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Bowling Green -- Bridge House

Architect:
Jacobsen, Hugh Newell  Search this
Landscape architect:
Jacobsen, Hugh Newell  Search this
Provenance:
Country Garden Club  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Bridge House (Bowling Green, Ohio)
United States of America -- Ohio -- Wood County -- Bowling Green
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes a work sheet, landscape plan, copy of architect's drawings, history of Roche De Boeuf, and brochure of Georgia and David K. Welles Sculpture Garden at Toledo Museum of Art.
General:
This tree-lined estate property, located on the banks of the Maumee River in Northwest Ohio, overlooks the historic abandoned "Roche de Boeuf Bridge" (a.k.a. "The Old Electric Bridge" and "The Interurban Bridge"). The bridge was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1972. The twelve spans of Roman aqueduct arches set the stage for this "Bridge House" property landscape, sculpture garden, and home design. The architect's plan incorporated the bridge's arched aqueduct design into the upper exterior of the East wing of the home, such that the residence appears to echo the bridge over the reflecting waters below. Carefully pruned little leaf linden trees in allees on either side of this wing also appear to duplicate the geometry of the bridge's arches. Exterior lighting includes illumination of the bridge at night by the homeowners, with spotlights located in trees on the property near the river. The property also features a maple allee at the property entrance; a grove of green and blue spruce trees; raised bed gardens; and library terrace plantings with herbs and hawthorn.
Eight sculptures were donated to the Toledo Museum of Art in 2001. They are located at the "Georgia and David K. Welles Sculpture Garden" on the lawn in front of the museum. Six sculptures were at Bridge House as of 2002.
Person(s) associated with the property and garden include: Hugh Newell Jacobsen, FAIA (architect and landscape architect, 1980s).
Related Materials:
Bridge House related holdings consist of 1 folder (14 35 mm. slides)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Ohio -- Bowling Green  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File OH213
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Ohio
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6bfbf85d8-2e95-4288-8993-fbfa0011225f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref15379

Kraushaar Galleries records, 1877-2006

Creator:
Kraushaar Galleries  Search this
Kraushaar Galleries  Search this
Subject:
Wilson, Ralph L.  Search this
Fausett, Dean  Search this
Lasker, Joe  Search this
Murdock, Roland P.  Search this
Phillips, Duncan  Search this
Kuhn, Walt  Search this
Smith, Vernon  Search this
Robinson, Boardman  Search this
Lechay, James  Search this
Laurent, Robert  Search this
Hartell, John  Search this
Cantene, David  Search this
Schnakenberg, H. E. (Henry Ernest)  Search this
Kraushaar, Antoinette M.  Search this
Harrison, Preston  Search this
Heliker, John  Search this
Williams, Esther  Search this
Luks, George Benjamin  Search this
Glackens, Edith  Search this
Navas, Elizabeth S.  Search this
DeLonga, Leonard  Search this
Evett, Kenneth Warnock  Search this
Halberstadt, Ernst  Search this
Prendergast, Maurice Brazil  Search this
Morris, Carl  Search this
Ruellan, Andrée  Search this
Smalley, David  Search this
Flannery, Vaughn  Search this
Cowles, Russell  Search this
Penney, James  Search this
Beal, Gifford  Search this
Bacon, Peggy  Search this
Beal, Reynolds  Search this
Hardy, Thomas  Search this
Glackens, William J.  Search this
Prendergast, Charles  Search this
Demuth, Charles  Search this
Albrizio, Humbert  Search this
Lachaise, Gaston  Search this
Bignou, Etienne  Search this
Kirsch, Frederick D. (Frederick Dwight)  Search this
Sloan, John  Search this
Allard, J.  Search this
Bouché, Louis  Search this
Juley, Peter A.  Search this
Stanley, Alix W.  Search this
Arnest, Bernard  Search this
Brueming, Karen  Search this
Miller, Harriette  Search this
Kraushaar, John F.  Search this
Guillaume, Paul  Search this
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
Toledo Museum of Art  Search this
Cleveland Museum of Art  Search this
Wichita Art Museum  Search this
Whitney Museum of American Art  Search this
New Britain Institute. Art Museum  Search this
Ernest Brown and Co.  Search this
Carnegie Institute  Search this
University of Nebraska--Lincoln. Department of Art  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Sketches
Drawings
Exhibition catalogs
Financial records
Notes
Sketchbooks
Topic:
Works of art  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Artists -- United States  Search this
Depressions -- 1929  Search this
Theme:
Art Market  Search this
Art Gallery Records  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7781
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209946
AAA_collcode_kraugall
Theme:
Art Market
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209946
Online Media:

Toledo Museum of Art

Collection Creator:
Frank K. M. Rehn Galleries  Search this
Container:
Box 13
Reel 5866, Frame 609-810
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1918-1963
Collection Restrictions:
The collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Frank K. M. Rehn Galleries records, 1858-1969 (bulk 1919-1968). Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Frank K. M. Rehn Galleries records
Frank K. M. Rehn Galleries records / Series 1: Correspondence, A-Z
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9e03c2dd9-fd15-49cb-80b0-0956e2c3a7db
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-franrehg-ref439

Charles Lang Freer Papers

Creator:
Freer, Charles Lang, 1856-1919  Search this
Extent:
131 Linear feet (29 architectural drawings)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Diaries
Financial records
Correspondence
Photographs
Place:
China
Syria
Egypt
India
London (England)
Japan
Boston (Mass.)
Detroit (Mich.)
Washington (D.C.)
Kandy (Sri Lanka)
Sri Lanka
Anuradhapura (Sri Lanka)
Date:
1876-1931
Summary:
The personal papers of Charles Lang Freer, the industrialist and art collector who founded the Freer Gallery of Art. The papers include correspondence, diaries, art inventories, scrapbooks of clippings on James McNeil Whistler and other press clippings, and photographs.
Scope Content:
The personal papers of Charles Lang Freer, the industrialist and art collector who founded the Freer Gallery of Art. The papers include correspondence, diaries, art inventories, scrapbooks of clippings on James McNeil Whistler and other press clippings, financial material, architectural drawings, and photographs.

Correspondence, circa 1860-1921, includes Freer's correspondence, 1876-1920, with artists, dealers, collectors, museums, and public figures; letterpress books contain copies of Freer's outgoing letters, 1892-1910; correspondence collected by Freer of James McNeill Whistler, and his wife Beatrix, 186?-1909, with Lady Colin Campbell, Thomas R. Way, Alexander Reid, Whistler's mother, Mrs. George W. Whistler, and others; correspondence of Whistler collector Richard A. Canfield, 1904-1913, regarding works in Canfield's collection; and correspondence of Freer's assistant, Katharine Nash Rhoades, 1920-1921, soliciting Freer's letters from his associates, and regarding the settlement of his estate.

Also included are twenty-nine pocket diaries, 1889-1890, 1892-1898, 1900-1919, recording daily activities, people and places visited, observations, and comments; a diary kept by Freer's caretaker, Joseph Stephens Warring, recording daily activities at Freer's Detroit home, 1907-1910. Inventories, n.d. and 1901-1921, of American, European, and Asian art in Freer's collection, often including provenance information; vouchers, 1884-1919, documenting his purchases; five volumes of scrapbooks of clippings on James McNeill Whistler, 1888-1931, labeled "Various," "Peacock Room," "Death, etc.," "Paris, etc.," and "Boston...London" ; three volumes of newsclippings, 1900-1930, concerning Freer and the opening of the Freer Gallery of Art.

Correspondence regarding Freer's gift and bequest to the Smithsonian Institution, 1902-1916; and photographs, ca. 1880-1930, of Freer, including portraits by Alvin Langdon Coburn and Edward Steichen, Freer with others, Freer in Cairo, China and Japan, Freer's death mask, and his memorial service, Kyoto, 1930; photographs of artists and others, including Thomas Dewing, Ernest Fenollosa, Katharine Rhoades taken by Alfred Stieglitz, Rosalind B. Philip, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Abbott H. Thayer, Dwight Tryon, and Whistler; and photographs relating to Whistler, including art works depicting him, grave and memorial monuments, works of art, the Peacock Room, and Whistler's memorial exhibition at the Copley Society.
Organization of the Papers:
This collection is organized into twelve series.

Series 1: Genealogical and Biographical Data

Series 2: Correspondence

Series 3: Diaries

Series 4: Freer Colleague Materials

Series 5: Art Inventories

Series 6: Financial Materials

Series 7: Exhibition Loan Files

Series 8: Biblical Manuscripts and Gold Treasure Files

Series 9: American School of Archaeology in China

Series 10: Printed Material

Series 11: Outsize Material

Series 12: Photographs
Biographical Note:
1854 February 25 -- Born in Kingston, New York

1873 -- Appointed accountant and paymaster of New York, Kingston and Syracuse Railroad by Frank J. Hecker (1846-1927)

1876 -- Moves to Indiana to work, with Hecker, for the Detroit and Eel River and Illinois Railroad

1880 -- Moves to Detroit, participates in organization of the Peninsular Car Works with Hecker

1883 -- Becomes vice president and secretary of Peninsular Car Company when it succeeds Peninsular Car Works

1883 -- Begins collecting European prints

1884 -- Peninsular Car Company constructs plant on Ferry Avenue

1887 -- Meets Howard Mansfield (1849-1938)

1887 -- Acquires proofs of 26 etchings, Venice, Second Series(1886), by James McNeill Whistler (1834-1903)

1887 -- Purchases a small Japanese fan attributed to Ogata Korin(1658-1715)

1887 -- Buys land on Ferry Avenue

1889 -- Meets Frederick Stuart Church (1826-1900) and Dwight William Tryon (1849-1925) in New York

1890 -- Commissions Wilson Eyre (1858-1944) to design house on Ferry Avenue, Detroit, Michigan

1890 -- On first trip to London, meets James McNeill Whistler(1834-1903)

1892 -- Moves to Ferry Avenue house

1892 -- Tryon and Thomas Wilmer Dewing (1851-1938) undertake decoration of reception rooms

1893 -- Lends American paintings to World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago

1893 -- Purchases first piece of Chinese art, a small painting of white herons by an anonymous Ming dynasty (1368-1644) artist

1894 -- Begins yearlong trip around the world, which includes visit to the Whistlers in Paris and first trip to Asia, stopping in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), India, China, and Japan

1896 -- Meets Matsuki Bunkyo (1867-1940) in Boston

1899 -- Takes part in consolidation of railroad-car building companies then retires from active business

1900 -- Attends Exposition International Universelle in Paris

1900 -- Buys villa in Capri with Thomas S. Jerome

1901 -- Meets Siegfried Bing (1838-1905) in Paris and Ernest Fenollosa(1853-1908), who visits Freer in Detroit

1902 -- Meets Dikran Kelekian (1868-1951)

1902 -- Spends summer in Britain building Whistler collection

1902 -- Views Whistler's, Harmony in Blue and Gold: The Peacock Room

1904 -- Purchases Whistler's Peacock Room

1904 -- Offers his art collections and funds to build a museum in which to house them to the Smithsonian Institution

1905 -- Smithsonian committee visits Freer in Detroit

1906 -- United States government formally accepts Freer's gift on January 24

1906 -- Freer signs Deed of Gift to Smithsonian Institution on May 5

1907 -- On second tour of Asia, meets Hara Tomitaro 1868-1939) in Yokohama, Japan

1908 -- Takes third trip to Asia, specifically to West Asia to study Rakka ware

1909 -- Tours Europe to study art museums

1909 -- On fourth trip to Asia, attends memorial ceremony for Fenollosa (d.1908 September) at Miidera, Japan, and meets Duanfang (1861-1911) in China

1910 -- On last trip to Asia, visits Longmen Buddhist caves in China

1911 -- Suffers stroke

1912 -- Lends selection of objects for exhibition at Smithsonian Institution

1913 -- Meets Eugene (1875-1957) and Agnes E. (1887-1970) Meyer

1913 -- Commissions Charles Adams Platt (1861-1933) to design museum building in Washington

1914 -- Meets Katharine Nash Rhoades (1885-1965) in Detroit

1915 -- Settles in New York City

1915 -- Site of future Freer Gallery of Art is determined

1916 -- Platt's plans for Freer Gallery are approved by Smithsonian Regents and Commission of Fine Arts and ground is broken in September

1918 -- After falling ill in Detroit, Freer travels to New York for treatment

1918 -- Work on the museum building is delayed by the war

1919 -- Freer appends codicil to will permitting acquisitions of Asian, Egyptian, and Near Eastern (West Asian) art

1919 -- Dies in New York City on 25 September and is buried in Kingston, New York

1919 -- Construction of Freer Gallery completed

1920 -- John Ellerton Lodge (1876-1942) is appointed director of the Freer Gallery

1923 -- Freer Gallery opens to the public on May 9

1930 -- Memorial ceremony for Freer is held at Koetsuji, Kyoto

Charles Lang Freer was an American industrialist who founded the Freer Gallery of Art. He was a well-known collector of Asian art, and strongly supported the synthesis of Eastern art and Western art. One of his most famous acquisitions was James McNeill Whistler's Peacock Room.
Index:
Index to cross-referenced correspondents in the series Charles Lang Freer correspondence

Beal, Junius E. -- See: -- Warring, Joseph Stephens

Black, George M. -- See: -- Saint-Gaudens, Augustus

Board of Education (Kingston, New York) See: Michael, M. J.

Bonner, Campbell See: University of Michigan

Boughton, George H. See: Yardley, F. C.

British Museum See: Binyon, Laurence; Hobson, R. L.

Brown, Harold H. See: Art Association of Indianapolis

Buchner, Evelyn B. See: Knoedler, M., and Company

Buckholder, C. H. See: Art Institute of Chicago

Butler, S. B. See: Unidentified correspondents

Carnegie Institute See: Balken, Edward Duff; Harshe, Robert B.

Carpenter, Newton H. See: Art Institute of Chicago

Caulkins, Horace James See: Pewabic Pottery

Chao, Shih-chin See: Gunn, Chu Su

Chicago & North Western Railway Co. See: Hughett, Marvin

Clark, Charles Upson See: Clark, Arthur B.

Cleveland Museum of Art See: Whiting, Frederic Allen

Columbia University See: Braun, W. A.; Gottheil, Richard; Hirth, Friederich

Commission of Fine Arts See: Moore, Charles

Corcoran Gallery of Art See: Minnigerode, C. Powell

Crocker, Anna B. See: Portland Art Association

Dannenberg, D. E. See: Karlbeck, Orvar

De Menoncal, Beatrice See: Lien, Hui Ch'ing Collection

De Ricci, Seymour See: Ricci, Seymour de

Defnet, William A., Mrs., See: Franke, Ida M.

DeMotte See: Vigouroux, J.

Detroit Institute of Arts See: Detroit Museum of Art

Detroit Publishing Company See: Livingstone, W. A.

Detroit School of Design See: George Hamilton; Stevens, Henry

DeVinne Press See: Peters, Samuel T.; Witherspoon, A. S.

Dyrenforth, P. C. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie

Eddy, Arthur J. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie

Eggers, George Williams See: Art Institute of Chicago

Farr, Daniel H. See: Robinson and Farr

Farrand School (Detroit) See: Yendall, Edith

Field Museum of Natural History (Chicago) See: Laufer, Berthold

Flagg, Frederick J. See: Allen, Horace N.

Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University See: Forbes, Edward; Pope, Arthur Upham; Sachs, Paul J.

French, M. R. See: Art Institute of Chicago

Fu, Lan-ya See: Pang, Lai-ch'en

Fujii, Yoshio See: Yoshio, Fujii

Gerrity, Thomas See: Knoedler, M., and Company

Goupil Gallery See: Marchant, William

Gray, William J. See: Barr, Eva

Great Lakes Engineering Works See: Hoyt, H. W.

Grolier Club See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie

Heinemann, W. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie

Holden, Edward S. See: West Point, U. S. Military Academy

Hudson, J. L. See: Weber, William C.

Hutchins, Harry B. See: University of Michigan

Hutchins, Charles L. See: Art Institute of Chicago

Kelekian, H. G. See: Kelekian, Dikran G.

Kent, H. W. See: Metropolitan Museum of Art

Lee, Kee Son See: Li, Chi-ch'un

Levy, John See: Schneider, A. K.

Library of Congress See: Rice, Richard A.; Wright, Helen

Louvre (Paris, France) See: Midgeon, Gaston

Matsuki, Z. See: Matsuki, Kihachiro

McKim, Mead and White See: White, Stanford

Mills, A. L., Colonel See: Saint-Gaudens, Augustus

Miner, Luella See: Lien, Hui Ch'ing Collection

Minneapolis Institute of Arts See: Breck, Joseph; Van Derlip, John R.

Monif, R. Khan See: Rathbun, Richard

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston See: Lodge, John Ellerton

Naser, Katen & Nahass See: Katen, K.

Nordlinger, Marie, Miss See: Meyer-Riefstahl, Marie

Panama Pacific International Exposition See: Moore, Charles C.; Trask, John E. D.

Peabody Museum See: Morse, Edward Sylvester

Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts See: Trask, John E. D.

Perry, Mary Chase, Miss., See: Pewabic Pottery

Philip, Ronald M. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie

Pope, G. D. See: Barr, Eva

Reinhart, A. G. See: Gottschalk, E.

Reitz, Sigisbert Chrétien Bosch See: Bosch-Reitz, Sigisbert Chrétien

Rutgers College See: Van Dyke, John C.

Saint-Gaudens, Augusta H. See: Saint-Gaudens, Augustus

Saint-Gaudens, Homer See: Saint-Gaudens, Augustus

Samurai Shokai See: Nomura, Yozo

San Francisco Art Association See: Laurvik, J. Nilsen

Scribner's, Charles, Sons See: Van Dyke, John C.

Shaw, Wilfred B. See: University of Michigan

Shirae, S. Z. See: Yamanaka and Company

Smith College See: Clark, Arthur B.

Smithsonian Institution See: Holmes, William Henry; Rathbun, Richard; Ravenel, Walcott, Charles D.

Society of Arts and Crafts (Detroit) See: Plumb, Helen

Societe des Beaux-Arts See: Reid, Alexander

Stevens, George W. See: Toledo Museum of Art

Stratton, Mary Chase Perry See: Pewabic Pottery

Tanaka, Kichijiro See: Yamanaka and Company

Tuttle, William F. See: Art Institute of Chicago

Union Trust Company (Detroit) See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie

United States Military Academy See: West Point, U. S. Military Academy

University of Chicago See: Zug, George Breed

University of Pennsylvania, Univ. Mus. See: Gordon, George Bryon

Ushikubo, D. J. R. See: Yamanaka and Company

Wallis & Son See: Barr, Eva; Thompson, C. Croal Ward, Clarence See: Oberlin College

Warren, Edward K. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie

Warring, Stephen See: Warring, Joseph Stephens

Watkin, Williams R. T. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie

Watson, Margaret, Miss See: Parker, Margaret Watson

Whistler, Anna See: Stanton, Anna Whistler

Whiting, Almon C. See: Toledo Museum of Art

Williams College See: Rice, Richard A

Wright, F. G. See: Orbach and Company

Yatsuhashi, H. See: Yamanaka and Company
Index to cross-referenced correspondence in the series Whistler correspondence

Bell, William See: Unidentified correspondents

Brown, Ernest See: Painter Etchers' Society, Committee

Cowen, John T. See subseries: Charles Lang Freer Correspondence

Ford, Sheridan See: Reid, Alexander

Haden, Francis Seymour See: Painter Etchers' Society, Committee

Haden, Francis Seymour, Lady See: Haden, Deborah Whistler

Leighton, Frederick, Baron See: Campbell, Lady Colin

Moore, Albert See: Reid, Alexander

Morley, Charles See: Pall Mall Gazette

Morris, Harrison S. See: Reid, Alexander

Pennell, Joseph See: Miscellaneous typescripts

Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts See: Reid, Alexander

Prange, F. G. See: Reid, Alexander

Societe des Beaux-Arts See: Reid, Alexander

Society of Portrait Painters See: Reid, Alexander

Stevens Fine Art See: Reid, Alexander

Studd, Arthur See: Miscellaneous typescripts

[Vanderbilt?], George, Mrs. See: George, Mrs.

Whistler, William McNeill, Mrs. See: Whistler, Nellie

Whistler Memorial Committee See: Miscellaneous typescripts
Related Material:
The Archives of American Art microfilmed portions of the Freer papers in 1992. The microfilm is available at the Archives of American Art's Washington D.C. office, the Freer Gallery of Art Library, and through interlibrary loan.
Provenance:
Gift of the estate of Charles Lang Freer.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Art, American -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art, Asian -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Architecture -- Asia  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries
Financial records
Correspondence
Photographs
Citation:
Charles Lang Freer Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Gift of the estate of Charles Lang Freer.
Identifier:
FSA.A.01
See more items in:
Charles Lang Freer Papers
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc3f1a0e3e0-630c-48d4-ba28-485946b1d615
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a-01
Online Media:

Inventory of Charles Lang Freer's library

Creator:
Freer, Charles Lang, 1856-1919  Search this
Names:
Freer Gallery of Art  Search this
Freer, Charles Lang, 1856-1919  Search this
Collection Creator:
Freer, Charles Lang, 1856-1919  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (typed, with handwritten edits)
Type:
Archival materials
Inventories
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Comprehensive index of Charles Lang Freer's library, mostly relating to art and Asian culture. Headings include authors, countries, and topical subjects. Sections include locations in Freer's original Detroit home; an index of all books transferred to the Smithsonian; a list of collections and collectors catalogues of American and Near and Far Eastern art; sales catalogues, and books in Chinese language.
Arrangement:
Organized in the original manner by the creator.
Local Numbers:
FSA A.01 05.22
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Art, Asian -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art, American -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Book collecting  Search this
Function:
Libraries
Genre/Form:
Inventories
Collection Citation:
Charles Lang Freer Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Gift of the estate of Charles Lang Freer.
Identifier:
FSA.A.01, Item FSA A.01 05.22
See more items in:
Charles Lang Freer Papers
Charles Lang Freer Papers / Series 5: Art Inventories / 5.22: Printed Books [Library]
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc302cb29b7-d6a1-46ad-9b1d-afc360459013
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-fsa-a-01-ref3332
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Toledo Museum of Art

Collection Creator:
Whitney, Gertrude Vanderbilt, 1875-1942  Search this
Container:
Box 8, Folder 19
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1917-1918
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Whitney Museum of American Art, Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney Papers, 1851-1975 (bulk 1888-1942). Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney papers
Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney papers / Series 2: Correspondence / 2.3: General Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw99c09747d-ef45-4c52-8d9f-f9f71e5853c1
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-whitgert-ref360

Reinhardt, Ad - Biographical Material

Collection Creator:
Parsons, Betty  Search this
Container:
Box 15, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1965
Collection Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.

Researchers interested in accessing audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Betty Parsons Gallery records and personal papers, 1916-1991. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Betty Parsons Gallery records and personal papers
Betty Parsons Gallery records and personal papers / Series 1: Artists Files
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9b3120a10-dd39-47ab-b721-8362e662a3a9
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-parsbett-ref467
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The Toledo Museum of Art

Collection Creator:
Parsons, Betty  Search this
Container:
Box 22, Folder 72
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1948-1976
Collection Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.

Researchers interested in accessing audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Betty Parsons Gallery records and personal papers, 1916-1991. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Betty Parsons Gallery records and personal papers
Betty Parsons Gallery records and personal papers / Series 3: Correspondence Files / 3.1: Institutions and Dealers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw985cf0829-4143-447a-9699-e6e3c3c17c02
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-parsbett-ref919

Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records

Creator:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art  Search this
Names:
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
Buffalo Fine Arts Academy  Search this
Corcoran Gallery of Art  Search this
Gallery of William Macbeth  Search this
M. Knoedler & Co.  Search this
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Alexander, John White, 1856-1915  Search this
Beatty, John W. (John Wesley), 1851-1924  Search this
Beaux, Cecilia, 1855-1942  Search this
Brush, George de Forest, 1855-1941  Search this
Chase, William Merritt, 1849-1916  Search this
Church, Samuel Harden  Search this
East, Alfred, Sir, 1849-1913  Search this
Hassam, Childe, 1859-1935  Search this
Homer, Winslow, 1836-1910  Search this
Saint-Gaudens, Homer, b. 1880  Search this
Thayer, Abbott Handerson, 1849-1921  Search this
Extent:
265.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Letterpress books
Museum records
Place:
Spain -- History -- Civil War, 1936-1939
Date:
1883-1962
bulk 1885-1962
Summary:
The records of the Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art measure 265.8 linear feet and date from 1883-1962, with the bulk of the material dating from 1885-1940. The collection includes extensive correspondence between the museum's founding director, John Beatty, and his successor, Homer Saint-Gaudens, with artists, dealers, galleries, collectors, museum directors, representatives abroad, shipping and insurance agents, and museum trustees. The collection also includes Department of Fine Arts interoffice memoranda and reports; loan exhibition files; Carnegie International planning, jury, shipping, and sale records; Department of Fine Arts letterpress copy books, and a copy of the original card catalog index to these records.
Scope and Contents:
The records of the Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art measure 265.8 linear feet and date from 1883-1962, with the bulk of the material dating from 1885-1940. The collection includes extensive correspondence between the museum's founding director, John Beatty, and his successor, Homer Saint-Gaudens, with artists, dealers, galleries, collectors, museum directors, representatives abroad, shipping and insurance agents, and museum trustees. The collection also includes Department of Fine Arts interoffice memoranda and reports; loan exhibition files; Carnegie International planning, jury, shipping, and sale records; Department of Fine Arts letterpress copy books, and a copy of the original card catalog index to these records.

This collection is a complete record of the museum's work, starting with the planning of the first loan exhibition in 1885 and ending with the cancellation of the International at the start of World War II in 1940. The museum's day-to-day relationships with all aspects of the contemporary art world are documented within the historical context of artists' reactions to World War I; the economic repercussions of the Great Depression on art sales and museum budgets; the ramifications of fascism on German, Italian, and European art; the impact of civil war on Spanish art; and the tensions introduced by the rise of 'radical' modernist art in Europe.

Correspondence (Series 1) is the largest series in the collection (152.5 linear feet) and is comprised of extensive correspondence between the Museum of Art and over 8700 correspondents, with over 3600 correspondents specifically related to art and artists.

Correspondents related to the art world include museum staff, artists, collectors, museums, galleries, dealers, shippers, insurance agencies, art directors, associations, societies, clubs, critics, press, and governments. These exchanges include general requests for information; requests related to the museum's exhibitions, including the International; letters regarding the museum's involvement in the events of other art organizations; loan, sales, and provenance information for specific works of art; and information regarding the events of other art organizations.

The correspondence of the museum's staff provides the greatest insight into understanding the museum's evolution into an international cultural institution. Both directors' correspondence touch on their personal opinions on art, their rationale behind policy decisions, and their understanding of the extent to which the museum's work was dependent on the good relations they maintained in the art world. Additionally, the extensive, opinionated correspondence between Saint-Gaudens' European agents and museum staff during the 1920s and 1930s provide a unique perspective on emerging art trends and the skill, growth, and personalities of individual artists.

The most prolific of the museum staff correspondents include museum directors John Beatty and Homer Saint-Gaudens, Board of Trustees president Samuel Harden Church, assistant director Edward Balken, and European agents Guillaume Lerolle , Ilario Neri, Arnold Palmer, Margaret Palmer, and Charlotte Weidler. Additional prominent staff members include Helen Beatty, Robert Harshe, Caroline Lapsley, Henry Jack Nash, John O'Connor, Charles Ramsey, George Shaw, George Sheers, August Zeller, and Fine Arts Committee members John Caldwell, William Frew, William Hyett, and John Porter.

The most prolific artist correspondents include John White Alexander, George Grey Barnard, Cecilia Beaux, Frank Benson, George de Forest Brush, William Merritt Chase, William Coffin, Bruce Crane, Andre Dauchez, Charles H. Davis, Alfred East, Ben Foster, Daniel Garber, Charles P. Gruppe, John Johansen, Johanna Hailman, John McLure Hamilton, Birge Harrison, Childe Hassam, Winslow Homer, Laura Knight, John la Farge, Gaston la Touche, John Lavery, Henri le Sidaner, Jonas Lie, Hermon A. MacNeil, Antonio Mancini, Gari Melchers, Emile Menard, Henry R. Poore, Edward Redfield, W. Elmer Schofield, Leopold Seyffert, Lucien Simon, Eugene Speicher, Abbott Handerson Thayer, Robert Vonnoh, J. Alden Weir, Irving R. Wiles, and Ignacio Zuloaga. Other artists of note include: Edwin Austen Abbey, George Bellows, Edwin Blashfield, Frank Brangwyn, Mary Cassatt, Kenyon Cox, Thomas Wilmer Dewing, Thomas Eakins, William Glackens, Robert Henri, Eastman Johnson, Rockwell Kent, Paul Manship, Henry Ranger, John Singer Sargent, Edward Steichen, Alfred Stieglitz, Edmund Tarbell, James McNeil Whistler, N.C. Wyeth, and Charles Morris Young.

Frequent museum collaborators include the Art Institute of Chicago, Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Brooklyn Museum, Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, Cleveland Museum of Art, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Detroit Institute of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Museum of Modern Art, Saint Louis Museum of Fine Arts, Toledo Museum of Art, and Worcester Art Museum.

Other prolific correspondents include collectors Chauncey Blair, Andrew Carnegie, Charles Lang Freer, George Hearn, Alexander Humphreys, Roy Hunt, Mrs. B.F. Jones, Burton Mansfield, Frank Nicola, Duncan Phillips, John Stevenson, and William Stimmel; dealers and galleries M. Knoedler, William Macbeth, Central Art Gallery, Charles A. Walker, C.W. Kraushaar Art Galleries, Downtown Gallery, Durand-Ruel and Sons, Ehrich Galleries, Ferargil Galleries, Frank Rehn, Frederick Keppel, Haseltine Art Gallery, R.C. Vose Galleries, and W. Scott Thurber Fine Arts; insurance agent Macomber Co.; and shippers Dicksee and Co., J.W. Hampton, P. Navel/R. Lerondelle, Stedman and Wilder, and W.S. Budworth and Son.

Correspondents not specifically related to the contemporary art world include businesses, educational institutions, libraries, and the general public. These exchanges detail the daily work of the museum, including the estimates and work orders of office suppliers, contractors, printers, and etc.; programming and research inquiries of k-12 and college/university institutions; acknowledgements of the receipt of Museum of Art publications; and general public inquiries regarding museum policies, exhibitions, and the permanent collection. Companies and institutions who worked particularly closely with the museum include Alden and Harlow (architects), Detroit Publishing Co., and Tiffany and Co.

Department of Fine Arts (Series 2) consists of art and artist lists, correspondence, memoranda, notes, and reports. These files were begun under John Beatty's tenure and streamlined under Homer Saint-Gaudens' directorship to track activities directly related to the museum's interoffice affairs. File headings continued under Saint-Gaudens focus on art considered and purchased for the permanent collection, employee records, exhibition proposals and loans, Fine Arts Committee minutes, museum programming, museum publications, press releases, requests for images, and requests for general information.

Under Saint-Gaudens, the Fine Arts Committee files contain voluminous impressions of contemporary European artists, which he composed during his annual studio tours of the continent in the early 1920s and late 1930s. These informal reports provide insight into the shaping of the International and include a running commentary on historical events of the time. The Fine Arts Committee files also document the artistic and budgetary compromises that were struck, particularly during the Great Depression and early run-up to World War II.

Exhibitions (Series 3) includes correspondence with collectors, museums, galleries, dealers, shippers, and many of the artists themselves. Additional documents include catalogs, lists, planning notes, and telegrams related to 185 traveling and loan exhibitions held at the Museum of Art from 1901 to 1940. Of these, over 100 are one-artist shows and 82 are group, survey, regional, or topical shows. The one-artist exhibitions tend to showcase contemporary artists of the time. Regional shows focused on American and European art, with two shows featuring the art of Canada and Mexico. Survey themes focused on animals, children, cities, gardens, landscapes, Old Masters, and portraitures. Many of the genre shows venture into art not typically collected by the Museum of Art, including architecture, crafts, engravings, figure studies, graphic arts, illustrations, miniatures, mural decorations, oriental rugs, prints, printed books, sculpture, small reliefs, stained glass, theater models, watercolors, and wood engravings.

The most important shows organized and curated by Museum of Art staff include the Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1915), American Sculpture Show (1915, 1920), Applied Arts Show (1917), Original Illustrations Show (1921), Mexican Art Show (1929), Garden Club Show (1922), Industrial Art Show (1924), Pittsburgh Artists Show (1935), French Survey Show (1936), English Painting Survey Show (1937), American Paintings, Royal Academy Show (1938), and Survey of American Painting Show (1940).

Important one-artist shows include Abbot Handerson Thayer (1919), George de Forest Brush (1922), Frank W. Benson (1923), Rockwell Kent (1923, 1939), Anders Zorn (1924), John Lavery (1925), Paul Manship (1925), Mary Cassatt (1925), Laura Knight (1925), Edouard Manet (1932), Edward Hopper (1936), Winslow Homer (1922, 1936), Paul Cezanne (1936), Charles Burchfield (1937), and William Glackens (1938).

International (Series 4) is comprised of catalogs, correspondence, art and artist lists, itineraries, jury selection ballots, minutes, notes, and reports related to the planning, logistics, and promotion of the International Exhibition from 1895 to 1940. These documents were originally grouped and filed separately under John Beatty and were more rigorously streamlined under Homer Saint-Gaudens. The folder headings continued under Saint-Gaudens focus on art purchases, artists' invitations, artists' request for information, general exhibition planning, Foreign Advisory Committees, foreign governments, jury reception planning, loan requests, and touring logistics.

Letterpress books (Series 5) consist of 75 volumes that chronologically collect all of the Museum of Art's outgoing correspondence from 1896 to 1917. Volumes 1-8 contain the only copy of outgoing correspondence from 1896 to 1900. Duplicate copies of all outgoing correspondence dating from 1901 to 1917 were filed in Correspondence (Series 1) by museum staff.

Card catalogs (Series 6) also include three sets of catalogs created by the Museum of Art to track the outgoing and incoming correspondence contained in this collection. Set 1 (1895-1906) consists of the original cards. Set 2 (1907-1917) and Set 3 (1918-1940) consists of photocopies of the original cards that were merged together into one contiguous set.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Correspondence, 1883-1962, (Boxes 1-153, OV 267; 152.5 linear feet)

Series 2: Department of Fine Arts, 1896-1940, (Boxes 153-184, OV 268; 31.6 linear feet)

Series 3: Exhibitions, 1901-1940, (Boxes 184-204; 20 linear feet)

Series 4: International, 1895-1940, (Boxes 204-234, 265-266; 30.2 linear feet)

Series 5: Letterpress Books, 1900-1917, (Boxes 235-251; 17 linear feet)

Series 6: Card Catalogs, 1895-1940, (Box 252-264; 11 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
The Carnegie Institute Museum of Art was established in 1895 by industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. One of the first modern contemporary art museums in the United States, its flagship exhibition, the Carnegie International, is recognized as the longest running contemporary exhibition of international art in North America and is the second oldest in the world.

Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) was born in Dumfermline, Scotland and migrated to America with his family in 1848. Often regarded as the second-richest man in history behind John D. Rockerfeller, Carnegie built his industrialist fortunes in the steel industry and spent the remainder of his life in support of major philanthropic projects. By the age of 33, he had developed his personal philosophy of philanthropy, which saw it as the responsibility of the wealthy to foster educational opportunities and disseminate the ideals of high culture among all levels of society. In addition to establishing over 2500 free public libraries, in 1895, he provided the funds to build the Carnegie Institute, located in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Carnegie Institute originally maintained three separate departments under the auspices of the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, and the Carnegie Museum of Art.

The Carnegie Institute was administered by a Board of Trustees selected by Carnegie, all prominent professional men of Pittsburgh. Within this group, eight men were selected to serve on the Museum of Art's Fine Arts Committee, which was initially granted the final say on gallery affairs. The first Fine Arts Committee was composed of two artists, Alfred Bryan Wall and Joseph Ryan Woodwell, and six businessmen. Among the latter group, John Caldwell, Henry Clay Frick, William Nimick Frew, and David Thompson Watson were also knowledgeable art patrons and collectors. Over time, the Fine Arts Committee's sway over gallery affairs would be measured by the dedication of its various members and tempered by the vision and authority of the Museum's directors, John Beatty and Homer Saint-Gaudens, and the Carnegie Institute Board of Trustees president, Samuel Harden Church.

From 1896 to 1921, John Wesley Beatty (1851-1924) served as the first director of the Museum of Art. A native Pittsburgher and an accomplished silver engraver, illustrator, and painter, Beatty attended the Royal Bavarian Academy in Munich and upon his return to America, made a living as an artist. He also taught at the Pittsburgh School of Design for Women and co-founded a small school of art with fellow local artist George Hetzel. In 1890, while serving as the secretary of the Pittsburgh Art Society, he became the primary organizer of a loan exhibition to be displayed at the opening of the Carnegie Free Library in Allegheny, Pennsylvania. In 1895, when the Carnegie Institute trustees began discussing the possibility of a similar loan exhibition for the opening of their new institution, Beatty was contacted and eventually enlisted to take on the task. Upon the success of that exhibition, he was invited to direct the gallery's affairs and served as the Museum of Art's director until his retirement.

Beatty was an enthusiastic supporter of Impressionism, Realism, Tonalism, Symbolism, and the critically acclaimed contemporary art of the 1890s. He also shared Carnegie's vision for the Museum of Art and believed in the educational and uplifting role aesthetic beauty could provide to the general public. Pursuant to the stated goals of Andrew Carnegie, under Beatty's direction the museum began to purchase important contemporary works to add to its chronological collection of "Old Masters of tomorrow" and almost immediately began planning the first of its Internationals.

The Internationals were viewed as the primary means of showcasing the Museum of Art's selection of the best in contemporary American and European painting, thereby elevating its role as an influential cultural institution on a national and international level. Juried monetary prizes would be awarded to the two best works by American artists, additional awards would be offered to artists of all nationalities, and the Museum of Art's purchases for the year would be selected from the exhibition. Certain artists and collectors were tapped to serve as unofficial representatives of the Museum of Art at home and abroad, among them John White Alexander, William Coffin, I.M. Gaugengigl, Walter Shirlaw, and Edmund Tarbell. Many of the most prominent Pittsburgh art collectors were also asked to lend works to the exhibition. While details of the jury and artist selection process, number of representatives, exhibition show dates, and amount and total number of prizes would change over the years, the planning template was set and would remain the same for future Internationals.

Beatty continued to rely on a stable of close friends and confidantes to help smooth over relations with artists, dealers, shipping agents, and galleries alike, relying heavily on John White Alexander and W. Elmer Schofield, in addition to artists Thomas Shields Clarke, Walter Gay, Robert Henri, Frank D. Millet, and critic Charles M. Kurtz. Over time, many of the artists who served on International juries or Foreign Advisory Committees also became reliable friends and advocates of the International, including Edwin Austen Abbey, Edmond Aman-Jean, Edwin Howland Blashfield, William Merritt Chase, Charles Cottet, Kenyon Cox, Charles Harold Davis, Alfred East, Ben Foster, Charles Hopkinson, John la Farge, Gari Melchers, Leonard Ochtman, Irving R. Wiles, and Robert W. Vonnoh.

From 1896 to 1921, the Museum of Art held twenty-one Internationals, with the only exceptions coming in 1906 (construction of the Hall of Architecture, Hall of Sculpture, and Bruce Galleries), 1915 (deference to the San Francisco Panama-Pacific International), and 1916-1919 (World War I). During these years, the scope and administration of the International slowly expanded, though not without growing pains. At the turn of the century, new modernist styles of art that were appearing in galleries across Europe had not yet entered major American museums and the Carnegie Museum of Art maintained this trend. The museum's generally conservative selection policies, combined with criticism regarding the timing of the exhibition and the jury selection process, led to increasingly tense relations with artists, and were only partially resolved by changes made to the format of the International. In spite of these challenges, the Carnegie International retained its reputation as a preeminent venue for contemporary art and awarded top prizes to John White Alexander, Cecilia Beaux, George W. Bellows, Frank W. Benson, Andre Dauchez, Thomas Wilmer Dewing, Thomas Eakins, Childe Hassam, Winslow Homer, John Lavery, Henri le Sidaner, Edward W. Redfield, W. Elmer Schofield, Edmund C. Tarbell, Abbot Handerson Thayer, Dwight W. Tryon, and J. Alden Weir.

In addition to the International, Carnegie's mission of bringing cultural and educational opportunities to Pittsburgh was a central priority of the museum's daily operations. Beatty cultivated relationships with fellow museum directors, which allowed for the easy co-ordination and planning of traveling exhibitions benefiting the city. The museum developed educational programs for children and adults, including lectures, gallery talks, Saturday morning classes, fine art extension classes, guided tours, and outreach to local schools. As popular Pittsburgh art societies and clubs formed, the museum also provided meeting and exhibition spaces for groups such as the Associated Artists of Pittsburgh, the Art Society of Pittsburgh, the Art Students League, the Garden Club of Allegheny County, and the Junior League.

After more than 25 years of service, Beatty made the decision to retire and put out an informal call for candidates. Being the right man at the right time, in 1921, Homer Schiff Saint-Gaudens (1880-1958) became the Museum of Art's second director.

The only child of American sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens and his wife and artist, Augusta Fisher Homer, Saint-Gaudens frequently traveled abroad and grew up in the company of his parents' wide circle of friends, many of them artists, poets, writers, and performers who frequented the Cornish Artists' Colony. More intimate friends of the family included former students, assistants, and colleagues, the architect Stanford White, and successful artist-couples who resided near the family's Cornish, New Hampshire home, among them Louise and Kenyon Cox, Maria and Thomas Dewing, Florence and Everett Shinn, and Emma and Abbott Thayer.

Homer Saint-Gaudens attended the preparatory school Lawrenceville, graduated from Harvard in 1903, married the artist and suffragist Carlota Dolley (1884-1927) in 1905, and remarried to Mary Louise McBride (n.d.-1974) in 1929. He began his professional career as a journalist and worked as assistant editor of The Critic (1903) and managing editor of Metropolitan Magazine (1905). During those years, he was introduced to a number of the Ash Can school artists, wrote articles on contemporary art, and honed his abilities as a writer. In 1907, Saint-Gaudens took a break from professional editing and began a second career as the stage manager for Maude Adams, the most highly paid and successful stage actress of her day, with a yearly income of over one million dollars at the peak of her popularity. Working in theater and as Adams' manager for over ten years, Saint-Gaudens learned the ins and outs of event promotion and logistics, media coverage, and maintaining diplomatic relations through compromise, ideal skills he would later use in organizing the Carnegie Internationals.

With the United States' entry into World War I, Saint-Gaudens served as the chief of the U.S. Army's first camouflage unit and was awarded the Bronze Star. After his discharge, he managed Adams' 1918 final season and simultaneously helped his mother organize a major retrospective of his father's sculptures. While organizing a section of his father's work for the 1921 International, he was invited to step into the position of assistant director of the Carnegie Museum of Art, and was promoted to the directorship upon John Beatty's retirement.

Throughout his tenure, Saint-Gaudens was able to call upon long-standing family friendships with artists and art patrons to the museum's benefit. His connections to the art world can clearly be seen in his first major stand-alone exhibition, the Garden Club Show (1922). In this, he enlisted the aid of Elizabeth Alexander, wife of John White Alexander, and Johanna Hailman, artist and wife of John Hailman, who reached out to their circle of artists and art collecting friends in search of works appropriate for the show. Their efforts, combined with the relationships Beatty had established with museum directors, galleries, and dealers, as well as Saint-Gaudens' own friendships with Kenyon Cox, Thomas Dewing, Barry Faulkner, and Gari Melchers, resulted in an assemblage of 150 paintings of note. Coming immediately upon the heels of the 1922 International, the show was a resounding success. The exhibition's opening attracted over 300 delegates of the Garden Club of America and the entirety of Pittsburgh high society, settling any concerns regarding his leadership abilities.

As director of the Museum of Art, Saint-Gaudens instituted measures intended to streamline the Internationals and improve diplomatic relations with artists. Though the basic format of the juried exhibition remained the same, his solutions to the complaints many artists raised with the artist invitation, art selection, and jury systems reformed the International's reputation at a critical time. Though he was naturally inclined to appreciate the art and artists he had grown up with, Saint-Gaudens understood the immediate necessity of introducing modernist contemporary art into the museum's exhibitions and galleries. He circumvented the conservative Fine Arts Committee's resistance to the accolades of European modernists by choosing the tamest of the new 'radical' works. Eventually, he balanced the Internationals with a mix of conservative, moderate, and advanced works that appealed to a large range of audiences and increased the status and diversity of the Internationals.

To aid in his reformation of the International, Saint-Gaudens formalized a team of European agents who worked year round to scout artists' studios, recommend suitable art and artists, navigate local politics, arrange local transportation and logistics, and maintain cordial relations with artists abroad. In the spring, Saint-Gaudens would travel to Europe to meet with his agents in person, tour the most promising studios, and meet with artists personally. His team was headed by Guillaume Lerolle, who shared Saint-Gaudens' distinction of being the son of a well regarded national artist, Henry Lerolle. Like Saint-Gaudens, Lerolle was able and willing to call upon longstanding family friendships and networks on behalf of the Museum of Art. The other core members of the team were Ilario Neri (Italy), Arnold Palmer (England), Margaret Palmer (Spain), and Charlotte Weidler (Germany).

From 1922 to 1940, the Museum of Art held seventeen Internationals, with the exceptions coming in 1932 (Great Depression) and 1940 (World War II). After a brief period of change, growth, and experimentation in the early 1920s, the museum eventually settled on a routine of planning the Internationals, arranging for traveling exhibitions, and expanding upon the most popular of their educational programs. In addition to those programs put into place under Beatty's tenure, Saint-Gaudens paved the way for a revamped lecture series featuring visiting critics and traveled as a visiting lecturer himself.

During the 1930s, financial difficulties and increasing political tensions in Europe presented ample challenges to the diplomatic skills of Saint-Gaudens and his agents, and they found themselves increasingly forced to navigate through political minefields presented by the fascist ideologies of Germany and Italy, the chaos of the Spanish civil war, and the eventual outbreak of World War II in Europe. In spite of these challenges, under Saint-Gaudens' direction, the museum remained true to Andrew Carnegie's vision. The International was expanded to accept on average over sixty additional works of art, and at its peak, included art from twenty-one countries. Beginning in 1927, top prizes and recognition were awarded to Georges Braque, Marc Chagall, Salvador Dali, Andre Derain, Raoul Dufy, Karl Hofer, Rockwell Kent, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, and Edouard Vuillard.

Works by Arthur B. Davies, Charles Hawthorne, Edward Hopper, Augustus John, Oskar Kokoschka, Leon Kroll, Ernest Lawson, and William Orpen were added to the museum's permanent collection. And, as under Beatty's tenure, many of the artists selected to serve on the Jury of Award became advocates and friends of the museum, including Emil Carlsen, Anto Carte, Bruce Crane, Charles C. Curran, Daniel Garber, Charles Hopkinson, Laura Knight, Jonas Lie, Julius Olsson, Leopold Seyffert, Lucien Simon, Eugene Speicher, Maurice Sterne, Gardner Symons, Horatio Walker, and Charles H. Woodbury.

The monumental task of establishing the Carnegie Institute Museum of Art and the Carnegie International has left an archival record that is unique and unparalleled in documenting its relations with every aspect of the contemporary art world from the turn of the century through the first forty years of the twentieth century.
Provenance:
The Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records were loaned for microfilming in 1966 and later donated to the Archives of American Art in 1972. A small addition of corrrespondence was donated in 2017 by Elizabeth Tufts Brown.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Depressions -- 1929  Search this
Art, Modern -- Exhibitions  Search this
Fascism  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Museum directors  Search this
Function:
Art museums -- Pennsylvania
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Letterpress books
Museum records
Citation:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records, 1883-1962, bulk 1885-1940. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.carninst
See more items in:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-carninst
Online Media:

Toledo Museum of Art (Stevens, George W.)

Collection Creator:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art  Search this
Container:
Box 137, Folder 21-25
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1901
1903-1905
1907-1920
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records, 1883-1962, bulk 1885-1940. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records / Series 1: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-carninst-ref8087

Toledo Museum of Art (Stevens, George W.)

Collection Creator:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art  Search this
Container:
Box 137, Folder 26-29
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1921-1931
1933-1940
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records, 1883-1962, bulk 1885-1940. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records / Series 1: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-carninst-ref8088

Children's programs, Toledo Museum of Art

Collection Creator:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art  Search this
Container:
Box 154, Folder 36
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1914
1916
1918-1919
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records, 1883-1962, bulk 1885-1940. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records / Series 2: Department of Fine Arts
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-carninst-ref9153

Kraushaar Galleries records

Creator:
Kraushaar Galleries  Search this
Names:
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
Carnegie Institute  Search this
Cleveland Museum of Art  Search this
Ernest Brown and Co.  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
New Britain Institute. Art Museum  Search this
Toledo Museum of Art  Search this
University of Nebraska--Lincoln. Department of Art  Search this
Whitney Museum of American Art  Search this
Wichita Art Museum  Search this
Albrizio, Humbert, 1901-1970  Search this
Allard, J.  Search this
Arnest, Bernard, 1917-  Search this
Bacon, Peggy, 1895-1987  Search this
Beal, Gifford, 1879-1956  Search this
Beal, Reynolds, 1866-1951  Search this
Bignou, Etienne  Search this
Bouché, Louis, 1896-1969  Search this
Brueming, Karen  Search this
Cantene, David  Search this
Cowles, Russell, 1887-1979  Search this
DeLonga, Leonard  Search this
Demuth, Charles, 1883-1935  Search this
Evett, Kenneth Warnock, 1913-  Search this
Fausett, Dean, 1913-  Search this
Flannery, Vaughn  Search this
Glackens, Edith  Search this
Glackens, William J., 1870-1938  Search this
Guillaume, Paul, 1891-1934  Search this
Halberstadt, Ernst, 1910-1987  Search this
Hardy, Thomas, 1921-  Search this
Harrison, Preston  Search this
Hartell, John  Search this
Heliker, John, 1909-2000  Search this
Juley, Peter A., 1862-1937  Search this
Kirsch, Frederick D. (Frederick Dwight), b. 1899  Search this
Kraushaar, Antoinette M., 1902-1992  Search this
Kraushaar, John F., 1871-1946  Search this
Kuhn, Walt, 1877-1949  Search this
Lachaise, Gaston, 1882-1935  Search this
Lasker, Joe  Search this
Laurent, Robert, 1890-1970  Search this
Lechay, James  Search this
Luks, George Benjamin, 1867-1933  Search this
Miller, Harriette  Search this
Morris, Carl, 1911-1993  Search this
Murdock, Roland P. -- Art collections  Search this
Navas, Elizabeth S., 1885-1979  Search this
Penney, James, 1910-1982  Search this
Phillips, Duncan, 1886-1966  Search this
Prendergast, Charles, 1863-1948  Search this
Prendergast, Maurice Brazil, 1858-1924  Search this
Robinson, Boardman, 1876-1952  Search this
Ruellan, Andrée, 1905-2006  Search this
Schnakenberg, H. E. (Henry Ernest), 1892-1970  Search this
Sloan, John, 1871-1951  Search this
Smalley, David, 1940-  Search this
Smith, Vernon, 1894-1969  Search this
Stanley, Alix W.  Search this
Williams, Esther, 1907-1969  Search this
Wilson, Ralph L.  Search this
Extent:
100.3 Linear feet
0.181 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Photographs
Sketches
Drawings
Exhibition catalogs
Financial records
Notes
Sketchbooks
Date:
1877-2006
Summary:
The records of New York City Kraushaar Galleries measure 100.3 linear feet and 0.181 GB and date from 1877 to 2006. Three-fourths of the collection documents the gallery's handling of contemporary American paintings, drawings, and sculpture through correspondence with artists, private collectors, museums, galleries, and other art institutions, interspersed with scattered exhibition catalogs and other materials. Also included are John F. Kraushaar's estate records; artists' files; financial ledgers documenting sales and gallery transactions; consignment and loan records; photographs of artwork; sketchbooks and drawings by James Penney, Louis Bouché, and others; and two scrapbooks.
Scope and Content Note:
The records of New York City Kraushaar Galleries measure 100.3 linear feet and 0.181 GB and date from 1877 to 2006. Three-fourths of the collection documents the gallery's handling of contemporary American paintings, drawings, and sculpture through correspondence with artists, private collectors, museums, galleries, and other art institutions, interspersed with scattered exhibition catalogs and other materials. Also included are John F. Kraushaar's estate records; artists' files; financial ledgers documenting sales and gallery transactions; consignment and loan records; photographs of artwork; sketchbooks and drawings by James Penney, Louis Bouché, and others; and two scrapbooks.

The collection reflects all activities conducted in the day-to-day administration of the business and relates to the acquisition, consignment, loan, sale, and exhibition of art by twentieth-century American artists and European artists of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The records document specific arrangements for loans and exhibitions, artist-dealer relations, relationships with public and private collectors, interaction with the art dealer community, and routine requests for information.

Much of the artist correspondence relates to practical arrangements for exhibitions of artwork, but in many cases also documents the development of individual artists and the effect of their relationship with the galleries on their ability to produce marketable work. Many of the artists represented in the collection also wrote lengthy letters, particularly to Antoinette Kraushaar, describing their attitudes to their work and providing insight into how that work was shaped by events in their personal lives.

The bulk of the correspondence with museums and institutions concerns practical arrangements for loans of artwork and provides detailed information about market prices and insurance values. It offers insight into the general climate of opinion toward particular artists and styles at any given time. Correspondence with other galleries and dealers also concerns loans and sales of artwork but, due to the typically cordial and cooperative nature of relations between the Kraushaars and their contemporaries, may also provide a more extensive and personal view of relationships and trends in the art dealer community. Similarly, while a portion of the correspondence with private collectors concerns routine requests for information and loans of art on approval, there is also substantive correspondence documenting the development of the artistic vision of collectors such as Preston Harrison, Elizabeth S. Navas, and Duncan Phillips.

From 1917 to the mid-1930s correspondence was handled mainly by John Kraushaar, and the bulk of that relating to European galleries and European art can be found during these years. Although there are only a handful of materials before 1926, records from the 1920s and 1930s document Kraushaar Galleries' growing commitment to American artists and the climate of the market for their work. The financial hardships of the Depression are vividly depicted in the numerous letters written during the 1930s seeking payment on accounts receivable and requesting extensions on accounts payable.

From the mid-1930s to 1968 correspondence was conducted primarily by Antoinette Kraushaar and, to some degree, by her assistants in later years. As the galleries' focus on American art increased, so did the volume of correspondence with artists, and the collection is particularly rich during the 1940s and early 1960s. In later years to 2006, most of the correspondence was conducted by Carol Pesner and gallery assistants.

The exhibition catalogs included in the collection do not represent a complete set. Those found are working copies used by the galleries in preparation for exhibitions and are often annotated with prices or insurance values. Additional exhibition catalogs can be found on the microfilm described in the Administrative Information section of this finding aid.

The majority of Kraushaar Galleries' insurance records can be found in files relating to the company Wm. E. Goodridge & Son, later known as Wm. E. Goodridge, Inc. Shipping and transportation records are generally filed under the names of the companies used for such transactions and can primarily be found under Davies, Turner & Co., Hudson Forwarding & Shipping Co., Railway Express Agency, Inc., and W. S. Budworth & Son, and to a lesser degree under American Railway Express Company, Arthur Lenars & Cie., C. B. Richard & Co., De La Rancheraye & Co., Hayes Storage, Packing & Removal Service, Inc., and Willis, Faber & Co. Ltd.

The 2008-2017 additions include correspondence similar in content and with correspondents as described above, as well as some artists' Christmas cards. However, the bulk of the additional correspondence dates from 1965-1989, with a handful of miscellaneous correspondence from 1877 to the mid-twentieth century. Also found are financial and business records including records from the closing of the John F. Kraushaar estate; over 40 ledgers providing nearly complete documentation of the gallery's sales and transactions from its establishment to 1946; incoming consignment records, including account statements and correspondence with artists, from the 1940s to 2006; and outgoing consignment and loan records from 1899-2006. The gallery's representation of its stable of artists is documented through artists' files containing printed and digital materials, exhibition catalogs and announcements, price lists, and biographical information, as well as containers of photographs and negatives of artwork. Also found is a 1933 sketchbook by James Penney, drawings and sketchbooks by Louis Bouché, and two scrapbooks.

See Appendix for a list of Kraushaar Galleries exhibitions
Arrangement:
Kraushaar Galleries generally filed all types of records together with correspondence in a combination of alphabetical and chronological files. Thus financial records, insurance records, receipts, photographs, and exhibition catalogs can be found interfiled with general correspondence in Series 1-3. A group of photographs of artwork maintained separately by Kraushaar Galleries constitutes Series 4. Series 6 was minimally processed separately from Series 1-5, and the arrangement reflects the original order of the addition for the most part.

Records in Series 1-3 were originally filed alphabetically by name of correspondent and then by month, by a span of several months, or by year. The alphabetical arrangement has been retained, but to facilitate access the collection was rearranged so that correspondence was collated by year. From 1901 to 1944 outgoing letters and incoming letters are filed separately; in 1945 some outgoing letters are filed separately, with the bulk of the material filed together as correspondence; from 1946 to 1968 incoming and outgoing letters are filed together as correspondence.

For Series 1-3 organizations or individuals represented by at least 15 letters are filed in separate file folders. All other correspondents are arranged in general files by letters of the alphabet, with selected correspondents and subjects noted in parentheses after the folder title.

Series 2 and several boxes in Series 3 contain a variety of notes and receipts received and created by Kraushaar Galleries that were originally unfoldered. The notes can be found in folders adjacent to the receipts and include handwritten notes of customer names and addresses, financial notes and calculations, catalogs of exhibitions, invitations and announcements to exhibitions frequently used as note paper, and other miscellany. Although most of the miscellaneous notes are undated, they are filed, with the receipts, at the end of the year to which they appear to relate. For the years 1929 and 1930 Kraushaar Galleries created separate alphabetical files for some of the billing statements received from other businesses. These have been filed adjacent to "Miscellaneous Notes" and "Receipts" in the appropriate years.

Kraushaar Galleries tended to file correspondence with businesses alphabetically according to the letter of the last name: for example, Wm. E. Goodridge & Son would be filed under G rather than W.

Missing Title

Series 1: Outgoing Letters, 1920-1945 (boxes 1-9; 9 linear ft.)

Series 2: Incoming Letters (boxes 10-26; 16.25 linear ft.)

Series 3: Correspondence, 1945-1968 (boxes 26-53; 27.75 linear ft.)

Series 4: Photographs, undated (box 54; 0.5 linear ft.)

Series 5: Artwork, [1926, 1938] (box 53; 2 items)

Series 6: Addition to the Kraushaar Galleries Records, 1877-2006 (boxes 55-99, 101-111, BV100; 46.8 linear feet, ER01-ER02; 0.181 GB)
Historical Note:
Charles W. Kraushaar established Kraushaar Galleries in 1885 as a small store on Broadway near Thirty-first Street in New York City. Initially the store sold artist materials, photogravures, and reproductions. Drawing on his previous experience working with William Schause, a leading dealer in European paintings, Kraushaar soon progressed to selling original watercolors, paintings, and engravings by European artists, primarily landscapes of the Barbizon School.

In 1901 Kraushaar moved the business to 260 Fifth Avenue and with the assistance of his brother, John F. Kraushaar, began adding more modern French and American painters to the inventory. Of particular interest to John Kraushaar was the group of American realists known as "The Eight," who had held a self-selected, self-organized exhibition at the Macbeth Gallery in 1908. The Eight were Arthur B. Davies, William Glackens, Robert Henri, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, Everett Shinn, and John Sloan. Luks, whom John Kraushaar met around 1902, was probably the first major American artist represented at Kraushaar Galleries. In 1917 John Sloan was invited to hold his first one-person show at the galleries despite accusations that his exhibition at the Whitney Studio the previous year had represented a brutal depiction of life that lacked subtlety and sensitivity.

When Charles Kraushaar died suddenly in 1917, John assumed control of the galleries and soon enlisted the assistance of his daughter, Antoinette Kraushaar. Antoinette had suffered a bout of pneumonia during the influenza epidemic of 1918 that cut short her education; grooming her for a career in the galleries was a logical step. Following the end of the First World War, Kraushaar resumed his buying trips to Europe, often accompanied by Antoinette, and exhibited works by European artists such as André Derain, Henri Matisse, Amedeo Modigliani, Pablo Picasso, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and Vincent Van Gogh. However, it was the increasing commitment to contemporary American artists for which the galleries would become best known. In addition to The Eight, the Kraushaars developed their inventory of American paintings and etchings with exhibitions of work by artists such as Gifford Beal, Charles Demuth, Guy Pène Du Bois, Gaston Lachaise, Jerome Myers, Charles Prendergast, and Henry Schnakenberg.

Returning from a buying trip to Europe in 1929, John Kraushaar wrote to California collector Preston Harrision on July 26 that "the prices over there, especially for modern pictures are astounding." Nevertheless, Kraushaar believed that investing in modern art would yield benefits within the next five years, and he refused to be influenced by museums and critics outside of New York who were reluctant to agree. He exhibited a healthy disrespect for museum directors in general, whom he referred to in his letters to Harrision as "dead heads" who ought to be sent to different art centers of the world in order to "get in touch with what is going on there" (March 11, 1929).

Like most of its contemporaries, Kraushaar Galleries suffered considerably during the Depression of the 1930s and struggled to collect and, in turn, pay accounts due. On October 5, 1931, John Kraushaar confessed to H. S. Southam, "Business is very bad with us, and I know that you will treat it confidentially when I tell you that I have had to sacrifice a good part of my personal holdings to provide cash for my own business." By 1934 the rent on the galleries' current location at 680 Fifth Avenue, where Kraushaar had moved in 1919, was out of all proportion to the amount of business that was being generated. In 1936, a timely move to 730 Fifth Avenue allowed the family to effect substantial economies without a disproportionate loss of business.

During the 1930s, John Kraushaar's health began to fail, and he was frequently absent from the galleries. Consequently, Antoinette Kraushaar took on greater responsibility for the operation of the business with the assistance of her brother Charles. Although Antoinette was one of few women to hold such a prominent position in the art business at that time, there is no evidence in the records to suggest that artists or customers who had been accustomed to dealing with John Kraushaar had any difficulty accepting the transition in management from father to daughter.

Nevertheless, collecting accounts remained difficult, and although business had improved by 1938 it was now stymied by the threat of war in Europe. The warmth of relations between the Kraushaars and the artists they handled, and their colleagues, was crucial to Antoinette during these years. She repeatedly expressed her gratitude for their understanding and assistance in her letters as she struggled to meet financial obligations and operate the business in her father's absence, experimenting with different strategies as she evolved an approach that would sustain the business. In a letter to Gifford Beal dated August 6, 1941, she spoke of "hellish times" and stressed, "I have learned a great many things during the past few years and hope that we are groping our way towards a working solution of our own affairs at least."

While there is no question that Antoinette Kraushaar shared her father's genuine interest in contemporary American artists, the growing commitment to these artists that was forged during these years was driven in large part by necessity. By increasing her stock of American art and adding "younger painters of promise," she was able to sell work in a much broader price range. Consequently she could reach a wider audience and increase the likelihood that the business would remain solvent. This method of business also suited her personality far more than having a very specialized inventory of highly priced work, an approach that she confessed to J. Lionberger Davis on December 3, 1940, "requires a particular kind of temperament, and frankly I neither like it nor believe in it."

Throughout her career Antoinette imbued the business with her personal style. She understood that elitism alienated art buyers of moderate income, who constituted her bread and butter, and believed strongly that the gallery environment should not be intimidating to potential customers. She corresponded at length with old and new clients alike, patiently offering advice when asked and maintaining liberal policies for those who wished to borrow artwork on approval. She also participated in events that promoted efforts to make art available to a wider audience, such as a 1951 exhibition and seminar at the Florida Gulf Coast Art Center that addressed problems of buying and selling art. She was a two-time board member of the Art Dealers Association of America and considered the organization to be an important source of support for the gallery community.

In her dealings with other commercial galleries and art institutions, Antoinette Kraushaar exhibited a strong spirit of cooperation and enthusiasm, consistently lending art to small, locally owned businesses and community organizations as well as to more established galleries and world-class museums. She also developed long and mutually beneficial associations with the art departments of many educational institutions across the country, which proved to be fertile ground for young and upcoming artists.

Antoinette Kraushaar exhibited the same honesty and fairness in dealing with artists as her father had, expressing her opinions of their work in a forthright manner and maintaining a policy of always looking at the work of any artist who came to her. She understood the inherent difficulties of dealing with living artists but relished the excitement of encouraging their work and watching them develop. On November 14, 1947, in reply to a letter from the artist Bernard Arnest, in which Arnest apologized for burdening her with his worries, she reminded him, "One of the functions of a dealer is to act as a safety valve. Didn't you know?"

Although she would not retain artists indefinitely if she felt their work had deteriorated in quality, Antoinette often stressed that she was prepared to accept little or no initial financial return on the work of artists who showed promise or whose work held a particular appeal for her. In a letter of December 30, 1940, she reassured Walt Dehner that the lack of sales from his recent exhibition would not lead her to withdraw his work from the galleries. In typically unassuming style she advised Dehner to "go on painting whatever interests you. We have found that there is no recipe for success, either artistic or material."

In the early 1940s Antoinette Kraushaar implemented two changes to her inventory. Sensing that interest in sculpture was growing, she rearranged the space to give that medium more room and attention. The market for etchings had been declining since the late 1930s, and as she reduced this part of her inventory she also acted on her personal passion for drawings by opening a small gallery devoted to contemporary American drawings that were priced well within the range of most customers.

By the time Kraushaar Galleries moved to 32 East Fifty-seventh Street, late in 1944, American art had become the main focus of the business. While the long-standing interest in The Eight and other artists of that period continued, the galleries also handled contemporaries such as Louis Bouché, Samuel Brecher, John Heliker, Andrée Ruellan, and Karl Schrag. When John Kraushaar died in December 1946, Antoinette and Charles legally assumed control of the business. This partnership continued until 1950, when Antoinette assumed sole ownership of the gallery.

In 1955 the galleries moved uptown to smaller quarters at 1055 Madison Avenue, and Antoinette Kraushaar gave up the greater part of her print business. She was inundated with requests from artists to be allowed a chance to show her their work, and the galleries' exhibition schedule was always full. Contemporary artists she now represented included Bernard Arnest, Peggy Bacon, Russell Cowles, Kenneth Evett, William Dean Fausett, William Kienbusch, Joe Lasker, and George Rickey, and she continued to exhibit artwork by Charles Demuth, William Glackens, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, Boardman Robinson, and John Sloan.

By the late 1950s the artists of the generation that her father had promoted in the early part of the century had died, but Antoinette Kraushaar had the pleasure of seeing his faith in them come to fruition. In a letter to Ralph Wilson dated October 20, 1958, she stated with satisfaction, "The Boston Museum is taking (at long last) a deep interest in (Maurice) Prendergast, and they will probably do an important show within the next year." Her correspondence with William Glackens's son Ira in the 1960s reveals the extent to which Glackens's popularity had grown since his death in 1938, and the market for John Sloan's work had been increasing steadily since the late 1920s. In 1962 James Penney summed up Kraushaar Galleries' success in the foreword of a catalog for an exhibition of paintings and sculpture the galleries had organized with the Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute at Hamilton College:

Missing Title

1854 -- Charles W. Kraushaar born

1871 -- John F. Kraushaar born

1885 -- Kraushaar Galleries established on Broadway near Thirty-first Street

1901 -- Galleries moved to 260 Fifth Avenue

1902 -- Antoinette Kraushaar born

1917 -- Charles W. Kraushaar died; John Kraushaar assumed control of the business, increasing inventory of modern American and European artists; first John Sloan exhibition

1919 -- Galleries moved to 680 Fifth Avenue

[1920] -- Antoinette Kraushaar began assisting with the business

1924 -- Maurice Prendergast died

1936 -- Galleries moved to the Heckscher Building at 730 Fifth Avenue

1938 -- William J. Glackens died

1944 -- Galleries moved to the Rolls Royce Building at 32 East Fifty-seventh Street; American art now the main focus of the business

1946 -- John Kraushaar died; Antoinette and Charles Kraushaar assumed control of the business

1948 -- Charles Prendergast died

1950 -- Antoinette Kraushaar assumed sole ownership of Kraushaar Galleries

1951 -- John Sloan died

1955 -- Galleries moved to 1055 Madison Avenue

1959 -- Carole Pesner joined Kraushaar Galleries

1964 -- Galleries extended into adjacent building

1981 -- Galleries moved to 724 Fifth Avenue

1986 -- Katherine Kaplan joined Kraushaar Galleries

1988 -- Antoinette Kraushaar retired from day-to-day management of the business

1992 -- Antoinette Kraushaar died
Appendix: List of Kraushaar Galleries Exhibitions:
The Archives of American Art does not hold a complete collection of catalogs from exhibitions held at Kraushaar Galleries; therefore the dates and titles of exhibitions provided in this appendix are inferred from a variety of sources including correspondence, notes, artists' files, and requests for advertising. Italics indicate that the exact title of an exhibition is known.

Missing Title

Jan., 1912 -- Paintings by Gustave Courbet and Henri Fantin-Latour

Apr., 1912 -- Paintings by Frank Brangwyn and Henri Le Sidaner

Jan., 1913 -- Paintings by Ignacio Zuloaga

May, 1913 -- Etchings by Seymour Haden

June, 1913 -- Paintings and Lithographs by Henri Fantin-Latour

Oct., 1913 -- Etchings by Frank Brangwyn

Jan., 1914 -- Ignacio Zuloaga

Mar., 1914 -- Paintings by Alphonse Legros

Apr., 1914 -- George Luks

May, 1914 -- Seven Modern Masterpieces including Gustave Courbet, Henri Fantin-Latour, Alphonse Legros, Matthew Maris, and James McNeill Whistler

undated, 1915 -- Paintings by John Lavery

Jan.-Feb., 1917 -- James McNeill Whistler's White Girl

Feb.-Mar., 1917 -- Paintings by Augustus Vincent Tack

Mar.-Apr., 1917 -- Paintings and Etchings by John Sloan

Summer, 1917 -- Works by French artists including A. L. Bouche, Josef Israels, Gaston La Touche, and Alphonse Legros

Oct., 1917 -- Monoprints by Salvatore Antonio Guarino

Nov., 1917 -- Etchings and Mezzotints by Albany E. Howarth

Jan., 1918 -- Recent Paintings by John Lavery

Jan.-Feb., 1918 -- Paintings and Watercolors by George Luks

Feb.-Mar., 1918 -- Paintings by Augustus Vincent Tack

Mar., 1918 -- Paintings by John Sloan

Apr.-May, 1918 -- Paintings by A. L. Bouche

May, 1918 -- War Paintings by J. Mortimer Block, Charles S. Chapman, Guy Pène Du Bois, H. B. Fuller, George Luks, W. Ritschell, John Sloan, and Augustus Vincent Tack

Oct., 1918 -- Oil Paintings by William Scott Pyle

Nov., 1918 -- Paintings by Gustave Courbet, Henri Fantin-Latour, Alphonse Legros, Edouard Manet, Antoine Vollon, James McNeill Whistler, and Ignacio Zuloaga, and bronzes by Antoine Louis Bayre, Emile Antoine Bourdelle, and Mahonri Young

Apr., 1919 -- Paintings and Monoprints by Salvatore Anthonio Guarino

Jan.-Feb., 1919 -- Decorative Panels and Other Paintings by Augustus Vincent Tack

Mar., 1919 -- Paintings and Drawings by John Sloan

May, 1919 -- Paintings by George Luks, Monticelli, and A. P. Ryder

Sept., 1919 -- Work by Jean Louis Forain

Oct., 1919 -- Etchings and Lithographs by Alphonse Legros

Jan., 1920 -- Recent Paintings by George Luks

Feb., 1920 -- Recent Paintings by John Sloan

Feb., 1920 -- Paintings by William Scott Pyle

Mar., 1920 -- Recent Paintings by Gifford Beal

Apr., 1920 -- Recent Paintings by Augustus Vincent Tack

Apr., 1920 -- Paintings by Henri Le Sidaner

Apr., 1920 -- Paintings and Drawings by Jean Louis Forain

Apr.-May, 1920 -- Paintings and Drawings by Jerome Myers

May, 1920 -- Paintings by Henrietta M. Shore

Jan., 1921 -- Paintings by French and American Artists

Jan.-Feb., 1921 -- Paintings by George Luks

Feb., 1921 -- New Paintings by Augustus Vincent Tack

Apr., 1921 -- John Sloan Retrospective

Summer, 1921 -- French and American Artists

Oct., 1921 -- Paintings of Mountford Coolidge

Oct., 1921 -- Works by Henri Fantin-Latour and Henri Le Sidaner

Nov., 1921 -- Frank Van Vleet Tompkins

Dec., 1921 -- Paintings and Bronzes by Modern Masters of American and European Art

Jan., 1922 -- Exhibition of Recent Paintings and Watercolors by George Luks

Feb., 1922 -- Paintings by Augustus Vincent Tack

Mar., 1922 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Gifford Beal

Apr., 1922 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Guy Pène Du Bois

Summer, 1922 -- Paintings by Modern Masters of American and European Art

Oct., 1922 -- Recent Paintings of the Maine Coast by George Luks

Jan., 1923 -- Exhibition of Paintings by George Luks

Feb., 1923 -- Paintings and Decorative Panels by Augustus Vincent Tack

Mar., 1923 -- Landscapes by Will Shuster

Mar., 1923 -- Paintings by Samuel Halpert

Apr., 1923 -- Marine Figures and Landscapes by Gifford Beal

Apr.-May, 1923 -- Paintings by John Sloan

May, 1923 -- Paintings by Frank Van Vleet Tompkins

June, 1923 -- Etchings by Marius A. J. Bauer

Oct., 1923 -- American Watercolors by Gifford Beal, Reynolds Beal, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, and William Zorach

Dec., 1923 -- Etchings and Lithographs by Alphonse Legros

Dec., 1923 -- Paintings, Drawings, and Pastels by Charles Adolphe Bischoff

Jan., 1924 -- Paintings by Celebrated American Artists

Mar., 1924 -- Paintings and Drawings by Guy Pène Du Bois

Apr., 1924 -- New Paintings by George Luks

May, 1924 -- Paintings by Marjorie Phillips

Summer, 1924 -- French and American Modern Artists

Oct., 1924 -- Painting, Watercolors, and Sculpture by William Zorach

Nov., 1924 -- Watercolors by Seven Americans

Dec., 1924 -- French Paintings

Jan., 1925 -- Paintings by John Sloan

Jan.-Feb., 1925 -- Maurice Prendergast Memorial Exhibition

Mar., 1925 -- Plans and Photographs of Work in Landscape Architecture by Charles Downing Lay

Apr., 1925 -- Paintings by William J. Glackens

Dec., 1925 -- Watercolors by Gifford Beal, Reynolds Beal, Carl Broemel, Richard Lahey Jerome Myers, Maurice Prendergast, Henry E. Schnakenberg, Abraham Walkowitz, and William Zorach

undated, 1926 -- Lower Broadway by W. Walcot

Feb., 1926 -- Paintings by Paul Burlin

Feb., 1926 -- Portraits of Duncan Phillips, Esq. Charles B. Rogers, Esq. & The Hon. Elihu Root Painted by Augustus Vincent Tack

Mar., 1926 -- Paintings, Watercolors, and Drawings by Gifford Beal

Apr., 1926 -- John Sloan

Sept.-Oct., 1926 -- Exhibition of Etchings by C. R. W. Nevinson

Oct., 1926 -- Drawings, Etchings, and Lithographs by Nineteenth-Century French Artists

Oct., 1926 -- Paintings and Drawings by Mathieu Verdilhan

Dec., 1926 -- Exhibition of Watercolors by Gifford Beal, Reynolds Beal, Carl Broemel, Guy Pène Du Bois, Ernest Fiene, Samuel Halpert, Henry Keller, Louis Kronberg, Richard Lahey, Charles Lay, Jerome Myers, Maurice Prendergast, Henry

Dec., 1926 -- Schnakenberg, A. Walkowitz, Martha Walters, William Zorach

Jan., 1927 -- French Drawings and Prints

Feb., 1927 -- Paintings, Drawings, Etchings, and Lithographs by John Sloan

Mar., 1927 -- Gifford Beal

Mar.-Apr., 1927 -- Decorative Panels and Watercolors by Margarett Sargent

Mar.-Apr., 1927 -- Exhibition of Drawings and Lithographs of New York by Adriaan Lubbers

Apr., 1927 -- Paintings and Etchings by Walter Pach

Apr.-May, 1927 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Leopold Survage

Apr.-May, 1927 -- Etchings and Woodcuts by D. Galanis

May, 1927 -- Paintings by Guy Pène Du Bois

Summer, 1927 -- Paintings by American Artists

Summer, 1927 -- Paintings, Watercolors, and Drawings by Georges Braque, Honoré Daumier, Edgar Degas, André Derain, Henri Fantin-Latour, Jean Louis Forain, Constantin Guys, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Edouard Manet, Henri Matisse, Amedeo Modigliani, Claude Monet, Morissot, Pablo Picasso, Camille Pissarro, Odilon Redon, Segonzac, and Georges Seurat

Oct.-Nov., 1927 -- Exhibition of Etchings in Color by Bernard Boutet de Monvel

Nov., 1927 -- Exhibition of Paintings, Drawings, Lithographs, and Watercolors by Ernest Fiene

Dec., 1927 -- Watercolors by American Artists including Gifford Beal, Reynolds Beal, Carl Broemel, Charles Demuth, Guy Pène Du Bois, Ernest Fiene, Henry G. Keller, Richard Lahey, Charles Downing Lay, Howard Ashman Patterson, [Maurice] Prendergast, Henry E. Schnakenberg, Abraham Walkowitz, Frank Nelson Wilcox, and [William] Zorach

Dec., 1927 -- Paintings by Guy Pène Du Bois

Dec., 1927 -- Paintings, Sculpture, and Decorative Media by George Biddle

Jan.-Feb., 1928 -- Paintings by S. J. Peploe

Feb., 1928 -- Drawings by Henri Fantin-Latour

Feb., 1928 -- Pastels and Drawings by Margarett Sargent

Feb., 1928 -- Drawings for Balzac's Les Contes Drolatiques by Ralph Barton

Feb.-Mar., 1928 -- Sculpture by William Zorach

Mar., 1928 -- Recent Paintings by Marjorie Phillips

Mar.-Apr., 1928 -- Exhibition of Paintings by William Glackens

Apr., 1928 -- Paintings, Drawings and Lithographs by R. H. Sauter of London, England

Oct., 1928 -- Modern French Paintings, Watercolors and Drawings

Oct.-Nov., 1928 -- Paintings, Watercolors, Drawings, Etchings, and Lithographs by Richard Lahey

Nov., 1928 -- Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture by J. D. Fergusson

Nov.-Dec., 1928 -- Paintings, Drawings and Etchings by Walter Pach

Dec., 1928 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Abraham Walkowitz

Jan., 1929 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Margarett Sargent

Jan., 1929 -- Watercolors by Rodin

Jan.-Feb., 1929 -- Exhibition of Sculpture by Arnold Geissbuhler

Feb., 1929 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Guy Pène Du Bois

Feb.-Mar., 1929 -- Paintings by Gifford Beal

Mar., 1929 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Adriaan Lubbers

Mar.-Apr., 1929 -- Exhibition of Etchings by Gifford Beal, Frank W. Benson, Childe Hassam, Kenneth Hayes Miller, and John Sloan

Apr., 1929 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Arnold Friedman

Apr., 1929 -- Sculpture by Harriette G. Miller

May, 1929 -- Paintings by Howard Ashman Patterson

May, 1929 -- Paintings by William Meyerowitz

Oct., 1929 -- Exhibition of Modern French Paintings, Watercolors and Drawings

Nov., 1929 -- Modern French and American Paintings, Watercolors, Prints, and Sculpture (at Gage Galleries in Cleveland)

Jan., 1930 -- Paintings by Paul Bartlett

Feb., 1930 -- Watercolors by Auguste Rodin

Feb.-Mar., 1930 -- Paintings by Guy Pène Du Bois

Summer, 1930 -- Paintings by American Artists

Oct., 1930 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Maurice Prendergast

Nov., 1930 -- Paintings by Ruth Jonas

Nov., 1930 -- Sculpture by Harriette G. Miller

Jan., 1931 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Richard Lahey

Jan.-Feb., 1931 -- Paintings by Erle Loran Johnson

Feb.-Mar., 1931 -- Paintings, Watercolors and Etchings by Gifford Beal

Mar., 1931 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Walter Pach

Mar.-Apr., 1931 -- Paintings, Drawings, and Etchings by Rudolf H. Sauter

May, 1931 -- Exhibition of Watercolors by John La Farge, Gifford Beal, H. E. Schnakenberg, Maurice Prendergast, Guy Pène Du Bois, Richard Lahey

Fall, 1931 -- Modern French Paintings, Watercolors, and Drawings

Dec., 1931 -- Exhibition of Drawings and Watercolors by D. Y. Cameron, Joseph Gray, Henry Rushbury, Muirhead Bone, Edmund Blampied, Gwen John

Dec., 1931 -- Lithographs and Posters by H. de Toulouse-Lautrec

Jan., 1932 -- Watercolors by Pierre Brissaud

Feb., 1932 -- Paintings and Drawings by A. S. Baylinson

Mar., 1932 -- Watercolors and Pastels by French and American Artists

Apr., 1932 -- Paintings by Nan Watson

May, 1932 -- Sculpture by Behn, Bourdelle, Geissbuhler, Lachaise, Maillol, Miller, Nadelman, Renoir, Young, Zorach; Decorative Panels by Max Kuehne, and Charles Prendergast

June-Aug., 1932 -- Paintings and Watercolors by American Artists

Oct.-Nov., 1932 -- Paintings, Watercolors, and Drawings by Various Artists

Jan., 1933 -- Paintings by Paul Bartlett

Jan.-Feb., 1933 -- Lithographs by Henri Fantin-Latour

Feb., 1933 -- Etchings of Dogs by Bert Cobb

Feb.-Mar., 1933 -- Paintings by American Artists

Feb.-Apr., 1933 -- Paintings by Contemporary Americans

Apr., 1933 -- Paintings by Maurice Prendergast

Oct., 1933 -- Exhibition of French Paintings, Watercolors, and Drawings

Oct.-Nov., 1933 -- Drawings by Emily W. Miles

Oct.-Nov., 1933 -- Exhibition of Etchings and Lithographs

Nov., 1933 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Henry E. Schnakenberg

Dec., 1933 -- Watercolors by Gifford Beal

Jan., 1934 -- Exhibition of Drawings by Denys Wortman for "Metropolitan Movies"

Summer, 1934 -- Paintings by Gifford Beal, Reynolds Beal, Isabel Bishop, Ann Brockman, Preston Dickinson, Guy Pène Du Bois, William J. Glackens, Richard Lahey, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Harriette Miller, Maurice Prendergast, Henry E. Schnakenberg, and John Sloan

Oct.-Nov., 1934 -- Exhibition of Etchings and Lithographs

Nov.-Dec., 1934 -- Paintings by Gifford Beal

Mar., 1935 -- Complete Collection of Etchings by Mahonri Young

July-Aug., 1935 -- Paintings by American Artists including Gifford Beal, Reynolds Beal, Ann Brockman, Guy Pène Du Bois, William J. Glackens, Max Kuehne, Richard Lahey, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Harriette G. Miller, Maurice Prendergast, Henry E. Schnakenberg, John Sloan, and Abraham Walkowitz

Oct.-Nov., 1935 -- Decorative Panels by Charles Prendergast

Nov., 1935 -- Exhibition of Paintings by H. E. Schnakenberg

Mar., 1936 -- Paintings by Louis Bouché

Apr., 1936 -- Paintings by Gifford Beal

Oct.-Nov., 1936 -- Loan Collection of French Paintings

Dec., 1936 -- Monotypes in Color by Maurice Prendergast

Jan., 1937 -- Recent Watercolors by H. E. Schnakenberg

Jan., 1937 -- Paintings of Flowers by William J. Glackens

Feb., 1937 -- Etchings by John Sloan

Feb., 1937 -- A Group of American Paintings

Sept., 1937 -- A Group of Paintings by Gifford Beal, Louis Bouché, Guy Pène Du Bois, William J. Glackens, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, Theodore Robinson, John Sloan, J. Alden Weir

Oct.-Nov., 1937 -- Decorative Panels by Charles Prendergast

Dec., 1937 -- American Watercolors

Jan.-Feb., 1938 -- Paintings by Gifford Beal

Feb.-Mar., 1938 -- Drawings by William Glackens, Guy Pène Du Bois, John Sloan, Denys Wortman

Apr., 1938 -- Paintings by Louis Bouché

May, 1938 -- Paintings and Pastels by Randall Davey

Oct., 1938 -- Selected Paintings by Modern French and American Artists

Nov., 1938 -- Paintings by Guy Pène Du Bois from 1908 to 1938

Nov., 1938 -- Paintings and Sculpture by Harriette G. Miller

Dec., 1938 -- Watercolors by Prendergast, Keller, Demuth, Wilcox and Others

Jan., 1939 -- Paintings by H. H. Newton

Oct., 1939 -- French and American Paintings

Oct.-Nov., 1939 -- Drawings by William Glackens of Spanish-American War Scenes

Nov., 1939 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Russell Cowles

Jan.-Feb., 1940 -- Recent Paintings by Louis Bouché

Feb.-Mar., 1940 -- Paintings by Henry Schnakenberg

Mar.-Apr., 1940 -- Paintings by Maurice Prendergast

Apr.-May, 1940 -- Watercolors by Charles Kaeselau

May-June, 1940 -- A Group of Recent Paintings by Gifford Beal, Russell Cowles, John Koch, Henry Schnakenberg, Esther Williams, Louis Bouché, Guy Pène Du Bois, Harriette G. Miller, John Sloan, Edmund Yaghjian

Oct., 1940 -- Drawings by American Artists

Nov., 1940 -- Walt Dehner

Mar., 1941 -- John Koch

May-June, 1941 -- Watercolors and Small Paintings by Gifford Beal

Oct.-Nov., 1941 -- Recent Paintings by Russell Cowles

Nov.-Dec., 1941 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Henry E. Schnakenberg

Dec., 1941 -- Charles Prendergast

Jan., 1942 -- Paintings by Samuel Brecher

Jan.-Feb., 1942 -- Recent Paintings by Guy Pène Du Bois

Mar.-Apr., 1942 -- Recent Paintings by Louis Bouché

Mar.-Apr., 1942 -- Illustrations by Boardman Robinson Commissioned by the Limited Editions Club for Edgar Lee Masters' "Spoon River Anthology"

Dec., 1942 -- Paintings from the Period of the Last War

Feb., 1943 -- Paintings and Watercolors by William Dean Fausett

Mar., 1943 -- Paintings by John Hartell

May-July, 1943 -- Watercolors by Contemporary American Artists

Feb.-Mar., 1944 -- Samuel Brecher

Feb.-Mar., 1944 -- Paintings, Gouaches, and Drawings by Andrée Ruellan

Mar., 1944 -- Vaughn Flannery

Mar.-Apr., 1944 -- Recent Paintings by Russell Cowles

Apr.-May, 1944 -- Recent Paintings by Louis Bouché

May-June, 1944 -- Retrospective Exhibition of Paintings and Watercolors by Henry G. Keller

Oct., 1944 -- Esther Williams

Nov.-Dec., 1944 -- Paintings and Watercolors of France by Maurice Prendergast

Dec., 1944 -- William J. Glackens Sixth Memorial Exhibition

Dec., 1944 -- Kraushaar Galleries Sixtieth Anniversary Exhibition of Paintings by William J. Glackens, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, and John Sloan

Jan.-Feb., 1945 -- Paintings by Gifford Beal

Feb.-Mar., 1945 -- Paintings by Andrée Ruellan

Apr.-May, 1945 -- Charles Locke

May-June, 1945 -- William Dean Fausett

Oct., 1945 -- Paintings by John Hartell

Nov.-Dec., 1945 -- Recent Watercolors by Marion Monks Chase

Nov.-Dec., 1945 -- Gouaches by Cecil Bell

Dec., 1945 -- Memorial Exhibition of Paintings and Watercolors by Ann Brockman

undated, 1946 -- Russell Cowles

Jan.-Feb., 1946 -- Richard Lahey

Feb., 1946 -- John Koch

Feb.-Mar., 1946 -- Paintings by Ernst Halberstadt

Mar., 1946 -- Paintings of Mexico and Guatemala by Henry E. Schnakenberg

Mar., 1946 -- Iver Rose

Apr., 1946 -- Louis Bouché

Apr.-May, 1946 -- Russell Cowles

May-June, 1946 -- Paintings by Bernard Arnest, Charles Harsanyi, Irving Katzenstein, Anna Licht, James Penney, Etienne Ret, and Vernon Smith

Sept., 1946 -- Retrospective Exhibition of the Work of Boardman Robinson

Nov., 1946 -- Guy Pène Du Bois

Nov.-Dec., 1946 -- William J. Glackens Eighth Memorial Exhibition

Jan., 1947 -- Karl Schrag

Feb.-Mar., 1947 -- Sculpture by Robert Laurent

Feb.-Mar., 1947 -- Paintings by Iver Rose

Feb.-Mar., 1947 -- Recent Paintings by Vernon Smith

Apr., 1947 -- Charles Prendergast

Apr., 1947 -- Louis Bouché

Apr.-May, 1947 -- Esther Williams

Oct.-Nov., 1947 -- Anna Licht

Nov., 1947 -- William J. Glackens Ninth Memorial Exhibition, with Works by Lenna Glackens

Mar., 1948 -- Russell Cowles

Apr.-May, 1948 -- Bernard Arnest

Aug.-Sept., 1948 -- New York Paintings and Watercolors

Oct.-Nov., 1948 -- Kenneth Evett

Nov.-Dec., 1948 -- Watercolors and Pastels by Harriette G. Miller

Jan.-Feb., 1949 -- John Hartell

Sept.-Oct., 1949 -- Contemporary American Watercolors and Gouaches

Oct., 1949 -- Contemporary Paintings

Jan., 1950 -- Maurice Prendergast Retrospective of Oils and Watercolors

Jan.-Feb., 1950 -- James Penney

Feb.-Mar., 1950 -- Paintings by Karl Schrag

Mar.-Apr., 1950 -- Russell Cowles

Jan.-Feb., 1951 -- William Sommer

Feb., 1951 -- Prints and Drawings by Various Artists

Feb., 1951 -- Paintings by Louis Bouché

Mar., 1951 -- Kenneth Evett

Apr.-May, 1951 -- Paintings by Gallery Artists

May-July, 1951 -- Contemporary American Watercolors

July-Aug., 1951 -- Paintings on the Summer Theme

Sept.-Oct., 1951 -- Vaughn Flannery

Oct.-Nov., 1951 -- Recent Paintings by Gallery Artists

Nov., 1951 -- Paintings by John Koch

Nov.-Dec., 1951 -- Joe Lasker

Dec., 1951 -- Small Prints and Drawings

Jan., 1952 -- Recent Gouaches by William Kienbusch

Jan., 1952 -- John Sloan: Recent Etchings from 1944-1951, and Etchings and Drawings Selected from All Periods of His Career

Feb.-Mar., 1952 -- Andrée Ruellan

Mar.-Apr., 1952 -- Bernard Arnest

Apr.-May, 1952 -- Recent Sculpture by Robert Laurent

May, 1952 -- Recent Paintings by Contemporary American Artists

May-June, 1952 -- Watercolors by Joseph Barber, Edward Christiana, Walt Dehner, Sidney Eaton, Wray Manning, and Woldemar Neufeld

July-Aug., 1952 -- Color Prints (Woodcuts, Etchings, and Lithographs) by Eleanor Coen, Caroline Durieux, Max Kahn, Tom Lias, Woldemar Neufeld, James Penney, George Remaily, Ann Ryan, and Karl Schrag

Nov., 1952 -- Karl Schrag

Dec., 1952-Jan. 1953 -- Eight Oregon Artists

Jan., 1953 -- Charles Prendergast Memorial Exhibition

Jan.-Feb., 1953 -- John Hartell

May, 1953 -- John Heliker

June, 1953 -- Humbert Alberizio, Vaughn Flannery, William Kienbusch, George Rickey, Andrée Ruellan, and Karl Schrag

Sept., 1953 -- Works by Gifford Beal, Kenneth Evett, Tom Hardy, John Koch, and James Lechay

Sept.-Oct., 1953 -- Paintings by Glackens, Lawson, Prendergast, Sloan

Oct.-Nov., 1953 -- Paintings by E. Powis Jones

Oct.-Nov., 1953 -- Recent Works by John Koch

Nov., 1953 -- Kenneth Evett: Drawings from Greek Mythology

Nov.-Dec., 1953 -- Recent Metal Sculptures by Tom Hardy

Nov.-Dec., 1953 -- Pastels, Drawings and Prints by Peggy Bacon

Nov.-Dec., 1953 -- Recent Paintings by Ralph Dubin

Feb.-Mar., 1954 -- Russell Cowles

Mar.-Apr., 1954 -- James Penney

Nov.-Dec., 1954 -- Tom Hardy: Metal Sculptures

Jan., 1955 -- Mobiles, Machines, and Kinetic Sculpture by George Rickey

Jan.-Feb., 1955 -- James Lechay

Feb., 1955 -- Mobiles by George Rickey

Feb.-Mar., 1955 -- Drawings, Etchings, and Lithographs by John Sloan (with a selection of prints by artists whose work influenced him in his early years: Rembrandt, Hogarth, Goya, Rops, Daumier, Rowlandson and others, to mark the publication of John Sloan: A Painter's Life by Van Wyck Brooks)

Mar.-Apr., 1955 -- Jane Wasey

Apr., 1955 -- Recent Work by Joe Lasker

May-June, 1955 -- Sculpture and Drawings by Contemporary American Artists

Jan., 1956 -- Carl Morris

Jan.-Feb., 1956 -- John Laurent

Feb.-Mar., 1956 -- William Kienbusch

Mar., 1956 -- Andrée Ruellan

Mar.-Apr., 1956 -- Karl Schrag

Apr.-May, 1956 -- John Heliker

May, 1956 -- Monotypes by Maurice Prendergast

Oct., 1956 -- The Eight

Jan.-Feb., 1957 -- Paintings by John Hartell

Apr., 1957 -- James Penney

Apr.-May, 1957 -- John Heliker

May-June, 1957 -- Fourteen Painter-Printmakers (American Federation of Arts exhibition)

June-July, 1957 -- 20th Century American Artists

Nov., 1957 -- William Glackens and His Friends (based on the book by Ira Glackens)

Nov., 1957 -- Marguerite Zorach

Jan., 1958 -- Gouches, Drawings and Small Glyphs by Ulfert Wilke

Jan.-Feb., 1958 -- Tom Hardy

Feb.-Mar., 1958 -- John Koch

Feb.-Mar., 1958 -- Still Life Exhibition with Works by William J. Glackens and Maurice Prendergast

Feb.-Mar., 1958 -- Cecil Bell

Mar., 1958 -- Karl Schrag

Mar., 1958 -- Carl Morris

Mar.-Apr., 1958 -- Louis Bouché

Apr., 1958 -- Paintings and Drawings by Joe Lasker

Apr.-May, 1958 -- Paintings and Drawings by Walter Feldman

Apr.-May, 1958 -- Sculpture by Henry Mitchell

May-June, 1958 -- Works in Casein and Gouache by Bernard Arnest, William Kienbusch, Carl Morris, and Karl Schrag

July, 1958 -- Still Life Paintings and Watercolors by American Artists

Oct.-Nov., 1958 -- Kenneth Evett

Nov., 1958 -- Elsie Manville

Nov.-Dec., 1958 -- John Laurent

Jan., 1959 -- Kinetic Sculpture by George Rickey

Jan.-Feb., 1959 -- Bernard Arnest

Mar., 1959 -- Karl Schrag

Mar.-Apr., 1959 -- Paintings by Joe Lasker

Apr.-May, 1959 -- Henry Mitchell

Sept.-Oct., 1959 -- Robert Searle

Oct.-Nov., 1959 -- Russell Cowles

Nov., 1959 -- Caseins and Paintings by William Kienbusch

Dec., 1959 -- Paintings by Vaughn Flannery

Feb., 1960 -- James Lechay

Apr., 1960 -- Landscapes by John Sloan

Apr.-May, 1960 -- John Guerin

May-June, 1960 -- Drawings and Small Sculpture by Gallery Artists

Oct., 1960 -- Ainslie Burke

Oct.-Nov., 1960 -- Leon Goldin

Nov.-Dec., 1960 -- Ulfert Wilke

Jan., 1961 -- Leonard DeLonga

Jan., 1961 -- Kenneth Evett

Jan.-Feb., 1961 -- Walter Feldman

Feb.-Mar., 1961 -- Watercolors and Pastels by Early Twentieth-Century American Artists

Mar., 1961 -- Paintings by Ralph Dubin

Mar.-Apr., 1961 -- James Penney

Apr.-May, 1961 -- John Koch

June, 1961 -- Works by Humbert Albrizio, Bernard Arnest, Cecil Bell, Louis Bouché, Ralph Dubin, Kenneth Evett, Walter Feldman, John Hartell, John Heliker, William Kienbusch, John Koch, Robert Laurent, James Lechay, Elsie Manville, Henry Mitchell, James Penney, George Rickey, Andrée Ruellan, Henry E. Schnakenberg, Karl Schrag, Jane Wasey, and Marguerite Zorach

Sept., 1961 -- Works by Contemporary Americans

Oct., 1961 -- George Rickey: Kinetic Sculpture

Oct.-Nov., 1961 -- Carl Morris

Nov.-Dec., 1961 -- Peggy Bacon

Dec., 1961 -- Selected Works by Twentieth-Century Americans

Jan., 1962 -- Polymer Resin and Sumi Ink Paintings by Kenneth Evett

Jan.-Feb., 1962 -- Louis Bouché

Feb.-Mar., 1962 -- Karl Schrag

Mar., 1962 -- Marguerite Zorach

Apr., 1962 -- John Laurent

Apr.-May, 1962 -- Sculpture by Tom Hardy

May-June, 1962 -- Drawings by Contemporary American Artists

July-Aug., 1962 -- Group Exhibitions - Paintings, Drawings and Sculpture by 20th Century American Artists

Oct., 1962 -- Bernard Arnest

Feb., 1963 -- William Kienbusch

Feb.-Mar., 1963 -- John Guerin

Mar., 1963 -- John Hartell

Sept.-Oct., 1963 -- Andrée Ruellan

Oct.-Nov., 1963 -- Ainslie Burke

Nov., 1963 -- Walter Feldman

Dec., 1963 -- Drawings by John Koch

Dec., 1963 -- Paintings by Contemporary Americans

Jan., 1964 -- Leonard DeLonga

Jan.-Feb., 1964 -- Joe Lasker

Feb.-Mar., 1964 -- Leon Goldin

Mar., 1964 -- Paintings by Ralph Dubin

Apr., 1964 -- Carl Morris

Apr.-May, 1964 -- Paintings and Drawings by John Heliker

Oct.-Nov., 1964 -- Louis Bouché

Nov.-Dec., 1964 -- Karl Schrag

Dec., 1964 -- Kenneth Evett

Feb., 1965 -- Russell Cowles

Feb.-Mar., 1965 -- James Lechay

Mar.-Apr., 1965 -- James Penney

Apr.-May, 1965 -- Gifford Beal

Feb., 1966 -- Dennis Leon

Feb.-Mar., 1966 -- Henry Schnakenberg

Mar.-Apr., 1966 -- John Hartell

Apr., 1966 -- Elsie Manville

Oct., 1966 -- Contrasts - Early and Late Works by Selected Contemporaries

Oct.-Nov., 1966 -- Tom Hardy

Nov.-Dec., 1966 -- Francis Chapin

Dec., 1966-Jan., 1967 -- Karl Schrag: Etchings and Lithographs

Jan.-Feb., 1967 -- Leonard DeLonga

Feb.-Mar., 1967 -- Carl Morris

Mar.-Apr., 1967 -- Ainslie Burke

Apr.-May, 1967 -- John Heliker: Paintings, Drawings, and Watercolors

May-June, 1967 -- William Glackens

Oct., 1967 -- Kenneth Callahan

Oct.-Nov., 1967 -- John Laurent

Jan.-Feb., 1968 -- Dennis Leon

Feb.-Mar., 1968 -- Robert La Hotan

Apr., 1968 -- John Guerin

Apr.-May, 1968 -- Leon Goldin

Sept.-Oct., 1968 -- Contemporary Sculpture and Drawings

Oct.-Nov., 1968 -- Karl Schrag

Nov.-Dec., 1968 -- James Lechay: Portraits and Landscapes

Dec., 1968-Jan., 1969 -- Group Exhibition

Jan., 1969 -- Elsie Manville

Mar., 1969 -- Kenneth Evett

Apr.-May, 1969 -- James Penney

Sept.-Oct., 1969 -- New Works by Contemporary Artists

Oct.-Nov., 1969 -- John Hartell: Exhibition

Nov., 1969 -- Peggy Bacon

Dec., 1969 -- Selected Examples by American Artists 1900-1930

Jan., 1970 -- Leonard DeLonga

Feb., 1970 -- Joe Lasker

Mar., 1970 -- Group Exhibition

Mar.-Apr., 1970 -- Dennis Leon

Apr.-May, 1970 -- Jerome Myers

Oct.-Nov., 1970 -- Tom Hardy

Jan.-Feb., 1971 -- Jane Wasey

Mar.-Apr., 1971 -- Kenneth Callahan

Oct., 1971 -- Ainslie Burke

Nov.-Dec., 1971 -- Karl Schrag

Feb.-Mar., 1972 -- John Koch

Mar.-Apr., 1972 -- Robert La Hotan

Apr.-May, 1972 -- Leon Goldin

May-June, 1972 -- Selected Works by 20th Century Americans

Sept.-Oct., 1972 -- Gallery Collection: American Watercolors and Drawings

Oct.-Nov., 1972 -- John Hartell

Nov.-Dec., 1972 -- Peggy Bacon

Dec., 1972 -- 20th Century Americans

Jan., 1973 -- Leonard DeLonga

Feb., 1973 -- Carl Morris

Mar., 1973 -- James Lechay

Mar.-Apr., 1973 -- Russell Cowles: Landscape Paintings

Apr.-May, 1973 -- Jerome Witkin

May-June, 1973 -- Kenneth Evett: Watercolors

Oct.-Nov., 1973 -- Kenneth Callahan

Jan., 1974 -- Joe Lasker

Jan.-Feb., 1974 -- Bernard Arnest

Feb.-Mar., 1974 -- Concetta Scaravaglione

Oct., 1974 -- Ainslie Burke

Oct.-Nov., 1974 -- James Penney

Jan., 1975 -- Tom Hardy

Jan.-Feb., 1975 -- Karl Schrag

Feb.-Mar., 1975 -- Robert La Hotan

Mar.-Apr., 1975 -- William Kienbusch

Apr., 1975 -- Elsie Manville

Apr.-May, 1975 -- Gifford Beal

Oct.-Nov., 1975 -- John Hartell

Nov., 1975 -- Daniel O'Sullivan

Mar., 1976 -- Jerome Witkin

May, 1976 -- Linda Sokolowski

Sept.-Oct., 1976 -- Joe Lasker, Illustrations from Merry Ever After

Oct., 1976 -- Leonard DeLonga

Nov.-Dec., 1976 -- Kenneth Callahan

Jan., 1977 -- James Lechay

Mar., 1977 -- Karl Schrag

Mar.-Apr., 1977 -- David Cantine

Oct.-Nov., 1977 -- John Hartell

Nov.-Dec., 1977 -- Ainslie Burke

Feb., 1978 -- Robert La Hotan

Apr., 1978 -- Elsie Manville

Oct., 1978 -- Tom Hardy

Oct.-Nov., 1978 -- Jerome Witkin

Jan.-Feb., 1979 -- Joe Lasker

Feb., 1979 -- Kenneth Evett

Feb.-Mar., 1979 -- Karl Schrag

Mar.-Apr., 1979 -- Carl Morris

Apr.-May, 1979 -- Linda Sokolowski

Oct.-Nov., 1979 -- Daniel O'Sullivan

Feb.-Mar., 1980 -- Kenneth Callahan

Mar., 1980 -- Ainslie Burke

Oct., 1980 -- John Hartell

Jan., 1981 -- Leonard DeLonga

Feb., 1981 -- James Lechay

Feb.-Mar., 1981 -- Robert La Hotan

Mar.-Apr., 1981 -- Jerry Atkins

Apr.-May, 1981 -- Ben Frank Moss

Jan.-Feb., 1982 -- Jerome Witkin

Feb.-Mar., 1982 -- Elsie Manville

Mar.-Apr., 1982 -- Karl Schrag

Apr.-May, 1982 -- Linda Sokolowski

May-June, 1982 -- David Cantine

Sept.-Oct., 1982 -- Kenneth Callahan

Oct.-Nov., 1982 -- Joe Lasker

Nov.-Dec., 1982 -- Daniel O'Sullivan

Jan.-Feb., 1983 -- William Kienbusch: Memorial Exhibition

Feb.-Mar., 1983 -- Jerry Atkins

Mar.-Apr., 1983 -- John Hartell

Apr.-May, 1983 -- John Heliker

May-June, 1983 -- Kenneth Evett

Oct., 1983 -- Concetta Scaravaglione

Oct.-Nov., 1983 -- Ben Frank Moss

Nov.-Dec., 1983 -- Russell Cowles

Dec., 1983-Jan., 1984 -- 20th Century Americans

Jan.-Feb., 1984 -- Marguerite Zorach: Paintings at Home and Abroad

Feb.-Mar., 1984 -- Robert La Hotan

Mar., 1984 -- David Smalley

Apr., 1984 -- Carl Morris

May, 1984 -- Karl Schrag

July, 1984 -- Drawings by 20th Century Americans

July-Aug., 1984 -- Collages and Drawings by Joseph Heil

Aug.-Sept., 1984 -- Drawings and Prints by Tom Hardy

Sept.-Oct., 1984 -- James Penney: Memorial Exhibition

Oct.-Nov., 1984 -- Paintings and Drawings by Leon Goldin

Nov.-Dec., 1984 -- Isabelle Siegel

Dec., 1984-Jan., 1985 -- Group Exhibition: Contemporary American Paintings and Sculpture

Jan.-Feb., 1985 -- James Lechay

Feb.-Mar., 1985 -- Ainslie Burke

Mar., 1985 -- Karen Breunig

Apr., 1985 -- Kenneth Callahan

Oct., 1985 -- Elsie Manville

Oct.-Nov., 1985 -- William Glackens

Jan.-Feb., 1986 -- Linda Sokolowski

Feb.-Mar., 1986 -- Jerry Atkins

Apr.-May, 1986 -- Jane Wasey

Oct.-Nov., 1986 -- John Hartell

Nov.-Dec., 1986 -- Karl Schrag

Feb.-Mar., 1987 -- Kenneth Evett

Apr.-May, 1987 -- Ben Frank Moss

May-June, 1987 -- David Smalley

Oct.-Nov., 1987 -- Isabelle Siegel

Feb.-Mar., 1988 -- Karen Breunig

Mar.-Apr., 1988 -- Leon Goldin

Sept.-Oct., 1988 -- Elsie Manville

Oct.-Nov., 1988 -- James Lechay

Jan.-Feb., 1989 -- Karl Schrag

Feb.-Mar., 1989 -- Linda Sokolowski

Jan.-Feb., 1990 -- Kenneth Callahan: Works of the Fifties

Jan.-Feb., 1990 -- Gifford Beal: Watercolors

Mar., 1990 -- Robert La Hotan: Recent Paintings

Mar.-Apr., 1990 -- Sonia Gechtoff: New Paintings

May-June, 1990 -- David Smalley: Recent Sculpture

May-June, 1990 -- Andrée Ruellan: Sixty Years of Drawing...

Oct., 1990 -- Isabelle Siegel

Nov., 1990 -- Leon Goldin

Jan.-Feb., 1991 -- Karl Schrag

Feb.-Mar., 1991 -- Joe Lasker

Apr., 1991 -- Ainslie Burke

Nov.-Dec., 1991 -- Linda Sokolowski: Oils, Collages, Monotypes

Dec., 1991-Jan., 1992 -- Elsie Manville: Small Works on Paper

Mar., 1992 -- Tabitha Vevers

May-June, 1992 -- Sonia Gechtoff

Oct.-Nov., 1992 -- James Lechay

Nov.-Dec., 1992 -- Karl Schrag

Mar., 1993 -- Leon Goldin: Works on Paper

Apr.-May, 1993 -- Robert La Hotan

Oct., 1993 -- David Smalley: Sculpture Inside and Out

Oct., 1993 -- Andrée Ruellan: Works on Paper 1920-1980

Mar.-Apr., 1994 -- Kenneth Evett: Travels: Themes and Variations (Watercolors of Italy, Greece, Arizona, Maine and California)

Mar.-Apr., 1994 -- Tabitha Vevers

Oct.-Nov., 1994 -- Linda Sokolowski

Nov.-Dec., 1994 -- Karl Schrag

Jan.-Feb., 1995 -- Langdon Quin

Mar.-Apr., 1995 -- Robert La Hotan

Sept.-Oct., 1995 -- Sonia Gechtoff

Jan.-Feb., 1996 -- Elsie Manville: Paintings and Works on Paper

Oct.-Nov., 1996 -- Karl Schrag: A Self Portrait Retrospective, 1940-1995

Jan.-Feb., 1997 -- Joe Lasker: Paintings and Watercolors

Mar.-Apr., 1997 -- Tabitha Vevers

Oct.-Nov., 1997 -- James Lechay

Feb.-Mar., 1998 -- Linda Sokolowski: Canyon Suite: Works from the Southwest

Mar.-Apr., 1998 -- Leon Goldin: Paintings on Paper

Sept.-Oct., 1998 -- Sonia Gechtoff: Mysteries in the Sphere

Oct.-Nov., 1998 -- Langdon Quin: Recent Paintings

Nov.-Dec., 1998 -- John Gill

Jan.-Feb., 1999 -- Robert La Hotan

Feb.-Mar., 1999 -- Ann Sperry: Where Is Your Heart

Nov.-Dec., 1999 -- Kathryn Wall

Jan.-Feb., 2000 -- Elsie Manville

Sept.-Oct., 2000 -- Joe Lasker

Oct.-Nov., 2000 -- James Lechay

Oct.-Nov., 2000 -- Tabitha Vevers

May-June, 2001 -- Kenneth Callahan: Drawings

Dec., 2001-Jan., 2002 -- Sur La Table: A Selection of Paintings and Works on Paper

Jan.-Feb., 2002 -- Karl Schrag: Theme and Variations II: The Meadow

undated, 2003 -- Ann Sperry

Jan.-Feb., 2003 -- Andrée Ruellan: Works on Paper from the 1920s and 1930s

Oct.-Nov., 2003 -- Joe Lasker: Muses and Amusements

Nov.-Dec., 2003 -- Tabitha Vevers

Mar.-Apr., 2004 -- Leon Goldin: Five Decades of Works on Paper

May-July, 2004 -- Anne Frank: A Private Photo Album

Jan.-Feb., 2005 -- John Gill: Ceramics

Sept.-Oct., 2005 -- Karl Schrag: The Painter of Bright Nights
Related Material:
An untranscribed oral history interview with Antoinette Kraushaar was conducted for the Archives of American Art by Avis Berman in 1982, and is available on five audio cassettes at the Archives' Washington D.C. research facility.
Separated Material:
In addition to the records described in this finding aid, the following materials were lent to the Archives for filming in 1956 and are available on microfilm reels NKR1-NKR3 and for interlibrary loan: a book of clippings from 1907 to 1930, primarily of exhibition reviews; loose clippings and catalogs of exhibitions from 1930 to 1946; and a group of photographs and clippings relating to George Luks and other artists. These materials were returned to Kraushaar Galleries after microfilming.
Provenance:
53.5 linear feet of records were donated to the Archives of American Art by Kraushaar Galleries in three separate accessions in 1959, 1994, and 1996. Katherine Kaplan of Kraushaar Galleries donated an additional 38.4 linear feet in 2008-2009. Katherine Degn of Kraushaar Galleries donated an additional 8.4 linear feet in 2012-2017.
Restrictions:
Use of originals requires an appointment. A fragile original scrapbook is restricted. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
Authorization to publish, quote or reproduce requires written permission from Katherine Kaplan Degn, Kraushaar Galleries. Contact Reference Services for more information.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Works of art  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Artists -- United States  Search this
Depressions -- 1929  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State)
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sketches
Drawings
Exhibition catalogs
Financial records
Notes
Sketchbooks
Citation:
Kraushaar Galleries records, 1877-2006. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.kraugall
See more items in:
Kraushaar Galleries records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9507d7d92-d503-4ed4-9ed6-12975adb8473
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-kraugall

T, General

Collection Creator:
Kraushaar Galleries  Search this
Container:
Box 13, Folder 34
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1928
Scope and Contents note:
(Augustus Vincent Tack; Toledo Museum of Art)
Collection Restrictions:
Use of originals requires an appointment. A fragile original scrapbook is restricted. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
Authorization to publish, quote or reproduce requires written permission from Katherine Kaplan Degn, Kraushaar Galleries. Contact Reference Services for more information.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Kraushaar Galleries records, 1877-2006. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Kraushaar Galleries records
Kraushaar Galleries records / Series 2: Incoming Letters
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9a1cff436-e808-4c76-adeb-4c40f799c742
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-kraugall-ref1200

Toledo Museum of Art

Collection Creator:
Kraushaar Galleries  Search this
Container:
Box 20, Folder 28
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1937
Collection Restrictions:
Use of originals requires an appointment. A fragile original scrapbook is restricted. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
Authorization to publish, quote or reproduce requires written permission from Katherine Kaplan Degn, Kraushaar Galleries. Contact Reference Services for more information.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Kraushaar Galleries records, 1877-2006. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Kraushaar Galleries records
Kraushaar Galleries records / Series 2: Incoming Letters
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw953bdca4d-9f2d-4d38-ac45-8c653db1d867
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-kraugall-ref1649

Toledo Museum of Art

Collection Creator:
Kraushaar Galleries  Search this
Container:
Box 21, Folder 25
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1938
Collection Restrictions:
Use of originals requires an appointment. A fragile original scrapbook is restricted. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
Authorization to publish, quote or reproduce requires written permission from Katherine Kaplan Degn, Kraushaar Galleries. Contact Reference Services for more information.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Kraushaar Galleries records, 1877-2006. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Kraushaar Galleries records
Kraushaar Galleries records / Series 2: Incoming Letters
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw97e7ed114-0e6d-4849-b535-de62bbc6472b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-kraugall-ref1710

Toledo Museum of Art

Collection Creator:
Kraushaar Galleries  Search this
Container:
Box 22, Folder 15
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1939
Collection Restrictions:
Use of originals requires an appointment. A fragile original scrapbook is restricted. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
Authorization to publish, quote or reproduce requires written permission from Katherine Kaplan Degn, Kraushaar Galleries. Contact Reference Services for more information.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Kraushaar Galleries records, 1877-2006. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Kraushaar Galleries records
Kraushaar Galleries records / Series 2: Incoming Letters
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9cc84bc7a-49c7-419c-8a56-98a576eb1dc8
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-kraugall-ref1774

T, General

Collection Creator:
Kraushaar Galleries  Search this
Container:
Box 23, Folder 43
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1941
Scope and Contents note:
(Toledo Museum of Art)
Collection Restrictions:
Use of originals requires an appointment. A fragile original scrapbook is restricted. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
Authorization to publish, quote or reproduce requires written permission from Katherine Kaplan Degn, Kraushaar Galleries. Contact Reference Services for more information.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Kraushaar Galleries records, 1877-2006. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Kraushaar Galleries records
Kraushaar Galleries records / Series 2: Incoming Letters
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw93752a8e1-9f0f-45da-97c7-932b8d18b3c9
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-kraugall-ref1894

T, General

Collection Creator:
Kraushaar Galleries  Search this
Container:
Box 24, Folder 26
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1942
Scope and Contents note:
(Toledo Museum of Art)
Collection Restrictions:
Use of originals requires an appointment. A fragile original scrapbook is restricted. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
Authorization to publish, quote or reproduce requires written permission from Katherine Kaplan Degn, Kraushaar Galleries. Contact Reference Services for more information.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Kraushaar Galleries records, 1877-2006. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Kraushaar Galleries records
Kraushaar Galleries records / Series 2: Incoming Letters
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw985ce86da-f85c-4d18-b7ac-53fa78546796
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-kraugall-ref1947

Toledo Museum of Art

Collection Creator:
Kraushaar Galleries  Search this
Container:
Box 27, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1945
Collection Restrictions:
Use of originals requires an appointment. A fragile original scrapbook is restricted. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
Authorization to publish, quote or reproduce requires written permission from Katherine Kaplan Degn, Kraushaar Galleries. Contact Reference Services for more information.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Kraushaar Galleries records, 1877-2006. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Kraushaar Galleries records
Kraushaar Galleries records / Series 3: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw93542d8f1-84b2-4015-bb14-059b2b876d37
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-kraugall-ref2141

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