondence.

The Harlem River Bridge project was started in 1885 and was completed in 1889. It spans the Harlem River in New York City, New York and connects the Washington Heights section of Manhattan with the Bronx. It was later named and is still known as the Washington Bridge and has been adapted over time to carry highway traffic. These adaptations have allowed the bridge to remain in use today.

Subseries 4, Other Projects, 1858-1832, consists of drawings, maps, blueprints, plans, proposals, cost estimates, bills, correspondence, sketches, land profiles, dimensions, engineering notes, account records, photostats, supply lists, calculations, legal documents, surveys, inspection reports, financial data, and measurements on architectural and engineering projects. Highlights of this subseries include: Western Maryland Railroad, Washington Aqueduct, Panama Canal, Ramapo Water Company, Piedmont Bridge, Northern Adirondack Railroad, Columbia Railroad, Morris Canal, Pittsfield and Williamstown Railroad, Suez Canal, St. Gothard Canal, Tansa Dam, Colorado Midland Railroad Company, Memorial Bridge, Mersey Tunnel, Little Rock Bridge, Kingston Water Supply, Kanawha River Canal, Florida Ship Canal, East Jersey Water Company, Consolidated Coal Company, Dismal Swamp Canal, Boston and Baltimore Tunnels, St. Patrick's Cathedral, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Annapolis Water Company, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad Company, and the Baltimore Beltline.

Subseries 5, Unidentified Project Files, 1872-1900, consists of bills of sale, engineering forms and regulations, cement test results and methods, census bulletin, contracts, cost estimates, correspondence, notes on publications, engineering data and notes, drawings, surveys, sketches, payrolls, photographs, and reports.

Subseries 6, Specifications, 1870-1900, consists of documents related to some of Hutton's projects, including specifications for bridges, reservoirs, canals, viaducts, docks, buildings, water works, and tunnels. Some specifications are more general, and some are blank proposal/specification forms. There are also proposals for estimates and a "call" or advertisement to contractors to bid on certain projects. Many of the specifications deal with projects in New York State, but projects in Pennsylvania, the City of Baltimore, and Europe are represented. The materials are arranged alphabetically by project name. There is one folder of documentation for the Potomac River Bridge (Arlington Memorial Bridge) in Washington, D.C. The Arlington Memorial Bridge was part of the 1901 McMillan Commission's plan for restoring Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant's original plan for the capital. Two decades passed before construction was initiated by the architectural firm McKim, Mead, and White. The documentation for the Memorial Bridge consists of calculations and monetary figures for materials such as granite.

Subseries 7, Legal Documents, 1886, contains documents related to a patent infringement suit for moveable dams involving Alfred Pasqueau vs. the United States. This file contains both a printed version of the case and a handwritten statement from Hutton.

Subseries 8, Professional Organizations, 1870-1902, contains documents related to professional organizations where Hutton held membership. Specific organizations represented are American Institute of Architects, American Society of Civil Engineers, Institution of Civil Engineers, Boston Society of Civil Engineers, Societe des Ingenieurs Civils de France, Librarie Polytechnique, American Agency of "Engineering" in London, Imperial Institute, League of Associated Engineers, Railroad Corporation, American Institute of Mining Engineers, and the Century Association. Material in the subseries includes correspondence, candidates for membership, membership payments, membership lists, meeting minutes, schedule of terms, professional practices, charges, articles of association, invitations for membership, and election notes. Some materials are in French.

Series 9, Printed Materials, 1850-1913, contains a variety of printed materials relating to engineering and architectural projects written by Hutton and fellow engineers. This series can be used to examine not only professional developments of the period and responses to those developments, but also to track how ideas were transferred between engineers across countries and continents. This series should be used in conjunction with the professional correspondence found in this collection, as many of the authors also appear there. Some materials are in French, German, Spanish, and Italian.

Subseries 1, Printed Materials by Hutton, 1852-1900, includes printed papers on the Missouri flood wave, the Ravine du Sud, the Potomac waterfront, the Colorado midlands, and the application of water supply machinery.

Subseries 2, Printed Materials by Others, 1826-1913, includes printed materials on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canals, Tehuantec Ship Railway, Interoceanic canals and railways, jetties, Nicaragua Canal, uses of cements, mortars, concretes, steam power, harbors, Niagara Falls, Kanawha River canal, Mississippi River, Hudson River Bridge, sewage disposal, Washington Aqueduct, specifications, construction progress reports, hydraulic experiments, water supply, drainage, road surfacing, sea walls, water-cooling apparatus, pollution reports, bridges, pipes, channels, reservoirs, irrigation, water power, and sewers.

Subseries 2 contains an issue of The North American Review in which Hutton has specifically highlighted an article entitled, "The Inter-Oceanic Canal." Please see the container list for names of authors.

Subseries 3, Printed Materials with No Author, 1852-1903, includes printed materials on harbor reports, Annapolis Water Company, Ramapo Water Company, water departments and boards, maps, engineer's reports, sea walls, preservation of structures, annual reports, Coal and Iron Railway Company, sewers, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, contract specifications, proposals, social club life, Croton Water Supply, law suits, water supplies, moveable dams, reservoirs, East River Bridge, Eastern Canal, water filtration, Kingston New Water Supply, water pipes, locks, docks, contracts, construction reports, Croton Water Supply, and surveys. Also included are issues of journals such as Le Correspondant, Circular of the Office of Chief Engineers, The Club, VIII Congres International de Navigation, Journal of the Association of Engineering Studies, and Journal of the Franklin Institute.

Subseries 4, Newspaper, Journals and Magazine Clippings, 1873-1900, contains clippings from a variety of newspapers such as Scientific American, andRailroad Gazette. Subjects included are the Union Tunnel opening in Baltimore, Drum Point Railroad, railroad company conflicts, Washington/Harlem River Bridge, Metropolitan Railroad, Western Maryland Railroad, crop prospects, lumber trade, North Avenue Bridge, Nicaraguan Canal, harbors, river improvements, reactions to engineering projects, Belt tunnel, city transit, Washington, D.C. flood in 1880, tunnel shields, Springfield Bridge, railroad patents, Panama Canal, jetties, Hudson Tunnel, steel boilers, composition and use of cement, and the Brooklyn Bridge.

Subseries 5, Oversized Printed Materials, 1889-1892, contains large printed materials related to the Washington Aqueduct, General Post Office Building, subway arches, cornices, Warwick's Castle, Neuschwanstein Castle, Renaissance paintings, botanical drawings, school buildings, church architecture, the Hospital for the Insane of the Army and Navy and the District of Columbia, the Panama Canal, Morningside Park, and the Mississippi Jetties. Also includes engravings of Hutton, T.N. Talfound, and F. Jeffrey and photographs of Montgomery C. Meigs, and Hutton. Some materials are in German and French.

References:

1. Ward, George Washington, "The Early Development of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Project," Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science Series XVII, no. 9-11 (1899): 8.

2. Ibid., 88.

3. Ibid., 55.

4. Ibid., 90.

5. Sanderlin, Walter S., "The Great National Project: A History of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal," Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science Series LXIV, no. 1 (1946): 21.

6. Ibid., 282.

7. Gies, Joseph, Adventure Underground (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Company Inc., 1962): 134.

8. Ibid., 131-132.

9. Ibid., 135-136.

10. Ibid., 145.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into ten series.

Series 1, Letterpress Copybooks, 1858-1901

Series 2, Professional Correspondence, 1861-1901

Subseries 1, Project Correspondence, 1876-1899

Subseries 2, General Correspondence, 1861-1901

Series 3, Personal Correspondence, 1850-1942

Series 4, Personal Materials, 1835-1946

Subseries 1, Financial Records, 1876-1901

Subseries 2, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921

Subseries 3, Other Huttons, 1874-1936

Subseries 4, Personal Materials, 1878-1946

Series 5, Diaries, 1866-1901

Series 6, Notebooks, 1860-1900

Subseries 1, Engineering and Survey Field Notes, 1860-1899

Subseries 2, Notebooks, 1871-1886

Subseries 3, Notes, 1863-1900

Series 7, Cashbooks, 1856-1899

Series 8, Professional Projects, 1830-1965

Subseries 1, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 1828-1965

Subseries 2, Hudson River Tunnel, 1887-1901

Subseries 3, Harlem River Bridge, 1878-1892

Subseries 4, Other Projects, 1858-1932

Subseries 5, Identified Project Files, 1872-1900

Subseries 6, Specifications, 1870-1900

Subseries 7, Legal Documents, 1886

Subseries 8, Professional Organizations, 1870-1902

Series 9, Printed Materials, 1826-1913

Subseries 1, Printed Materials by Hutton, 1852-1900

Subseries 2, Printed Materials by Others, 1826-1913

Subseries 3, Newspaper, Journals, and Magazine Clippings, 1855-1901

Subseries 4, Oversized Printed Material, 1889-1892

Series 10: Drawings, 1875, 1883
Biographical / Historical:
Not much is known about the history of William Rich Hutton outside of his role in architectural and engineering projects of the late 1800s and early 1900s. In many cases, he is spoken of only in reference to his projects, and the short biographies that have been written read more like a resume than a life story. Because of this lack of information, this note will focus on Hutton's professional accomplishments, but will attempt to make some comments on his personal life.

William Rich Hutton was born on March 21, 1826 in Washington, D.C., the eldest son of James Hutton (died 1843) and his wife, the former Salome Rich (1). He was educated at the Western Academy (Washington, D.C.) from 1837-1840 under George J. Abbot and then at Benjamin Hallowell's School in Alexandria, Virginia, where he received special training in mathematics, drawing, and surveying (2). Hutton began his professional career in California when he, along with his younger brother James, accompanied their uncle William Rich to work for the United States Army. His uncle was a paymaster for the army and Hutton became his clerk. They traveled around the new state paying the various platoons stationed there, but Hutton also occupied his time by drawing the landscapes and structures he saw in the settlements of Los Angeles, San Francisco, La Paz, Mazatlan, Santa Barbara, Monterey, San Pedro, San Diego, and Cape San Lucas (3). These drawings are now held by the Huntington Library in San Marino, California. Hutton held the position of clerk until the spring of 1849, and in July of that year he began working with Lieutenant Edward O.C. Ord and completed the first survey of Los Angeles and its surrounding pueblo lands and islands. Hutton continued surveying in California from 1850-1851. He was hired by William G. Dana to survey the Nipomo Ranch in San Luis Obispo County and also surveyed the ranches Santa Manuela and Huer-Huero, both owned by Francis Z. Branch. After his employment with Dana, he became the county surveyor for San Luis Obispo County, where he prepared the first survey and map of the region. He also continued to survey ranches for Captain John Wilson during this time. In August 1851, he resigned from his position as county surveyor and moved to Monterey where he worked as an assistant to Captain (later General) Henry W. Hallack, superintendent of the New Almaden Quicksilver Mine in Santa Clara County (4). He remained in this position until March, 1853 when he returned to Washington, D.C. by way of Mexico (5).

Hutton began his career as a civil engineer in Washington, D.C. He was first assigned to the position of assistant engineer on a survey of the projected Metropolitan Railroad in 1853, which was chartered to connect Washington, D.C. with the mainline of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. In 1855 he began his professional relationship with Montgomery C. Meigs when he was appointed to the position of assistant engineer on the Washington Aqueduct. He also served as division engineer on this project until construction was shut down in 1861 because of the outbreak of the Civil War. Fortunately for Hutton, the construction on the Aqueduct was resumed in 1862, and when Congress transferred the supervision of the aqueduct project from the War Department to the Department of the Interior, Hutton was made chief engineer. By the end of the Civil War, Hutton's reputation as a civil engineer was established (6).

During this decade Hutton also served as the chief engineer for the Annapolis Water Works (1866) and as chief engineer for one of his most famous projects, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal (1869-1871). Although some historians minimize Hutton as just one of many engineers to work on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, he did make one major contribution to its construction: the Georgetown Canal Incline. Perhaps the final effort of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal company to compete with the emerging and fast expanding railroad, the Georgetown Incline was designed to allow canal boats to travel through the canal with low water levels and to alleviate canal congestion. Unfortunately, by the time the incline was completed use of the canal had decreased so significantly that it was no longer needed to help control traffic (7). Despite this, Hutton continued to work as a consulting engineer for the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company until 1881, when he was let go because of the dwindling fortunes of the company (7).

In the 1870s and 1880s Hutton was busy with several engineering projects. During 1871-1873, he was the chief engineer in the completion of the Western Maryland Railroad to Hagerstown and Williamsport (9). He also practiced as an architect with his brother, the prominent Baltimore architect Nathanial Henry Hutton, during the years 1873-1880. He relocated to New York in 1880, serving as chief engineer for the Washington Bridge in 1888 and 1889 and the Hudson River Tunnel from 1889 to 1891. In 1886, he became the consulting engineer for the New Croton Aqueduct and served in the same position for the Colorado Midland Railway between the years of 1886-1889 (10).

As his personal and professional correspondence shows, Hutton continued to work on various engineering and architectural projects until his death on December 11, 1901. In addition to these projects, he also invented the innovative system of locks and moveable dams used in the Kanawha River Canal. He was awarded the Diplome d'Honneur for this featat the Paris Exposition in 1878 (11). His correspondence also demonstrates how Hutton was respected within his professional community. These letters refer to the accuracy of his work, his willingness to help other colleagues and supply them with reference materials and information, and, in addition to all this, his politeness. It seems that these qualities defined not only his personality but also his ideology. In one of the cashbooks in the collection, dated 1899, a hand written note contains a religious parable of "The Straw." The phrase in this parable that speaks most to Hutton's work ethic, and to the spirit of inventors everywhere, is this: "Even so however lowly may be the act, however little opportunities we may have of assisting others, we may still do something. Let us beg to fulfil our duty in this regards by making ourselves useful to others by some little act of thoughtful charity..." (12). Hutton, in his dedication to civil engineering, seems to have lived up to this virtue, and in his work he changed the landscape of Washington, D.C. and New York.

The Fairy Godfather: Hutton's Personal History

His professional records reveal a man who was fiercely dedicated to his work. His obituary references his professional life more than his personal life (13). Despite his reputation in the professional engineering community, his personal records demonstrate that Hutton was also dedicated to his family and children. In 1855, he married Montgomery County native Mary Augusta Clopper (died 1915). Together they lived on her family's estate known as the Woodlands, and had five children: Frank C. Hutton, Mary Hutton, Elizabeth Hutton (later Caulfield), Rosa Hutton, and Annie Salome Hutton (14). It is at this estate that Hutton died and was buried. The personal letters to his wife found in the Woodlands Collection held at the Montgomery County Historical Society show a man in love and willing to take time from his work to write to his wife. His letters to his children show a similar interest and compassion. In the many letters found in this collection from his daughter Elizabeth (Bessie) one can see a father who is interested in not only his daughter's activities abroad, but also in her opinion. This interest also extends to his son Frank Hutton, as their correspondence shows Hutton offering his son advice on his own engineering projects.

Hutton also served as executor to many of his extended family's estates. Many letters show the conflicts that Hutton had to mediate and the dependence of his cousins on him for advice and money. Although his family was wealthy (his cousin was Benjamin H. Hutton whose daughters married into the court of Napoleon III), they were volatile, and his records seem to indicate that he served as a mediator for many of their disputes. In addition to this, as his nickname of Fairy Godfather suggests, Hutton was always willing to lend his family either financial or moral support when needed. Unfortunately, little other documentation concerning Hutton's personal life exists outside of this collection and the one held at the Montgomery County Historical Society.

References:

1. Waters, Willard O., "Introduction," California 1847-1852 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942).

2. Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): ix.

3. Waters, Willard O., "Introduction," California 1847-1852 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942). and Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): x-xi.

4. Waters, Willard O., "Introduction," California 1847-1852 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942).

5. Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): xvii.

6. Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): xvii-xviii.

7. Skramstad, Harold, "The Georgetown Canal Incline," Technology and Culture, Vol. 10, no. 4 (Oct. 1969): 555.

8. Business Correspondence, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 22 February 1881, William R. Hutton Papers, 1830-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, box number 27, folder number 29.

9. "William Rich Hutton," The Club: A Journal of Club Life for Men and Women,(July 1894):37

10. Ibid.

11. Monzione, Joseph, "William R. Hutton," A.P.W.A. Reporter (Sept. 1977): 7.

12. Cashbook, 1899, William R. Hutton Papers, 1830-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, box number 23, folder number 5.

13. The Woodlands Collection, Montgomery County Historical Society.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

The Montgomery C. Meigs Papers, 1870-1890, (AC0987). Contains materials relating to the construction of the Washington Aqueduct including a book of drawings illustrating reservoirs, tunnels, culverts, and other structural elements, a Government Senate Document relating to construction progress, scrapbooks created by Meigs that include newspaper clippings about the Washington Aqueduct project, water supply, engineering projects, building construction, architecture and other subjects. Collection is currently unprocessed, but is available for research.

Materials in Other Organizations:

The William Rich Hutton Papers, 1840-1961, are located at the Huntington Library in California (see http://catalog.huntington.org).

The collection contains 95 drawings, 13 letters, and 39 facsimile copies of letters and manuscripts. The illustrative material includes both watercolor and pencil drawings of California (including Los Angeles, Monterey, San Francisco, the New Almaden Quicksilver Mine, and the California missions), Baja California, Mexico, and Peru. There are also five pieces in the collection related to the author María Amparo Ruiz de Burton. In 1942, the Huntington Library published Glances at California 1847--853: Diaries and Letters of William Rich Hutton, Surveyor and California 1847--852: Drawings by William Rich Hutton.

The Hutton family papers are located at the Montgomery County Historical Society, Sween Library (see http://www.montgomeryhistory.org/sites/default/files/Family_Files.pdf).

The collection contains account books from the Woodlands estate, recipe books, livestock records, records of Mary Augusta Hutton (wife), Mary and Rose Hutton (daughters), newspaper clippings (including his obituary), correspondence, record books, deeds, bills and receipts, engineering papers, religious momentos (funeral service cards), and insurance papers.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Mr. and Mrs. James J. Madine, a relative of Hutton's and last owners of the Woodlands estate; the Department of Forests and Parks, Maryland; Louis Fischer; and Mr. and Mrs. Mayo S. Stuntz, 1965-1966, 1974.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Dams  Search this
Hydraulic engineering  Search this
Canals  Search this
Underwater tunnels  Search this
Railroad bridges  Search this
Railroad construction  Search this
Water-supply  Search this
Construction workers  Search this
Construction equipment  Search this
Concrete construction  Search this
Concrete  Search this
Coal -- Transportation  Search this
Civil engineers  Search this
Civil engineering  Search this
Canals -- Panama  Search this
Canals -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Canals -- Maryland  Search this
Canals -- Design and construction  Search this
Bridges -- United States  Search this
Waterworks  Search this
Tunnels  Search this
Tunnels -- New York (N.Y.)  Search this
Construction -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Underground construction  Search this
Locks and dams  Search this
Shipping  Search this
Iron and steel bridges  Search this
Sewage disposal  Search this
Railroads -- Maryland  Search this
Railroads -- 19th century  Search this
Railroad engineering  Search this
Railroad companies  Search this
Aqueducts  Search this
Arch bridges  Search this
Architects -- 19th century  Search this
Books  Search this
Bridges -- New York (N.Y.)  Search this
Bridges -- Design and construction  Search this
Bridge construction industry -- United States  Search this
Engineering notebooks  Search this
Docks  Search this
Domestic and family life  Search this
Architecture -- United States  Search this
Architecture -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Western Maryland Railroad  Search this
Annapolis Waterworks  Search this
Steam engineering  Search this
Harlem River Bridge Commission  Search this
Washington (D.C.) -- 19th century  Search this
Reservoirs  Search this
Patents  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Letterpress copybooks
Blueprints
Diaries
Drawings
Photographs -- 19th century
Cashbooks
Business records -- 19th century
Business letters
Notebooks
Topographic maps
Tax records
Technical drawings
Stock certificates
Technical literature
Photoengravings
Notes
Maps -- 19th century
Microfilms
Linen tracings
Letter books
Letters
Land titles
Legal documents
Sketches
Salted paper prints
Reports
Receipts
Plans (drawings)
Photostats
Photographic prints
Architectural drawings
Administrative records
Albumen prints
Albums
Annual reports
Booklets
Account books -- 19th century
Books -- 19th century
Family papers -- 18th century
Financial records -- 19th century
Diaries -- 19th century
Drawings -- 19th century
Cyanotypes
Correspondence -- 19th-20th century
Deeds
Printed material
Correspondence
Contracts
Harlem River Bridge
Photograph albums
Specifications
Christmas cards
Menus
Citation:
William R. Hutton Papers, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0987
See more items in:
William R. Hutton Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0987
Online Media:

Kraushaar Galleries records

Creator:
Kraushaar Galleries  Search this
Names:
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
Carnegie Institute  Search this
Cleveland Museum of Art  Search this
Ernest Brown and Co.  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
New Britain Institute. Art Museum  Search this
Toledo Museum of Art  Search this
University of Nebraska--Lincoln. Department of Art  Search this
Whitney Museum of American Art  Search this
Wichita Art Museum  Search this
Albrizio, Humbert, 1901-1970  Search this
Allard, J.  Search this
Arnest, Bernard, 1917-  Search this
Bacon, Peggy, 1895-1987  Search this
Beal, Gifford, 1879-1956  Search this
Beal, Reynolds, 1866-1951  Search this
Bignou, Etienne  Search this
Bouché, Louis, 1896-1969  Search this
Brueming, Karen  Search this
Cantene, David  Search this
Cowles, Russell, 1887-1979  Search this
DeLonga, Leonard  Search this
Demuth, Charles, 1883-1935  Search this
Evett, Kenneth Warnock, 1913-  Search this
Fausett, Dean, 1913-  Search this
Flannery, Vaughn  Search this
Glackens, Edith  Search this
Glackens, William J., 1870-1938  Search this
Guillaume, Paul, 1891-1934  Search this
Halberstadt, Ernst, 1910-1987  Search this
Hardy, Thomas, 1921-  Search this
Harrison, Preston  Search this
Hartell, John  Search this
Heliker, John, 1909-2000  Search this
Juley, Peter A., 1862-1937  Search this
Kirsch, Frederick D. (Frederick Dwight), b. 1899  Search this
Kraushaar, Antoinette M., 1902-1992  Search this
Kraushaar, John F., 1871-1946  Search this
Kuhn, Walt, 1877-1949  Search this
Lachaise, Gaston, 1882-1935  Search this
Lasker, Joe  Search this
Laurent, Robert, 1890-1970  Search this
Lechay, James  Search this
Luks, George Benjamin, 1867-1933  Search this
Miller, Harriette  Search this
Morris, Carl, 1911-1993  Search this
Murdock, Roland P. -- Art collections  Search this
Navas, Elizabeth S., 1885-1979  Search this
Penney, James, 1910-1982  Search this
Phillips, Duncan, 1886-1966  Search this
Prendergast, Charles, 1863-1948  Search this
Prendergast, Maurice Brazil, 1858-1924  Search this
Robinson, Boardman, 1876-1952  Search this
Ruellan, Andrée, 1905-2006  Search this
Schnakenberg, H. E. (Henry Ernest), 1892-1970  Search this
Sloan, John, 1871-1951  Search this
Smalley, David, 1940-  Search this
Smith, Vernon, 1894-1969  Search this
Stanley, Alix W.  Search this
Williams, Esther, 1907-1969  Search this
Wilson, Ralph L.  Search this
Extent:
91.9 Linear feet
0.181 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Photographs
Sketches
Drawings
Exhibition catalogs
Financial records
Notes
Sketchbooks
Date:
1877-2006
Summary:
The records of New York City Kraushaar Galleries measure 91.9 linear feet and 0.181 GB and date from 1877 to 2006. Three-fourths of the collection documents the gallery's handling of contemporary American paintings, drawings, and sculpture through correspondence with artists, private collectors, museums, galleries, and other art institutions, interspersed with scattered exhibition catalogs and other materials. Also included are John F. Kraushaar's estate records; artists' files; financial ledgers documenting sales and gallery transactions; consignment and loan records; photographs of artwork; sketchbooks and drawings by James Penney, Louis Bouché, and others; and two scrapbooks.
Scope and Content Note:
The records of New York City Kraushaar Galleries measure 91.9 linear feet and 0.181 GB and date from 1877 to 2006. Three-fourths of the collection documents the gallery's handling of contemporary American paintings, drawings, and sculpture through correspondence with artists, private collectors, museums, galleries, and other art institutions, interspersed with scattered exhibition catalogs and other materials. Also included are John F. Kraushaar's estate records; artists' files; financial ledgers documenting sales and gallery transactions; consignment and loan records; photographs of artwork; sketchbooks and drawings by James Penney, Louis Bouché, and others; and two scrapbooks.

The collection reflects all activities conducted in the day-to-day administration of the business and relates to the acquisition, consignment, loan, sale, and exhibition of art by twentieth-century American artists and European artists of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The records document specific arrangements for loans and exhibitions, artist-dealer relations, relationships with public and private collectors, interaction with the art dealer community, and routine requests for information.

Much of the artist correspondence relates to practical arrangements for exhibitions of artwork, but in many cases also documents the development of individual artists and the effect of their relationship with the galleries on their ability to produce marketable work. Many of the artists represented in the collection also wrote lengthy letters, particularly to Antoinette Kraushaar, describing their attitudes to their work and providing insight into how that work was shaped by events in their personal lives.

The bulk of the correspondence with museums and institutions concerns practical arrangements for loans of artwork and provides detailed information about market prices and insurance values. It offers insight into the general climate of opinion toward particular artists and styles at any given time. Correspondence with other galleries and dealers also concerns loans and sales of artwork but, due to the typically cordial and cooperative nature of relations between the Kraushaars and their contemporaries, may also provide a more extensive and personal view of relationships and trends in the art dealer community. Similarly, while a portion of the correspondence with private collectors concerns routine requests for information and loans of art on approval, there is also substantive correspondence documenting the development of the artistic vision of collectors such as Preston Harrison, Elizabeth S. Navas, and Duncan Phillips.

From 1917 to the mid-1930s correspondence was handled mainly by John Kraushaar, and the bulk of that relating to European galleries and European art can be found during these years. Although there are only a handful of materials before 1926, records from the 1920s and 1930s document Kraushaar Galleries' growing commitment to American artists and the climate of the market for their work. The financial hardships of the Depression are vividly depicted in the numerous letters written during the 1930s seeking payment on accounts receivable and requesting extensions on accounts payable.

From the mid-1930s to 1968 correspondence was conducted primarily by Antoinette Kraushaar and, to some degree, by her assistants in later years. As the galleries' focus on American art increased, so did the volume of correspondence with artists, and the collection is particularly rich during the 1940s and early 1960s. In later years to 2006, most of the correspondence was conducted by Carol Pesner and gallery assistants.

The exhibition catalogs included in the collection do not represent a complete set. Those found are working copies used by the galleries in preparation for exhibitions and are often annotated with prices or insurance values. Additional exhibition catalogs can be found on the microfilm described in the Administrative Information section of this finding aid.

The majority of Kraushaar Galleries' insurance records can be found in files relating to the company Wm. E. Goodridge & Son, later known as Wm. E. Goodridge, Inc. Shipping and transportation records are generally filed under the names of the companies used for such transactions and can primarily be found under Davies, Turner & Co., Hudson Forwarding & Shipping Co., Railway Express Agency, Inc., and W. S. Budworth & Son, and to a lesser degree under American Railway Express Company, Arthur Lenars & Cie., C. B. Richard & Co., De La Rancheraye & Co., Hayes Storage, Packing & Removal Service, Inc., and Willis, Faber & Co. Ltd.

The 2008-2009 accretion includes additional correspondence similar in content and with correspondents as described above, as well as some artists' Christmas cards. However, the bulk of the additional correspondence dates from 1965-2006, with a handful of miscellaneous correspondence from 1877 to the mid-twentieth century. Also found are financial and business records including records from the closing of the John F. Kraushaar estate; over 40 ledgers providing nearly complete documentation of the gallery's sales and transactions from its establishment to 1946; incoming consignment records, including account statements and correspondence with artists, from the 1940s to 2006; and outgoing consignment and loan records from 1899-2006. The gallery's representation of its stable of artists is documented through artists' files containing printed and digital materials, exhibition catalogs and announcements, price lists, and biographical information, as well as containers of photographs and negatives of artwork. Also found is a 1933 sketchbook by James Penney, drawings and sketchbooks by Louis Bouché, and two scrapbooks.

See Appendix for a list of Kraushaar Galleries exhibitions
Arrangement:
Kraushaar Galleries generally filed all types of records together with correspondence in a combination of alphabetical and chronological files. Thus financial records, insurance records, receipts, photographs, and exhibition catalogs can be found interfiled with general correspondence in Series 1-3. A group of photographs of artwork maintained separately by Kraushaar Galleries constitutes Series 4. Series 6 was minimally processed separately from Series 1-5, and the arrangement reflects the original order of the addition for the most part.

Records in Series 1-3 were originally filed alphabetically by name of correspondent and then by month, by a span of several months, or by year. The alphabetical arrangement has been retained, but to facilitate access the collection was rearranged so that correspondence was collated by year. From 1901 to 1944 outgoing letters and incoming letters are filed separately; in 1945 some outgoing letters are filed separately, with the bulk of the material filed together as correspondence; from 1946 to 1968 incoming and outgoing letters are filed together as correspondence.

For Series 1-3 organizations or individuals represented by at least 15 letters are filed in separate file folders. All other correspondents are arranged in general files by letters of the alphabet, with selected correspondents and subjects noted in parentheses after the folder title.

Series 2 and several boxes in Series 3 contain a variety of notes and receipts received and created by Kraushaar Galleries that were originally unfoldered. The notes can be found in folders adjacent to the receipts and include handwritten notes of customer names and addresses, financial notes and calculations, catalogs of exhibitions, invitations and announcements to exhibitions frequently used as note paper, and other miscellany. Although most of the miscellaneous notes are undated, they are filed, with the receipts, at the end of the year to which they appear to relate. For the years 1929 and 1930 Kraushaar Galleries created separate alphabetical files for some of the billing statements received from other businesses. These have been filed adjacent to "Miscellaneous Notes" and "Receipts" in the appropriate years.

Kraushaar Galleries tended to file correspondence with businesses alphabetically according to the letter of the last name: for example, Wm. E. Goodridge & Son would be filed under G rather than W.

Series 1: Outgoing Letters, 1920-1945 (boxes 1-9; 9 linear ft.)

Series 2: Incoming Letters (boxes 10-26; 16.25 linear ft.)

Series 3: Correspondence, 1945-1968 (boxes 26-53; 27.75 linear ft.)

Series 4: Photographs, undated (box 54; 0.5 linear ft.)

Series 5: Artwork, [1926, 1938] (box 53; 2 items)

Series 6: Addition to the Kraushaar Galleries Records, 1877-2006 (boxes 55-99, BV100; 38.4 linear feet, ER01-ER02; 0.181 GB)
Historical Note:
Charles W. Kraushaar established Kraushaar Galleries in 1885 as a small store on Broadway near Thirty-first Street in New York City. Initially the store sold artist materials, photogravures, and reproductions. Drawing on his previous experience working with William Schause, a leading dealer in European paintings, Kraushaar soon progressed to selling original watercolors, paintings, and engravings by European artists, primarily landscapes of the Barbizon School.

In 1901 Kraushaar moved the business to 260 Fifth Avenue and with the assistance of his brother, John F. Kraushaar, began adding more modern French and American painters to the inventory. Of particular interest to John Kraushaar was the group of American realists known as "The Eight," who had held a self-selected, self-organized exhibition at the Macbeth Gallery in 1908. The Eight were Arthur B. Davies, William Glackens, Robert Henri, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, Everett Shinn, and John Sloan. Luks, whom John Kraushaar met around 1902, was probably the first major American artist represented at Kraushaar Galleries. In 1917 John Sloan was invited to hold his first one-person show at the galleries despite accusations that his exhibition at the Whitney Studio the previous year had represented a brutal depiction of life that lacked subtlety and sensitivity.

When Charles Kraushaar died suddenly in 1917, John assumed control of the galleries and soon enlisted the assistance of his daughter, Antoinette Kraushaar. Antoinette had suffered a bout of pneumonia during the influenza epidemic of 1918 that cut short her education; grooming her for a career in the galleries was a logical step. Following the end of the First World War, Kraushaar resumed his buying trips to Europe, often accompanied by Antoinette, and exhibited works by European artists such as André Derain, Henri Matisse, Amedeo Modigliani, Pablo Picasso, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and Vincent Van Gogh. However, it was the increasing commitment to contemporary American artists for which the galleries would become best known. In addition to The Eight, the Kraushaars developed their inventory of American paintings and etchings with exhibitions of work by artists such as Gifford Beal, Charles Demuth, Guy Pène Du Bois, Gaston Lachaise, Jerome Myers, Charles Prendergast, and Henry Schnakenberg.

Returning from a buying trip to Europe in 1929, John Kraushaar wrote to California collector Preston Harrision on July 26 that "the prices over there, especially for modern pictures are astounding." Nevertheless, Kraushaar believed that investing in modern art would yield benefits within the next five years, and he refused to be influenced by museums and critics outside of New York who were reluctant to agree. He exhibited a healthy disrespect for museum directors in general, whom he referred to in his letters to Harrision as "dead heads" who ought to be sent to different art centers of the world in order to "get in touch with what is going on there" (March 11, 1929).

Like most of its contemporaries, Kraushaar Galleries suffered considerably during the Depression of the 1930s and struggled to collect and, in turn, pay accounts due. On October 5, 1931, John Kraushaar confessed to H. S. Southam, "Business is very bad with us, and I know that you will treat it confidentially when I tell you that I have had to sacrifice a good part of my personal holdings to provide cash for my own business." By 1934 the rent on the galleries' current location at 680 Fifth Avenue, where Kraushaar had moved in 1919, was out of all proportion to the amount of business that was being generated. In 1936, a timely move to 730 Fifth Avenue allowed the family to effect substantial economies without a disproportionate loss of business.

During the 1930s, John Kraushaar's health began to fail, and he was frequently absent from the galleries. Consequently, Antoinette Kraushaar took on greater responsibility for the operation of the business with the assistance of her brother Charles. Although Antoinette was one of few women to hold such a prominent position in the art business at that time, there is no evidence in the records to suggest that artists or customers who had been accustomed to dealing with John Kraushaar had any difficulty accepting the transition in management from father to daughter.

Nevertheless, collecting accounts remained difficult, and although business had improved by 1938 it was now stymied by the threat of war in Europe. The warmth of relations between the Kraushaars and the artists they handled, and their colleagues, was crucial to Antoinette during these years. She repeatedly expressed her gratitude for their understanding and assistance in her letters as she struggled to meet financial obligations and operate the business in her father's absence, experimenting with different strategies as she evolved an approach that would sustain the business. In a letter to Gifford Beal dated August 6, 1941, she spoke of "hellish times" and stressed, "I have learned a great many things during the past few years and hope that we are groping our way towards a working solution of our own affairs at least."

While there is no question that Antoinette Kraushaar shared her father's genuine interest in contemporary American artists, the growing commitment to these artists that was forged during these years was driven in large part by necessity. By increasing her stock of American art and adding "younger painters of promise," she was able to sell work in a much broader price range. Consequently she could reach a wider audience and increase the likelihood that the business would remain solvent. This method of business also suited her personality far more than having a very specialized inventory of highly priced work, an approach that she confessed to J. Lionberger Davis on December 3, 1940, "requires a particular kind of temperament, and frankly I neither like it nor believe in it."

Throughout her career Antoinette imbued the business with her personal style. She understood that elitism alienated art buyers of moderate income, who constituted her bread and butter, and believed strongly that the gallery environment should not be intimidating to potential customers. She corresponded at length with old and new clients alike, patiently offering advice when asked and maintaining liberal policies for those who wished to borrow artwork on approval. She also participated in events that promoted efforts to make art available to a wider audience, such as a 1951 exhibition and seminar at the Florida Gulf Coast Art Center that addressed problems of buying and selling art. She was a two-time board member of the Art Dealers Association of America and considered the organization to be an important source of support for the gallery community.

In her dealings with other commercial galleries and art institutions, Antoinette Kraushaar exhibited a strong spirit of cooperation and enthusiasm, consistently lending art to small, locally owned businesses and community organizations as well as to more established galleries and world-class museums. She also developed long and mutually beneficial associations with the art departments of many educational institutions across the country, which proved to be fertile ground for young and upcoming artists.

Antoinette Kraushaar exhibited the same honesty and fairness in dealing with artists as her father had, expressing her opinions of their work in a forthright manner and maintaining a policy of always looking at the work of any artist who came to her. She understood the inherent difficulties of dealing with living artists but relished the excitement of encouraging their work and watching them develop. On November 14, 1947, in reply to a letter from the artist Bernard Arnest, in which Arnest apologized for burdening her with his worries, she reminded him, "One of the functions of a dealer is to act as a safety valve. Didn't you know?"

Although she would not retain artists indefinitely if she felt their work had deteriorated in quality, Antoinette often stressed that she was prepared to accept little or no initial financial return on the work of artists who showed promise or whose work held a particular appeal for her. In a letter of December 30, 1940, she reassured Walt Dehner that the lack of sales from his recent exhibition would not lead her to withdraw his work from the galleries. In typically unassuming style she advised Dehner to "go on painting whatever interests you. We have found that there is no recipe for success, either artistic or material."

In the early 1940s Antoinette Kraushaar implemented two changes to her inventory. Sensing that interest in sculpture was growing, she rearranged the space to give that medium more room and attention. The market for etchings had been declining since the late 1930s, and as she reduced this part of her inventory she also acted on her personal passion for drawings by opening a small gallery devoted to contemporary American drawings that were priced well within the range of most customers.

By the time Kraushaar Galleries moved to 32 East Fifty-seventh Street, late in 1944, American art had become the main focus of the business. While the long-standing interest in The Eight and other artists of that period continued, the galleries also handled contemporaries such as Louis Bouché, Samuel Brecher, John Heliker, Andrée Ruellan, and Karl Schrag. When John Kraushaar died in December 1946, Antoinette and Charles legally assumed control of the business. This partnership continued until 1950, when Antoinette assumed sole ownership of the gallery.

In 1955 the galleries moved uptown to smaller quarters at 1055 Madison Avenue, and Antoinette Kraushaar gave up the greater part of her print business. She was inundated with requests from artists to be allowed a chance to show her their work, and the galleries' exhibition schedule was always full. Contemporary artists she now represented included Bernard Arnest, Peggy Bacon, Russell Cowles, Kenneth Evett, William Dean Fausett, William Kienbusch, Joe Lasker, and George Rickey, and she continued to exhibit artwork by Charles Demuth, William Glackens, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, Boardman Robinson, and John Sloan.

By the late 1950s the artists of the generation that her father had promoted in the early part of the century had died, but Antoinette Kraushaar had the pleasure of seeing his faith in them come to fruition. In a letter to Ralph Wilson dated October 20, 1958, she stated with satisfaction, "The Boston Museum is taking (at long last) a deep interest in (Maurice) Prendergast, and they will probably do an important show within the next year." Her correspondence with William Glackens's son Ira in the 1960s reveals the extent to which Glackens's popularity had grown since his death in 1938, and the market for John Sloan's work had been increasing steadily since the late 1920s. In 1962 James Penney summed up Kraushaar Galleries' success in the foreword of a catalog for an exhibition of paintings and sculpture the galleries had organized with the Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute at Hamilton College:

1854 -- Charles W. Kraushaar born

1871 -- John F. Kraushaar born

1885 -- Kraushaar Galleries established on Broadway near Thirty-first Street

1901 -- Galleries moved to 260 Fifth Avenue

1902 -- Antoinette Kraushaar born

1917 -- Charles W. Kraushaar died; John Kraushaar assumed control of the business, increasing inventory of modern American and European artists; first John Sloan exhibition

1919 -- Galleries moved to 680 Fifth Avenue

[1920] -- Antoinette Kraushaar began assisting with the business

1924 -- Maurice Prendergast died

1936 -- Galleries moved to the Heckscher Building at 730 Fifth Avenue

1938 -- William J. Glackens died

1944 -- Galleries moved to the Rolls Royce Building at 32 East Fifty-seventh Street; American art now the main focus of the business

1946 -- John Kraushaar died; Antoinette and Charles Kraushaar assumed control of the business

1948 -- Charles Prendergast died

1950 -- Antoinette Kraushaar assumed sole ownership of Kraushaar Galleries

1951 -- John Sloan died

1955 -- Galleries moved to 1055 Madison Avenue

1959 -- Carole Pesner joined Kraushaar Galleries

1964 -- Galleries extended into adjacent building

1981 -- Galleries moved to 724 Fifth Avenue

1986 -- Katherine Kaplan joined Kraushaar Galleries

1988 -- Antoinette Kraushaar retired from day-to-day management of the business

1992 -- Antoinette Kraushaar died
Appendix: List of Kraushaar Galleries Exhibitions:
The Archives of American Art does not hold a complete collection of catalogs from exhibitions held at Kraushaar Galleries; therefore the dates and titles of exhibitions provided in this appendix are inferred from a variety of sources including correspondence, notes, artists' files, and requests for advertising. Italics indicate that the exact title of an exhibition is known.

Jan., 1912 -- Paintings by Gustave Courbet and Henri Fantin-Latour

Apr., 1912 -- Paintings by Frank Brangwyn and Henri Le Sidaner

Jan., 1913 -- Paintings by Ignacio Zuloaga

May, 1913 -- Etchings by Seymour Haden

June, 1913 -- Paintings and Lithographs by Henri Fantin-Latour

Oct., 1913 -- Etchings by Frank Brangwyn

Jan., 1914 -- Ignacio Zuloaga

Mar., 1914 -- Paintings by Alphonse Legros

Apr., 1914 -- George Luks

May, 1914 -- Seven Modern Masterpieces including Gustave Courbet, Henri Fantin-Latour, Alphonse Legros, Matthew Maris, and James McNeill Whistler

undated, 1915 -- Paintings by John Lavery

Jan.-Feb., 1917 -- James McNeill Whistler's White Girl

Feb.-Mar., 1917 -- Paintings by Augustus Vincent Tack

Mar.-Apr., 1917 -- Paintings and Etchings by John Sloan

Summer, 1917 -- Works by French artists including A. L. Bouche, Josef Israels, Gaston La Touche, and Alphonse Legros

Oct., 1917 -- Monoprints by Salvatore Antonio Guarino

Nov., 1917 -- Etchings and Mezzotints by Albany E. Howarth

Jan., 1918 -- Recent Paintings by John Lavery

Jan.-Feb., 1918 -- Paintings and Watercolors by George Luks

Feb.-Mar., 1918 -- Paintings by Augustus Vincent Tack

Mar., 1918 -- Paintings by John Sloan

Apr.-May, 1918 -- Paintings by A. L. Bouche

May, 1918 -- War Paintings by J. Mortimer Block, Charles S. Chapman, Guy Pène Du Bois, H. B. Fuller, George Luks, W. Ritschell, John Sloan, and Augustus Vincent Tack

Oct., 1918 -- Oil Paintings by William Scott Pyle

Nov., 1918 -- Paintings by Gustave Courbet, Henri Fantin-Latour, Alphonse Legros, Edouard Manet, Antoine Vollon, James McNeill Whistler, and Ignacio Zuloaga, and bronzes by Antoine Louis Bayre, Emile Antoine Bourdelle, and Mahonri Young

Apr., 1919 -- Paintings and Monoprints by Salvatore Anthonio Guarino

Jan.-Feb., 1919 -- Decorative Panels and Other Paintings by Augustus Vincent Tack

Mar., 1919 -- Paintings and Drawings by John Sloan

May, 1919 -- Paintings by George Luks, Monticelli, and A. P. Ryder

Sept., 1919 -- Work by Jean Louis Forain

Oct., 1919 -- Etchings and Lithographs by Alphonse Legros

Jan., 1920 -- Recent Paintings by George Luks

Feb., 1920 -- Recent Paintings by John Sloan

Feb., 1920 -- Paintings by William Scott Pyle

Mar., 1920 -- Recent Paintings by Gifford Beal

Apr., 1920 -- Recent Paintings by Augustus Vincent Tack

Apr., 1920 -- Paintings by Henri Le Sidaner

Apr., 1920 -- Paintings and Drawings by Jean Louis Forain

Apr.-May, 1920 -- Paintings and Drawings by Jerome Myers

May, 1920 -- Paintings by Henrietta M. Shore

Jan., 1921 -- Paintings by French and American Artists

Jan.-Feb., 1921 -- Paintings by George Luks

Feb., 1921 -- New Paintings by Augustus Vincent Tack

Apr., 1921 -- John Sloan Retrospective

Summer, 1921 -- French and American Artists

Oct., 1921 -- Paintings of Mountford Coolidge

Oct., 1921 -- Works by Henri Fantin-Latour and Henri Le Sidaner

Nov., 1921 -- Frank Van Vleet Tompkins

Dec., 1921 -- Paintings and Bronzes by Modern Masters of American and European Art

Jan., 1922 -- Exhibition of Recent Paintings and Watercolors by George Luks

Feb., 1922 -- Paintings by Augustus Vincent Tack

Mar., 1922 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Gifford Beal

Apr., 1922 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Guy Pène Du Bois

Summer, 1922 -- Paintings by Modern Masters of American and European Art

Oct., 1922 -- Recent Paintings of the Maine Coast by George Luks

Jan., 1923 -- Exhibition of Paintings by George Luks

Feb., 1923 -- Paintings and Decorative Panels by Augustus Vincent Tack

Mar., 1923 -- Landscapes by Will Shuster

Mar., 1923 -- Paintings by Samuel Halpert

Apr., 1923 -- Marine Figures and Landscapes by Gifford Beal

Apr.-May, 1923 -- Paintings by John Sloan

May, 1923 -- Paintings by Frank Van Vleet Tompkins

June, 1923 -- Etchings by Marius A. J. Bauer

Oct., 1923 -- American Watercolors by Gifford Beal, Reynolds Beal, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, and William Zorach

Dec., 1923 -- Etchings and Lithographs by Alphonse Legros

Dec., 1923 -- Paintings, Drawings, and Pastels by Charles Adolphe Bischoff

Jan., 1924 -- Paintings by Celebrated American Artists

Mar., 1924 -- Paintings and Drawings by Guy Pène Du Bois

Apr., 1924 -- New Paintings by George Luks

May, 1924 -- Paintings by Marjorie Phillips

Summer, 1924 -- French and American Modern Artists

Oct., 1924 -- Painting, Watercolors, and Sculpture by William Zorach

Nov., 1924 -- Watercolors by Seven Americans

Dec., 1924 -- French Paintings

Jan., 1925 -- Paintings by John Sloan

Jan.-Feb., 1925 -- Maurice Prendergast Memorial Exhibition

Mar., 1925 -- Plans and Photographs of Work in Landscape Architecture by Charles Downing Lay

Apr., 1925 -- Paintings by William J. Glackens

Dec., 1925 -- Watercolors by Gifford Beal, Reynolds Beal, Carl Broemel, Richard Lahey Jerome Myers, Maurice Prendergast, Henry E. Schnakenberg, Abraham Walkowitz, and William Zorach

undated, 1926 -- Lower Broadway by W. Walcot

Feb., 1926 -- Paintings by Paul Burlin

Feb., 1926 -- Portraits of Duncan Phillips, Esq. Charles B. Rogers, Esq. & The Hon. Elihu Root Painted by Augustus Vincent Tack

Mar., 1926 -- Paintings, Watercolors, and Drawings by Gifford Beal

Apr., 1926 -- John Sloan

Sept.-Oct., 1926 -- Exhibition of Etchings by C. R. W. Nevinson

Oct., 1926 -- Drawings, Etchings, and Lithographs by Nineteenth-Century French Artists

Oct., 1926 -- Paintings and Drawings by Mathieu Verdilhan

Dec., 1926 -- Exhibition of Watercolors by Gifford Beal, Reynolds Beal, Carl Broemel, Guy Pène Du Bois, Ernest Fiene, Samuel Halpert, Henry Keller, Louis Kronberg, Richard Lahey, Charles Lay, Jerome Myers, Maurice Prendergast, Henry

Dec., 1926 -- Schnakenberg, A. Walkowitz, Martha Walters, William Zorach

Jan., 1927 -- French Drawings and Prints

Feb., 1927 -- Paintings, Drawings, Etchings, and Lithographs by John Sloan

Mar., 1927 -- Gifford Beal

Mar.-Apr., 1927 -- Decorative Panels and Watercolors by Margarett Sargent

Mar.-Apr., 1927 -- Exhibition of Drawings and Lithographs of New York by Adriaan Lubbers

Apr., 1927 -- Paintings and Etchings by Walter Pach

Apr.-May, 1927 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Leopold Survage

Apr.-May, 1927 -- Etchings and Woodcuts by D. Galanis

May, 1927 -- Paintings by Guy Pène Du Bois

Summer, 1927 -- Paintings by American Artists

Summer, 1927 -- Paintings, Watercolors, and Drawings by Georges Braque, Honoré Daumier, Edgar Degas, André Derain, Henri Fantin-Latour, Jean Louis Forain, Constantin Guys, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Edouard Manet, Henri Matisse, Amedeo Modigliani, Claude Monet, Morissot, Pablo Picasso, Camille Pissarro, Odilon Redon, Segonzac, and Georges Seurat

Oct.-Nov., 1927 -- Exhibition of Etchings in Color by Bernard Boutet de Monvel

Nov., 1927 -- Exhibition of Paintings, Drawings, Lithographs, and Watercolors by Ernest Fiene

Dec., 1927 -- Watercolors by American Artists including Gifford Beal, Reynolds Beal, Carl Broemel, Charles Demuth, Guy Pène Du Bois, Ernest Fiene, Henry G. Keller, Richard Lahey, Charles Downing Lay, Howard Ashman Patterson, [Maurice] Prendergast, Henry E. Schnakenberg, Abraham Walkowitz, Frank Nelson Wilcox, and [William] Zorach

Dec., 1927 -- Paintings by Guy Pène Du Bois

Dec., 1927 -- Paintings, Sculpture, and Decorative Media by George Biddle

Jan.-Feb., 1928 -- Paintings by S. J. Peploe

Feb., 1928 -- Drawings by Henri Fantin-Latour

Feb., 1928 -- Pastels and Drawings by Margarett Sargent

Feb., 1928 -- Drawings for Balzac's Les Contes Drolatiques by Ralph Barton

Feb.-Mar., 1928 -- Sculpture by William Zorach

Mar., 1928 -- Recent Paintings by Marjorie Phillips

Mar.-Apr., 1928 -- Exhibition of Paintings by William Glackens

Apr., 1928 -- Paintings, Drawings and Lithographs by R. H. Sauter of London, England

Oct., 1928 -- Modern French Paintings, Watercolors and Drawings

Oct.-Nov., 1928 -- Paintings, Watercolors, Drawings, Etchings, and Lithographs by Richard Lahey

Nov., 1928 -- Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture by J. D. Fergusson

Nov.-Dec., 1928 -- Paintings, Drawings and Etchings by Walter Pach

Dec., 1928 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Abraham Walkowitz

Jan., 1929 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Margarett Sargent

Jan., 1929 -- Watercolors by Rodin

Jan.-Feb., 1929 -- Exhibition of Sculpture by Arnold Geissbuhler

Feb., 1929 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Guy Pène Du Bois

Feb.-Mar., 1929 -- Paintings by Gifford Beal

Mar., 1929 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Adriaan Lubbers

Mar.-Apr., 1929 -- Exhibition of Etchings by Gifford Beal, Frank W. Benson, Childe Hassam, Kenneth Hayes Miller, and John Sloan

Apr., 1929 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Arnold Friedman

Apr., 1929 -- Sculpture by Harriette G. Miller

May, 1929 -- Paintings by Howard Ashman Patterson

May, 1929 -- Paintings by William Meyerowitz

Oct., 1929 -- Exhibition of Modern French Paintings, Watercolors and Drawings

Nov., 1929 -- Modern French and American Paintings, Watercolors, Prints, and Sculpture (at Gage Galleries in Cleveland)

Jan., 1930 -- Paintings by Paul Bartlett

Feb., 1930 -- Watercolors by Auguste Rodin

Feb.-Mar., 1930 -- Paintings by Guy Pène Du Bois

Summer, 1930 -- Paintings by American Artists

Oct., 1930 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Maurice Prendergast

Nov., 1930 -- Paintings by Ruth Jonas

Nov., 1930 -- Sculpture by Harriette G. Miller

Jan., 1931 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Richard Lahey

Jan.-Feb., 1931 -- Paintings by Erle Loran Johnson

Feb.-Mar., 1931 -- Paintings, Watercolors and Etchings by Gifford Beal

Mar., 1931 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Walter Pach

Mar.-Apr., 1931 -- Paintings, Drawings, and Etchings by Rudolf H. Sauter

May, 1931 -- Exhibition of Watercolors by John La Farge, Gifford Beal, H. E. Schnakenberg, Maurice Prendergast, Guy Pène Du Bois, Richard Lahey

Fall, 1931 -- Modern French Paintings, Watercolors, and Drawings

Dec., 1931 -- Exhibition of Drawings and Watercolors by D. Y. Cameron, Joseph Gray, Henry Rushbury, Muirhead Bone, Edmund Blampied, Gwen John

Dec., 1931 -- Lithographs and Posters by H. de Toulouse-Lautrec

Jan., 1932 -- Watercolors by Pierre Brissaud

Feb., 1932 -- Paintings and Drawings by A. S. Baylinson

Mar., 1932 -- Watercolors and Pastels by French and American Artists

Apr., 1932 -- Paintings by Nan Watson

May, 1932 -- Sculpture by Behn, Bourdelle, Geissbuhler, Lachaise, Maillol, Miller, Nadelman, Renoir, Young, Zorach; Decorative Panels by Max Kuehne, and Charles Prendergast

June-Aug., 1932 -- Paintings and Watercolors by American Artists

Oct.-Nov., 1932 -- Paintings, Watercolors, and Drawings by Various Artists

Jan., 1933 -- Paintings by Paul Bartlett

Jan.-Feb., 1933 -- Lithographs by Henri Fantin-Latour

Feb., 1933 -- Etchings of Dogs by Bert Cobb

Feb.-Mar., 1933 -- Paintings by American Artists

Feb.-Apr., 1933 -- Paintings by Contemporary Americans

Apr., 1933 -- Paintings by Maurice Prendergast

Oct., 1933 -- Exhibition of French Paintings, Watercolors, and Drawings

Oct.-Nov., 1933 -- Drawings by Emily W. Miles

Oct.-Nov., 1933 -- Exhibition of Etchings and Lithographs

Nov., 1933 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Henry E. Schnakenberg

Dec., 1933 -- Watercolors by Gifford Beal

Jan., 1934 -- Exhibition of Drawings by Denys Wortman for "Metropolitan Movies"

Summer, 1934 -- Paintings by Gifford Beal, Reynolds Beal, Isabel Bishop, Ann Brockman, Preston Dickinson, Guy Pène Du Bois, William J. Glackens, Richard Lahey, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Harriette Miller, Maurice Prendergast, Henry E. Schnakenberg, and John Sloan

Oct.-Nov., 1934 -- Exhibition of Etchings and Lithographs

Nov.-Dec., 1934 -- Paintings by Gifford Beal

Mar., 1935 -- Complete Collection of Etchings by Mahonri Young

July-Aug., 1935 -- Paintings by American Artists including Gifford Beal, Reynolds Beal, Ann Brockman, Guy Pène Du Bois, William J. Glackens, Max Kuehne, Richard Lahey, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Harriette G. Miller, Maurice Prendergast, Henry E. Schnakenberg, John Sloan, and Abraham Walkowitz

Oct.-Nov., 1935 -- Decorative Panels by Charles Prendergast

Nov., 1935 -- Exhibition of Paintings by H. E. Schnakenberg

Mar., 1936 -- Paintings by Louis Bouché

Apr., 1936 -- Paintings by Gifford Beal

Oct.-Nov., 1936 -- Loan Collection of French Paintings

Dec., 1936 -- Monotypes in Color by Maurice Prendergast

Jan., 1937 -- Recent Watercolors by H. E. Schnakenberg

Jan., 1937 -- Paintings of Flowers by William J. Glackens

Feb., 1937 -- Etchings by John Sloan

Feb., 1937 -- A Group of American Paintings

Sept., 1937 -- A Group of Paintings by Gifford Beal, Louis Bouché, Guy Pène Du Bois, William J. Glackens, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, Theodore Robinson, John Sloan, J. Alden Weir

Oct.-Nov., 1937 -- Decorative Panels by Charles Prendergast

Dec., 1937 -- American Watercolors

Jan.-Feb., 1938 -- Paintings by Gifford Beal

Feb.-Mar., 1938 -- Drawings by William Glackens, Guy Pène Du Bois, John Sloan, Denys Wortman

Apr., 1938 -- Paintings by Louis Bouché

May, 1938 -- Paintings and Pastels by Randall Davey

Oct., 1938 -- Selected Paintings by Modern French and American Artists

Nov., 1938 -- Paintings by Guy Pène Du Bois from 1908 to 1938

Nov., 1938 -- Paintings and Sculpture by Harriette G. Miller

Dec., 1938 -- Watercolors by Prendergast, Keller, Demuth, Wilcox and Others

Jan., 1939 -- Paintings by H. H. Newton

Oct., 1939 -- French and American Paintings

Oct.-Nov., 1939 -- Drawings by William Glackens of Spanish-American War Scenes

Nov., 1939 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Russell Cowles

Jan.-Feb., 1940 -- Recent Paintings by Louis Bouché

Feb.-Mar., 1940 -- Paintings by Henry Schnakenberg

Mar.-Apr., 1940 -- Paintings by Maurice Prendergast

Apr.-May, 1940 -- Watercolors by Charles Kaeselau

May-June, 1940 -- A Group of Recent Paintings by Gifford Beal, Russell Cowles, John Koch, Henry Schnakenberg, Esther Williams, Louis Bouché, Guy Pène Du Bois, Harriette G. Miller, John Sloan, Edmund Yaghjian

Oct., 1940 -- Drawings by American Artists

Nov., 1940 -- Walt Dehner

Mar., 1941 -- John Koch

May-June, 1941 -- Watercolors and Small Paintings by Gifford Beal

Oct.-Nov., 1941 -- Recent Paintings by Russell Cowles

Nov.-Dec., 1941 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Henry E. Schnakenberg

Dec., 1941 -- Charles Prendergast

Jan., 1942 -- Paintings by Samuel Brecher

Jan.-Feb., 1942 -- Recent Paintings by Guy Pène Du Bois

Mar.-Apr., 1942 -- Recent Paintings by Louis Bouché

Mar.-Apr., 1942 -- Illustrations by Boardman Robinson Commissioned by the Limited Editions Club for Edgar Lee Masters' "Spoon River Anthology"

Dec., 1942 -- Paintings from the Period of the Last War

Feb., 1943 -- Paintings and Watercolors by William Dean Fausett

Mar., 1943 -- Paintings by John Hartell

May-July, 1943 -- Watercolors by Contemporary American Artists

Feb.-Mar., 1944 -- Samuel Brecher

Feb.-Mar., 1944 -- Paintings, Gouaches, and Drawings by Andrée Ruellan

Mar., 1944 -- Vaughn Flannery

Mar.-Apr., 1944 -- Recent Paintings by Russell Cowles

Apr.-May, 1944 -- Recent Paintings by Louis Bouché

May-June, 1944 -- Retrospective Exhibition of Paintings and Watercolors by Henry G. Keller

Oct., 1944 -- Esther Williams

Nov.-Dec., 1944 -- Paintings and Watercolors of France by Maurice Prendergast

Dec., 1944 -- William J. Glackens Sixth Memorial Exhibition

Dec., 1944 -- Kraushaar Galleries Sixtieth Anniversary Exhibition of Paintings by William J. Glackens, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, and John Sloan

Jan.-Feb., 1945 -- Paintings by Gifford Beal

Feb.-Mar., 1945 -- Paintings by Andrée Ruellan

Apr.-May, 1945 -- Charles Locke

May-June, 1945 -- William Dean Fausett

Oct., 1945 -- Paintings by John Hartell

Nov.-Dec., 1945 -- Recent Watercolors by Marion Monks Chase

Nov.-Dec., 1945 -- Gouaches by Cecil Bell

Dec., 1945 -- Memorial Exhibition of Paintings and Watercolors by Ann Brockman

undated, 1946 -- Russell Cowles

Jan.-Feb., 1946 -- Richard Lahey

Feb., 1946 -- John Koch

Feb.-Mar., 1946 -- Paintings by Ernst Halberstadt

Mar., 1946 -- Paintings of Mexico and Guatemala by Henry E. Schnakenberg

Mar., 1946 -- Iver Rose

Apr., 1946 -- Louis Bouché

Apr.-May, 1946 -- Russell Cowles

May-June, 1946 -- Paintings by Bernard Arnest, Charles Harsanyi, Irving Katzenstein, Anna Licht, James Penney, Etienne Ret, and Vernon Smith

Sept., 1946 -- Retrospective Exhibition of the Work of Boardman Robinson

Nov., 1946 -- Guy Pène Du Bois

Nov.-Dec., 1946 -- William J. Glackens Eighth Memorial Exhibition

Jan., 1947 -- Karl Schrag

Feb.-Mar., 1947 -- Sculpture by Robert Laurent

Feb.-Mar., 1947 -- Paintings by Iver Rose

Feb.-Mar., 1947 -- Recent Paintings by Vernon Smith

Apr., 1947 -- Charles Prendergast

Apr., 1947 -- Louis Bouché

Apr.-May, 1947 -- Esther Williams

Oct.-Nov., 1947 -- Anna Licht

Nov., 1947 -- William J. Glackens Ninth Memorial Exhibition, with Works by Lenna Glackens

Mar., 1948 -- Russell Cowles

Apr.-May, 1948 -- Bernard Arnest

Aug.-Sept., 1948 -- New York Paintings and Watercolors

Oct.-Nov., 1948 -- Kenneth Evett

Nov.-Dec., 1948 -- Watercolors and Pastels by Harriette G. Miller

Jan.-Feb., 1949 -- John Hartell

Sept.-Oct., 1949 -- Contemporary American Watercolors and Gouaches

Oct., 1949 -- Contemporary Paintings

Jan., 1950 -- Maurice Prendergast Retrospective of Oils and Watercolors

Jan.-Feb., 1950 -- James Penney

Feb.-Mar., 1950 -- Paintings by Karl Schrag

Mar.-Apr., 1950 -- Russell Cowles

Jan.-Feb., 1951 -- William Sommer

Feb., 1951 -- Prints and Drawings by Various Artists

Feb., 1951 -- Paintings by Louis Bouché

Mar., 1951 -- Kenneth Evett

Apr.-May, 1951 -- Paintings by Gallery Artists

May-July, 1951 -- Contemporary American Watercolors

July-Aug., 1951 -- Paintings on the Summer Theme

Sept.-Oct., 1951 -- Vaughn Flannery

Oct.-Nov., 1951 -- Recent Paintings by Gallery Artists

Nov., 1951 -- Paintings by John Koch

Nov.-Dec., 1951 -- Joe Lasker

Dec., 1951 -- Small Prints and Drawings

Jan., 1952 -- Recent Gouaches by William Kienbusch

Jan., 1952 -- John Sloan: Recent Etchings from 1944-1951, and Etchings and Drawings Selected from All Periods of His Career

Feb.-Mar., 1952 -- Andrée Ruellan

Mar.-Apr., 1952 -- Bernard Arnest

Apr.-May, 1952 -- Recent Sculpture by Robert Laurent

May, 1952 -- Recent Paintings by Contemporary American Artists

May-June, 1952 -- Watercolors by Joseph Barber, Edward Christiana, Walt Dehner, Sidney Eaton, Wray Manning, and Woldemar Neufeld

July-Aug., 1952 -- Color Prints (Woodcuts, Etchings, and Lithographs) by Eleanor Coen, Caroline Durieux, Max Kahn, Tom Lias, Woldemar Neufeld, James Penney, George Remaily, Ann Ryan, and Karl Schrag

Nov., 1952 -- Karl Schrag

Dec., 1952-Jan. 1953 -- Eight Oregon Artists

Jan., 1953 -- Charles Prendergast Memorial Exhibition

Jan.-Feb., 1953 -- John Hartell

May, 1953 -- John Heliker

June, 1953 -- Humbert Alberizio, Vaughn Flannery, William Kienbusch, George Rickey, Andrée Ruellan, and Karl Schrag

Sept., 1953 -- Works by Gifford Beal, Kenneth Evett, Tom Hardy, John Koch, and James Lechay

Sept.-Oct., 1953 -- Paintings by Glackens, Lawson, Prendergast, Sloan

Oct.-Nov., 1953 -- Paintings by E. Powis Jones

Oct.-Nov., 1953 -- Recent Works by John Koch

Nov., 1953 -- Kenneth Evett: Drawings from Greek Mythology

Nov.-Dec., 1953 -- Recent Metal Sculptures by Tom Hardy

Nov.-Dec., 1953 -- Pastels, Drawings and Prints by Peggy Bacon

Nov.-Dec., 1953 -- Recent Paintings by Ralph Dubin

Feb.-Mar., 1954 -- Russell Cowles

Mar.-Apr., 1954 -- James Penney

Nov.-Dec., 1954 -- Tom Hardy: Metal Sculptures

Jan., 1955 -- Mobiles, Machines, and Kinetic Sculpture by George Rickey

Jan.-Feb., 1955 -- James Lechay

Feb., 1955 -- Mobiles by George Rickey

Feb.-Mar., 1955 -- Drawings, Etchings, and Lithographs by John Sloan (with a selection of prints by artists whose work influenced him in his early years: Rembrandt, Hogarth, Goya, Rops, Daumier, Rowlandson and others, to mark the publication of John Sloan: A Painter's Life by Van Wyck Brooks)

Mar.-Apr., 1955 -- Jane Wasey

Apr., 1955 -- Recent Work by Joe Lasker

May-June, 1955 -- Sculpture and Drawings by Contemporary American Artists

Jan., 1956 -- Carl Morris

Jan.-Feb., 1956 -- John Laurent

Feb.-Mar., 1956 -- William Kienbusch

Mar., 1956 -- Andrée Ruellan

Mar.-Apr., 1956 -- Karl Schrag

Apr.-May, 1956 -- John Heliker

May, 1956 -- Monotypes by Maurice Prendergast

Oct., 1956 -- The Eight

Jan.-Feb., 1957 -- Paintings by John Hartell

Apr., 1957 -- James Penney

Apr.-May, 1957 -- John Heliker

May-June, 1957 -- Fourteen Painter-Printmakers (American Federation of Arts exhibition)

June-July, 1957 -- 20th Century American Artists

Nov., 1957 -- William Glackens and His Friends (based on the book by Ira Glackens)

Nov., 1957 -- Marguerite Zorach

Jan., 1958 -- Gouches, Drawings and Small Glyphs by Ulfert Wilke

Jan.-Feb., 1958 -- Tom Hardy

Feb.-Mar., 1958 -- John Koch

Feb.-Mar., 1958 -- Still Life Exhibition with Works by William J. Glackens and Maurice Prendergast

Feb.-Mar., 1958 -- Cecil Bell

Mar., 1958 -- Karl Schrag

Mar., 1958 -- Carl Morris

Mar.-Apr., 1958 -- Louis Bouché

Apr., 1958 -- Paintings and Drawings by Joe Lasker

Apr.-May, 1958 -- Paintings and Drawings by Walter Feldman

Apr.-May, 1958 -- Sculpture by Henry Mitchell

May-June, 1958 -- Works in Casein and Gouache by Bernard Arnest, William Kienbusch, Carl Morris, and Karl Schrag

July, 1958 -- Still Life Paintings and Watercolors by American Artists

Oct.-Nov., 1958 -- Kenneth Evett

Nov., 1958 -- Elsie Manville

Nov.-Dec., 1958 -- John Laurent

Jan., 1959 -- Kinetic Sculpture by George Rickey

Jan.-Feb., 1959 -- Bernard Arnest

Mar., 1959 -- Karl Schrag

Mar.-Apr., 1959 -- Paintings by Joe Lasker

Apr.-May, 1959 -- Henry Mitchell

Sept.-Oct., 1959 -- Robert Searle

Oct.-Nov., 1959 -- Russell Cowles

Nov., 1959 -- Caseins and Paintings by William Kienbusch

Dec., 1959 -- Paintings by Vaughn Flannery

Feb., 1960 -- James Lechay

Apr., 1960 -- Landscapes by John Sloan

Apr.-May, 1960 -- John Guerin

May-June, 1960 -- Drawings and Small Sculpture by Gallery Artists

Oct., 1960 -- Ainslie Burke

Oct.-Nov., 1960 -- Leon Goldin

Nov.-Dec., 1960 -- Ulfert Wilke

Jan., 1961 -- Leonard DeLonga

Jan., 1961 -- Kenneth Evett

Jan.-Feb., 1961 -- Walter Feldman

Feb.-Mar., 1961 -- Watercolors and Pastels by Early Twentieth-Century American Artists

Mar., 1961 -- Paintings by Ralph Dubin

Mar.-Apr., 1961 -- James Penney

Apr.-May, 1961 -- John Koch

June, 1961 -- Works by Humbert Albrizio, Bernard Arnest, Cecil Bell, Louis Bouché, Ralph Dubin, Kenneth Evett, Walter Feldman, John Hartell, John Heliker, William Kienbusch, John Koch, Robert Laurent, James Lechay, Elsie Manville, Henry Mitchell, James Penney, George Rickey, Andrée Ruellan, Henry E. Schnakenberg, Karl Schrag, Jane Wasey, and Marguerite Zorach

Sept., 1961 -- Works by Contemporary Americans

Oct., 1961 -- George Rickey: Kinetic Sculpture

Oct.-Nov., 1961 -- Carl Morris

Nov.-Dec., 1961 -- Peggy Bacon

Dec., 1961 -- Selected Works by Twentieth-Century Americans

Jan., 1962 -- Polymer Resin and Sumi Ink Paintings by Kenneth Evett

Jan.-Feb., 1962 -- Louis Bouché

Feb.-Mar., 1962 -- Karl Schrag

Mar., 1962 -- Marguerite Zorach

Apr., 1962 -- John Laurent

Apr.-May, 1962 -- Sculpture by Tom Hardy

May-June, 1962 -- Drawings by Contemporary American Artists

July-Aug., 1962 -- Group Exhibitions - Paintings, Drawings and Sculpture by 20th Century American Artists

Oct., 1962 -- Bernard Arnest

Feb., 1963 -- William Kienbusch

Feb.-Mar., 1963 -- John Guerin

Mar., 1963 -- John Hartell

Sept.-Oct., 1963 -- Andrée Ruellan

Oct.-Nov., 1963 -- Ainslie Burke

Nov., 1963 -- Walter Feldman

Dec., 1963 -- Drawings by John Koch

Dec., 1963 -- Paintings by Contemporary Americans

Jan., 1964 -- Leonard DeLonga

Jan.-Feb., 1964 -- Joe Lasker

Feb.-Mar., 1964 -- Leon Goldin

Mar., 1964 -- Paintings by Ralph Dubin

Apr., 1964 -- Carl Morris

Apr.-May, 1964 -- Paintings and Drawings by John Heliker

Oct.-Nov., 1964 -- Louis Bouché

Nov.-Dec., 1964 -- Karl Schrag

Dec., 1964 -- Kenneth Evett

Feb., 1965 -- Russell Cowles

Feb.-Mar., 1965 -- James Lechay

Mar.-Apr., 1965 -- James Penney

Apr.-May, 1965 -- Gifford Beal

Feb., 1966 -- Dennis Leon

Feb.-Mar., 1966 -- Henry Schnakenberg

Mar.-Apr., 1966 -- John Hartell

Apr., 1966 -- Elsie Manville

Oct., 1966 -- Contrasts - Early and Late Works by Selected Contemporaries

Oct.-Nov., 1966 -- Tom Hardy

Nov.-Dec., 1966 -- Francis Chapin

Dec., 1966-Jan., 1967 -- Karl Schrag: Etchings and Lithographs

Jan.-Feb., 1967 -- Leonard DeLonga

Feb.-Mar., 1967 -- Carl Morris

Mar.-Apr., 1967 -- Ainslie Burke

Apr.-May, 1967 -- John Heliker: Paintings, Drawings, and Watercolors

May-June, 1967 -- William Glackens

Oct., 1967 -- Kenneth Callahan

Oct.-Nov., 1967 -- John Laurent

Jan.-Feb., 1968 -- Dennis Leon

Feb.-Mar., 1968 -- Robert La Hotan

Apr., 1968 -- John Guerin

Apr.-May, 1968 -- Leon Goldin

Sept.-Oct., 1968 -- Contemporary Sculpture and Drawings

Oct.-Nov., 1968 -- Karl Schrag

Nov.-Dec., 1968 -- James Lechay: Portraits and Landscapes

Dec., 1968-Jan., 1969 -- Group Exhibition

Jan., 1969 -- Elsie Manville

Mar., 1969 -- Kenneth Evett

Apr.-May, 1969 -- James Penney

Sept.-Oct., 1969 -- New Works by Contemporary Artists

Oct.-Nov., 1969 -- John Hartell: Exhibition

Nov., 1969 -- Peggy Bacon

Dec., 1969 -- Selected Examples by American Artists 1900-1930

Jan., 1970 -- Leonard DeLonga

Feb., 1970 -- Joe Lasker

Mar., 1970 -- Group Exhibition

Mar.-Apr., 1970 -- Dennis Leon

Apr.-May, 1970 -- Jerome Myers

Oct.-Nov., 1970 -- Tom Hardy

Jan.-Feb., 1971 -- Jane Wasey

Mar.-Apr., 1971 -- Kenneth Callahan

Oct., 1971 -- Ainslie Burke

Nov.-Dec., 1971 -- Karl Schrag

Feb.-Mar., 1972 -- John Koch

Mar.-Apr., 1972 -- Robert La Hotan

Apr.-May, 1972 -- Leon Goldin

May-June, 1972 -- Selected Works by 20th Century Americans

Sept.-Oct., 1972 -- Gallery Collection: American Watercolors and Drawings

Oct.-Nov., 1972 -- John Hartell

Nov.-Dec., 1972 -- Peggy Bacon

Dec., 1972 -- 20th Century Americans

Jan., 1973 -- Leonard DeLonga

Feb., 1973 -- Carl Morris

Mar., 1973 -- James Lechay

Mar.-Apr., 1973 -- Russell Cowles: Landscape Paintings

Apr.-May, 1973 -- Jerome Witkin

May-June, 1973 -- Kenneth Evett: Watercolors

Oct.-Nov., 1973 -- Kenneth Callahan

Jan., 1974 -- Joe Lasker

Jan.-Feb., 1974 -- Bernard Arnest

Feb.-Mar., 1974 -- Concetta Scaravaglione

Oct., 1974 -- Ainslie Burke

Oct.-Nov., 1974 -- James Penney

Jan., 1975 -- Tom Hardy

Jan.-Feb., 1975 -- Karl Schrag

Feb.-Mar., 1975 -- Robert La Hotan

Mar.-Apr., 1975 -- William Kienbusch

Apr., 1975 -- Elsie Manville

Apr.-May, 1975 -- Gifford Beal

Oct.-Nov., 1975 -- John Hartell

Nov., 1975 -- Daniel O'Sullivan

Mar., 1976 -- Jerome Witkin

May, 1976 -- Linda Sokolowski

Sept.-Oct., 1976 -- Joe Lasker, Illustrations from Merry Ever After

Oct., 1976 -- Leonard DeLonga

Nov.-Dec., 1976 -- Kenneth Callahan

Jan., 1977 -- James Lechay

Mar., 1977 -- Karl Schrag

Mar.-Apr., 1977 -- David Cantine

Oct.-Nov., 1977 -- John Hartell

Nov.-Dec., 1977 -- Ainslie Burke

Feb., 1978 -- Robert La Hotan

Apr., 1978 -- Elsie Manville

Oct., 1978 -- Tom Hardy

Oct.-Nov., 1978 -- Jerome Witkin

Jan.-Feb., 1979 -- Joe Lasker

Feb., 1979 -- Kenneth Evett

Feb.-Mar., 1979 -- Karl Schrag

Mar.-Apr., 1979 -- Carl Morris

Apr.-May, 1979 -- Linda Sokolowski

Oct.-Nov., 1979 -- Daniel O'Sullivan

Feb.-Mar., 1980 -- Kenneth Callahan

Mar., 1980 -- Ainslie Burke

Oct., 1980 -- John Hartell

Jan., 1981 -- Leonard DeLonga

Feb., 1981 -- James Lechay

Feb.-Mar., 1981 -- Robert La Hotan

Mar.-Apr., 1981 -- Jerry Atkins

Apr.-May, 1981 -- Ben Frank Moss

Jan.-Feb., 1982 -- Jerome Witkin

Feb.-Mar., 1982 -- Elsie Manville

Mar.-Apr., 1982 -- Karl Schrag

Apr.-May, 1982 -- Linda Sokolowski

May-June, 1982 -- David Cantine

Sept.-Oct., 1982 -- Kenneth Callahan

Oct.-Nov., 1982 -- Joe Lasker

Nov.-Dec., 1982 -- Daniel O'Sullivan

Jan.-Feb., 1983 -- William Kienbusch: Memorial Exhibition

Feb.-Mar., 1983 -- Jerry Atkins

Mar.-Apr., 1983 -- John Hartell

Apr.-May, 1983 -- John Heliker

May-June, 1983 -- Kenneth Evett

Oct., 1983 -- Concetta Scaravaglione

Oct.-Nov., 1983 -- Ben Frank Moss

Nov.-Dec., 1983 -- Russell Cowles

Dec., 1983-Jan., 1984 -- 20th Century Americans

Jan.-Feb., 1984 -- Marguerite Zorach: Paintings at Home and Abroad

Feb.-Mar., 1984 -- Robert La Hotan

Mar., 1984 -- David Smalley

Apr., 1984 -- Carl Morris

May, 1984 -- Karl Schrag

July, 1984 -- Drawings by 20th Century Americans

July-Aug., 1984 -- Collages and Drawings by Joseph Heil

Aug.-Sept., 1984 -- Drawings and Prints by Tom Hardy

Sept.-Oct., 1984 -- James Penney: Memorial Exhibition

Oct.-Nov., 1984 -- Paintings and Drawings by Leon Goldin

Nov.-Dec., 1984 -- Isabelle Siegel

Dec., 1984-Jan., 1985 -- Group Exhibition: Contemporary American Paintings and Sculpture

Jan.-Feb., 1985 -- James Lechay

Feb.-Mar., 1985 -- Ainslie Burke

Mar., 1985 -- Karen Breunig

Apr., 1985 -- Kenneth Callahan

Oct., 1985 -- Elsie Manville

Oct.-Nov., 1985 -- William Glackens

Jan.-Feb., 1986 -- Linda Sokolowski

Feb.-Mar., 1986 -- Jerry Atkins

Apr.-May, 1986 -- Jane Wasey

Oct.-Nov., 1986 -- John Hartell

Nov.-Dec., 1986 -- Karl Schrag

Feb.-Mar., 1987 -- Kenneth Evett

Apr.-May, 1987 -- Ben Frank Moss

May-June, 1987 -- David Smalley

Oct.-Nov., 1987 -- Isabelle Siegel

Feb.-Mar., 1988 -- Karen Breunig

Mar.-Apr., 1988 -- Leon Goldin

Sept.-Oct., 1988 -- Elsie Manville

Oct.-Nov., 1988 -- James Lechay

Jan.-Feb., 1989 -- Karl Schrag

Feb.-Mar., 1989 -- Linda Sokolowski

Jan.-Feb., 1990 -- Kenneth Callahan: Works of the Fifties

Jan.-Feb., 1990 -- Gifford Beal: Watercolors

Mar., 1990 -- Robert La Hotan: Recent Paintings

Mar.-Apr., 1990 -- Sonia Gechtoff: New Paintings

May-June, 1990 -- David Smalley: Recent Sculpture

May-June, 1990 -- Andrée Ruellan: Sixty Years of Drawing...

Oct., 1990 -- Isabelle Siegel

Nov., 1990 -- Leon Goldin

Jan.-Feb., 1991 -- Karl Schrag

Feb.-Mar., 1991 -- Joe Lasker

Apr., 1991 -- Ainslie Burke

Nov.-Dec., 1991 -- Linda Sokolowski: Oils, Collages, Monotypes

Dec., 1991-Jan., 1992 -- Elsie Manville: Small Works on Paper

Mar., 1992 -- Tabitha Vevers

May-June, 1992 -- Sonia Gechtoff

Oct.-Nov., 1992 -- James Lechay

Nov.-Dec., 1992 -- Karl Schrag

Mar., 1993 -- Leon Goldin: Works on Paper

Apr.-May, 1993 -- Robert La Hotan

Oct., 1993 -- David Smalley: Sculpture Inside and Out

Oct., 1993 -- Andrée Ruellan: Works on Paper 1920-1980

Mar.-Apr., 1994 -- Kenneth Evett: Travels: Themes and Variations (Watercolors of Italy, Greece, Arizona, Maine and California)

Mar.-Apr., 1994 -- Tabitha Vevers

Oct.-Nov., 1994 -- Linda Sokolowski

Nov.-Dec., 1994 -- Karl Schrag

Jan.-Feb., 1995 -- Langdon Quin

Mar.-Apr., 1995 -- Robert La Hotan

Sept.-Oct., 1995 -- Sonia Gechtoff

Jan.-Feb., 1996 -- Elsie Manville: Paintings and Works on Paper

Oct.-Nov., 1996 -- Karl Schrag: A Self Portrait Retrospective, 1940-1995

Jan.-Feb., 1997 -- Joe Lasker: Paintings and Watercolors

Mar.-Apr., 1997 -- Tabitha Vevers

Oct.-Nov., 1997 -- James Lechay

Feb.-Mar., 1998 -- Linda Sokolowski: Canyon Suite: Works from the Southwest

Mar.-Apr., 1998 -- Leon Goldin: Paintings on Paper

Sept.-Oct., 1998 -- Sonia Gechtoff: Mysteries in the Sphere

Oct.-Nov., 1998 -- Langdon Quin: Recent Paintings

Nov.-Dec., 1998 -- John Gill

Jan.-Feb., 1999 -- Robert La Hotan

Feb.-Mar., 1999 -- Ann Sperry: Where Is Your Heart

Nov.-Dec., 1999 -- Kathryn Wall

Jan.-Feb., 2000 -- Elsie Manville

Sept.-Oct., 2000 -- Joe Lasker

Oct.-Nov., 2000 -- James Lechay

Oct.-Nov., 2000 -- Tabitha Vevers

May-June, 2001 -- Kenneth Callahan: Drawings

Dec., 2001-Jan., 2002 -- Sur La Table: A Selection of Paintings and Works on Paper

Jan.-Feb., 2002 -- Karl Schrag: Theme and Variations II: The Meadow

undated, 2003 -- Ann Sperry

Jan.-Feb., 2003 -- Andrée Ruellan: Works on Paper from the 1920s and 1930s

Oct.-Nov., 2003 -- Joe Lasker: Muses and Amusements

Nov.-Dec., 2003 -- Tabitha Vevers

Mar.-Apr., 2004 -- Leon Goldin: Five Decades of Works on Paper

May-July, 2004 -- Anne Frank: A Private Photo Album

Jan.-Feb., 2005 -- John Gill: Ceramics

Sept.-Oct., 2005 -- Karl Schrag: The Painter of Bright Nights
Related Material:
An untranscribed oral history interview with Antoinette Kraushaar was conducted for the Archives of American Art by Avis Berman in 1982, and is available on five audio cassettes at the Archives' Washington D.C. research facility.
Separated Material:
In addition to the records described in this finding aid, the following materials were lent to the Archives for filming in 1956 and are available on microfilm reels NKR1-NKR3 and for interlibrary loan: a book of clippings from 1907 to 1930, primarily of exhibition reviews; loose clippings and catalogs of exhibitions from 1930 to 1946; and a group of photographs and clippings relating to George Luks and other artists. These materials were returned to Kraushaar Galleries after microfilming.
Provenance:
53.5 linear feet of records were donated to the Archives of American Art by Kraushaar Galleries in three separate accessions in 1959, 1994, and 1996. Katherine Kaplan of Kraushaar Galleries donated an additional 38.4 linear feet in 2008-2009.
Restrictions:
Use of originals requires an appointment. A fragile original scrapbook is closed to researchers.
Rights:
The Kraushaar Galleries records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. The collection is subject to all copyright laws. Authorization to publish, quote or reproduce from the records requires written permission from: Katherine Kaplan, Kraushaar Galleries, 724 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10019.
Topic:
Works of art  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Artists -- United States  Search this
Depressions -- 1929  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sketches
Drawings
Exhibition catalogs
Financial records
Notes
Sketchbooks
Citation:
Kraushaar Galleries records, 1877-2006. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.kraugall
See more items in:
Kraushaar Galleries records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-kraugall

Oral history interview with Yvonne Jacquette

Interviewee:
Jacquette, Yvonne  Search this
Interviewer:
McElhinney, James Lancel, 1952-  Search this
Creator:
Elizabeth Murray Oral History of Women in the Visual Arts Project  Search this
Names:
Elizabeth Murray Oral History of Women in the Visual Arts Project  Search this
Moore College of Art  Search this
New York (State).. Metropolitan Transportation Authority.Arts for Transit  Search this
Parsons School of Design -- Faculty  Search this
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts -- Faculty  Search this
University of Pennsylvania -- Faculty  Search this
Burckhardt, Rudy, 1914-1999  Search this
Denby, Edwin Hooper, 1873-  Search this
Grooms, Mimi Gross  Search this
Katz, Alex, 1927-  Search this
Kushner, Robert, 1949-  Search this
Extent:
3 Items (Sound recording, master: 3 sound files (2 hr., 55 min.), digital, wav file)
91 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
2010 Oct. 19-21
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Yvonne Jacquette conducted 2010 Oct. 19 and 21, by James McElhinney, for the Archives of American Art's Elizabeth Murray Oral History of Women in the Visual Arts project, at Jacquette's home and studio, in New York, N.Y.
Jacquette talks about a current competition for art in a Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) subway station at 34th Street and 11th Avenue in New York City; mosaics and fresco; materials and methods; other MTA commissions; her late husband Rudy Burckhardt; teaching at Moore College of Art in Philadephia, the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, the University of Pennsylvania, and Parsons School of Design; flying over proposed subjects to get an aerial view; spending summers in Maine; other artists in Maine; her interest in painters who "developed spiritually"; travel to Japan with Burckhardt; collaborating with Burckhardt on the film, "Night Fantasies," (1990); acceptance of women artists; galleries; women artists she admires, and other topics. She recalls Robert Kushner, Edwin Denby, Alex Katz, Mimi Gross, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Yvonne Jacquette (1934-) is a painter and printmaker in New York, N.Y. James McElhinney is an artist and educator in New York, N.Y.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Restrictions:
This interview is access restricted; written permission is required. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Artists -- Maine  Search this
Topic:
Mosaics  Search this
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Printmakers -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Painting -- Equipment and supplies  Search this
Painting -- Technique  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.jacque10
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-jacque10

Oral history interview with Alanna Heiss

Interviewee:
Heiss, Alanna  Search this
Interviewer:
McElhinney, James Lancel, 1952-  Search this
Creator:
Elizabeth Murray Oral History of Women in the Visual Arts Project  Search this
Names:
Biennale di Venezia  Search this
Clocktower Gallery  Search this
Elizabeth Murray Oral History of Women in the Visual Arts Project  Search this
Institute for Art and Urban Resources  Search this
Lawrence University  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
New Museum (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
P.S. 1 Contemporary Art Center  Search this
University of Chicago -- Students  Search this
Callahan, Harry M.  Search this
Finkelpearl, Tom  Search this
Gill, Brendan, 1914-1997  Search this
Highstein, Jene, 1942-2013  Search this
Matta-Clark, Gordon, 1943-1978  Search this
Nonas, Richard, 1936-  Search this
Extent:
80 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Sound recordings
Date:
2010 June 15-October 28
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Alanna Heiss conducted 2010 June 15 and October 28, by James McElhinney, for the Archives of American Art's Elizabeth Murray Oral History of Women in the Visual Arts project, at Art International Radio, on Leonard Street, in New York, New York.
Heiss speaks of the Clocktower Gallery and the AIR offices; New York galleries and museums and the economic depression of the 1970s; art shows in Germany, France, Switzerland, and England and the role of foreign and West Coast curators in New York shows during the 1960s; founding the Institute for Art and Urban Resources with Brendan Gill; her lack of interest in collecting and the problems she feels it poses for organizations showing art; her attitudes about displaying art in the 1970s; growing up in a small town in Southern Illinois; spending summers as a child in South Dakota; her musical training; art in relation to Midwestern cultural values; her work on the exhibition "Stalin's Choice: Soviet Socialist Realism, 1932-1956" in 1993; her degree in music and the philosophy of aesthetics from Lawrence University; taking classes at the University of Chicago; moving to New York and deciding to focus on visual arts; her time in Europe and the various jobs she took while abroad including teaching, inspecting monuments for the Society for Ancient Buildings and Monuments, writing about animals, selling and transporting used cars, and serving as an artist liaison; and the exhibitions she saw during her travels.
Heiss also discusses trips she made across the United States after returning from Europe; working as a band road crew manger; her work in 1993 on the John Cage tribute show for the Venice Biennale called "Il Suono Rapido delle Cose" and the album produced in conjunction with the show called Caged/Uncaged - A Rock/Experimental Homage To John Cage; her marriage to the artist Jene Highstein and their friendships with the artists Richard Nonas and Gordon Matta-Clark; her return to New York from Europe around 1970 and her use of old or abandoned real estate as locations for contemporary art exhibitions; her first show, "Under the Brooklyn Bridge" in 1971; founding PS1; her work as a parole officer and her exposure to the culture of Harlem; the various shows held at PS1; urban art spaces in New York including the New Museum and the Coney Island Sculpture Museum; her exhibition space on Bleecker Street in New York; her disenchantment with the idea of community art; her work with Tom Finkelpearl; the way she publicized exhibitions; the underground culture of the 1970s; and the relationship between the Museum of Modern Art and PS1 and their eventual merger.
Biographical / Historical:
Alanna Heiss (1943-) is director of Art International Radio in New York, New York. James McElhinney (1952-) is an artist and educator in New York, New York.
General:
Originally recorded on 1 sound disc. Reformatted in 2010 as 4 digital wav files. Duration is 3 hr., 39 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Occupation:
Teachers  Search this
Topic:
Arts administrators -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Curators -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Gallery directors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.heiss10
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-heiss10

Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection

Collector:
Community Life, Div. of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Community Life, Div. of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Photographer:
Alland, Alexander, Sr. (Alexander Landschaft), 1902-1989  Search this
Author:
Kaslov, Steve, ca. 1888-1949 (King of the Red Bandanna Romany Gypsies )  Search this
Names:
Jura, Chaiko (Gypsy leader)  Search this
Kaslov, Pupa  Search this
Kaslov, Steve, ca. 1888-1949 (King of the Red Bandanna Romany Gypsies )  Search this
Extent:
4.3 Cubic feet (15 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Journals
Dissertations
Scrapbooks
Manuscripts
Place:
West Virginia -- 1930-1950
New Jersey -- 1930-1950
Maspeth (Queens, Long Island, N.Y.) -- 1930-1950
New York (N.Y.) -- photographs -- 1930-1950
Date:
circa 1920-1975
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 4.3 cubic feet of manuscript, print, and photographic materials created or collected by Carl de Wendler-Funaro (1898-1985) in pursuit of his interest in Gypsy life and culture. (Carlos de Wendler-Funaro used several forms of his name; he wrote mostly as Carl de Wendler-Funaro.) The -collection was brought to the attention of the Division of Community Life, National Museum of American History, by Matt T. Salo and donated to the Smithsonian by Dr. de Wendler-Funarol's widow, Cornelia de Funaro, in May 1985, through Richard E. Ahlborn, Curator.

The number and breadth of the photographic materials, especially, the accompanying documentation and their representation of many Gypsy groups in a single time period, make this collection an important resource for research.

Print and Manuscript Materials

The print and manuscript materials in the collection are organized-into six series: (1) materials for which Carl de Wendler-Funaro is author, co-author or editor; (2) materials about de Wendler-Funaro; (3) correspondence; (4) journals, books, or extracts from them, by various authors; (5) newspaper and magazine articles; (6) photomechanical images from newspapers, magazines, and books.

The manuscript materials include drafts of portions of planned books, reading notes, and Gypsy language notes and transcriptions. De Wendler-Funaro seems to have planned two books. One was to have been a book of his photographs, with accompanying essays describing his encounters with Gypsies, the other a work on Gypsies, especially those in the United States. The major element of the second book was to have been the history of the Rom in this country as told by Steve Kaslov. The second work was to have included the manuscripts, 'The Last Caravan,' on Romnichels in the United States; 'Romanian Gypsies in Maspeth Village,' on the Ludar; 'Hungarian Gypsies,' orx these musicians in the United States; and some folk tale materials. Several outlines for the two books are in the collection.

The draft materials written with Steve Kaslov include an account of the Gypsy leader Chaiko Jura. The account, which seems to approach legend at some points, describes his immigration to the United States, adventures in this country, and death. Also among the draft materials, and intended to follow in the proposed book, is what may be termed an official biography of Steve Kaslov (c. 1888-1949). Apparently tentatively entitled "The Ways of my People,' the manuscript recounts a few incidents, told at length, in the experiences of Kaslov's family and social network from about 1900 to about 1938.

De Wendler-Funaro's notes suggest that the Kaslov biography was dictated to an unnamed lawyer in the early 1930s and given to de Wendler-Funaro in 1934. Kaslov dictated the story of Chaiko to de Wendler-Funaro. (Perhaps this is the source of a statement in the New York Sun, June 20, 1941, that Kaslov had written two books.)

The okaslov manuscripts' are written mostly in a variety of American English common among American Rom. Parts of the biographical section are written in the first person, others in the third. Cultural material includes descriptions of weddings, funerary ritual, business transactions, conflicts and conflict resolution. As factual sources the manuscripts are unreliable: dates, for example, are only very approximate; birth places for Steve Kaslov and his family are incorrect.

Evidence in the manuscripts indicates that de Wendler-Funaro hoped, through 1976, to publish these texts in some form. Apparently Kaslov made a first attempt to publish in 1940, when he sent a draft to Eleanor Roosevelt. Mrs. Roosevelt sent the manuscript on to George Bye, a literary agent, who returned it in 1941 as unpublishable, calling it a Oterribly disorganized manuscript .... [Kaslov] is now working with a doctor (de Wendler-Funarol who claims to be an author but the results are very unhappy' (Correspondence in FDR Library).

Correspondence in the collection (series 3) includes letters to and from de Wendler-Funaro; drafts of letters by Steve Kaslov, soliciting aid for Gypsy education; and correspondence between the U.S. Consulate in Matamoros, Mexico, and the U.S. Department of State. According to Mrs. de Funaro, Carl de Wendler-Funaro destroyed his other correspondence before his death.

Many of the books, journals, articles, and extracts in the collection (series 4)- are materials upon which de Wendler-Funarol's dissertation is based. They include typed transcriptions of published articles as well as printed matter; dates of the materials range from 1554 to 1979.

The collection includes about 2,000 photoprints, including multiple copies, and 2,000 negatives. These materials are organized into eleven series: (7) photographs by de Wendler-Funaro: Gypsies in the United States; (8)photographs by de Wendler-Funaro: Gypsies outside the United States; (9) heirloom photographs'; (10) photographs by other creators; (11) photographs ;rom commercial agencies; (12) photographs of non-Gypsies; (13) photocopies, of numbered photos, in numerical order; (14) negatives; (15) contact sheets made from negatives from by the Smithsonian Office of Printing and Photographic Services, 1986; (16) scrapbook sheets; (17) slides made from negatives and prints by the Smithsonian Office of Printing and Photographic. services, 1986.

The original photographs by Carlos de Wendlet-Funaro span the,period 1922 to 1966, but the majority were taken from about 1932 to about 1942. More than half the photographs are of the Rom group of Gypsies in the United States, and most of these were taken in New York City from about 1938 to about 1942. Other original photos by de Wendler-Funaro are of other Gypsy groups in the United States -- Ludar, Romnichels, 'Black Dutch,w and Hungarian musicians -- as well as of Gypsies in Mexico, Holland, Germany, Austria, France, England, and Hungary. Photographs by other creators include copies of portraits collected from Gypsy families, photos by other photographers, and commercial news photographs collected by de Wendler-Funaro.

De Wendler-Funaro seems to have used the photographs to gain access to Gypsy families and communities (many photos show Gypsies examining albums and sets of pictures). Some photographs were published in his 1937 article, and in two articles by Victor Weybright (1938a, 1938b). De Wendler-Funaro apparently also used lantern slides made from these photographs in lectures on the subject of Gypsies; a handbill advertising his availability on the lecture circuit is part of the collection.

Manuscript drafts for book outlines, introductions, and accompanying essays show that de Wendler-Funaro long nurtured hopes of publishing a popular tool-, 'Incorporating his photographs. To this end he numbered and captioned more than a hundred of these; a partial list of captions is part of the manuscript files. For the most part, the captions are not very helpful in understanding Gypsy cultures. Photocopies of these pictures with captions, in numerical order, are in box 8. With some exceptions, most of the photographs can be used to study costume, personal ornament, and kinesics; these will not be listed separately as subjects in the inventory. The photos of the Rom in New York City show several types of traditional costume, contemporary modish dress, and a wide range of variations on both. Taken together with the "heirloom photos' collected from the same group, they show change and variety in men's and women's dress.

In the photographs of individuals and groups one may compare, for example, sitting positions of women with relation to costume and use (or non-use) of chairs.

Most of the photographs of Rom taken in New York City show Gypsies relaxing on stoops or in the street during the summer, a common pastime in their neighborhoods. They contain little culturally specific information other than that discussed above.

Information on housing is most clearly represented in photographs of camps, in which the type of tent and, to some extent, the relationships of tents, are visible. All the tents shown appear to be commercially made. Since it was the practice to raise the tent walls in good weather, many photos also show tent interiors, with wooden platform floors used on non-grassy sites (Rom) or linoleum as a ground cloth (Romnichel). The use of featherbeds; either alone (Rom) or with bedsteads (Romnichel) is documented.

There are few photographs showing the use of interior space in urban storefront or apartment dwellings (Rom). The photographs taken in the Maspeth, Long Island, 'Gypsy village' show exteriors of the shacks built@by the Ludar.

Of cooking and heating equipment, the cast-iron or sheet-metal stoves of the Romnichels are most evident. The Rom are shown using a variety of equipment, the traditional trivet (Mexico), the Coleman-type camp stove (U.S), and the pot-bellied coal stove (New York City).

Photographs of autos and trucks, auto-drawn luggage trailers (Romnichels in the North), and horse-drawn wagons (by the horse and mule trading Romnichels in the South) reveal something of the transport of people and goods.

A few photographs show subjects at work, but most work pictures are static demonstrations or mere associations with productive enterprise. There are demonstrations of coppersmithing and fender repair work (Rom), and manufacture of rustic furniture (Romnichels), as well as posed demonstrations of palm-reading. Romnichels in the South are shown posing with horses and mules. The business that appears most frequently is fortune-telling, through photographs of roadside business tents (Romnichel); amusement, fair, and resort-area tents and stands (Rom); and canvas facades, banners and signs carrying the fortune-teller's message.

Ritual life is poorly represented in the photographs. There are some photos of a funeral procession, and one interior shot of a funeral; two photos of a saint's-day feast; one of a memorial feast; and one set taken in preparation for Christmas festivities. Curiously, there are no photographs of Rom weddings. The dearth of pictures of rituals and celebrations, which form so important a part of Rom life, may be due to difficulties with interior lighting.

Because of internal and other inconsistencies, exact dating of the photographs is often difficult. Discrepancies of as much as ten year occur in some of the dates in de Wendler-Funaro's notes.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into seventeen series.
Biographical / Historical:
According to information supplied by Mrs. de Funaro, Carl de Wendler-Funaro was born in Brooklyn, New York, on October 12, 1898. After attending Boys' High School and Erasmus Hall High School in Brooklyn, he attended the University of Illinois and Cornell University, receiving a bachelor's degree in entolomology from Cornell in 1923. Subsequently he taught foreign languages at New York University, the McBurney School of the YMCA in New York City, Newark Academy and Wagner College. He began graduate work in the late 1930s, and in 1958 earned a doctorate from Columbia University with a dissertation on 'The Gitano in Spanish Literature' (a copy is in the collection, Box 1, folders 2 and 3). De Wendler-Funaro retired from teaching in 1963; he died in Tucson, Arizona on February 15, 1985.

Carl de Wendler-Funaro was an avid amateur collector of insects, especially Coleoptera, as well as shells, minerals, stamps and coins; his insect collections were donated to the American Museum of Natural History in New York.

De Wendler-Funaro's interest in Gypsies, according to his manuscripts, began in childhood. The manuscripts and one published article indicate that this interest continued to be personal, rather than professional,,,,apd @hat,,he, did not pursue his contacts with Gypsies systematically. (it was, not, 'until' the late 1940s that anthropologists began systematic studies of GYPSY.@ cultures.) It appears that de Wendler-Funaro sought out Gypsies in fairgrounds, amusement parks and urban storefronts, collecting specimens of language and taking photographs. Irving Brown's letter to de Wendler-Funaro (1929), and de Wendler-Funarol's article in Leisure (1937) refer to his visits to amusement parks. Some of his Romnichel (English Gypsy) subjects recall him as the man who drove along the roads, stopping to take pictures wherever he saw a tent. About 1938 de Wendler-Funaro became involved with a Committee on Gypsy Problems of the Welfare Council, a social service agency of New York City. This involvement may have been an outgrowth of his association with Steve Kaslov, styled by some a Gypsy king. De Wendler-Funaro seems to have served as Kaslov's amanuensis.
Gypsies in the United States:
Several groups, all known to outsiders as "Gypsies," live today in the United Sates. In their native languages, each of the groups refers to itself by a specific name, but all translate their self-designations as 'Gypsy' when speaking English. Each had its own cultural, linguistic, and historical tradition before coming to this country, and each maintains social distance from the others. An overview of these groups and their interethnic relations is presented in "Gypsy Ethnicity: Implications of Native Categories and Interaction for Ethnic Classification," by Matt T. Salo.

Rom

The Rom arrived in the United States from Serbia, Russia and Austria-Hungary beginning in the 1880s, part of the larger wave of immigration from southern and eastern Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Primary immigration ' ended, for the most part, in 1914, with the beginning of the First World War and subsequent tightening of immigration restrictions (Salo and Salo 1986). Many people in this group specialized in coppersmith work, mainly the repair and retinning of industrial equipment used in bakeries, laundries, confectionaries, and other businesses. The Rom, too, developed the fortune-telling business in urban areas.

Two subgroups of the Rom, the Kalderash ('coppersmiths') and, Machwaya natives of machva,' a county in Serbia) appear in the photographs iiv, this collection. De Wendler-Funaro identified some, but not all, Kalderash as, 'Russian Gypsies.' Another group he identified as "Russian Gypsies' seem, to,, be the Rusniakuria ('Ruthenians'), who in New York are known as musicians and singers.

Ludar

The Ludar, or "Romanian Gypsies,' also immigrated to the United States during the great immigration from southern and eastern Europe between 1880 and 1914. Most of the Ludar came from northwestern Bosnia. Upon their arrival in the United States they specialized as animal trainers and show people, and indeed passenger manifests show bears and monkeys as a major part of their baggage. Most of de Wendler-Funarols photographs of this group were taken in Maspeth, a section of the borough of Queens in New York City, where the Ludar created a village of home-made shacks that existed from about 1925 to 1939, when it was razed. A similar settlement stood in the Chicago suburbs during the same period. One of de Wendler-Funarols manuscripts, "Romanian Gypsies at Maspeth Village,' (box 1, folder 9), and a letter from Ammiee Ellis, a social worker (box 2, folder 2), refer to this settlement.

Romnichels

The Romnichels, or English Gypsies, began to come to the United States from England in 1850. Their arrival coincided with an increase in the demand for draft horses in agriculture and then in urbanization, and many Romnichels worked as horse-traders. After the rapid decline in the horse trade following the First World War, most Romnichels relied on previously secondary enterprises, 'basket-making,* including the manufacture and sale of rustic furniture, and fortune-telling. Horse and mule trading continued to some extent in southern states where poverty and terrain slowed the adoption of tractor power (Salo and Salo 1982).

Photoprints in box 6, folders 2 through 10, correspond with de Wendler-Funarols trip described in his manuscript 'In Search of the Last Caravan' (box 1, folder 10). Discrepancies between this manuscript and the photos should be noted. De Wendler-Funarols notes date this trip variously between 1931 and 1945. I have dated it about 1940. Although one man appears as a frequent subject in the largest set of photos (box 6, folders 22 and 23), in the manuscript, de Funaro mentions having missed meeting him.

'Black Dutch'

Gypsies from Germany, whom de Wendler-Funaro refers to 'as Chikkeners (Pennsylvania German, from the German Zigeuner), sometimes refer to themselves as wblack Dutch.w They are few in number and claim to have largely assimilated to Romnichel culture. They are represented in de Wendler-Punarols photographs by a few portraits of one old man and briefly referred to in the manuscript mIn Search of the Last Caravan.*

Hungarian Gypsies

The Hungarian musicians also came to this country with the eastern European immigration. In the U.S. they continued as musicians to the Hungarian and Slovak immigrant settlements.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Mrs. Cornelia de Funaro, June 26, 1985.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Photographs by de Wendler-Funaro are available for reproduction. Fees for commercial use. Permission to reproduce photographs by Alexander Alland must be granted by the photographer's estate; other photographs may have copyright restrictions.
Topic:
Funeral rites and ceremonies -- manuscripts -- Gypsies  Search this
Wagons, Gypsy -- 1920-1980  Search this
Weddings -- manuscripts -- Gypsies  Search this
Orthodox Eastern Church -- Photographs -- 1920-1980  Search this
Tents -- Photographs -- 1920-1980  Search this
Housing -- Photographs -- Wagons -- 1920-1980  Search this
Bears -- performing -- 1920-1980 -- Maspeth (N.Y.)  Search this
Housing -- Photographs -- Tents -- 1920-1980  Search this
Labor and laboring classes -- Photographs -- 1920-1980  Search this
Coppersmiths -- 1930-1950  Search this
Musicians -- 1930-1950  Search this
Furniture-making -- 1930-1950  Search this
Horse-trading -- 1930-1950  Search this
Fortune-telling -- 1930-1950  Search this
Training -- Animals -- 1930-1950  Search this
Collectors and collecting  Search this
Gypsies -- 1920-1980 -- United States  Search this
Costume -- Gypsies -- 1920-1980  Search this
Portraits -- Gypsies  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1900-1950
Journals -- 1930-1950
Dissertations
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film -- 1930-1950
Manuscripts -- 1920-1970
Citation:
Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0161
See more items in:
Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0161
Online Media:

Writings: "What is This Thing Called Soaring", US Air Service

Collection Creator:
Junkin, Hattie Meyers, 1896-1985  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 17
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1931-11
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
See more items in:
Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers
Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers / Series 3: General materials of Hattie Meyers Junkin
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0171-ref130
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Correspondence with Publisher: Air Transportation

Collection Creator:
Junkin, Hattie Meyers, 1896-1985  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1929
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
See more items in:
Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers
Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers / Series 1: General Correspondence / 1.3: Business correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0171-ref79
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Testimonies and Statements, E.S. Gorrell

Collection Creator:
Gorrell, Edgar S. (Edgar Staley), 1891-1945  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 12
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1936-1939
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Edgar S. Gorrell Collection, Acc. XXXX-0057, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Edgar S. Gorrell Collection
Edgar S. Gorrell Collection / Series 1: GENERAL
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0057-ref55
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Diaries of Joseph Mountain

Collection Creator:
Mountain, Joseph D., 1902-1970  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1942-1944, 1945
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at http://airandspace.si.edu/permissions
Collection Citation:
Joseph D. Mountain Collection, Acc. 1991-0079, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Joseph D. Mountain Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1991-0079-ref15
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Edward J. Orth Memorial Archives of the World's Fair

Collector:
Orth, Edward J.  Search this
Exhibition Collectors Historical Organization  Search this
Names:
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Extent:
130 Cubic feet (417 boxes, 23 map-folders)
130 Cubic feet (417 boxes, 23 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Souvenirs
Photographs
Pamphlets
Guidebooks
Date:
1835-1992
Summary:
Collection documents the 1939 New York World's Fair in Flushing Meadows, New York. Also includes materials on other world's fairs, the Exhibition Collectors Historical Organization (ECHO), New York City tourism and Disney.
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains the archival materials collected by Edward Orth including postcards, newspaper clippings, exhibitor's literature, photographs, scrapbooks, tickets, pamphlets, brochures, magazines, books, and motion picture film.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into ten series.

Series 1, Edward J. Orth Personal Papers, 1939-1989

Subseries 1.1: Correspondence, 1939-1989

Subseries 1.2: Other Materials, 1915-1989

Series 2, Exhibition Collectors Historical Organization Records, 1942-1990

Subseries 2.1, Organizational History, 1960-1988

Subseries 2.2: Correspondence, 1942-1990

Subseries 2.3: Classified Ads, 1956-1988

Subseries 2.4: Financial Records, 1976-1989

Subseries 2.5: Newsletters, 1969-1988

Subseries 2.6: Membership applications, renewal notices and cancellations, 1977-1987

Series 3, New York World's Fair, Inc. Records, 1900-1988

Subseries 3.1: Administrative Files, 1900-1971

Subseries 3.2: Amusement Zone, 1937-1940

Subseries 3.3: Communications and Business Systems Zone, 1939-1965

Subseries 3.4: Community Interest Zone, 1939-1940

Subseries 3.5: Food Zone, 1939-1975

Subseries 3.6: Government Zone, 1939-1940

Subseries 3.7: Production and Distribution Zone, 1939-1940

Subseries 3.8: Transportation Zone, 1939-1940

Subseries 3.9: Ephemera, 1939-1988

Series 4, Photographic Materials, 1876-1969

Subseries 4.1: General

Subseries 4.2: Amusement Zone

Subseries 4.3: Business Systems Zone

Subseries 4.4: Communications Zone

Subseries 4.5: Community Interest Zone

Subseries 4.6: Food Zone

Subseries 4.7: Government Zone

Subseries 4.8: Production and Distribution Zone

Subseries 4.9: Transportation Zone

Subseries 4.20: Miscellaneous

Subseries 4.21: Oversize

Subseries 4.22: Color Slides

Subseries 4.23: Color Transparencies

Series 5, Scrapbooks, 1938-1981

Series 6, Postcards, 1906-1985

Series 7: Publications Related to World's Fairs, 1922-1989

Subseries 7.1: Magazines, 1922-1988

Subseries 7.2: Newspaper Articles, 1935-1989

Subseries 7.3: Other Publications, 1939-1973

Subseries 7.4: Other Subjects, 1962-1989

Series 8: Materials Relating to Other Fairs, 1951-1988

Subseries 8.1: Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations/Crystal Palace Exhibition

Subseries 8.2: New York Crystal Palace Exhibition

Subseries 8.3: Centennial Exposition

Subseries 8.4: World's Columbian Exposition

Subseries 8.5: Exposition Internationale D'Anvers (Antwerp, Belgium)

Subseries 8.6: Tennessee Centennial and International Exposition

Subseries 8.7: Trans-Mississippi Exposition

Subseries 8.8: South Carolina Inter-State and West Indian Exposition/Pan-American Exposition

Subseries 8.9: Louisiana Purchase Exposition

Subseries 8.10: Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition

Subseries 8.11: Alaska, Yukon, Pacific Exposition

Subseries 8.12: Panama-California Exposition

Subseries 8.13: Bronx International Exposition of Science, Arts and Industries

Subseries 8.14: Sesquicentennial Exposition

Subseries 8.15: Barcelona International Exposition Subseries 8.16: L'Exposition Coloniale, Paris

Subseries 8.17: Olympics

Subseries 8.18: Century of Progress

Subseries 8.19: California Pacific International Exposition (San Diego)/Brussels International Exposition

Subseries 8.20: Great Lakes Exposition/Texas Centennial Central Exposition

Subseries 8.21: Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne

Subseries 8.22: Golden Gate International Exposition

Subseries 8.23: Festival of Britain

Subseries 8.24: Milan Fair

Subseries 8.25: Exposition Universelle et venti Internationale de Bruxelles

Subseries 8.26: Moscow

Subseries 8.27: Century 21 Exhibition

Subseries 8.28: Expo 67

Subseries 8.29: Long Beach, California (cancelled)

Subseries 8.30: HemisFair 68

Subseries 8.31: Expo 70

Subseries 8.32: Expo 74

Subseries 8.33: Expo 75

Subseries 8.34: American Revolution Bicentennial, 1776-1976

Subseries 8.35: Queens Bicentennial Festival

Subseries 8.36: Expo 81, (cancelled)

Subseries 8.37: Portopia 81

Subseries 8.38: 1982 World's Fair

Subseries 8.39: Louisiana World Exposition

Subseries 8.40: Olympic Games

Subseries 8.41: Expo 85

Subseries 8.42: Queens Festival

Subseries 8.43: Expo 86

Subseries 8.44: World Expo 88

Subseries 8.45: Expo 92

Subseries 8.46: Expo 2000

Subseries 8.47: Combined Fairs

Subseries 8.48: General information about world's fairs

Series 9: Ephemera, 1934-1987

Subseries 9.1: New York (arranged first by subject and then general materials)

Subseries 9.2: Other States and Countries (alphabetical by location)

Subseries 9.3: Disney and Wizard of OZ Materials (chronological order)

Series 10: Audio Visual Materials, 1939, 1964-1965

Subseries 10.1: Moving Images, 1939; 1964-1965

Subseries 10.2: Sound Recordings

Series 11: Oversize, 1835-1992
Biographical / Historical:
Edward J. Orth grew up relishing history, particularly the history of the New York World's Fair. His experience of visiting the fair as a twelve year old boy led to a life long passion of collecting. At the time of his death, he had amassed a collection that filled two houses in California. The collection not only included materials of the 1939 New York World's Fair but also documented events before and after the fair. He also collected materials from a number of other fairs. Edward Orth was also instrumental in creating an organization for people who wanted to collect information and trade artifacts and relating to world's fairs materials.

Mr. Orth was born April 19, 1927 to Andrew Joseph Orth and Florence Minnie Gordon Orth in New York. The family would later include another son George, some six or seven years younger than Edward. In the 1930's, the Orth family lived in a number of locations in New York including Ridgewood, Brooklyn, Glendale, and Queens. In 1935, the family eventually moved to St. Albans, Queens, New York where Orth lived seven miles from Flushing Meadow Park, future site of the New York World's fair.

The year 1939 was a particularly painful one for the family due to a number of deaths. Edward Orth's paternal grandmother died on April 22nd. His grandfather, Michael Orth, also passed away in April. Three months later his grandmother Gordon died on July 22th. The severe losses to the Orth-Gordon families limited many social activities; however, the family did drive by the grounds of the future site of the world's fair. For the first time Edward Orth glimpsed the Trylon and Perisphere. Later, Orth would remark that the sight appeared to be magic.

In the summer of 1939, Edward Orth went to the fair with his class at Public School 136. The next summer Edward and his father walked over to an elementary school in Hollis, Queens, New York and purchased a 10 admission ticket for elementary school students. Edward Orth saved every souvenir and every bit of information he could find about the fair. He filled scrapbooks with photographs from newspapers and the 1939 Curt Teich and Manhattan PC Company postcards that were on sale at the corner candy store. When his family moved from an apartment to a house he acquired an old world's fair bench which he kept in the backyard.

In 1941, Orth attended Newton High School in Elmhurst, and Queens, New York. The high school offered a special college preparatory technical course which involved heavy emphasis on mathematics, science, mechanical drawing and workshop courses. Such educational pursues coupled with the motion picture films which he saw at the fair, including Thomas Edison's "The City of Light", Ford Motor Company's "Road of Tomorrow", "Democracy" and General Motors' "Futurama" inspired Orth's interest in architecture and landscaping. This inspiration formed the basis of his decision to become a city planner for California.

By 1943, Orth began to explore used magazine and book stores in New York City to continue his collecting of world's fairs materials. Two days after graduation in 1945 he was enlisted in the army. Upon his discharge he resumed buying and trading worlds' fairs' postcards. From 1948-1953, Orth continued his education at the University of California and the University of Connecticut where he studied architecture and landscape design. Between these years he posted advertisements in various postcard collector clubs publications in his continued pursue of world's fairs materials. In March 1953, Mr. Orth moved to Los Angeles, California. It was during his time in Los Angeles that he really began to make contact with other World's fairs buffs and formed lasting friendships based on this common interest. By 1967, Orth and a number of his closest friends including Peter Warner, Oscar Hengstler, David Oats, Larry Zim, and Ernest Weidhaas conceived the idea of a world's fair collector's society. By the summer of 1968 this group had formally created the Exhibition Collectors Historical Organization (ECHO).

Edward Orth was always concerned about the welfare of his collection and did not want the materials to be broken into parts and sold. Instead he wanted it to go to a museum. Mr. Orth stipulated in his will that the collection would be given to the Smithsonian Institution upon his death. In 19??, Jon Zackman, former Smithsonian employee, conducted two interviews on micro cassettes. One interview was conducted with George Orth, brother of the collector. The other interview is with Peter Warner, another world's fairs collector. Orth and Warner had corresponded extensively and had traded objects. Mr. Orth primarily covered the west coast area while Peter Warner was his east coast counterpart.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

Larry Zim Collection (AC0519)

Materials at Other Organizations

New York Public Library

The New York World's Fair 1939 and 1940 Incorporated Records, 1935-1945, MssCol 2233
Separated Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

Artifacts from the collection include several thousand souvenirs and examples of memorabilia commemorating the fair to include buttons and badges, ceramics, glassware, clothing, costume jewelry, coins and medals, commemorative spoons and flatware, toys and games, and philatelic material which are all part of the Division of Home and Community Life's holdings.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow. Viewing film portion of collection requires special appointment, please inquire. Do not use when original materials are available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Exhibitions -- 1930-1940 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
World's fairs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Souvenirs -- 1930-1940
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1930-1940
Pamphlets -- 1930-1940
Guidebooks -- 1930-1940
Citation:
Edward J. Orth Memorial Archives of the New York World's Fair, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0560
See more items in:
Edward J. Orth Memorial Archives of the World's Fair
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0560
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Wolf Kahn, 1977 Nov. 28-1978 Jan. 6

Interviewee:
Kahn, Wolf, 1927-2020  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul, 1933-1997  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Painting, American  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- Interviews  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)11598
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212772
AAA_collcode_kahn77
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_212772
Online Media:

Reddy Kilowatt Records

Creator:
Northern States Power Company  Search this
Hooks, Benjamin, Dr.  Search this
Xcel Energy  Search this
Reddy Communications, Inc.  Search this
Reddy Kilowatt, Inc.  Search this
Gofman, John W.  Search this
Commoner, Barry, 1917-  Search this
Collins, Ashton B.  Search this
Names:
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
New York World's Fair (1964-1965)  Search this
Extent:
30 Cubic feet (119 boxes )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Animated cartoons
Letters (correspondence)
Reports
Promotional literature
Photographs
Motion pictures (visual works)
Memorandums
Filmstrips
Cartoons (humorous images)
Speeches
Comic books
Coloring books
Advertisements
Scrapbooks
Audiotapes
Date:
1926-1999
Summary:
The records document the development and use of Reddy Kilowatt, a cartoon figure trademark created in 1926 by Ashton B. Collins, Sr. More than 150 investor-owned electric utilities in the United States and at least twelve foreign countries licensed the use of the Reddy Kilowatt trademark. The records include a wide range of textual and visual materials and sound and moving image recordings.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of approximately thirty cubic feet of material created or compiled by Ashton Collins, Sr., and the Reddy Kilowatt Service; Reddy Kilowatt, Inc.; and Reddy Communications, Inc. Materials include publications, advertisements, clip art, photographs, drawings, sketches, correspondence, small artifacts, ephemera, and audio-visual material. It is divided into eight series: Series 1, Background Materials, 1926-1977; Series 2, Ashton Collins, Sr., Materials, 1926-1974; Series 3, Client Services and Publications, 1935-1999; Series 4, Advertising Materials, 1939-1997; Series 5, Scrapbooks, 1935-1960; Series 6, Copyright, Trademark and Other Legal Materials, 1926-1994; Series 7, Reference Materials, 1926-1992; Series 8, Audio-Visual Materials, 1939-1989.

Throughout its history, the Reddy Kilowatt firm was particularly thorough in keeping records of its publications and services. In addition to materials generated by the company itself, there is a significant amount of material accumulated through efforts in market and legal research activities. Particular strengths of the collection include a wide variety of Reddy Kilowatt publications and ephemera; trademark and legal files; files kept on other trademark characters; audio-visual materials; and materials relating to the public debate over atomic energy. The audio-visual materials are unusual because of the amount of textual documentation retained. There is also a significant portion of material documenting the company's involvement in the 1964-1965 World's Fair. The collection is also particularly rich in correspondence and memoranda. The reach of possibilities involving the appearance of the Reddy Kilowatt character in a variety of poses, media, and merchandise should not be underestimated.

Series 1, Background Materials, 1926-1977

This series is divided into three subseries: Subseries 1, Articles of Incorporation, 1953; Subseries 2, Histories and Origins of Reddy Kilowatt, 1926-1977; and Subseries 3, Reddy Remarks, 1935-1936. Series 8, subseries 6, consists of five hours of oral history interviews with Mrs. Ashton Collins Sr. and her son Ashton Collins Jr.

Subseries 1, Articles of Incorporation, 1953, contains the packet of legal information mailed to licensees including the certificate of incorporation, Collins's letter of transmittal, a summary of the corporate structure, the joint tenancy agreement, the corporate by-laws, and copies of a filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The packet also includes the Reddy Kilowatt Guide Book, which directed licensee companies on correct and incorrect methods of depicting Reddy Kilowatt. Upon incorporation, Collins retained 80 percent of the company's stock; the remaining 20 percent was available only to Reddy Kilowatt licensees. The Reddy Kilowatt Service begun by Ashton Collins, Sr., in 1934, was wholly owned by him until the formation of Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., in 1953.

Subseries 2, Histories and Origins of Reddy Kilowatt, 1926-1977, contains a variety of documents that illustrate the origins and development of both the Reddy Kilowatt character and the company that promulgated his use. A photo album and newspaper clippings from the First Alabama Electrical Exposition document the first appearance of Reddy Kilowatt. Newspaper clippings, graphics, and ephemera from 1926 to 1934 illustrate the adoption of Reddy Kilowatt into advertising use by a handful of eastern and southern electric utilities. Files of press clippings spanning 1937 to 1977 consist largely of utility company newsletters and articles from trade publications. Correspondence is also included. The press clipping files document a carefully developed and tightly controlled company mythology about the emergence of the Reddy Kilowatt character and the success of Collins's endeavors.

Subseries 3, Reddy Remarks, 1935-1936, includes promotional materials that describe Collins's advertising program to prospective clients as well as a series of newspaper advertisements from three electric utilities. This subseries represents Ashton Collin's initial attempt to design an entire advertising program in conjunction with promoting a trademark figure.

Series 2, Ashton Collins, Sr., Files, 1926-1974

This series is divided into four subseries: Subseries 1, Correspondence, 1926-1964; Subseries 2, Speeches, 1942-1974; Subseries 3, Articles, 1933-1951; and Subseries 4, Miscellaneous, 1933; 1953.

Subseries 1, Correspondence, 1926-1964, includes letters discussing Collins's original attempts to set up the Reddy Kilowatt program, as well as Collins's later revitalization of the Reddy Kilowatt/lighting bolt connection. Also included are thank you letters following the Edison Electrical Institute's tribute to Collins and a few holiday cards. Collins's correspondence is also distributed throughout the collection in conjunction with specific topics.

Subseries 2, Speeches, 1942-1974, includes transcripts and notes from speeches given by Collins to various electrical industry forums. Subjects include trends in the electrical consumer market, political situations involving electric utilities, and recommendations for electric utility advertising. Themes include calls for action against government regulation of public utilities and the need for specific advertising directed toward youth and women. Correspondence and event programs are included, as well as a reference file containing material about public speaking and relevant issues in the electrical industry.

Subseries 3, Articles, 1933-1951, contains seven short editorials submitted to Electrical Worldin 1933 and two articles written by Collins for investor-oriented magazines (1947 and 1951).

Subseries 4, Miscellaneous, 1933; 1953, contains a hotel bill and a sheet of the Reddy Kilowatt letterhead used by Ashton Collins.

Series 3, Client Services and Publications, 1935-1999, encompasses the range of publications and services provided to licensees of the Reddy Kilowatt trademark. Publications range from clip art illustrations to detailed program guides. Services include wiring certification, portable talking figures for exhibition, comprehensive advertising plans, access to demographic surveys, special informational mailings, and access to trademark merchandise. The first seven subseries are publications arranged alphabetically; the remaining eight subseries are specific service programs, also arranged alphabetically: Subseries 1, Clip Art, 1936-1978; Subseries 2, Communications in Environment/Youth, 1971-1972; Subseries 3, Reddy Bulletin, 1935-1964; Subseries 4, Reddy Kilowatt Activities, 1934-1935; Subseries 5, Reddy Kilowatt Ink, 1986-1993; Subseries 6, Reddy Kilowatt's Review, 1936-1940; Subseries 7, Reddy News, 1942-1999; Subseries 8, Environmental Program, 1960-1974; Subseries 9, Grass Roots Impact Plan, 1950-1952; Subseries 10, Reddy-Items Merchandise, 1947-1994; Subseries 11, Reddy Kilowatt Talking Figure, 1949-1970; Subseries 12, Reddy Kilowatt Youth Program, 1938-1987; Subseries 13, Reddy Wiring Program, 1955-1963; Subseries 14, Special Executive Mailings, 1950-1994; and Subseries 15, Subject Files, 1952-1988.

Subseries 1, Clip Art, 1936-1978, includes mat service sheets, original sketches, and layout boards. The mat service sheets were sent regularly to client companies for use in advertisements. They include Reddy Kilowatt in a variety of poses and activities meant to illustrate a wide variety of uses for electricity as well as the benefits of investor-owned utilities. Subjects include but are not limited to household appliances, farm uses, atomic energy, national defense, electric rates, power outages, safety, voting, famous Americans, holidays, the New York World's Fair (both 1939 and 1964-1965), and the Beatles. One noteworthy theme is the potential of electrical appliances to alleviate household chores, specifically targeted toward women. The sketches included in the subseries originate from Ray Crosby, longtime art director for Reddy Kilowatt. Included among the layout boards are the original designs for a series of 1940s advertisements concerning American mobilization for war. The subseries also contains the Reproduction Proof Index, which cross-references a detailed list of subjects with corresponding service sheet numbers. The index incorporates mat service sheets from approximately 1955 to the indexes' publication dates, 1970-1972.

Subseries 2, Communications in Environment/Youth, 1971-1972, contains issues of the newsletter, Communications in Environment/Youth, and related correspondence. Communications in Environment/Youth informed client companies of issues of public concern related to utility companies, including environmental issues, and provided information about successful public programs. These include topics such as plant siting, interactions with public school systems, information about nuclear plant safety, efforts to switch to recycled paper, and youth safety programs. The correspondence includes internal memoranda discussing connections between youth culture and environmental concerns, and promotional letters sent to client companies.

Subseries 3, Reddy Bulletin, 1935-1964, contains issues of the Reddy Bulletin, a promotional device for the Reddy Kilowatt Program and a means to communicate industry-wide information. It contains advertisements for Reddy Kilowatt merchandise, comic books, films, television commercials and other promotional materials. Promotional merchandise includes items such as ashtrays, balloons, candy, soap, decals, patches, scorebooks, notepads, aprons, canning labels, pens, safety posters, dishes, coasters, clocks, playing cards, poker chips, bill inserts, calendars, billboards, correspondence cards, and plywood display figures. Examples of many of the items were included with the Reddy Bulletin. Where possible, these items have been left in situ. The Reddy Bulletin also includes general information relevant to electric utility advertising executives.

Subseries 4, Reddy Kilowatt Activities, 1934-1935, contains issues of the earliest client-oriented publication from the Reddy Kilowatt Service. A one-page sheet, Reddy Kilowatt Activities described usage of the Reddy Kilowatt trademark by the initial licensees of Reddy Kilowatt.

Subseries 5, Reddy Kilowatt Ink, 1986-1993, contains issues of the quarterly newsletter, Reddy Kilowatt Ink. Begun in 1986, the newsletter included two pages of clip-art along with suggestions for use in advertisements. It filled the former function of Reddy News, which was reformatted into a magazine-style industry publication in the 1970s.

Subseries 6, Reddy Kilowatt's Review, 1936-1940, contains issues of Reddy Kilowatt's Review, which combined advertisements by licensees with commentary by Ashton Collins. Anecdotes of consumer response to Reddy Kilowatt and testimonials from clients appear sporadically.

Subseries 7, Reddy News, 1942-1999, contains issues of Reddy News and a thorough index. Initially, Reddy News was a collection of advertisements by clients, released biannually. It was meant to stimulate advertising ideas among licensee companies and included explanatory copy that underscored the goals of the Reddy Kilowatt Program . Reddy Newswas reformulated in the 1970s as a bi-monthly trade publication focused on the business concerns of investor-owned utilities, though examples of advertisements were still included. The hand-written index was compiled by Mrs. Collins, Sr., and cross-references detailed subject headings with Reddy News issues from 1942 to 1970.

Subseries 8, Environmental Program, 1960-1974, includes consumer brochures, clip art, and a program guide titled Environment: A Reddy Kilowatt Program. There is also a notable 1973 study, "Public Acceptance of Nuclear Power-Analysis and Approaches," complied by Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., and released only to client companies. This series represents Reddy Kilowatt, Inc.'s response to increased public scrutiny of the environmental impact of power plants in the 1960s and 1970s, especially atomic energy facilities. More information about the public relations strategies developed by Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., in relation to atomic energy is contained in Series 4, Advertising Materials, 1939-1997; Subseries 1, Bernard J. Bachem Files, 1959-1980. The firm's market research on the public debate concerning atomic energy is reflected in a series of audio recordings located in two sub-subseries located in Series 8, Audio-Visual Materials, 1939-1989; Subseries 4, Sub-subseries 3, News Programs, 1976-1979 and Sub-subseries 4, Speeches, 1975-1980, undated.

Subseries 9, Grass Roots Impact Plan, 1950-1952, contains a series of brochures, clip art and promotional documents. The Grass Roots Impact Plan was an advertising program designed to "fight creeping socialism" by promoting the benefits of investor-owned utilities. The plan also promoted the use of atomic energy. The brochures were mailed out to participating companies in intervals to be kept in a binder for a complete program guide.

Subseries 10, Reddy-Items Merchandise, 1947-1994, includes catalogs, supplier information and publicity material related to the Reddy-Items Merchandise Program. Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., contracted for a wide variety of merchandise items to distribute through its client companies. There is little information or correspondence within the collection about the actual process of ordering such materials. The catalogs provide an overview of merchandise available for specific years. Interested researchers may wish to refer to the artifact collection for actual examples of Reddy-Items merchandise and to examine the Reddy Bulletin, used primarily to advertise these products to clients. See Series 3, Client Services and Publications, 1935-1999, Subseries 3, Reddy Bulletin, 1935-1964.

Subseries 11, Reddy Kilowatt Talking Figure, 1949-1970, consists of correspondence, design proposal, design specifications, display kit instructions and publicity materials related to a three-dimensional Reddy Kilowatt figure used at expositions and fairs. The figure was wired to an external microphone and speaker, so that the figure could talk to the audience and answer questions. A script is included with the display kit instructions, along with explanatory photographs. Multiple photographs of the figure in use are included with the textual materials.

Subseries 12, Reddy Kilowatt Youth Program, 1938-1987, includes a program guide, presentation binder, promotional materials, pen and ink illustrations, poetry, documentation of two Reddy Kilowatt youth clubs, business presentation scripts, and a government anti-communist brochure. The "Mother Juice" rhymes illustrate Ashton Collins, Sr.'s early interest in focusing advertising attention on youth populations in order to inculcate appreciation of electricity and its applications. The confluence of the baby boom and the post World War II anti-communism movement made this focus a mainstay of the Reddy Kilowatt Program, providing Collins with an opportunity to combine capitalist economic values with consumer electricity usage. The script for "Fission, Fertility, and the Future" spells out Collins's reasoning behind his interest in influencing youth populations, and the accompanying program guide and presentation binder illustrate the mechanics of his youth-oriented advertising plan for electric utilities. Of particular note is the 1964 survey of adults and adolescents testing for trademark recognition and attitudes about electricity. The survey was commissioned by Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., and performed by Gilbert Youth Research Organization in five cities across the United States. Another notable item in the subseries is Communist Target, a 1960 report by J. Edgar Hoover to the House Committee on Un-American Activities.

Subseries 13, Reddy Wiring Program, 1955-1959, includes brochures, ephemera, and photographs related to the Reddy Wiring Program. This program promoted a specific standard of electrical wiring in new homes. Participating builders were then allowed to designate their products as "Medallion" or "Gold Medallion" homes.

Subseries 14, Special Executive Mailings, 1950-1994, consists of letters and press releases sent to a list of advertising and public affairs executives of Reddy Kilowatt client companies. Topics include, but are not limited to, requests for information, legal updates, personnel changes, promotions of specific advertising programs, and reprints of articles.

Subseries 15, Subject Files, 1952-1998, are arranged alphabetically by subject heading. Subjects include, but are not limited to, sports trophies, ventriloquist acts, brochures about the 1976 Bicentennial, consumer information brochures, and the Annual Report competition. Of note is the 1953 Artist Guide, which explains the particulars of drawing Reddy Kilowatt.

Series 4, Advertising Materials, 1939-1997, is divided into three subseries: Subseries 1, Bernard J. Bachem Files, 1959-1980; Subseries 2, Business Advertising, 1940-1997; and Subseries 3, Client Advertising, 1939-1977.

Subseries 1, Bernard J. Bachem Files, 1959-1980, consists of files generated and maintained by Bernard J. Bachem, the vice-president in charge of audio-visual media and the Reddy Kilowatt Environmental Program from approximately 1958 to 1972. The files are arranged alphabetically by subject heading. Topics include production and syndication of television commercials, nuclear energy public relations strategies, radio scripts, and the Reddy and Mr. Toot children's show. Of note is a file of correspondence with Terrytoons, which contracted with Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., to produce television commercials.

Subseries 2, Business Advertising, 1940-1997, consists of brochures and presentation materials developed for advertising to business clients. The subseries includes several "presentation binders" used at meetings with potential clients to describe the Reddy Kilowatt Program. In 1940, Ashton Collins, Sr., began collecting testimonials from executives at licensee companies for use in approaching new clients. These became a mainstay of his business advertising approach until the 1960s, when the company began developing a series of glossy brochures. Slide-shows and filmstrips also became a key advertising tool; scripts and related memoranda are contained within this subseries, and are also found in Series 8, Audio-Visual Materials, 1939-1989, Subseries 1, Supplementary Materials, 1945-1984; and Subseries 5, Filmstrips, 1939-1984.

Subseries 3, Client Advertising, 1939-1977, contains advertisements created by licensees of the Reddy Kilowatt trademark. Materials are organized alphabetically by subject and include newspapers, bill inserts, notices, brochures, employee handbooks, annual reports, comic strips, signs and posters. More examples of client advertisements can be found in Series 3, Client Services and Publications, 1935-1999, Subseries 3, Reddy News, 1942-1999.

Series 5, Scrapbooks, 1935-1960, undated, consists of eight scrapbooks: Plant Openings, Publicity, Reddy on Display, Reddy Made Magic, Transportation, Use of Reddy on Trucks; and Reddy news Launchings. The Plant Openings, 1948-1949, details when a plant opened and contains the associated advertising for the plant dedication typically with photographic collages. The Publicity Scrapbook, 1935-1950, contains newspaper clippings about Reddy Kilowatt and articles from trade publications such as the Advertisers Digest. Reddy on Display Scrapbook, 1948, depicts window displays of Reddy Kilowatt at various public service and gas companies across America. The Reddy Kilowatt Scrapbook tells the story of Reddy Kilowatt's daily activities starting at 6 a.m. and ending at 2 a.m. The Reddy Made Magic Scrapbook, 1948, contains publicity for the Technicolor motion picture film, Reddy Made Magic, which tells the story of electricity. The majority of the publicity consists of announcements for the showing of the film. The Transportation Scrapbook, 1947, contains advertising for electric and gas powered buses, trolleys, and trams. Reddy Kilowatt is cast as the servant for electricity, gas, and transportation. Use of Reddy on Trucks Scrapbook, undated, consists of black-and-white photographs of electric companies using the Reddy Kilowatt logo and clippings from the Reddy Bulletin of trucks. Reddy News Launchings Scrapbook, 1942-1960, consists of pages from the Reddy News presumably used for developing news releases.

Series 6, Copyright, Trademark and Other Legal Materials, 1926-1994, is divided into six subseries: Subseries 1, Copyright Materials (general), 1926-1953; Subseries 2, Trademark Materials (general), 1932-1953; Subseries 3, United States Trademarks, 1933-1989; Subseries 4, Foreign Trademarks, 1937-1994; Subseries 5, Reddy Kilowatt v. Mid-Carolina et al., 1937-1976; Subseries 6, Trademark Character Files, 1937-1976; and Subseries 7, Reference Materials, 1945-1980.

Subseries 1, Copyright Materials (general), 1926-1953, contains general copyright information and compiled lists of copyrights for various Reddy Kilowatt activities, such as the Reddy News, Reddytoons, and bulletins, and correspondence between the Alabama Power Company and the Library of Congress Copyright Office about copyrighting the basic figure and name of Kilowatt and such prefixes as "Reddy," "Happy," and "Handy." The Alabama Power Company initiated this correspondence in 1926 to protect its symbolic character "Reddy Kilowatt" for appliance sales and general advertising.

Subseries 2, Trademark Materials (general), 1932-1953, includes general correspondence about trademarks, trademarks not granted, trademark renewals and re-publication, trademark assignments, and infringements cases. The trademark assignment file also contains a patent assignment (United States patent # 2,349,706) from Ashton B. Collins to Reddy Kilowatt, Inc. The patent is for a display device designed primarily to hold advertising matter. The infringement materials relate to improper uses of Reddy Kilowatt and clients seeking permission or clarification on the proper use of the trademark.

Subseries 3, United States Trademarks, 1933-1989, consists primarily of registered trademarks, certificates of renewal, correspondence about the registration process with the United States Patent Office and examples of the trademark being used by Reddy Kilowatt, Inc. The bulk of the correspondence is from C.A. Snow and Company, registered patent attorneys, and Louise M. Bender, corporate secretary for Reddy Kilowatt, Inc. Examples of the trademarks are found in the Reddy News, "clip sheets" of trademark symbols , on business letterhead, stickers, playing cards, calendars and other ephemera. Trademark file #651,768, contains a copy of the Reddy Kilowatt Handbook of Trademark Usage, 1958. This handbook was intended to guide electric light and power companies licensed to use Reddy Kilowatt trademarks. Trademark file #827,151, contains a small binder of Reddy Kilowatt small appliance advertisements, 1938 to 1965, not inclusive. This subseries is arranged chronologically by registered trademark number.

Many of the materials in this series were filed under the provisions of the Lanham Act, named for Representative Fritz G. Lanham of Texas, passed on July 5, 1946, and signed into law by President Harry Truman to take effect "one year from its enactment," on July 5, 1947. The Lanham Act is found in Title 15 of the U.S. Code and contains the federal statutes governing trademark law in the United States. The Act prohibits a number of activities, including trademark infringement, trademark dilution, and false advertising.

Subseries 4, Foreign Trademark Materials, 1937-1994, consists of registered trademarks, correspondence and examples of the Reddy Kilowatt trademarks in foreign countries such as Australia, Barbados, Mexico, Kenya, the Netherland Antilles and South Korea. The Kenya file contains specific information about trademark law and policies in Kenya. Several publications of note are Law of Kenya Trademarks Ordinance Chapter 506, 1962; The Merchandise Marks Ordinance Chapter 505, 1963, detailing the specific Kenyan laws and information on the electricity industry in Kenya; the East African Power and Lighting Company's The East African Power and Light Company, Directors Report and Accounts, 1965; and The Power Supply Industry in Kenya, 1966.

Subseries 5, Reddy Kilowatt v. Mid-Carolina et al., 1926-1960, includes correspondence and legal documents related to the trademark infringement lawsuit filed by Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., against Mid-Carolina Electric Cooperative and the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA). The lawsuit was filed in 1953 and resolved by Judge Harry E. Watkins in 1956. The subject of the dispute was "Willie Wiredhand," an advertising trademark character used by the NRECA. Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., alleged that the character was drawn similarly to Reddy Kilowatt and used in comparable ways, thus confusing consumers' ability to discern between the two. Judge Watkins's decision hinged on the legal boundaries drawn between service areas of investor-owned utilities and electric cooperatives. Because electric cooperatives were prevented from competing for investor-owned consumer audiences, Judge Watkins deemed that the trademarks also were not in competition. Ashton Collins, Sr., was greatly disappointed by the decision, and this is reflected in the post-decision correspondence files. Other files of note concern consumer surveys in South Carolina and Iowa commissioned by Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., with the aim of finding evidence to bolster the lawsuit; depositions from participants are included in the files. Ashton Collins, Sr.'s affidavit and documentation of the Willie Wiredhand trademark also are included in the subseries.

Subseries 6, Trademark Character Files, 1937-1976, contains the reference files developed by Ashton Collins, Sr., and Reddy Kilowatt, Inc. concerning other trademark characters. The correspondence reflects an interest in factors leading to success of other trademark characters as well as an active concern with trademarks that might infringe on Reddy Kilowatt's success. Files include early characters such as the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroads' Chessie the Cat and Borden's Elsie the Cow. A large file on Smoky Bear contains advertisements including Reddy Kilowatt. Files that reflect infringement concerns include Willing Water, Bill Ding, Mr. Wirewell, and Genie.

Subseries 7, Reference Materials, 1945-1980, contains files developed on topics relating to non-character corporate trademarks. Materials include brochures, articles, advertisements, publications and correspondence. Files on efforts by Xerox Corporation, Coca-Cola Company and Dow Chemical Company to regulate language about their trade names are included. Other notable files include Bakelite advertisements and a file of correspondence and articles concerning Isadore Warshaw, who testified on behalf of the NRECA during the Reddy Kilowatt v. Mid-Carolina et al., hearings.

Series 7, Reference Materials, 1926-1992, consists of general files maintained by Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., for internal reference. It is divided into five subseries: Subseries 1, Client Use of Services, 1977-1984; Subseries 2, New York World's Fair, 1938-1939, 1961-1966; Subseries 3, Subject Files, 1940-1992; Subseries 4, Testimonials, 1939-1977; and Subseries 5, Empty Binders, 1926-1987.

Subseries 1, Client Use of Services, 1977-1984, consists of files maintained during the incarnation of the company as Reddy Communications, Inc. During this period, the firm was emphasizing its usefulness as an information clearinghouse for the electric utility industry. These files include monthly reports on client use of services as well as more detailed reports on steps taken to meet client requests for information.

Subseries 2, New York World's Fair, 1938-1939; 1961-1966, contains files largely accumulated during the participation of Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., in the 1964-1965 New York World's Fair, with some documentation surviving from the 1938-1939 New York World's Fair. Reddy Kilowatt was used prominently in "Tower of Light," the investor-owned electric utility exhibit. The 1964 exhibit included a musical show which met with some initial criticism and was revised for the 1965 fair to become "Holiday with Light." Materials include press releases from production companies and Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., scripts, photographs and production documents for the shows; correspondence with the production company; and electrical industry trade publications.

Subseries 3, Subject Files, 1940-1992, includes files on unique uses of Reddy Kilowatt, Reddy Kilowatt-themed apparel, verses written by consumers, World War II-era advertisements, and files used by company staff for market research.

Subseries 4, Testimonials, 1939-1977, contains letters from executives at licensee companies attesting to the benefits of receiving the Reddy Kilowatt Service. The letters were occasionally edited and compiled for use in business presentations.

Subseries 5, Empty Binders, 1926-1987, includes the original binders and albums used for presenting Reddy Kilowatt programs.

Series 8, Audio-Visual Materials, 1939-1984, undated

The series is divided into five subseries: Supplementary Materials, 1945-1984; Animation Cels, 1946; 1985; Moving Images, 1940s-1989; Audio, 1946-1980; and Filmstrips, 1939-1984.

Subseries 1, Supplementary Materials, 1945-1984, contains scripts, production documents, promotional materials, correspondence and memoranda related to the audio-visual materials in this series. Of particular note are the files containing production documents and correspondence related to The Mighty Atom. These files track the decision-making process within Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., concerning the inclusion of previous footage from Reddy Made Magic. Other materials relating to this subseries may be found in Series 4, Advertising Materials, 1939-1997, Subseries 1, Bernard J. Bachem Files, 1959-1980.

Subseries 2, Animation Cels and Sketches, 1946; 1985, contains mylar animation cels and paper sketches used in the production of Reddy Made Magic and the "Adventure Kid" television commercial.

Subseries 3, Moving Images, 1940s-1989, contains all film (excluding the filmstrips) and video in the collection and is organized chronologically. The films and videos include animated educational films, commercials, television shows, home movies, an informal instructional video, and an employee appreciation video.

Subseries 4, Audio, 1946-1980, undated This series contains all the audio (excluding those items associated with filmstrips) and is divided into 5 subseries.

Sub-subseries 1, Music, 1954-1960, undated, contains Reddy Kilowatt theme songs and promotional music used by Reddy Communications and is organized chronologically, with undated materials last.

Sub-subseries 2, Promotional, 1946-1979, undated, consists of promotional audio such as radio commercials and informational spots. The items are organized chronologically, with undated materials last.

Sub-subseries 3, News Programs, 1976-1979, consists of recordings on cassette tapes. The cassette tapes are organized chronologically.

Sub-subseries 4, Speeches, 1975-1980, undated, contains recordings of speeches and presentations given by important figures in and outside of the electrical industry. The items are organized chronologically, with undated materials last.

Sub-subseries 5, Corporate Interviews, circa 1974-1977, consists of informal interviews conducted by Reddy Communications, Inc. employees. The interviews are organized chronologically.

Sub-series 6, Oral Histories, 1983, consists of five hours of audio cassette recordings with Mrs. Ashton Collins, Sr. and Ashton Collins, Jr. at the initial stages of collection acquisition. The oral histories were conducted by John Fleckner, Archivist with the Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Topics discussed include biographical information about Ashton Collins, Sr.; the early history of the Reddy Kilowatt Service; Mrs. Ashton Collins, Sr.'s experiences in the Reddy Kilowatt, Inc. office; her participation in electric industry conventions; Cuba's ousting of Reddy Kilowatt; and the transition in the company's services during the late 1960s and early 1970s.

Sub-subseries 7, Reference CDs, consists of all reference copies made of the audio. Multiple titles are contained on each disc.

Subseries 5, Filmstrips, 1939-1984, consists of filmstrips and their associated audio and elements (negatives, A and B roll, etc.), paired together by title. The filmstrips are organized chronologically.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into eight series.

Series 1, Background Materials, 1926-1977

Subseries 1.1, Articles of Incorporation, 1953

Subseries 1.2, Histories and Origins of Reddy, 1926-1977

Subseries 1.3, Reddy Remarks, 1935-1936

Series 2, Ashton Collins, Sr., Materials, 1926-1974, undated

Subseries 2.1, Correspondence, 1926-1964

Subseries 2.2, Speeches, 1942-1974, undated

Subseries 2.3, Articles, 1933-1951

Subseries 2.4, Miscellaneous, 1933; 1953

Series 3, Client Services and Publications, 1935-1999, undated

Subseries 3.1, Clip Art, 1936-1978, undated

Subseries 3.2, Communications in Environment/Youth, 1971-1972

Subseries 3.3, Reddy Bulletin, 1934-1941; 19431964

Subseries 3.4, Reddy Kilowatt Activities, 1934-1935

Subseries 3.5, Reddy Kilowatt Ink, 1986-1993

Subseries 3.6, Reddy Kilowatt's Review, 1936-1940

Subseries 3.7, Reddy News, 1942-1965, 1959-1972, 1978-1988, 1993-1999

Subseries 3.8, Environmental Program, 1960-1974

Subseries 3.9, Grass Roots Impact Plan, 1950-1952

Subseries 3.10, Reddy-Items Merchandise, 1947-1995

Subseries 3.11, Reddy Kilowatt Talking Figure, 1949-1970, undated

Subseries 3.12, Reddy Kilowatt Youth Program, 1936-1987

Subseries 3.13, Reddy Wiring Program, 1955-1963, undated

Subseries 3.14, Special Executive Mailings, 1950-1994

Subseries 3.15, Subject Files, 1952-1998, undated

Series 4, Advertising Materials, 1939-1997

Subseries 4.1, Bernard J. Bachem Files, 1959-1980

Subseries 4.2, Business Advertising, 1940-1997

Subseries 4.3, Client Advertising, 1939-1977

Series 5, Scrapbooks, 1935-1960, undated

Series 6, Copyright, Trademark and Other Legal Materials, 1926-1994

Subseries 6.1, Copyright Materials (general), 1926-1953

Subseries 6.2, Trademark Materials (general), 1932-1981, undated

Subseries 6.3, United States Trademarks, 1930-1994

Subseries 6.4, Foreign Trademark Materials, 1937-1998

Subseries 6.5, Reddy Kilowatt v. Mid-Carolina et al., 1926-1960

Subseries 6.6, Trademark Character Files, 1937-1976, undated

Subseries 6.7, Reference Materials, 1945-1980

Series 7, Reference Materials, 1926-1992

Subseries 7.1, Client Use of Services, 1977-1984

Subseries 7.2, New York World's Fair, 1938-1939; 1961-1968

Subseries 7.3, Subject Files, 1940-1992

Subseries 7.4, Testimonials, 1934-1977

Subseries 7.5, Empty Binders, 1926-1987

Series 8, Audiovisual Materials, 1939-1989, undated

Subseries 8.1, Supplementary Materials, 1945-1984, undated

Subseries 8.2, Animation Cels and Sketches, 1946; 1985

Subseries 8.3, Moving Images, 1940s-1989

Subseries 8.4, Audio, 1946-1980, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Ashton B. Collins, Sr. (1885-1976), the commercial manager of Alabama Power Company, created the trademark character Reddy Kilowatt in 1926 in an attempt to humanize electric utility service for marketing and other corporate communications purposes. Reddy Kilowatt first appeared publicly at the 1926 Alabama Electrical Exposition in a display for the Alabama Power Company, which also ran supporting newspaper advertisements. The original figure had five arms to illustrate the many capabilities of electric service. Though Collins originated the idea of Reddy Kilowatt, he asked an engineer from the company's drafting department, Dan Clinton, to create a usable sketch of the character. After the exposition, Collins retained the copyrights to Reddy Kilowatt. In 1932, he recruited a friend, Dorothea Warren, to develop several sketches of Reddy Kilowatt in an attempt to sell what Collins called "The Reddy Kilowatt Program." At the time, Collins was employed by Edison Electrical Institute to travel the country promoting electrical household cooking appliances. He used the opportunity to network with electric utility managers and to promote his idea of using Reddy Kilowatt to humanize electric service in the home. Collins convinced his first clients in 1933. By the end of 1934, at least six other electric utility companies had adopted the "Reddy Kilowatt Program." Subscribers to the Reddy Kilowatt Service received sheets of clip art for use in advertisements. The mechanism for this distribution was called a "mat service." The Reddy Kilowatt mat service was the backbone of the licensee program from the 1930s until the late 1960s. The mat service offered various poses of Reddy Kilowatt to be included in advertisements for the licensee companies, as well as complete advertisements to which the licensee companies could simply add their name. Another publication, Reddy News, was soon developed to reinforce the program. Published biannually, it was sent to licensee companies to provide ideas about ways to use the Reddy Kilowatt trademark. As the mat service evolved, the Reddy Kilowatt figure found many uses. Common themes were the benefits of electrical appliances for farms and homes, safety, and holidays. The descriptions of electrical appliances emphasized gender roles in alluding to the potential new freedom for women from household chores. Farm-oriented advertisements underscored increased farm productivity through electrical innovations such as incubators and automated milking machines. As electric usage increased, the mat service added advertisements pointing out the need for updated wiring in order to maintain safety. More mundane concerns included electric service issues such as power outages, vandalism and timely bill payment. A wide variety of Reddy Kilowatt holiday poses became available, ranging from the Easter Bunny to President's Day and Halloween. Christmas was especially well illustrated, accenting the possibility of electrical appliances as gifts. The Reddy Kilowatt Service was only available to investor-owned utilities, and the mat service reflected this by emphasizing the benefits of this economic structure. Other economic themes included the inexpensiveness of electric service and payment of taxes by investor-owned utilities. The service also began to express a specific political agenda in response to public ownership of utilities and rural electrification cooperatives. Bolstered by post-World War II anti-communist sentiments, the Reddy Kilowatt Service began issuing advertisements promoting free enterprise which linked public and co-operative utilities with the road to socialism. In 1950, Collins launched the Grass Roots Impact Plan, a comprehensive advertising plan incorporating these themes. Ashton Collins consistently emphasized to his licensees the need to begin the consumer education process early. Youth education was a clear priority for the Reddy Kilowatt Service and was even included in Collins's initial "Reddy Remarks" program via a bedtime story booklet. Licensee companies sponsored Reddy Kilowatt Youth Clubs in the late 1940s, inspired by Collins's speeches emphasizing the importance of youth programming. In the mid-1960s, Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., developed a comprehensive youth program for client companies that incorporated youth education with capitalist economic values. Collins developed a supporting slide presentation titled "Fission, Fertility, and the Future." Tailored to an audience of business executives, the presentation emphasized the importance of reaching youth during a period of social upheaval in order to protect the interests of investor-owned utilities. Film and television programs developed by the company also reflected the emphasis on youth outreach. Since the company's business revolved around a cartoon character, the transition into animation seemed fairly simple. Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., entered into a partnership with Walter Lantz Productions to produce Reddy Made Magic, a 1946 cartoon about the history of electricity. However, producing audio-visual media turned out to be too expensive and the experiment with animation remained limited. In 1957, Collins tested the waters again by contracting for a commercial with Terrytoons, a low-budget animation company and, in 1959, the company hired John Sutherland to update Reddy Made Magic for the atomic age. The Mighty Atom recycled the historical sequence from the previous film and added a new sequence promoting the use of atomic energy. Collins already had used the cheaper media of filmstrips and slide presentations for business presentations, and this format also was incorporated into the youth program. Licensee companies were encouraged to use Reddy Kilowatt in their own sponsorship of radio and television programs, and some used Reddy Kilowatt in locally produced commercials. Ashton Collins was an aggressive and skillful promoter of Reddy Kilowatt, and the range of the program was not limited to the United States. Collins began registering his trademarks in prospective markets early on, and soon received trademarks in Canada (1934), Argentina (1937), Great Britain (1938), and Mexico (1938). Trademarks were also granted in Australia, Barbados, Kenya, Mexico, South Korea, Venezuela and the Netherlands Antilles. Though no official list of international licensee companies is available, materials within the collection indicate lively usage of Reddy Kilowatt in South America and Australia. Ashton Collins, Sr. was married in 1931 to Mrs. Ashton Collins, Sr. They had two sons, Ashton, Jr., and Beatty. Each member of the family became involved in the business over time, though that was not required by Ashton Collins, Sr., at any time. After the two boys left home, Mrs. Collins began volunteering at the office; her work included filing, photocopying, and assembling indexes and scrapbooks. After his release from the Air Force, Ashton Collins, Jr., approached his father about working in the company. Ashton Collins, Sr., met with him over the course of a day and outlined a program for him to work his way up through the company. Collins, Jr., agreed and began work in the mailroom. In 1962, he became president of the company and his father became chairman of the Board of Directors. Beatty Collins's involvement in the company was limited to service on the Board of Directors. By the late 1960s, the business climate for investor-owned utilities had changed significantly. Public concern over the environmental impact of power plants resulted in greater scrutiny of new plant construction, particularly in regard to nuclear energy facilities. Electric utilities no longer desired to sell increased output, as building new plants became too costly to justify their expense. The Reddy Kilowatt Program reflected these changes in several ways. An environmental program was developed to help electric utilities navigate their way through the increasingly complicated public and business climate. This included a number of services specifically targeted toward the issue of atomic power such as consumer advertising meant to demonstrate the minimal output of radioactive waste and a low-profile consulting service focusing on atomic plant siting issues. As companies moved away from blanket advertising for electric usage, the Reddy Kilowatt character was relegated to children's programming. As Ashton Collins, Sr.'s, influence in the company began to wane, the youth program moved away from economic education and shifted to conservation issues and electrical safety. The company changed its name to Reddy Communications, Inc., at some point before 1982 and began to market itself as an information clearinghouse and consulting service. In 1998, the company was bought by Northern States Power, which had recently become a wholly-owned subsidiary of Xcel Energy.
Related Materials:
Related Archival Materials: See Louisan E. Mamer Rural Electrification Administration papers, 1927-2002 (AC0862).

Related Artifacts: The Division of Information Technology and Communications holds artifacts related to this collection (Accession #: XXXX-XXXX).
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center by Xcel Energy in 2005.
Restrictions:
Physical Access: Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. Reference copies are ½ inch VHS, audio cassette, or compact disc. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow. There are no reference copies on VHS or DVD for the filmstrips, and the Archives Center does not have a filmstrip projector.

Technical Access: Titles on Beta Max video tape and all picture and audio elements for Original Film (OF) 913.7 cannot be viewed. Viewing the film and filmstrip portion of collection requires special appointment.
Rights:
Collection items are available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions.
Topic:
Baby boom generation  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Electricity -- History  Search this
Nuclear energy  Search this
Public utilities  Search this
Trademarks  Search this
Industrial films  Search this
Anti-communist movements -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Animated cartoons
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Reports
Promotional literature
Photographs -- 20th century
Motion pictures (visual works) -- 20th century
Memorandums
Filmstrips
Cartoons (humorous images) -- 20th century
Speeches
Comic books
Coloring books
Advertisements -- 20th century
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Audiotapes
Citation:
Reddy Kilowatt Records, 1926-1999, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0913
See more items in:
Reddy Kilowatt Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0913
Online Media:

New York World's Fair Collection

Topic:
World of Tomorrow
Collector:
Community Life, Div. of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Names:
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Maps
Articles
Postcards
Brochures
Schedules
Place:
Queens (New York, N.Y.)
Date:
1939
Scope and Contents:
Newspaper articles, fair schedules and maps, exhibit brochures,and pictures of the Fair grounds.
Newspaper articles, fair schedules and maps, exhibit brochures,and pictures of the Fair grounds.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into one series by subject or type of document.
Biographical / Historical:
The theme of this fair was "The World of Tomorrow," symbolized by the Trylon & Perisphere sculptures. It commemorated the 150th anniversary of the innauguration of George Washington as President in New York City.

The Fair was held on 1216 acres in Flushing Meadows, Queens, N.Y., divided into 7 geographic and thematic zones: Amusement, Communications & Business Systems, Community Interests, Food, Government, Medicine & Public Health, Production & Distribution, Science & Education, and Transportation.

In expanding on the theme, the Fair tried to show that what was being built then would be the World of Tomorrow. 62 foreign nations built exhibit halls. World War II began Sept. 1, 1939, as the Nazis overran countries represented at the Fair, such as France, Denmark, and Belgium.

World War II started September 1, 1939 putting a damper on the 1940 season as the Nazis overran countries which were represented at the Fair such as France, Denmark & Belgium.
Provenance:
Immediate source of aquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Amusements  Search this
Exhibitions  Search this
Recreation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Maps -- 1880-1940
Articles
Postcards -- 1930-1940
Brochures -- 1930-1940
Schedules
Citation:
New York World's Fair Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
New York World's Fair Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0134
See more items in:
New York World's Fair Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0134
Online Media:

Robert Richenburg papers

Creator:
Richenburg, Robert  Search this
Names:
Club (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Ozenfant School of Fine Arts -- Students  Search this
Pratt Institute  Search this
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum  Search this
Tibor de Nagy Gallery  Search this
United States. Veterans Administration  Search this
Amgott, Madeline  Search this
Ashton, Dore  Search this
Cavallon, Giorgio, 1904-1989  Search this
Cherry, Herman  Search this
Geist, Sidney  Search this
Grad, Bonnie Lee, 1949-  Search this
Hofmann, Hans, 1880-1966  Search this
Kline, Franz, 1910-1962  Search this
Lassaw, Ernestine  Search this
Lassaw, Ibram, 1913-2003  Search this
Matter, Mercedes  Search this
Moulton, Lynne  Search this
Ortiz, Rafael Montanez  Search this
Pavia, Philip, 1915-2005  Search this
Rebay, Hilla, 1890-1967  Search this
Slivka, David, 1913-  Search this
Extent:
5.3 Linear feet
4.32 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Illustrated letters
Sound recordings
Greeting cards
Video recordings
Photographs
Interviews
Date:
circa 1910s-2008
Summary:
The Robert Richenburg papers, circa 1910s-2008, measure 5.3 linear feet and 4.32 GB. Biographical material, correspondence, subject files, writings, sound and video recordings, printed material, and photographs document the professional career and personal life of the educator and New York School painter and sculptor best known for his Abstract Expressionist paintings.
Scope and Content Note:
The Robert Richenburg papers, circa 1910s-2008, measure 5.3 linear feet and 4.32 GB. Biographical material, correspondence, subject files, writings, audio/visual recordings, printed material, and photographs document the professional career and personal life of the educator and New York School painter and sculptor best known for his Abstract Expressionist paintings.

Biographical material includes educational records from high school through his studies at the Ozenfant School of Fine Arts using G.I. benefits. Birth, marriage,and death certificates are also found, along with Richenburg family memorabilia. There is a digital video recording of Robert Richenburg's memorial service.

Correspondence consists mostly of family letters, including some illustrated letters and many handmade cards featuring original artwork. Condolence letters addressed to Marggy Kerr are from friends, relatives, colleagues, neighbors, and acquaintances.

Subject files contain various combinations of correspondence, printed material, photographs, writings and notes relating to Richenburg's professional career and personal life. They document exhibitions, gallery representation, gifts of art work to museums and individuals, memberships, teaching activities, former students, friendships, and other aspects of his life. Files of significant interest are: The Club, Tina Dicky and Madeline Amgott, Former Students (particularly Raphael Montanez Ortiz), Bonnie L. Grad and Lynne Moulton, Hans Hofmann, Ibram Lassaw, Philip Pavia, Pratt Institute, Hilla Rebay and the Museum of Non-Objective Painting, Tibor De Nagy Gallery, and Veterans Administration.

Writings by Richenburg consist of notes, reviews, artist's statements, and the text of a speech. Also included are quotations compiled over the years by Marggy Kerr of Richenburg's comments on art and life. Among the writings by others are student papers, reviews, and poems.

Sound and visual recordings include interviews with Robert Richenburg, often conducted as research for exhibitions. Videocassettes document events such as panel discussions, and artist gatherings; a few were produced in conjunction with museum exhibitions. Also found are videotapes by video artist Raphael Montanez Ortiz, Richenburg's friend and former student.

Printed material includes items that are specifically about Robert Richenburg as well as items that incidentally mention him. The majority consist of exhibition catalogs and announcements.

Photographs show art work by Richenburg, exhibition openings and other events, and a variety of people and places. Among the events recorded is the "Artists Roundtable on Art of the '50s." Moderated by Dore Ashton, the panel included Herman Cherry, Sidney Geist, Ibram Lassaw, Mercedes Matter, and David Slivka. There are photographs of Richenburg's boyhood home in Roslindale, MA, and his house in Ithaca, NY. He is pictured with others including family members, dealers, and curators. Of particular interest are photographs of Richenburg in Provincetown, MA, 1952-1953, with friends, including: Giorgio Cavallon, Franz Kline, Ibram and Ernestine Lassaw, and Philip and Marcia Pavia. World War II photographs consist of images of art work (not by Richenburg), Richenburg and other individuals taken in France and England; a number include views of Shrivenham American University.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 7 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1910s-2006 (Box 1; 0.1 linear ft., ER01; 1.66 GB)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1940-2007 (Box 1; 0.4 linear ft.)

Series 3: Subject Files, 1942-2008 (Boxes 1-3, OV 7; 2.25 linear ft.)

Series 4: Writings, circa 1950-2006 (Box 3; 0.1 linear ft.)

Series 5: Sound and Video Recordings, 1996-2006 (Boxes 3-4; 0.75 linear ft., ER02; 2.66 GB)

Series 6: Printed Material, 1947-2008 (Boxes 4-5; 1.25 linear ft.)

Series 7: Photographs, circa 1923-2006 (Boxes 5-6; 0.45 linear ft.)
Biographical Note:
Robert Bartlett Richenburg (1917-2006) was a painter and educator in New York City, Ithaca, New York, and East Hampton, New York.

At age 13, Bob Richenburg's artistic talent earned him a place in a daily class for Boston Public School students at the Museum of Fine Arts. Most classes focused on copying; of far greater benefit to the young art student was the opportunity to wander through the museum and look at art nearly every day of his high school career.

Richenburg's father was an architect who also ran a stained glass lampshade business; neither endeavor was profitable, so the family endured very hard times during the Depression. To help support the family, after school and on weekends, Bob delivered ice and coal with an older brother, a job he continued while attending night school courses in liberal arts at Boston University. He studied at George Washington University in Washington, DC, 1937-1939, often working as many as four part-time jobs to cover tuition and living expenses; during summers and school vacations, he returned to Boston to work with his brother. Due to his difficult financial situation, Richenburg's college career ended before he earned a degree.

After learning that the Corcoran School of Art charged no tuition, Richenburg returned to Washington in 1940 to study painting and sculpture. Although uninformed about the art world, he realized that New York was a better place for an aspiring artist. In 1941, he began studying with George Grosz and Reginald Marsh at the Art Students League. On his own, he studied materials and techniques and copied paintings at the Metropolitan Museum Art.

With war looming and the near certainty of being drafted, Robert Richenburg and Libby Chic Peltyn (always called Chic) married in November 1942; two weeks later, he entered the army. Richenburg spent three years in England and France as a combat engineer, transporting explosives and instructing troops in the demolition of mines and booby traps. In England, he managed a photo lab and taught drawing in the fine arts section of Shrivenham American University, a school run by the U. S. Army.

Once discharged, Richenburg returned to New York and took advantage of the G.I. Bill to continue studying painting (and for the subsistence allowance that provided modest support for his family - son Ronald was born in 1947). Richenburg studied at the Ozenfant School, 1947-1949, where he developed a life-long friendship with fellow student Ibram Lassaw.

He continued his art education with Hans Hofmann in New York and Provincetown, 1949-1951. During this period, Richenburg taught drawing, painting, and art history classes sponsored by the Extension Division of City College of New York and held at venues such as Brooklyn's Central YMCA, and branches of the New York Public Library. Richenburg quickly discovered that he liked teaching and enjoyed the students.

In 1951, Richenburg joined the Pratt Institute faculty and taught studio courses at night; soon, he was teaching full time during the day. Richenburg began to achieve recognition as the youngest of the Abstract Expressionists and by the early 1960s his career was well established. Tibor De Nagy Gallery in New York and Dwan Gallery in California represented Richenburg, and a number of paintings were sold to museums and private collectors. As Richenburg experimented with new ideas and materials, his work began changing. He was a popular instructor at Pratt with several promising students who also began experimenting. In 1964, when the unorthodox work of one student in particular caught the attention of Pratt administrators, Richenburg was asked to change his approach to teaching. This roused student protests, and press coverage focused on the specific situation and academic freedom in general. He chose to resign rather than alter his teaching philosophy.

Richenburg secured a position at Cornell University. The confluence of his absence from New York City and the ascendance of Pop Art were damaging, and his career was derailed when De Nagy and Dwan dropped him from their rosters a few years later. After it was clear that he would not secure tenure at Cornell, Richenburg returned to New York in 1967 and began teaching at Hunter College. Daily life in New York was harder than he remembered and, for him, the City had lost its allure.

When offered the chairmanship of the Ithaca College art department, the Richenburgs were delighted to return to tranquil Ithaca, New York. Chic died in 1977, and Bob remained at Ithaca College until retiring in 1983. In addition full-time teaching and handling administrative activities as department chairman, Richenburg made time to work in his studio practically every day. He created a large body of work in a wide variety of media and styles, moving on to new ideas and experiments after exhausting his possibilities or interest.

Beginning in 1949 with a loan exhibition organized by The Museum of Non-Objective Art, Richenburg participated in a wide range of group shows. His first solo exhibition was held in 1953 at the Hendler Gallery, Philadelphia. Over the years, he enjoyed other solo exhibitions at venues such as: David Findlay Jr. Fine Art, Dwan Gallery, Hansa Gallery, Ithaca College Museum of Art, McCormick Gallery, Rose Art Museum (Brandeis University), Santa Barbara Museum of Art, Sidney Mishkin Gallery (Baruch College), and Tibor De Nagy Gallery. In the 1960s and 1970s, Richenburg's work was seldom shown, but from the mid-1980s onward there has been renewed interest.

Richenburg's work is represented in the permanent collections of many museums including Hirshhorn Museum, Museum of Modern Art, Philadelphia Museum of Art, and Whitney Museum of American Art. In addition, his work was acquired by many highly regarded private collectors including Larry Aldrich, Walter P. Chrysler, Jr., Joseph H. Hirshhorn, J. Patrick Lannon, and James A. Michener.

Robert Richenburg and Margaret (Marggy) Kerr, a painter and sculptor living in Ithaca, were married in 1980. Ms. Kerr is known for "brick rugs" made from cut bricks forming designs for site specific sculpture and garden walks. Richenburg became close to his stepfamily of three children, Marggy's grandchildren and her mother. After he retired from Ithaca College, Bob and Marggy moved to Springs in East Hampton, New York.

Although Richenburg suffered from Parkinson's disease during the last six years of his life, he continued to work in his home studio until physically unable to produce art. He died on October 10, 2006.
Related Material:
An oral history interview of Robert Richenburg was conducted by Dorothy Seckler for the Archives of American Art, circa 1968.
Provenance:
Donated in 2008 by Margaret Kerr, widow of Robert Richenburg, on behalf of herself and his son Ronald Richenburg.
Restrictions:
Use of original material requires an appointment. Use of audiovisual material with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Robert Richenburg papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donors have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Educators -- New York (State) -- East Hampton  Search this
Abstract expressionism  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- East Hampton  Search this
New York school of art  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- East Hampton  Search this
Genre/Form:
Illustrated letters
Sound recordings
Greeting cards
Video recordings
Photographs
Interviews
Citation:
Robert Richenburg papers, circa 1910s-2008. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.richrobe
See more items in:
Robert Richenburg papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-richrobe
Online Media:

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