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Beaker

Maker:
Kimax  Search this
Owens-Illinois Inc.  Search this
Physical Description:
glass (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 1.8 cm x 1.3 cm; 23/32 in x 1/2 in
overall: 5/8 in x 5/8 in; 1.5875 cm x 1.5875 cm
Object Name:
beaker
Beaker
Associated Place:
United States: New Jersey
ID Number:
2004.0147.001
Catalog number:
2004.0147.001
Accession number:
2004.0147
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ad-66f4-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1405749

Kimax

Maker:
Kimax  Search this
Owens-Illinois Inc.  Search this
Physical Description:
glass (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 10.4 cm x 14.5 cm x 7.5 cm; 4 3/32 in x 5 23/32 in x 2 15/16 in
overall: 4 1/4 in x 5 3/4 in x 3 1/4 in; 10.795 cm x 14.605 cm x 8.255 cm
Object Name:
beaker
Beaker
Associated Place:
United States: New Jersey
ID Number:
2004.0147.003
Accession number:
2004.0147
Catalog number:
2004.0147.003
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ad-66f5-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1405751

Centrifuge

Physical Description:
metal (overall material)
plastic (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 44.5 cm x 60.9 cm x 47 cm; 17 1/2 in x 24 in x 18 1/2 in
Object Name:
Centrifuge
Associated Place:
United States: New Jersey
Credit Line:
The Rockefeller University
ID Number:
1996.0188.06
Accession number:
1996.0188
Catalog number:
1996.0188.06
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a1-3314-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_333416

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Wines

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
2.58 Cubic feet (consisting of 5.5 boxes, 4 oversize folders, 1 map case folder.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Trademarks
Letterheads
Sales catalogs
Business ephemera
Business cards
Print advertising
Business letters
Ephemera
Invoices
Receipts
Catalogs
Patents
Publications
Trade catalogs
Labels
Printed ephemera
Catalogues
Trade cards
Recipes
Trade literature
Periodicals
Manufacturers' catalogs
Commercial catalogs
Menus
Mail order catalogs
Instructional materials
Business records
Advertising mail
Advertisements
Commercial correspondence
Advertising
Auction catalogs
Legal documents
Sales records
Beverage labels
Legislation (legal concepts)
Manuals
Correspondence
Sales letters
Exhibition catalogs
Advertising cards
Advertising fliers
Date:
1748-1994
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Wines forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
In 1953, Warshaw launched a year-long collecting campaign, soliciting material on whiskey and wine. He expanded this effort to also include items related to the drinking habit of notable persons. The wine category has been separated from this original grouping and contains material primarily related to wine traders and merchants, wine auction and exhibition materials, import and export legislation, and the creation and subsequent history of certain wines. Additional topics represented in the collection include medicinal uses of wine, cooking and wine, wine-related organizations, and wine in religious traditions.

The bulk of the represented content is print material including advertisements, business records, price lists, invoices, correspondence, and import/export records. While several companies are represented, there are no comprehensive business records for any entity represented in the collection.

Advertising represents a large portion of the collection, and provides a varied and expansive look at the evolution of wine-related art in advertising. Other strengths of the collection lie in the diversity of subject material, allowing researchers to get a broad introduction to several facets of the wine industry and wine in culture.
Arrangement:
Wines is arranged in three series.

Also included is a partial Brand Name Index - Guide Supplement (Box 1, Folder Admin).

Business Records

Genre

Subject
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Wines is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Trade associations  Search this
Wine -- Storage  Search this
Labels -- Alcoholic beverages  Search this
Trademarks -- Design  Search this
advertising -- Alcoholic beverages  Search this
Drinking of alcoholic beverages -- Law and legislation  Search this
Consumer goods -- Catalogs  Search this
Retail trade  Search this
Licenses  Search this
Wine labels  Search this
Wine industry  Search this
Wine and wine making  Search this
Alcohol  Search this
Labels -- Design  Search this
Genre/Form:
Trademarks
Letterheads
Sales catalogs
Business ephemera
Business cards
Print advertising
Business letters
Ephemera
Invoices
Receipts
Catalogs
Patents
Publications
Trade catalogs
Labels
Printed ephemera
Catalogues
Trade cards
Publications -- wine industry
Recipes
Trade literature
Periodicals
Manufacturers' catalogs
Commercial catalogs
Menus
Mail order catalogs
Instructional materials
Business records
Publications -- Business
Advertising mail
Advertisements
Commercial correspondence
Advertising
Auction catalogs
Legal documents
Sales records
Beverage labels
Legislation (legal concepts)
Manuals
Correspondence
Sales letters
Exhibition catalogs
Advertising cards
Advertising fliers
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Wines, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Wines
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Wines
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-wines
Online Media:

Scarf, "Niagara Falls" silk; Mallinson's National Parks series

Maker:
H. R. Mallinson & Co. Inc.  Search this
Physical Description:
silk (overall material)
grey (overall color)
blue (overall color)
pink (overall color)
orange (overall color)
plain weave; cylinder printed (overall production method/technique)
Measurements:
overall: 90 in x 22 in; 228.6 cm x 55.88 cm
Object Name:
Scarf
Place made:
United States: New York, New York City
Depicted:
United States: New York, Niagara Falls
Date made:
1927
Subject:
National Parks  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of H.R. Mallinson & Co., Inc.
ID Number:
TE.T05573
Accession number:
95522
Catalog number:
T05573.000
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Textiles
American Silks
Mallinson's National Parks
American Silk Industry
Migel-Mallinson Silks
Textiles
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b2-5159-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1166579

Scarf, "Garden of the Gods" design, Mallinson's National Park series

Maker:
H. R. Mallinson & Co. Inc.  Search this
Physical Description:
silk, rayon (overall material)
plain weave; cylinder-printed (overall production method/technique)
red (overall color)
yellow (overall color)
purple (overall color)
gray (overall color)
orange (overall color)
white ground (overall color)
landscape (overall pattern)
Measurements:
overall: 56 in x 19 in; 142.24 cm x 48.26 cm
Object Name:
Scarf
Place made:
United States: New York, New York City
Date made:
1927
Subject:
National Parks  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of H.R. Mallinson & Co., Inc.
ID Number:
TE.T05590
Accession number:
95522
Catalog number:
T05590.000
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Textiles
American Silks
Mallinson's National Parks
American Silk Industry
Migel-Mallinson Silks
Textiles
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b2-625a-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1166875

Isabel Lydia Whitney papers, 1832-1973

Creator:
Whitney, Isabel Lydia, 1884-1962  Search this
Subject:
Simmons, Dawn Langley  Search this
Type:
Scrapbooks
Topic:
Mural painting and decoration -- New York (State) -- Brooklyn  Search this
Texile design -- New York (State) -- Brooklyn  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)5794
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)208633
AAA_collcode_whitisab
Theme:
Women
Lives of American Artists
Craft
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_208633

Oral history interview with Betty Cooke

Interviewee:
Cooke, Betty, 1924-  Search this
Interviewer:
Yager, Jan, 1951-  Search this
Creator:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Names:
Cranbrook Academy of Art -- Students  Search this
Maryland Institute, College of Art -- Faculty  Search this
Maryland Institute, College of Art -- Students  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Beene, Geoffrey  Search this
Bertoia, Harry  Search this
De Patta, Margaret, 1903-1964  Search this
Morton, Philip  Search this
Nakashima, George, 1905-1990  Search this
Steinmetz, Bill  Search this
Extent:
132 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
2004 July 1-2
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Betty Cooke conducted 2004 July 1-2, by Jan Yager, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, in Baltimore, Maryland.
Cooke speaks of her family and growing up in Baltimore, Maryland; taking art classes in high school; attending the Maryland Institute, College of Art; apprenticing in a jeweler's studio; teaching design at the Maryland Institute; buying a house and setting up a studio and shop in it; showing her work in the MoMA "Good Design" Exhibition; marrying fellow artist Bill Steinmetz; working as a design consultant; designing interiors for bowling alleys and restaurants; early jewelry designs; studying one summer at Cranbrook Academy of Art; selling works in various galleries; her interest in folk art; using wood and stones in her pieces; creating a wall mural for a school; working with the Rouse Company; opening The Store Ltd. at Cross Keys and designing the modern interior; her trademark designs; making jewelry on commission; and showing her work in exhibitions. Cooke also speaks of her current studio space and routine; sketching designs; documenting her work; traveling to Mexico, China, Morocco, and London; her current involvement with the Maryland Institute, College of Art; renovating a barn for a new studio; the function and wearability of her jewelry; having a retrospective show in 1995; designing for Geoffrey Beene; her interest in painting and sculpture; defining design versus craft; the market for jewelry; how her work has changed over time; sources of inspiration; collecting objects; deciding to go into retail; choosing metals and tools; masculine and feminine jewelry; and being a female artist. Cooke also recalls Margaret De Patta, Harry Bertoia, Philip Morton, George Nakashima, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Betty Cooke (1924- ) is a jeweler and metalsmith of Baltimore, Maryland. Jan Yager is a jeweler from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
General:
Originally recorded on 5 sound discs. Reformatted in 2010 as 8 digital wav files. Duration is 6 hr., 2 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Topic:
Decorative arts  Search this
Jewelers -- Interviews  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Function:
Artists' studios
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.cooke04
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-cooke04

Charles Baldwin White Trademark Collection

Donor:
White, John H., 1933-  Search this
Collector:
White, Charles Baldwin  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (6 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Labels
Advertisements
Date:
1920-1940
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of several thousand clippings of trade marks, labels, etc., taken from magazines and newspapers, and labels. Many of them are quite small and a very few have dates and sources noted on the reverse side. Most of them appear to have been clipped in the 1920 1940 period. They were classified by the collector on the basis of the insignia, symbol or design of the trademark (not the product or organization which it represents). Subgroups include living things (animals, humans, plants) represented, objects (architecture, clothing, etc.) and symbols. Business and other organizations, trademarks are subdivided by industry or sector. Publications, including some of the U.S. Patent Office, which deal with trademarks are included.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into eight series

Series 1: Trademarks: Living Things

Series 2: Trademarks: Objects

Series 3: Trademarks: Symbols

Series 4: Trademarks: Business and Organizations

Series 5; Trademarks: Other Trademark Material

Series 6: Trademarks: Labels

Series 7; Trademarks: Publications

Series 8: Patent Office Gazette Material
Provenance:
Collection donated by John H. White, November 14, 1985.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Trademarks  Search this
Patents  Search this
Genre/Form:
Labels
Advertisements
Citation:
Charles Baldwin White Trademark Collection, 1920-1940, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0182
See more items in:
Charles Baldwin White Trademark Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0182

Henry and Nancy Rosin Collection of Early Photography of Japan

Collector:
Rosin, Henry D., Dr.  Search this
Rosin, Nancy  Search this
Creator:
Lyman, Benjamin Smith, 1835-1920  Search this
Ueno, Hikoma, 1838-1904  Search this
Beato, Felice, b. ca. 1825  Search this
Stillfried, Raimund, Baron von, 1839-1911  Search this
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Names:
Japanese tea ceremony  Search this
Meiji, Emperor of Japan, 1852-1912  Search this
Shōken, Empress, consort of Meiji, Emperor of Japan, 1850-1914  Search this
Extent:
616 Items (approximate count)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Mammoth plates
Photographs
Photograph albums
Stereographs
Cartes-de-visite
Photographic prints
Place:
Japan
Japan -- 1890-1900
Kyoto (Japan)
Tokyo (Japan)
Yokohama-shi (Japan)
Date:
1860 - ca. 1900
Scope and Contents:
Assembled by collectors Dr. Henry D. Rosin and Nancy Rosin to document nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century photography of Japan. Includes albumen prints, portions handcolored, some signed and numbered in the negative. Taken by photographers Felice Beato (b. ca. 1825), Baron Raimon von Stillfried (1938-1911), Kusakabe Kimbei (active 1880s), Ueno Hikoma (1838-1904), Ogawa Kazumasa (1860-1929) and unknown photographers to depict architecture, landscapes, formal studio portraits, and daily activities.
Arrangement:
Organized chronologically by the creators.
Biographical / Historical:
Henry and Nancy Rosin were collectors of Japanese photography of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Local Numbers:
FSA A1999.35
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Topic:
Ainu  Search this
Photography of women  Search this
Streets -- Japan  Search this
Temples -- Japan  Search this
Samurai  Search this
Sumo wrestlers  Search this
Religion  Search this
Genre/Form:
Mammoth plates
Photographs -- 1850-1900
Photograph albums
Stereographs -- 1860-1900
Cartes-de-visite
Photographic prints
Citation:
Henry and Nancy Rosin Collection of Early Photography of Japan. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Purchase and partial donation.
Identifier:
FSA.A1999.35
See more items in:
Henry and Nancy Rosin Collection of Early Photography of Japan
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a1999-35
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
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Online Media:

Isabel Lydia Whitney papers

Creator:
Whitney, Isabel Lydia, 1884-1962  Search this
Names:
Simmons, Dawn Langley  Search this
Extent:
37 Items ((on partial microfilm reel))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Date:
1832-1973
Scope and Contents:
2 notebooks, one labeled "Paintings/Watercolor/Landscapes" (79 pages) and the other "Decoration/Fresco/Drawings/Misc./Oils" (129 pages) containing titles and descriptions of works completed; lists of works exhibited at the Society of Independent Artists, 1917-1941; 3 exhibition catalogs and announcements, undated, 1963-1964; 2 scrapbooks containing correspondence and articles associated with Ms. Whitney; 1 album of 34 photographs of Ms. Whitney from infancy to young adulthood, of her family and friends, and of her murals; 2 samples of floral fabric designs and 1 sample of wallpaper designed for Katzenbach & Warren, Inc.
3 watercolor studies for murals; 1 pen and ink drawing of the trademark for Whitney Work Stop Motion Silk; 18 photographs of Ms. Whitney, her family, and works of art; and 3 letters from Dawn Langley Simmons to Robert Coggins regarding Ms. Whitney's paintings, 1972-1973.
Biographical / Historical:
Painter. Known as the first woman fresco painter in America. Studied at Pratt Institute. Using Cennino Cennini's fifteenth century book on fresco painting as a guide, Ms. Whitney devised her own fresco formulas that could better endure the harsh New York climate. Her career as a fresco painter ended, however, after a crippling fall but she was to continue to work in watercolors and oils. Ms. Whitney also decorated homes of the famous, restored old houses, and designed wallpaper (including restoration of the Williamsburg prints). She exhibited at the Metropolitan Museum, Fifteen Gallery, Pen & Brush Club, and others.
Ms. Whitney is a direct descendant of William Penn and Eli Whitney.
Provenance:
Lent for microfilming 1985 by Robert P. Coggins.
Restrictions:
The Archives of American art does not own the original papers. Use is limited to the microfilm copy.
Occupation:
Muralists -- New York (State) -- Brooklyn  Search this
Textile designers -- New York (State) -- Brooklyn  Search this
Topic:
Mural painting and decoration -- New York (State) -- Brooklyn  Search this
Texile design -- New York (State) -- Brooklyn  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Identifier:
AAA.whitisab
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-whitisab

George Nakashima papers

Creator:
Nakashima, George, 1905-1990  Search this
Names:
Caldwell, Alfred, 1903-1998  Search this
Extent:
1 Linear foot
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1950-1991
Summary:
The papers of architect, craftsman, woodworker, and furniture designer George Nakashima measure 1.0 linear foot and date from 1950 to 1991. The collection is comprised of biographical material, correspondence, writings, subject files, and printed material that mostly relate to Nakashima's work in furniture design.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of architect, craftsman, woodworker, and furniture designer George Nakashima measure 1.0 linear foot and date from 1950 to 1991. The collection is comprised of biographical material, correspondence, writings, subject files, and printed material that mostly relate to Nakashima's work in furniture design.

Biographical materials consist of a curriculum vitae and obituaries. Correspondence is with clients, colleagues, and friends in the United Staes, Japan, and the Sri Aurobindo community. Writings by and about Nakashima include articles, essays, and a speech about his design processes. Subject files are on Alfred Caldwell, flush toilet systems, trademark, and wood and tree services. Printed material includes art reproductions, booklets, catalogs, clippings, and publicity material.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as five series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1990 (Box 1; 1 folder)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1950-1990 (Box 1; 0.7 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, 1953-1989 (Box 1, 2 folders)

Series 4: Subject Files, 1957-1980s (Box 1, 4 folders)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1954-1991 (Box 1, 0.2 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
George Nakashima (1905-1990) was a Japanese American architect, craftsman, woodworker, and furniture designer in New Hope, Pennsylvania. He was born in Spokane, Washington and received a bachelor's degree in architecture from the University of Washington in 1929. He also earned a master's degree from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1930.

After his studies, Nakashima traveled around the world by steamship. He spent time in France, North Africa, and Japan. While in Japan, he began working under architect Antonin Raymond. When Raymond's architecture company was commissioned to build for the Sri Aurobindo ashram in Puducherry, India, Nakashima became the onsite architect as well as a devotee of Sri Aurobindo. When World War II began, Nakashima returned to the U.S. with his wife, Marion, whom he met in Japan. George, Marion, and their infant daughter Mira were sent to a Japanese internment camp in Idaho in 1942. The Nakashimas were able to leave the camp after Raymond sponsored their release in 1943. Nakashima began working on Raymond's farm in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, where he eventually built his workshop. Nakashima's son Kevin was born after the family relocated to Pennsylvania.

Nakashima's design work includes furniture lines for the Widdicomb Furniture Company and Knoll Furniture, and 200 pieces of furniture commissioned by Nelson Rockefeller. He also wrote a book titled The Soul of a Tree: A Master Woodworker's Reflections.

Nakashima died in 1990.
Provenance:
The papers were donated by Marion Nakashima, widow of George Nakashima, in 1991.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center.
Topic:
Architect-designed furniture  Search this
Artisans  Search this
Asian American art  Search this
Asian American artists  Search this
Asian American architects  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Furniture making  Search this
handicrafts  Search this
Woodworkers  Search this
Japanese American art  Search this
Japanese American artists  Search this
Japanese Americans -- Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Asian American woodworkers  Search this
Asian American furniture designers  Search this
Citation:
George Nakashima papers, 1950-1991. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.nakageor
See more items in:
George Nakashima papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-nakageor

Alvin Lustig papers

Creator:
Lustig, Alvin, 1915-1955  Search this
Names:
Langsner, Jules, 1911-1967  Search this
Extent:
4.8 Linear feet ((1,200 items partially microfilmed on 3 reels))
1 Item (1 rolled doc.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1935-1955
Scope and Contents:
Biographical material; correspondence; writings; graphic designs; sketches; clippings; and photographs.
Reel 323: biographical material, including a biographical sketch by Jules Langsner; correspondence, personal and professional, 1949-55; receipts for works sold; notes and articles on design by Lustig; original design layouts of trademarks, magazine covers, paricularly LOOK magazine, book jackets, record covers, girl scout pamphlets, advertisements, and stationery.
Reel 324: sketchbook of Lustig's designs; architectural drawings; magazine and newspaper clippings; and miscellaneous materials.
Reel 421: photographs of Lustig including two taken by Maya Deren, 1944 (one copyprint microfilmed on reel 1817, fr. 786), of his fabric designs, graphic designs, furniture designs (including some marginal notes), sculpture, helicopter designs, and packaging designs; pictures of the Beverly Landau building and the Beverly Carlton Hotel in Los Angeles; office interiors designed by Lustig; and photographs of Rath House, 1948.
Unmicrofilmed material: books whose jackets Lustig designed.
Biographical / Historical:
Graphic, architectural, and book designer, New York. Studied briefly with Frank Lloyd Wright, but was primarily self taught.
Provenance:
The donor, Elaine Lustig Cohen, is Lustig's widow.
Restrictions:
Microfilmed portion: Patrons must use microfilm copy.
Unmicrofilmed portion: use requires an appointment.
Occupation:
Designers  Search this
Graphic artists  Search this
Topic:
Graphic arts -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Architectural design  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.lustalvi
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-lustalvi

Lynch-Staunton, M. and Mme. Victor

Collection Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Container:
Box 59, Folder 13
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1961-1971
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records / Series 1: Correspondence / 1.3: General Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-jacqself-ref10442
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Arthur Ehrat Papers

Creator:
Ehrat, Arthur  Search this
Fleckner, John A., 1941-  Search this
Extent:
10 Cubic feet (26 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Videotapes
Audiovisual materials
Interviews
Oral history
Legal records
Patents
Date:
2011
1865-2005
bulk 1970-1990
Summary:
Arthur Ehrat invented and patented a breakaway basketball rim, fashioning his prototypes from bolts, metal braces and one key part: a piece of the heavy-duty coil spring on a John Deere cultivator. His invention helped to revolutionize the way basketball is played because players could slam dunk the ball with fewer injuries and without bending the rims or breaking backboards. This collection includes correspondence, legal documents --such as patent papers, litigation files and licensing agreements --photographs and sketches that relate to the basketball invention, as well as materials regarding his two field spreader patents and other invention ideas.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is divided into five series and consists of approximately seven cubic feet.

This collection includes correspondence and legal documents--such as patent papers, litigation files and licensing agreements--that relate to Arthur Ehrat's basketball goal, as well as materials regarding his field spreader patents and other invention ideas. The bulk of the collection is made up of attorney correspondence, patent infringement documents, and patent licensing documents. The collection also contains handwritten notes by Arthur Ehrat and his attorneys, sketches of his inventions, an oral history interview, and photographs.

Attorney McPherson Moore sent many of the legal documents and correspondence to Ehrat. These documents were assembled by the law firms for which Moore worked. The original order has been preserved.

The correspondence consists of letters from attorney McPherson Moore to Ehrat and from Moore or his associates to other attorneys regarding litigation, pending licensing agreements, and other actions. The correspondence contains handwritten notes, promotional materials for sporting goods companies, drafts of legal documents, copies of patents and other enclosures. The majority of the correspondence is copies.

Correspondence found throughout the collection is key to understanding the legal documents because it provides insight into the legal negotiations behind the settlement and licensing process, and the diligence necessary to protect a viable patent from infringement. Correspondence should be read in conjunction with litigation and licensing documents to gain a better sense of the negotiations between attorneys and how and why the legal documents were created.

Throughout this collection, reference is made to legal terms, including pleadings, production documents, discovery, patent infringement, file histories, and Bates numbers. Series 3, Civil Action and Settlement Records has numerous sets of pleadings, which are the legal documents filed in a lawsuit. These documents encompass complaints, petitions, answers, motions, declarations, and memoranda.

The discovery process is the effort of one party to a lawsuit to get information from the other party prior to a trial. This is done through depositions, requests for or production of documents, and interrogatories (written questions to the other party).6

Bates numbers --named after the Bates Automatic Numbering Machine patented in the late 1800s --are used to identify documents with a unique number. The parties to a lawsuit use these numbers to keep papers in order when they are sent to the other party during discovery. This collection contains sets of production documents stamped with Bates numbers. (See Series 3, Subseries 8: Ehrat v. Icon, Proform and K's Merchandise, 1984-1996)7

Patent infringement is "the manufacture and/or use of an invention or improvement for which someone else owns a patent issued by the government, without obtaining permission of the owner of the patent by contract, license or waiver."8

A patent file history (also called a file wrapper) is a folder maintained by the United States Patent and Trademark Office. It contains all of the correspondence and documents from a patent application.9 See Series 2, Subseries 2 for the file history of Ehrat's United States Patent No. 4,365,802.

Series 1: Background Materials, 1968-2005, 2011

This series, which is further divided into three subseries, comprises oral history interviews, early sketches of Ehrat's basketball goal, articles about slam dunking, Ehrat's breakaway rim, correspondence and notes, income and expense records (including legal expenses), photographs and facsimiles of photographs, and invoices from the components Ehrat purchased when he created prototypes. One receipt documents the heater Bob Copelin purchased for his new shed in 1975, around the time Ehrat began inventing. This was significant when Ehrat was trying to prove to the United States Patent Office that he had his idea before Frederick Tyner.

Subseries 1: Ehrat History, 1968-2005

Correspondence in this subseries includes a handwritten list of possible names for the basketball rim, one which Ehrat titled, "The Rebounder Has Been Tested." The correspondence also contains copies of letters sent to the United States Patent Office intended to prove that Ehrat's rim was unique; a letter from National Basketball Association saying that, after testing, it is going to use Kenneth Mahoney's (Toss Back) rim instead of Ehrat's; letters from basketball halls of fame; and copies of e-mail from the Smithsonian. This subseries has an original sketch of Ehrat's basketball goal with annotations. Also included is a 1 D2" VHS tape of Ehrat explaining the components he used to fashion his first breakaway rim prototypes and a news segment in which Ehrat was interviewed about his invention at the Chicago Board of Trade. The audio and video recordings contain some repetition of information.

Subseries 2: Photographs and Clippings, 1973-2005

Color photocopies of photographs depicting early rims; a birthday gathering for Ehrat's father, William Ehrat, circa 1974-1975 (used to help prove that he was working on the rim before Frederick Tyner); Ehrat giving a rim to Virden High School; Ehrat with sportscaster Dick Vitale; and a studio shot of his daughters, Rose, Jo, Sharon, Jane, and Linda.

Three photographs in this subseries show prototype rims with coil springs. Ehrat holds up one of these photographs in the video history, but he does not discuss the photographs' origin. There are no markings of any kind on the photographs.

Subseries 2 also contains field photographs taken by John Fleckner, National Museum of American History staff, in May 2005. Field photographs include: the grain elevator Ehrat managed; rim prototypes; and a donated rim hanging on the gym wall at Virden High School.

Articles in this subseries are from the Virden Recorder, The State Journal-Register, Chicago Tribune, The Wall Street Journal, and Kentucky Living. The topics covered include collapsible rims and breakaway rims; Ehrat and his invention; and the Smithsonian Institution's interest in the breakaway rim. Also included is a clipping from Farmers Elevator Co.'s meeting minutes from December 15, 1973, in which the board voted to relinquish rights to any patent or product created by Ehrat.

Subseries 3: Oral History Interview, 2005

A May, 2005, interview of Ehrat by John Fleckner at Ehrat's home in Virden, IL. Ehrat discusses his background, attorney Ralph Staubly, basketball rims he built, and a slam dunk contest that his nephew Randy Albrecht helped organize in the early 1980s at St. Louis Community College. Subseries 3 also contains Digital video disks (DVD) in which Ehrat discusses the documents he sent to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History. There is some repetition of topics discussed in the audio and video recordings.

Series 2: Patent Records for Basketball Rim, 1865-1984 (bulk 1970s-1984)

This series, divided into four subseries, contains copies of patents used as research or as prior art for Ehrat's patent application, a file history of the patent, correspondence/notes from Ehrat and his attorneys, and legal papers sent from Ehrat's first attorney, Ralph Staubly, to McPherson Moore.

Subseries 1: Ehrat and Dittrich Patents, 1979-1984

Copies of Ehrat's United States Patent No. 4,365,802, deformation-preventing swingable mount for basketball goals and William Dittrich's two patents, United States Patent No. 4,151,989, basketball practice device and United States Patent No. 4,465,277, basketball goal structure.

Subseries 2: Research and File History, 1865-1984

The complete patent file history consists of a list of actions taken (rejections, appeals, civil action filed) on the patent application for United States Patent No. 4,365,802. Pages 19-23 are copies of letters sent to United States Patent Office to establish the rim's unique qualities after the examiner's interference search found Frederick Tyner's patent (United States Patent No. 4,111, 420, Energy-absorbing basketball goal/backboard unit) and ruled Ehrat's invention was too similar.

Subseries 3: Correspondence and Notes, 1976-1984

Two sets of letters from acquaintances. The first set, 1977-1978, was sent to the United States Patent Office and provide a sense of the invention's unique quality. The second set, 1983-1984, consists of letters written by Ehrat's friends and was used in Basketball Products International and Ehrat v. Mt. Vernon School District and Porter (Series 3, Subseries 1) to establish that Ehrat had his breakaway rim idea before Frederick Tyner. A letter in the correspondence folder for this litigation, dated February 23, 1984, mentions that copies of these letters were sent to Basketball Products International. Also in this subseries is a transcript of a phone conversation between Ehrat and attorney McPherson Moore about when Ehrat had the idea for a breakaway rim and who knew about it.

Subseries 4: Files from Ehrat's First Attorney, Ralph Staubly, 1976-1982

Includes the file about Ehrat sent from Ralph Staubly to McPherson Moore when Ehrat changed legal representation in 1983. The folder contains originals, copies, and drafts of documents sent to the United States Patent Office, some with annotations. Also included is a high school basketball rulebook, 1977-1978, and the notes Ralph Staubly used to write an affidavit for Ehrat's patent application in which Ehrat swears he invented before Frederick Tyner.

Series 3: Civil Action and Settlement Records, 1984-1996

This series is divided into eight subseries. It contains full and partial sets of case pleadings, with pleadings indices, from eight court cases, attorney correspondence and notes, depositions of Ehrat and Frederick Tyner, case judgments, and signed settlements.

In 1984, Ehrat and Basketball Products International were plaintiffs or defendants together in five civil action lawsuits that involved sporting goods companies, including Porter Equipment Company, Gared Company, and Toss Back. These lawsuits and their correspondence should be consulted in conjunction with one another.

Subseries 1: Basketball Products International and Ehrat v. Mt. Vernon School District and Porter, 1984

Civil action, February 1984-June 1984: The complaint alleges patent infringement by sporting goods company Porter for manufacturing products embodying the invention, and infringement by Mt. Vernon School District (WA) for purchasing Porter basketball goals. Action dismissed June 11, 1984. This subseries contains the subpoena and deposition of Frederick Tyner regarding United States Patent No. 4,111, 420, Energy-absorbing basketball goal/backboard unit. It also contains plaintiff's exhibits, numbered 1-31, which include Tyner's notes, documents, and facsimiles of photographs related to his patented basketball goal.

Subseries 2: Porter Equipment Company v. Basketball Products International and Ehrat, 1984

Civil action, April 1984-June 1984: The complaint alleges that Ehrat's and Basketball Products International's patents are invalid and unenforceable and that Porter and Mt. Vernon School District did not infringe. Porter calls for dismissal or transfer of the case. The pleadings index for Vol. 1 has a note at the bottom that says "Start Vol. 2," but Vol. 2 is not in the collection.

Subseries 3: Gared Company v. Basketball Products International and Ehrat, 1984-1988

Civil action, March 1984-October 1984: This action is in response to letters sent by attorney McPherson Moore threatening a lawsuit if Gared Company does not cease manufacture of infringing goals. Gared Company files a complaint for declaratory judgment, calling the patent invalid and alleging unfair competition. A stipulated dismissal of complaint was signed by Moore and Ralph Kalish, Gared Company's legal counsel. Declaratory judgment is the judgment of a court which determines the rights of parties without ordering anything be done or awarding damages.

Of note in this subseries is the deposition of Ehrat regarding his involvement with Gared Company and the city of St. Louis, where the company is based. Gared Company's counsel, Ralph Kalish, asks Ehrat questions about his nephew, Randy Albrecht. Ehrat purchased 12 rims from Gared Company, on the advice of his nephew, for the purpose of building and testing his releasable basketball goals. Kalish tries to assess whether there was a profit motive and how Gared Company's goals factored into that.

Subseries 4: Basketball Products International and Ehrat v. Gared Company, 1984

Civil action, April 1984-June 1984: Complaint filed against Gared Company and Athletic Supply (which purchased Gared Company goals) for patent infringement. The case was dismissed.

Subseries 5: Basketball Products International and Ehrat v. Toss Back

Civil action, May 1984-June 1984: Complaint filed against Toss Back and the cities of Seattle and Tacoma (which purchased Toss Back basketball goals) for patent infringement. There is no evidence of a settlement or of court action. Toss Back signed a licensing agreement with Ehrat in 1985 (See Series 4, Licensing Agreements).

Subseries 6: Ehrat v. Gared Company and Nixdorff-Krein Industries, 1982-1990 (bulk 1987-1990)

Civil action, 1988-1990: Complaint filed against sports equipment company Gared and its parent company, Nixdorff-Krein Industries, for patent infringement. Request for passing case for settlement filed by Ehrat's attorney, McPherson Moore, and granted by the court. The signed settlement is in this subseries. This subseries has file histories of Gared Company patents. A file history (or file wrapper) is a folder kept at the United States Patent and Trademark Office that has all of the correspondence and documents from a patent application

Subseries 7: Ehrat v. Diversified Products, 1989-1994

Civil action, 1993: A complaint was filed against Diversified Products after a series of letters calling for the company to cease manufacture and sales of infringing basketball goals went unheeded. The parties were granted a consent judgment to settle out of court. The signed settlement is in this subseries.

Subseries 8: Ehrat v. Icon Health & Fitness Inc., Pro Form Fitness Products Inc., and K's Merchandise Mart, 1984-1996 (bulk 1994-1996)

The Icon Health & Fitness Inc. (hereinafter Icon) pleadings consist of two volumes, Vols. 2 and 3. Vol. 1 is missing. There is a draft of the first page of Ehrat's complaint against Icon in Box 9, Folder 3. A consent judgment was entered, and the parties settled out of court. The signed settlement is in this subseries.

There are two categories of production documents in this subseries, those for the plaintiff (three folders) and those for the defendant (seven folders), that have Bates numbers affixed to or printed on the bottom of the pages. Bates numbers are used to identify documents with a unique number. The parties to a lawsuit use these numbers to keep papers in order when they are sent to the other party during discovery.

The plaintiff's production documents include Bates numbers 1-205. Numbers 1-105 contain Ehrat's patent file history; numbers 107-205 are copies of Ehrat's licensing agreements through 1993.

In the defendant's production documents, one folder has Bates # I10001 and other numbered pages that are not in a particular order. Bates numbers I10068- I10882 include the file history for United States Patent No. 4,365,802, deformation-preventing swingable mount for basketball goals; correspondence among defendant's attorneys; copies of patents; and copies of licensing agreements through 1993.

Series 4: Licensing Agreements, 1982-2000 (bulk 1980s-1990s)

This series is divided into twenty-six subseries and encompasses materials pertaining to Ehrat's relationships with numerous companies that manufacture or sell sports equipment. These materials include correspondence and notes, licensing agreements and drafts of agreements, Dun and Bradstreet financial reports, catalogs, pamphlets, and other promotional materials. Ehrat and attorney McPherson Moore used the promotional materials to determine whether the companies were marketing or selling basketball goals that infringed on Ehrat's patent, then contacted the companies about licensing Ehrat's patent. With the exception of Subseries 1: Correspondence and Subseries 6: William Dittrich Patents, each subseries represents a different company.

To better understand Ehrat's relationships with these companies, researchers should consult Subseries 1: Correspondence, as well as the correspondence within specific subseries, in conjunction with licensing agreements and other documents in this series.

There are thirteen signed licensing agreements in this series, some of which bear original signatures. Ehrat's first licensee was with Basketball Products International, which signed an exclusive agreement in 1983. In November, 1984, after five civil action lawsuits in which Ehrat and Basketball Products International were either co-plaintiffs or co-defendants, the company signed a nonexclusive licensing agreement. Drafts of the agreements exist for some companies, but there is no evidence that the agreements were signed. In some cases, correspondence indicates which companies were not interested in entering into an agreement.

Ehrat's licensees include Huffy (signed May 1988); Basketball Products International, exclusive license (signed July 1983), nonexclusive license (signed November 1984); Toss Back (signed January 1985); Porter Equipment Company (signed 1985 and 1989); RDH Enterprises/Schutt (signed August 1991); Industrial Machine Specialties/Bison (signed January 1987); Lifetime Products (signed March 1989); Fisher-Price (owned by Quaker Oats, signed April 1988); Indian Industries/Harvard Sports (signed June 1991); McCullough (signed April 1990); and Sure Shot (signed March 1991).

Companies in this series without signed licensing agreements include Medart; Blazon-Flexible Flyer; Spang/Today's Kids; Sports and Leisure/Ideas That Sell; Wilson Sporting Goods; Hutch Sporting Goods; Aalco; Bergfeld Recreation; Future Pro; MacGregor; Pro-Bound; Architectural Design Products; and Hyland Engineering.

Settlements and licensing agreements that Ehrat signed with Gared Company, Diversified Products, and Icon appear only in Series 3, Civil Action and Settlement Records.

Subseries 6, William Dittrich Patents, contains correspondence and documents relating to the patent and royalty agreement Dittrich made with Ehrat in 1987. Dittrich had two basketball-related patents but had difficulty getting companies to license with him because there was confusion about his patents and those of Ehrat and Frederick Tyner. Dittrich contacted Ehrat's attorney, McPherson Moore, and they worked out an agreement. Ehrat acquired Dittrich's patents and they joined forces to attract licensing agreements and to split royalties and litigation settlements. Subseries 6 also has the transcript of a 1986 phone conference between William Dittrich and McPherson Moore regarding a possible joint agreement with Ehrat and the patent file history for United States Patent No. 4,151,989, basketball practice device. There is no file history for Dittrich's other patent, United States Patent No. 4,465,277, basketball goal structure, but there are pieces of the file history in this subseries. Subseries 6 also includes drafts and signed patent assignment papers and a signed licensing agreement between Ehrat and Dittrich, 1987.

Subseries 9, Lifetime Products, consists of itemized lists of attorney's fees from McPherson Moore for November 30, 1987, to February 28, 1989. The fees are for research, phone calls, photocopies, correspondence, and litigation documents for Ehrat v. Gared Company. The companies listed in these papers include Gared Company, Lifetime, Huffy, Fisher-Price, Sports and Leisure, Today's Kids, Toss Back, and Blazon.

Subseries 16, McCullough contains a Dunk-Kit (see Box 18), which Ehrat purchased in 1989. The Dunk-Kit is a set of springs and bolts that turn a set basketball goal into a breakaway goal. According to attorney McPherson Moore, the springs and bolts constituted an infringement of Ehrat's patent. McCullough disagreed with this assessment but eventually agreed to a monetary settlement.

Series 5: Field Spreader Patents and Other Ideas, 1977-2003

Subseries 1: Field Spreader Patents, 1977-2003

This subseries contains copies of Ehrat's two field spreader patents: United States Patent No. 4,358,054, field-sprayer tank-vehicle having means for on-site metering and mixing of soil-treating chemicals and United States Patent No. 4,588,127, material-spreading field vehicle having means for on-site metering and mixing of soil-treating chemicals. It also contains magazines, articles, and pamphlets on agricultural equipment and litigation documents between SoilTeq and Ag-Chem.

Subseries 2: Other Ideas, 1971-1998

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Ehrat came up with ideas for other inventions, but none of them were patentable. This subseries has original sketches for "electric clippers with box for holding clippings;" a beverage can with multiple containers; and an "automobile refreshment temperature control." Included in the folders are letters that outline the ideas behind the inventions and the reasons they were not patented. Also included are copies of patents that relate to Ehrat's ideas.

Series 6: Toby Dittrich Files, 1889-1997

This series, which is further divided into five subseries, contains administrative records, prior art, patent records, correspondence, litigation materials, financial records, marketing and sales materials, photographs, and newspaper clippings from William A. (Toby) Dittrich. Dittrich invented the "Dunk King" break-away basketball rim in the mid 1970s while he was a physics professor at Pacific Lutheran University in Washington State. Dittrich patented and marketed his rim with mixed success before selling the rights to his patents to Arthur Ehrat in the mid 1980s. The two agreed to market and license their products independently, and cooperatively share royalties and settlements from patent infringement cases.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into five series.

Series 1: Background materials, 1968-2005

Subseries 1: Ehrat History, 1968-2005, 2011

Subseries 2: Photographs and Clippings, 1973-2005

Subseries 3: Oral History, 2005

Series 2: Patent records for basketball rim,1865-1984

Subseries 1: Ehrat and Dittrich Patents, 1979-1984

Subseries 2: Research and File History, 1865-1984

Subseries 3: Correspondence and Notes, 1976-1984

Subseries 4: Files from First Attorney, Ralph Staubly, 1976-1982

Series 3: Civil action and settlement records, 1984-1996

Subseries 1: Basketball Products International and Ehrat v. Mt. Vernon School District and Porter Equipment Company, 1984

Subseries 2: Porter Equipment Company v. Basketball Products International and Ehrat, 1984

Subseries 3: Gared Company v. Basketball Products International and Ehrat, 1984-1988

Subseries 4: Basketball Products International and Ehrat v. Gared Company --Pleadings, 1984

Subseries 5: Basketball Products International and Ehrat v. Toss Back, 1984

Subseries 6: Ehrat v. Gared Company and Nixdorff-Krein Industries, 1982-1989 (bulk 1987-1989)

Subseries 7: Ehrat v. Diversified Products, 1989-1994

Subseries 8: Ehrat v. Icon Health & Fitness Inc., Pro Form fitness Products, Inc. and K's Merchandise Mart, 1984-1996 (bulk 1994-1996)

Series 4: Licensing agreements, 1982-2000 (bulk 1980s-mid-1990s)

Subseries 1: Correspondence, 1980-1989

Subseries 2: Huffy, 1982-1994

Subseries 3: Basketball Products International, 1984-2000

Subseries 4: Toss Back, 1985-1988

Subseries 5: Porter, 1985-2000

Subseries 6: William Dittrich Patents, 1985-1994

Subseries 7: RDH Enterprises/Schutt, 1986-1991

Subseries 8: Industrial Machine Specialties/Bison, 1987-1999

Subseries 9: Lifetime Products, 1987-1989

Subseries 10: Medart, 1988

Subseries 11: Blazon-Flexible Flyer, 1988-1989

Subseries 12: Fisher-Price, 1988-1990

Subseries 13: Spang/Today's Kids, 1988-1990

Subseries 14: Sports and Leisure/Ideas That Sell, 1988-1990

Subseries 15: Indian Industries/Harvard Sports, 1989-2000

Subseries 16: McCullough, 1989-1993

Subseries 17: Wilson Sporting Goods, 1990

Subseries 18: Hutch Sporting Goods, 1990-1991

Subseries 19: Sure Shot, 1991-1997

Subseries 20: Aalco, 1991

Subseries 21: Bergfeld Recreation, 1991

Subseries 22: Future Pro, 1995-1997

Subseries 23: MacGregor, 1997

Subseries 24: Pro-Bound, 1997

Subseries 25: Architectural Design Products, 1997-1998

Subseries 26: Hyland Engineering, 1998

Series 5: Field spreader patents and other ideas, 1977-2003

Subseries 1: Field Spreader, 1977-2003

Subseries 2: Other Ideas, 1971-1998

Series 6: Toby Dittrich Files, 1889-1997

Subseries 1: Administrative, 1977-1991

Subseries 2: Patent Information, 1889-1989

Subseries 3: Legal/Patent Infriengement Matters, 1977-1997

Subseries 4: Marketing and Sales, 1977-1991

Subseries 5: Other Inventions and Ideas, 1978-1980
Biographical / Historical:
Arthur Henry Ehrat was born December 20, 1924. He grew up on a farm near Shobonier, IL, east of St. Louis. Ehrat had four sisters and a brother: Dorothea, Ruth, Bernice, Grace and Walter. Growing up on a farm during the Great Depression, Ehrat learned farming skills, including milking, baling, and operating heavy equipment such as threshing machines. After graduating from Vandalia High School he moved to Wheaton, IL, to work on a farm. From the latter part of 1945 until 1947, Ehrat was an Army medic, stationed in Fort Sheridan, IL; Camp Atterbury, IN; Fort Meade, MD; and Manila, Philippines. After his Army service, Ehrat moved back to Illinois and spent a few years farming with his brother.

In the early 1950s Ehrat lived with his sister Bernice and her family in Minneapolis while attending a two-year course at Minneapolis Business College. Upon completion of the course, he returned to Virden, IL and worked at a grain elevator. Ehrat met Mary Mardell Worth in Virden. They were married June 27, 1954, and had five daughters: Rose, Jo, Sharon, Jane and Linda. Ehrat managed the grain elevator at Farmers Elevator Co. in Lowder, IL for nearly 30 years.

In the mid-1970s, Ehrat's nephew, Randy Albrecht, a coach at St. Louis University, mentioned that basketball players were slamming the basketball ball through the rim and hurting themselves, as well as bending or breaking the rims, which were affixed directly to the backboard. The bent rims had to be straightened, causing a delay of game. While Ehrat never had a strong interest in the game of basketball, Albrecht suggested his uncle, who was known as a tinkerer, come up with a safer basketball rim. The conversation sparked a few ideas. Ehrat bought a flimsy $20 basketball rim and began building a prototype.

Basketball fans during the 1940s and 1950s didn't see many slam dunks. Despite the leaping ability of stars Bob Kurland, George Mikan, and James Clifford Pollard, aka "the Kangaroo Kid," the dunk shot was considered showboating and was often done only in practice. Basketball players, whose average size was smaller in the mid-20th century, viewed the dunk as a low-percentage shot compared with the ubiquitous jump-shot.

In 1967, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) outlawed dunking. A few years later, Julius "Dr. J" Erving, who played professionally for the American Basketball Association's Virginia Squires, re-ignited excitement about basketball with his high-flying slams. In the first half of 1976, a few months before Ehrat first applied for a patent, the dunk was reinstated in college basketball.

At the professional level, flamboyant hoops star Darryl "Dr. Dunk" Dawkins shattered some glass backboards in the late 1970s and early 1980s, which prompted the National Basketball Association (NBA) to ban the shattering of backboards and make collapsible rims mandatory. The NBA's call for collapsible rims, along with the NCAA's reinstatement of the dunk, opened the door for innovations in basketball rims.

Collapsible rims, which folded down when pressure was applied to them, were the precursor to breakaway rims and had to be manually put back in place. Ehrat created a safer basketball rim that automatically snapped back after a slam dunk.

Ehrat's first rim, used a door spring. It was bolted to two plates, one that remained fastened while the other flexed down under pressure. The hinge was not strong enough, so he focused on creating a detent. A detent is a device that holds one mechanical part in relation to another so the device can be released when force is applied. If someone slam dunks a basketball and pulls on the rim, a detent would allow the rim to flex downward with minimal pressure on the backboard. Ehrat fitted some heavy-duty magnets between metal plates on the rim, but this did not work as he envisioned.

The turning point came when Ehrat decided to use a spring mechanism. Drawing upon his agricultural background, he pulled a spring from a John Deere cultivator, cutting it to fit the basketball rim. The thick, sturdy coil was able to withstand more than a hundred pounds of pressure before yielding downward and would push the rim back into place. In addition to the spring, he tested ball bearings, bolts, and corner braces before finding the right combination that would hold at least 150 pounds of pressure.

Once he had viable prototypes, Ehrat tested their durability. He sent one to Virden High School and enlisted Randy Albrecht, to test the other prototypes. Albrecht used his connections as a basketball coach at St. Louis Community College at Meramec to have prototypes installed at the schools where he worked. The rims were sent to other high schools and colleges by Ehrat. For more information on where the prototypes went, see his deposition in Series 3, Subseries 3. Ehrat estimated in his deposition that he built approximately 36-40 prototype rims.

It took six years, from July 1976 to December 1982, for Ehrat to receive the patent on his basketball goal (United States Patent No. 4,365,802, Deformation-preventing swingable mount for basketball goals). His application was rejected twice, with patent examiner Paul Shapiro noting that Frederick C. Tyner held a patent for a similar basketball goal (United States Patent No. 4,111, 420, energy-absorbing basketball goal/backboard unit).

Ehrat and his attorney, Ralph Staubly, pursued an appeal of the rejection. Staubly, a retired patent examiner had moved to Springfield, IL, in the 1970s to open a private practice. A major part of the appeal involved notarized letters from acquaintances who said that Ehrat's invention was unique and would be an asset to the sport of basketball. He also proved, through copies of canceled checks and a rough sketch of his invention, that he was working on his breakaway basketball goal in 1975 before Frederick Tyner conceived of his. In a 1984 deposition (Series 3, Subseries 1), Tyner placed the date of his invention near the last week of March or first week of April 1976, not long after he heard that the NCAA had reinstated dunking.

Ehrat won the appeal, effectively rendering the Tyner patent invalid. After Staubly fell ill and moved to Texas, and in early 1983, Ehrat found a new patent attorney,McPherson Moore of the St. Louis firm Rogers, Eilers and Howell, who became Ehrat's main legal counsel for approximately 20 years.

In February, 1983, two months after Ehrat received his patent, his attorney McPherson Moore sent certified letters to more than 60 sporting goods companies to announce the patent. The letters were sent to alert companies of possible infringement and to garner interest in licensing agreements.

During the basketball goal patent's 17-year lifespan, Ehrat obtained a dozen companies as licensees. Only Fisher-Price and Schutt Manufacturing signed without much difficulty. Ehrat worked to get the other companies licensed, in some cases filing patent infringement lawsuits or threatening to file them. Ehrat's first licensing agreement, signed in 1983, was with Basketball Products International.

Ehrat was involved in eight civil action lawsuits, five of which took place in 1984, when he had to prove for a second time that he had his idea for a breakaway goal before Tyner. Ehrat also defended his patent against other, similar patents issued to sporting goods companies in the early 1980s. Kenneth Mahoney of Toss Back, Charles Engle of Gared Company, and the Porter Equipment Co. all received patents for basketball goal devices, citing Ehrat's patent as prior art. Ehrat was involved in lawsuits with all three companies.

In 1986, Ehrat and attorney McPherson Moore were contacted by William "Toby" Dittrich, who held two patents --United States Patent No. 4,151,989, basketball practice device and United States Patent No. 4,465,277, basketball goal structure. Dittrich was having difficulty licensing his patents to companies because of the confusion over Ehrat's and Tyner's patents. Dittrich assigned his patents to Ehrat in 1987 and they signed a joint licensing agreement to split royalties and settlement money.

In addition to his basketball goal patent, Ehrat also holds two patents for agricultural inventions: United States Patent No. 4,358,054, field-sprayer tank-vehicle having means for on-site metering and mixing of soil-treating chemicals; and United States Patent No. 4,588,127, material-spreading field vehicle having means for on-site metering and mixing of soil-treating chemicals.

Arthur Ehrat died on July 9, 2015.
Related Materials:
Artifacts related to this collection were donated to the Museum's Division of Music, Sports and Entertainment, now the Division of Culture and Arts.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center in 2005 by Arthur Ehrat. An addenda of materials related to Toby Dittrich was donated by Toby Dittrich in 2014.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Patent suits  Search this
Sporting goods industry -- 1950-1990  Search this
Baketball hoops  Search this
Basketball  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 2000-2010
Videotapes -- 2000-2010
Audiovisual materials
Interviews -- 2000-2010
Oral history -- 2000-2010
Legal records
Patents -- 20th century
Citation:
Arthur Ehrat Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0907
See more items in:
Arthur Ehrat Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0907
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Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs

Creator:
d'Arazien, Arthur  Search this
Extent:
11 Cubic feet (28 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Dye destruction process
Photographic prints
Transparencies
Cibachrome (tm)
Tear sheets
Color negatives
Color prints (photographs)
Dye destruction photoprints
Silver-dye bleach process
Type c color prints
Chromogenic processes
Place:
Canada -- Industry -- 1940-1980
Date:
circa 1930-2002
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes Arthur d'Arazien's professional work in industrial photography from the late 1940's through about 1981; personal creative photography and other types of professional work were retained by Mr. d'Arazien or placed elsewhere. Thus this collection is a very cohesive, unified body of work, which documents primarily American (and some Canadian) business and industry during a period of expansion a golden age of American industry. Although it represents the photographer's creative and artistic style and skill, the subject matter is appropriate to the National Museum of American History from several viewpoints the visual documentation of industry and technology, as well as advertising, public relations, and business history.

The photographs include black and white negatives and prints from the negatives, as well as color negative and transparency materials, up to 8" x 10" in size. Probably the majority of the transparencies were made in the large size. The black and white materials include pictures of d'Arazien at work some made by famous Life magazine photographer Alfred Eisenstaedt, a colleague at the Famous Photographers School. A number of Dye Transfer prints mounted on illustration board were made by master color printer Don Browning.

In addition to frequently extensive caption information on all of d'Araziens original envelopes and enclosures, many enclosures for color negatives and transparencies bear d'Arazien labels with technical information or instructions for color printing, such as filter pack designations and local printing controls. These enclosures therefore have been retained in the collection, although usually they are not of archival quality.

Of secondary significance are 62 large color prints, mostly Type C, with a few Cibachromes, which were made from the original transparencies for exhibition purposes. Most were made either by K & L laboratories, New York City (stickers on back) or Eastman Kodak professional laboratories, Rochester, N.Y., and have been wet mounted to non archival Masonite. At the time of acquisition, several had faded and/or changed color. These are available for research and exhibition purposes, but are not expected to survive as long as the original transparencies.

The collection contains Mr. d'Arazien's files of printed materials. These include reproductions which indicate how his photographs were used by clients. Included are annual reports, promotional pieces, magazine tearsheets from advertising and editorial uses, and other biographical items.

Series 1: Professional industrial photographs.

Photographs document primarily American business and industry (including some taken in Canada). Black-and-white negatives with prints from these negatives, also color negative and transparency materials. Most transparencies are 8" x 10". The photographs demonstrate the photographer's reputation as a master of dramatic lighting and the coordination of large-scale, complex industrial setups in factories, steel mills, and even outdoor settings. Also 65 color prints, mostly Type C with a few Cibachromes, made from the original transparencies for exhibition purposes, mostly wet-mounted to Masonite. Black-and-white photographs include pictures of d'Arazien at work--some by Life magazine photographer Alfred Eisenstaedt.

Series 2: D'Arazien's files of printed materials, some of which include photomechanical reproductions of his work, indicating how the photographs were used by clients; also annual reports, magazine tearsheets from advertising and editorial uses, and other promotional items, in addition to biographical materials.

2007 addendum: Transparencies, slides, prints and negatives of additional photographs by Arthur d'Arazien, including industrial subjects as well as travel, architectural, agricultural, portrait, art, still life and personal photographs. Also included are miscellaneous papers, mostly relating to d'Arazien's photographic work.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into three series.

Series 1: Paper Documents

Subseries 1.1: Publications and Reproductions.

Subseries 1.2: Photographer's Labels, Envelopes, Etc.

Series 2: Photographs

Subseries 2.1: Color Phototransparencies

Subseries 2.2: Color Photonegatives and Color Photoprints

Subseries 2.3: Black and White Photonegatives and Photoprints

Subseries 2.4: Color Photoprints: Enlargements Mounted on Masonite

Material is arranged in each sub-series primarily by client names, in alphabetical order.

Series 3: Oversize prints
Biographical / Historical:
Arthur d'Arazien began his photographic career as an assistant to a famous theatrical photographer, documenting Broadway shows. A distinctive emphasis on dramatic lighting in his later work suggests the heavy influence of the theater. He did fashion and commercial photography, as well as photographing the 1939 World's Fair, for Underwood & Underwood Illustration Studios, East 44th St., New York City, in 1938 1939. He was described in a U.S. Camera Annual article as Aan architect whose interest in photography has caused him to make a profession of it.

D'Arazien taught aerial photography for the U.S. Air Corps Technical Training Command at Lowry Field, Denver, during World War II. He began his career in industrial photography with the De Laval Separator Company, New York City. His energy and creativity led to assignments which often were judged too difficult for lesser photographers. His growing reputation as an industrial photographer kept pace with the dynamic growth of the industrial and technological activities he was photographing during the 1950s through the 1980s.

Robert Vogel, former Curator of Mechanical and Civil Engineering for the National Museum of American History, wrote that d'Arazien: ...became internationally known for his dramatic color views of the American industrial scene at a time when our industry can be said to have been at the height of its powers....He was commissioned by the giants of steel, paper, chemicals, machinery, transportation, automobiles, mining, metal refining, textiles, and the other heavy (and medium) industries. ...He developed a number of special techniques for obtaining the grand, sweeping views that became his trademark, including multiple exposures to achieve dramatic lighting effects, elaborate lighting setups involving multiple flashes from several vantages employing a number of assistants intercommunicating by radio, complex arrangements with transportation lines and the various departments of the subject organization to produce the desired juxtaposition of elements in the photograph, and the like. His MO was anything but that of simply walking onto the scene and snapping the shutter; for many of his breathtaking views he appears to have been more producer and impresario than photographer.

Arthur d'Arazien describes the growth of his spectacular style as an eager response to new subjects, challenges, and photographic materials:

...knowing that color was the coming thing in corporate advertising, I pursued that line. I did lots of experimenting; every assignment gave me an opportunity to try something new, such as combination day and night exposures on a single sheet of film, multiple flash bulbs to light large interiors, multiple exposures on the same film, such as...moving objects ...automobiles, trains...to build up excitement in a picture. Colored gels to change colors. I even used old fashioned flash powder to light ...steel mills, because there were no flashbulbs powerful enough to light these dark, cavernous interiors: this idea was borrowed from the Air Corps night time aerial photography with magnesium flash powder.

A skilled painter and metal sculptor as well as photographer, d'Arazien came from a family of artists. His photographs were made primarily on assignment from industrial corporations for advertising, editorial, and public relations purposes, but have been exhibited and collected as works of art in the Smithsonian Institution (Division of Photographic History), the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and the Cleveland Museum. His work was included in the Photography in the Fine Arts exhibitions organized by Ivan Dimitri, and he was a founding faculty member of the Famous Photographers School, Westport, Connecticut, in the early 1960's.

D'Arazien married Margaret Scott and has two sons. He had a studio in Waterside Plaza, New York, and made his home in New Canaan, Connecticut, until moving to Naples, Florida, upon his retirement in 1988. The collection was brought to the Smithsonian's attention by his son Steven, and was donated to the Archives Center before this move. In anticipation of this gift, Mr. d'Arazien spent several months inspecting his collection, eliminating duplicate and technically unsuccessful images, and captioning photographs.

Sources American Aces, U.S. Camera Annual 1939. Clipping in scrapbook no. 1, box 24, first page.

Robert M. Vogel, memorandum, undated, but written after a December 1987 visit to d'[Arazien's home. In Archives Center collection control file.

Letter to the author, 26 February 1992, in collection control file.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Arthur d'Arazien, December 24, 1988.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Industry -- Photographs -- 1940-1980 -- Canada  Search this
Industry -- Photographs -- 1940-1980 -- United States  Search this
Steel industry and trade -- 1940-1980  Search this
Agriculture -- Photographs -- 20th century  Search this
Travel -- Photographs -- 1930-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Photographs -- Chromogenic -- 1900-2000
Dye destruction process
Photographic prints
Transparencies
Cibachrome (TM)
Tear sheets
Color negatives
Color prints (photographs)
Dye destruction photoprints
Silver-dye bleach process
Photographs -- Color prints -- 20th century
Type C color prints
Chromogenic processes
Citation:
Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs, ca. 1930-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0314
See more items in:
Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0314
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Playbill for Def Poetry Jam on Broadway

Published by:
Playbill, American, founded 1884  Search this
Used by:
Longacre Theatre, American, founded 1913  Search this
Subject of:
Russell Simmons, American, born 1957  Search this
Stan Lathan, American, born 1945  Search this
Beau Sia, American, born 1976  Search this
Black Ice, American  Search this
Staceyann Chin, American, born 1972  Search this
Steve Colman, American  Search this
Mayda Del Valle, American, born 1978  Search this
Georgia Me, American  Search this
Suheir Hammad, Jordanian American, born 1973  Search this
Poetri, American, born 1974  Search this
Lemon, American, born 1975  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 3/4 x 5 3/4 in. (22.2 x 14.6 cm)
Type:
theater programs
Place used:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
2002
Topic:
African American  Search this
Broadway Theatre  Search this
Hip hop (Music)  Search this
Spoken word (Poetry)  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Kayla Deigh Owens
Object number:
2011.45.22
Restrictions & Rights:
Playbill used by permission. All rights reserved, Playbill Inc.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Memorabilia and Ephemera
Movement:
Nuyorican Movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd515f2d3dc-172d-48b6-83f8-8d20134623aa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2011.45.22
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Playbill for Def Poetry Jam on Broadway digital asset number 1
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William A. Bradford's 1875 School Desk and Seat Patent Model

Patentee:
Bradford, William A.  Search this
Transfer:
U.S. Patent and Trademark Office  Search this
Inventor:
Bradford, William A.  Search this
Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
iron (overall material)
metal (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 8 3/4 in x 10 in x 9 1/2 in; 22.225 cm x 25.4 cm x 24.13 cm
Object Name:
model
desk model
Object Type:
Patent Model
Referenced in patent specifications:
United States: Indiana, Goshen
Date made:
1875
Patent date:
1875-12-07
Subject:
Education  Search this
Patent Models  Search this
ID Number:
CL.65.0394
Catalog number:
65.0394
Accession number:
249602
Patent number:
170,810
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Education
Cultures & Communities
American History Education Collection
Patent Model School Seats and Desks
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a4-b902-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_664172
Online Media:

Orlando D. Case's 1879 School Desk and Seat Patent Model

Patentee:
Case, Orlando D.  Search this
Transfer:
U.S. Patent and Trademark Office  Search this
Inventor:
Case, Orlando D.  Search this
Physical Description:
wood (desk and seat material)
metal (support material)
Measurements:
overall: 11 in x 7 3/4 in x 5 1/2 in; 27.94 cm x 19.685 cm x 13.97 cm
desk: 7 3/4 in x 5 in; 19.685 cm x 12.7 cm
seat: 7 3/4 in x 4 in; 19.685 cm x 10.16 cm
Object Name:
model
desk model
Object Type:
Patent Model
Referenced in patent specifications:
United States: Connecticut, Hartford
Date made:
1879
Associated date:
1870
Patent date:
1879-06-10
Subject:
Education  Search this
Patent Models  Search this
ID Number:
CL.65.0409
Catalog number:
65.409
Accession number:
249602
Patent number:
216,307
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Education
Cultures & Communities
American History Education Collection
Patent Model School Seats and Desks
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a4-bfa4-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_660952
Online Media:

Allen H. Brown's 1867 School Desk and Seat Patent

Patentee:
Brown, Allen H.  Search this
Transfer:
U.S. Patent and Trademark Office  Search this
Inventor:
Brown, Allen H.  Search this
Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
metal (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 8 in x 5 in x 12 in; 20.32 cm x 12.7 cm x 30.48 cm
Object Name:
school desk
model
desk model
Object Type:
Patent Model
Referenced in patent specifications:
United States: New Jersey, Mays Landing
Date made:
1867
Patent date:
1867-12-10
Subject:
Education  Search this
Patent Models  Search this
ID Number:
CL.65.0343
Catalog number:
65.0343
Accession number:
249602
Patent number:
71,970
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Education
Cultures & Communities
American History Education Collection
Patent Model School Seats and Desks
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a4-b6a0-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_664201
Online Media:

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