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Five of America's Most Invincible Hotels

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Fri, 11 Jun 2021 17:04:43 +0000
Topic:
Custom RSS  Search this
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Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_f90f1d179cf97cc8c2bab198bf554a1a

From Tarzan to Tonto 3 - Introductory Remarks by Tiya Miles

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Symposia
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2017-02-15T15:57:32.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_4fXxkOgesoY

Finding Common Ground 2 | Tiya Miles

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2018-02-23T15:03:47.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_OfaLDIgw0A8

Guide to 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection

Creator:
Turner, Reginald  Search this
Names:
Arnold, Juanita Burnett, (1909-2005)  Search this
Bates, J. B., 1916-2008  Search this
Campbell-Webster, Beatrice  Search this
Clark, Otis Granville, (1903-2012)  Search this
Eddy, Clyde, (1911-2008)  Search this
Ellsworth, Scott  Search this
Franklin, Archie Jackson, (1915-2006)  Search this
Franklin, Jimmie Lilly, (1915-2009)  Search this
Franklin, John Hope  Search this
Gates, Eddie Faye  Search this
Holloway, Robert, (1918-2010)  Search this
Hooker, Olivia J., Dr., (1915-2018)  Search this
Jackson, Eunice Cloman, (1903-2004)  Search this
Knight, Thelma Thurman, (1915-2009)  Search this
McCondichie, Eldoris Mae Ector, (1911-2010)  Search this
O'Brien, William [Bill]  Search this
Ogletree, Charles, Jr.  Search this
Rogers, Jewel Smitherman, (1918-2010)  Search this
Rogers, John Washington, Jr.  Search this
Young, Wess Hubert, (1917-2014)  Search this
Extent:
1.38 Terabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Terabytes
Oral history
Place:
Tulsa (Oklahoma)
Date:
2004-2007
Scope and Contents:
The Guide to 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection documents the survivors of the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre as well as their journey to acknowledgment, justice, and restitution. This digital collection is an edited version of a larger collection created by Reginald Turner, Executive Director and Founder of The Tulsa Project, Inc. The collection consists of interview videos of individual survivors, their descendants, riot witnesses, historians, community supporters as well as the legal proceedings for U.S. government acknowledgement of the massacre and its subsequent devastation. This collection serves to bear witness to one of the most infamous episodes of American history, allowing those who lived through it to convey their experiences directly in their own words.
Biographical / Historical:
In 1921, one of the most devastating race massacres in American history occurred in Tulsa, Oklahoma. From May 31 to June 1, mobs of white Tulsa residents ransacked, pillaged, bombed, and burned over 1,000 homes, businesses, and churches and murdered scores of African Americans in the Tulsa's Black community of Greenwood. The history of this event was hidden in plain sight for many generations, invariably vanished from or never placed in the history books across the country. Generations of Tulsa's universal community began to learn of this tragic event over the course of the last few decades through the efforts of the survivors and their supporters. The 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection alongside the great work of The Tulsa Project, Inc. sheds light on a community of resilience grappling with complex questions of history and memory, justice and law, reparation and reconciliation.

In the decades that followed, just a partial list of cities exhibits the expansive and dizzying geographic and temporal scope of organized white violence that continued with little recourse or reproach well into twentieth century. Such cities include: Colfax, Louisiana (1873); Clinton, Mississippi (1875); Hamburg, South Carolina (1876); Thibodaux, Louisiana (1887); Omaha, Nebraska (1891); Wilmington, NC (1898); Atlanta, Georgia (1906); and East St. Louis, Missouri (1917). In the summer of 1919, the U.S. was rocked by the white supremacist violence and attacks against over thirty Black communities across the country. This period of overwhelming racial violence was dubbed, "Red Summer" and affected major Black communities in Washington, DC; Chicago, Illinois, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Baltimore, Maryland; Clarksdale, Mississippi; and Omaha, Nebraska as well as many others. In these cities like Tulsa, mob violence devastated Black communities through the destruction of property and livelihoods.

The Greenwood District of Tulsa, Oklahoma is rooted in the history of westward expansion of the United States in early 19th century. Beginning in 1830s, the first African Americans came to the Oklahoma Territory with Native Americans along the Trail of Tears, the U. S government sanctioned removal of American Indians from their native territory across the country. Some of the African American travelers were enslaved while free Blacks traveled through treacherous conditions alongside white travelers. Dubbed the "Oil Capital of the World" and "Magic City," Tulsa experienced booming economic growth and prosperity during the early 1900s. During the era of post-Emancipation until the onset of the 20th century, African Americans were a part of a newer wave of migration that came to Tulsa from all over the country, including other parts of the Oklahoma Territory.

More than 50 all-Black settlements were established in Oklahoma territory during this era, including Tatums, Langston, Rentiesville, Boley, as well as Black communities of larger cities such as Muskogee, Okmulgee, and Tulsa. By 1900, African Americans composed seven percent of the combined Oklahoma and Indian Territories and five percent of Tulsa's population. In 1905, the Tulsa's Greenwood community was sold to African American settlers. Many of Greenwood's founding families were of mixed-race heritage as result of multiracial migration patterns and organic cultural adaptation to Oklahoma's natural resources and environment. The Perrymans, one of Tulsa's founding families, included Muskogee (Creek), African American, and white members.

In 1907, Oklahoma was admitted into the United States, and the legislature immediately began implementing restrictive race laws. Many mixed-race families lived in the Oklahoma Territory in the late 1800s. But dividing lines between the races were drawn more sharply after Oklahoma became a state. Oklahoma had one of the strictest sets of Jim Crow laws that divided the country, especially in Tulsa. Black Tulsans formed their community along Greenwood and Archer streets and quickly began to thrive as homes, churches and businesses were built and further developed. The community took shape with the construction and proliferation of African American owned cafes, grocery stores, beauty parlors, movie theaters, and dentist, lawyers, and doctor offices. By close of World War I, 10,000 individuals lived in Tulsa's Greenwood District, considered to be one of the most prosperous African American communities in America at the time. Educator, activist, and statesman Booker T. Washington dubbed the district, "Negro Wall Street." Later coined as "Black Wall Street" in the 1950s as scholarship began developing around the massacre.

After World War I, Black veterans returned to seek a "double victory" by securing freedom and equality at home, striking fear among white supremacists. This fear left white Tulsans blaming the prosperity of "Black Wall Street" for the lack to employment opportunities and other misfortunes among the white community. Tulsa city founder and prominent businessman, W. Tate Brady, despite his support of African American financial independence, was a member of white supremacy terrorist group, the Klu Klux Klan (KKK) as well as an active member in the Sons of the Confederate Veterans. A resolute white supremacist, Brady's mansion's design was inspired by the Virginia home of Confederate General Robert E. Lee. He welcomed KKK founder, Nathan Bedford Forrest to that same home in 1915. It was Brady's active membership in the Sons of Confederate Veterans that brought the organization's 28th annual convention to the city in 1918. The latter circumstances along with the ongoing racial tensions set the stage for 1921 massacre.

On May 30, 1921, Dick Rowland, a 19-year-old African American shoe shiner was accused of assaulting a 17-year-old white woman, Sarah Page. Rowland went inside the Drexel Building to use the restroom, the only bathroom allowed to African Americans in downtown Tulsa. Page was an elevator operator in the building. It is unclear if Rowland tripped or the elevator stopped suddenly, but he had physical contact with Page. Page screamed assault and a scared Rowland immediately fled. The next morning on May 31, Rowland was arrested and jailed in the city's courthouse. Later that afternoon, the city's most popular newspaper, Tulsa Tribune printed the story, "Nab Negro for Attacking Girl in Elevator" that claimed Rowland raped Page. Also printed was an editorial with the title, "To Lynch Negro Tonight," which no doubt influenced the rumors of a possible lynching of Rowland as the evening approached.

A large mob of thousands continued to grow over the course of the night outside the courthouse. African American WWI veterans and other members of the Greenwood community began to set up defenses outside the courthouse in order to protect Rowland. Tensions rose and soon an individual fight broke out and a gun was fired. The now weaponized white mob began to move about Greenwood armed with torches, guns, and other weaponry. Some survivors recall aerial bombs released overhead from small planes. The terror was directed at every visible African American in the vicinity, many fled for their lives while their homes and livelihoods were demolished. Historical research has not rendered an accurate number of lives lost in the massacre; it is believed that over 300 African Americans were murdered. Over 35 blocks of homes and businesses were destroyed with damages estimated to be over 1.5 million dollars.

On June 1st, the Oklahoma National Guard arrived, and martial law was declared. They arrested over 6,000 African Americans including children and illegally held them in detention centers throughout Tulsa. They were only released if a white person named them as an employee. Martial law ended on June 3rd, but African Americans were required to carry "green cards" once released from the detention centers as a mechanism to the police the Black population. The next week, Oklahoma governor James B.A. Robertson ordered an inquiry into the massacre. Only 85 people were indicted, mostly African Americans citizens. Rowland was released from jail and not charged for any crimes. Page recanted her claim as well.

Residents of Greenwood filed over 1400 lawsuits for damaged property. Insurance companies denied all claims based on a "riot clause." 1,000 Black Tulsans were forced to live in tents provided by the Red Cross from 1921-1922 because their homes were demolished. Historians estimate that over 700 families left Tulsa and never returned. However, many stayed and worked to rebuild the Greenwood community but experienced great difficulty as the city government actively tried to prevent African Americans from returning to their homes. Zoning regulations were put into effect that would make Greenwood only a commercial area, making it virtually impossible to live there. B.C. Franklin, businessman and father of historian John Hope Franklin, led the charge and filed a suit against the City of Tulsa before the Oklahoma Supreme Court and won, allowing Greenwood to rebuild.

Dozens of Black-owned businesses were rebuilt in Greenwood within a year of the riot, and hundreds more followed over the next three decades. The Oklahoma Eagle newspaper founded in 1922, replacing the community's former Black newspaper, The Tulsa Star that was destroyed by the riot. The Oklahoma Eagle, founded directly after the massacre, reported on African American community, as well as all facets of the massacre, since white newspapers refused to acknowledge the incident. In 1925, in a display of courage, the National Negro Business League held its 26th annual convention in Greenwood. By the 1950s, Greenwood was a thriving Black community despite racial segregation and inequality. Greenwood's mid-century renaissance was a rare occurrence as employment opportunities and fair treatment outside of the Greenwood remained limited. The Tulsa NAACP chapter, along with other activist groups, was formed to fight inequality and racism in wider Tulsa. Despite advances of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s, redlining and urban renewal projects dwindled the former Greenwood improvements leaving the area and its residents impoverished and highly segregated.

After suffering decades of aftereffects from the massacre, Tulsa's African American community demanded justice and reparations from the state of Oklahoma and the U.S. government. In 1997, African American state lawmakers, Representative Don Ross and Senator Maxine Horner, co-sponsored an Oklahoma House Bill to create the Tulsa Race Riot Commission. The Commission was tasked with finding survivors and recording their testimony, gaining accurate accounts of property losses and values, and then make recommendations for reparations. In addition, they worked with forensic anthropologists and archeologists tasked with locating mass graves of massacre victims. In 2001, the committee concluded that each survivor should receive $200,000 and up to $100,000 in property claims. Unfortunately, these recommendations were not passed leaving survivors and descendants with little prospects for restitution.

In 2003, over 200 Tulsa massacre survivors filed a suit against the state of Oklahoma in the case, Alexander, et al., v. Oklahoma, et al. Survivors and their descendants served as plaintiffs and recounted their experiences during and after the massacre. The legal team was led by esteemed lawyer and educator Charles Ogletree and celebrity lawyer Johnnie Cochran. The suit demanded restitution for the damages and injuries done by the state of Oklahoma and the city of Tulsa. The main argument declared violations of the 14th Amendment of the U. S. Constitution including "deprivation of life and liberty [and property] and the privileges and immunities of United States citizenship". In addition, plaintiffs wanted to establish a scholarship fund to ensure future generations learn the history of the massacre for years to come. The judge ruled against the survivors, claiming that the statute of limitations had passed. In 2005, the lawyers tried yet again for justice by bringing the case to the U. S. Supreme Court, but the court declined to hear the appeal. A few survivors were given the opportunity to speak at a briefing in front of the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC) and other leaders on Capitol Hill, the same year with no action taken.

Over the years, Tulsa cultural institutions and organizations were developed to preserve the legacy of the African American community in Greenwood, Tulsa and the state of Oklahoma. The Greenwood Cultural Center and Mabel B. Little House have showcased the heritage of the community since the 1990s. In 2008, lawyer and filmmaker, Reginald Turner founded The Tulsa Project, Inc., a non-profit group committed to raising funds and awareness on behalf of massacre survivors and their descendants. The same year, Turner filmed interviews of massacre survivors that were later compiled in a documentary entitled, "Before They Die!" The interviews took place from 2004 to 2007 and featured survivors' efforts for justice, government hearings, and legal proceedings as well as Tulsa Commission meetings. The film's sales go towards compensating survivors and serve as an educational tool exhibited in schools, churches, and civic organizations around the country. In 2010, the John Hope Franklin Reconciliation Park opened in Greenwood to help memorialize the massacre survivors and educate the community. In 2018, Tulsa Mayor G.T. Bynum called for the opening another investigation into the location of mass graves. In 2019, the Tulsa Race Massacre was added to the Oklahoma Education department curriculum and taught in classrooms.

As the massacre approaches its 100th anniversary in 2021, there are continuing advances for greater education about the massacre and the restitution of justice for the victims, survivors, and descendants of the one of the darkest times in American history.

Historical Timeline

1900 -- African Americans composed seven percent of Oklahoma territory and five percent of the Tulsa population.

1905 -- The Greenwood area in Tulsa was sold to African American Settlers.

1907 -- Oklahoma was made a state.

1917-1918 -- World War I veterans returned home seeking freedom and equality. In 1918, Tulsa hosted the 28th Annual Sons of the Confederacy Convention.

1919 -- "Red Summer," Over 30 race riots occurred over the course of 10 months in states across America.

1920 -- The wealth and prosperity of the Greenwood community, nicknamed "Black Wall Street," led to it to becoming one of the most financially prosperous African American communities in America.

1921: Tulsa Race Riot also known Tulsa Race Massacre takes place from May 30th to June 1st, in the Greenwood community of Tulsa. -- May 30: Dick Rowland, an African American shoe shiner is accused of assaulting Sarah Page, a white elevator operator. May 31: Rowland was arrested and brought to the courthouse jail. Afternoon: The Tulsa Tribune printed a story, "Nab Negro for Attacking Girl in Elevator" that Rowland raped Page and printed the editorial, "To Lynch Negro Tonight." 4:00 pm: Talk and rumors of lynching Rowland had spread. Police and Fire commissions J.M. Adkison phoned to warn Sheriff Willard McCullough of a possible incident. 7:30: A large white mob, numbering in the hundreds, gathered at the courthouse demanding Rowland be released to them. 9:30 pm: The mob had grown to two thousand. Members of the Greenwood community, many World War I veterans, set up defenses at the courthouse in order to protect Rowland from any impending violence from the mob. 10:00 pm: A fight broke out and a gun was fired. The mob began attacking and shooting all African Americans. June 1 12:00-1:30 am: Gunfire occurred between the white and African American commercial businesses across Fisco yards. 1:00-4:00 am: Over 35 blocks were destroyed, including 1200 homes, and an estimated 300 African Americans were murdered. However, the exact number is unknown. 9:00 am: The Oklahoma National Guard arrived. 11:30 am: Government declared martial law, by this point most of the fighting had already stopped. The final altercation occurred at Noon when the mob fired on African Americans near the Santa Fe railroad tracks. The National guard gathered and arrested nearly all the Greenwood residents, over 6000, detaining them in the Convention Center, sports arenas, and fairgrounds. 6:00 pm: All businesses were ordered to close, and a curfew was put into effect beginning at 7:00. June 3: Martial law ended. African Americans were required to carry "green cards" to leave the detention centers until July. June 8-20: Governor James B. A. Robertson ordered an inquiry of events by a Grand Jury examining the role of the police and sheriff departments. The all-white jury indicted over 85 people, the majority African American, for rioting and illegally carrying weapons. Five city police officers, including the Tulsa Chief of Police, John Gustafson, were also indicted and later fired. June 8-July 30: 1400 lawsuits were filed by African Americans for damaged commercial and/or personal property. The insurance companies invoked a "riot clause" that dismissed almost all the claims. Rowland was released and was not charged for any crime.

1922 -- Mary E. Jones Parrish was hired by the Inter-Racial Commission to write an account of the Race Riot. She was a teacher and journalist living with her daughter in Tulsa at the time of the massacre. Parrish interviewed survivors of the riot, collecting oral histories, photographs and a listing of property loses, publishing her findings in Events of the Tulsa Disaster. This was the first book published about the race riot. A large reconstruction effort began in Greenwood, and 80 businesses opened.

1925 -- National Negro Business League holds national convention in Tulsa, celebrating the rebuilding of Greenwood.

1931 -- Buck Colbert Franklin writes an unpublished memoir of the massacre entitled: The Tulsa Riot and Three of its Victims. It was later published by his son, John Hope Franklin and grandson, John W. Franklin in 1997.

1946 -- The first general history of the riot was published by Loren L. Gill, from the University of Tulsa. Although conducting many oral histories and research, some of his conclusions were later found to be incorrect.

1975 -- The Tulsa Race War of 1921 by Rudia M. Halliburton, Jr. was published. Halliburton was a professor at Northeastern State University and his work featured a collection of photographs, many from his students, of the riot.

1997 -- The Tulsa Race Riot Commission is established to study the riot and recommended reparations for survivors and their descendants. The city didn't comply.

1998 -- The Commission recommends archeological search for mass graves. This was approved in February 1999. A potential mass grave was found in Oaklawn Cemetery.

2003 -- Court case, Alexander, et al., v. Oklahoma, et al, was filed by over 200 survivors of the massacre. The suit was denied because the statute of limitations had passed.

2005 -- The survivors and lawyers attempted to repeal the decision in the Supreme Court, but the Court decided not to accept a case.

2010 -- John Hope Franklin Reconciliation Park opened in Greenwood to help memorialize and educate the community about the race massacre.
Provenance:
Acquired as a gift from The Tulsa Project, Inc. (Reginald Turner, J.D.Clement & The Lomax Company).
Rights:
The copyright law of the United States (title 17, United States Code) governs the making reproductions of copyrighted material. Any reproductions of these materials are not to be used for any purpose other than research or educational use. It is the responsibility of the user to pursue the copyright owner, The Tulsa Project, Inc . for permission to use and publish the materials from this collection for use beyond private study, scholarship or research. Any reproduction of materials of this collection must include the copyright notice: © The Tulsa Project, Inc.
Topic:
Race relations  Search this
Tulsa Race Massacre, Tulsa, Okla., 1921  Search this
Hate crimes  Search this
Race discrimination  Search this
Violence  Search this
Race riots  Search this
Justice  Search this
Activism  Search this
Law  Search this
Identity  Search this
American South  Search this
American West  Search this
Genre/Form:
Oral history
Citation:
Guide to the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection, 2004-2007. National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAAHC.A2014.240
See more items in:
Guide to 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-a2014-240

The 15 Best Small Towns to Visit in 2021

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Conversations and talks
Blog posts
Published Date:
Mon, 07 Jun 2021 12:00:00 +0000
Topic:
Custom RSS  Search this
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Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_69e80a771929fa706d2573f6b5165c28

Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Subject:
Hauke, Cesar M. de (Cesar Mange)  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
Seligmann, René  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques  Search this
De Hauke & Co., Inc.  Search this
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co.  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Gersel  Search this
Type:
Gallery records
Topic:
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford, 1874-1938 -- Art collections  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L. -- Art collections  Search this
Arenberg, duc d' -- Art collections  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of -- Art collections  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de, 1885-1925  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Theme:
Art Market  Search this
Art Gallery Records  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9936
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212486
AAA_collcode_jacqself
Theme:
Art Market
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212486
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974 digital asset number 1
Online Media:

De Wolf Hopper

Artist:
Theodore L. Wust, active late 19th century  Search this
Sitter:
De Wolf Hopper, 1858 - 1935  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
147.5cm x 86.5cm (58 1/16" x 34 1/16"), Accurate
Type:
Painting
Date:
c. 1890-1900
Topic:
De Wolf Hopper: Male  Search this
De Wolf Hopper: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Theater  Search this
De Wolf Hopper: Performing Arts\Performer\Comedian  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Chicago History Museum
Object number:
1930.46
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm46c22377c-71b8-494e-9c42-f97c327a56e8
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_1930.46

Shylock, Bassano, and Antonio

Original artist:
Darley, Felix Octavius Carr  Search this
Physical Description:
graphite (overall material)
white paint (overall material)
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
sheet: 46 cm x 30.5 cm; 18 1/8 in x 12 in
Object Name:
drawing
Date made:
19th century
Subject:
Theater  Search this
Credit Line:
Mrs. J. L. Gerome Ferris
ID Number:
GA.16634
Catalog number:
16634
Accession number:
119780
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Graphic Arts
Communications
Art
Ferris Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a5-fe4e-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_795073

Open Air Theater

Original artist:
Laar, Pieter van  Search this
Graphic artist:
Unger, William  Search this
Measurements:
image: 15 cm x 18.5 cm; 5 7/8 in x 7 5/16 in
plate: 18.5 cm x 25 cm; 7 5/16 in x 9 13/16 in
sheet: 21 cm x 28 cm; 8 1/4 in x 11 in
Object Name:
Print
Object Type:
Etching
Date made:
last quarter 19th century
19th century
Date made:
nineteenth century
Subject:
Theater  Search this
ID Number:
GA.15022
Catalog number:
15022
Accession number:
94830
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Graphic Arts
Communications
Art
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ac-7999-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1002567

Aaron W. Hempleman's 1876 School Desk and Seat Patent Model

Patentee:
Hempleman, Aaron W.  Search this
Transfer:
U.S. Patent and Trademark Office  Search this
Inventor:
Hempleman, Aaron W.  Search this
Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
metal (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 7 3/4 in x 7 3/4 in x 8 in; 19.685 cm x 19.685 cm x 20.32 cm
Object Name:
model
desk model
Object Type:
Patent Model
Referenced in patent specifications:
United States: Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
Date made:
1876
Patent date:
1876-05-23
Subject:
Education  Search this
Patent Models  Search this
ID Number:
CL.65.0399
Catalog number:
65.0399
Accession number:
249602
Patent number:
177,835
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Education
Cultures & Communities
American History Education Collection
Patent Model School Seats and Desks
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a4-b687-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_664184
Online Media:

William Joeckel's 1861 School Desk and Seat Patent Model

Patentee:
Joeckel, William H.  Search this
Transfer:
U.S. Patent and Trademark Office  Search this
Inventor:
Joeckel, William H.  Search this
Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
metal (overall material)
iron (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 9 1/2 in x 6 3/4 in x 7 in; 24.13 cm x 17.145 cm x 17.78 cm
desk: 4 3/4 in x 7 in x 6 3/4 in; 12.065 cm x 17.78 cm x 17.145 cm
seat: 2 1/2 in x 2 1/2 in x 1/4 in; 6.35 cm x 6.35 cm x .635 cm
Object Name:
model
seat model
desk and seat model
Object Type:
Patent Model
Referenced in patent specifications:
United States: New York, New York City
Date made:
1861
Patent date:
1861-12-24
Subject:
Patent Models  Search this
ID Number:
CL.65.0512
Catalog number:
65.0512
Accession number:
249602
Patent number:
33,994
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Education
Cultures & Communities
American History Education Collection
Patent Model School Seats and Desks
Exhibition:
Inventing in America
Exhibition Location:
National Museum of American History
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a4-fa0d-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_679729
Online Media:

Statue of Henry Dixey as Adonis

Physical Description:
ceramic (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 31 in x 12 1/2 in x 9 in; 78.74 cm x 31.75 cm x 22.86 cm
Object Name:
statue
Place made:
United States: New York, New York City
Date made:
ca. 1880s
1886
Subject:
Entertainment  Search this
Entertainment, general  Search this
Theater  Search this
ID Number:
2018.0054.01
Accession number:
2018.0054
Catalog number:
2018.0054.01
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Entertainment
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b4-6ea0-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1898698

"Ol' Man River"

Authored Pulitzer Prize-winning novel, Showboat:
Ferber, Edna  Search this
Playwright:
Hammerstein II, Oscar  Search this
Kern, Jerome  Search this
Singer:
Robeson, Paul  Search this
Maker:
T. B. Harms & Co.  Search this
T. B. Harms Company  Search this
Physical Description:
ink (overall material)
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 11 7/8 in x 9 in; 30.1625 cm x 22.86 cm
Object Name:
sheet music
Place made:
United States: New York, New York City
Show boat route:
United States: Mississippi River
United States: Cumberland River
United States: Ohio River
Date made:
1927
"Show Boat" debuted on Broadway:
1927
Sheet music popular:
19th and early 20th centuries
Edna Ferber authored Pultizer-Prize winning novel, Show Boat:
1926
Show boat were popular entertainment:
19th century
Related event:
The Emergence of Modern America  Search this
Related Publication:
On the Water online exhibition
Related Web Publication:
http://americanhistory.si.edu/onthewater
ID Number:
2008.3026.01
Nonaccession number:
2008.3026
Catalog number:
2008.3026.01
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Entertainment
Music & Musical Instruments
Popular Entertainment
On the Water exhibit
Transportation
Exhibition:
On the Water
Exhibition Location:
National Museum of American History
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ac-6546-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1336044
Online Media:

Lewis Latimer Hand Puppet

Depicted:
Latimer, Lewis  Search this
User:
Brewery Troupe, Inc.  Search this
Transferring agency:
Lemelson Center  Search this
Maker:
Brewer, Brad  Search this
Brewery Troupe, Inc.  Search this
Physical Description:
fabric (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 114.5 cm x 48.25 cm; 45 1/16 in x 19 in
Object Name:
puppet
Place made:
United States: New York, Freeport
Associated Place:
United States: New York, New York
Date made:
1998
Subject:
Puppetry  Search this
Science & Scientific Instruments  Search this
Blacks  Search this
African American  Search this
ID Number:
1999.0144.01
Accession number:
1999.0144
Catalog number:
1999.0144.01
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Entertainment
Puppets
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a8-dd1b-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1030597
Online Media:

Frederick Douglass Hand Puppet

Transferring agency:
Lemelson Center  Search this
Depicted:
Douglass, Frederick  Search this
User:
Brewery Troupe, Inc.  Search this
Maker:
Brewery Troupe, Inc.  Search this
Physical Description:
fabric (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 124.5 cm x 53.25 cm; 49 in x 20 15/16 in
Object Name:
puppet
Place made:
United States: New York, Freeport
Associated Place:
United States: New York, New York
Date made:
1998
Subject:
Puppetry  Search this
Anti-Slavery  Search this
African American  Search this
Invention  Search this
ID Number:
1999.0144.03
Accession number:
1999.0144
Catalog number:
1999.0144.03
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Entertainment
Puppets
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a8-dd1c-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1030599
Online Media:

The King and I Mask

Wearer/user:
Abeleda, Tito  Search this
Designer:
Kirk, Roger  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
paint (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 32 cm x 28 cm; 12 5/8 in x 11 in
Object Name:
mask
Date made:
1996
Subject:
Musical Theater  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Discover Financial Services Card, through Benedicta Lawrence
ID Number:
1998.0048.23
Catalog number:
1998.0048.23
Accession number:
1998.0048
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Entertainment
Popular Entertainment
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ab-830e-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1195008

Vaudeville Dress worn by Nellie Burt

Physical Description:
satin (overall material)
velvet (overall material)
fabric (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 115 cm x 70 cm; 45 9/32 in x 27 9/16 in
Object Name:
dress
Place made:
United States: New York, New York City
Used:
United States: New York, New York City
Date made:
late 19th century
Subject:
Vaudeville  Search this
Theater  Search this
Credit Line:
Jean P. Warner
ID Number:
1998.0002.01
Accession number:
1998.0002
Catalog number:
1998.0002.01
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Entertainment
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b3-1c1d-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1695284

Cuban Rumba Dress

Associated Name:
Cruz, Celia  Search this
Designer:
Arteaga, Enrique  Search this
Physical Description:
red (overall color)
polyester (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 55 in x 50 in x 93 in; 139.7 cm x 127 cm x 236.22 cm
Object Name:
dress
Place Made:
United States
Date made:
ca 1992
Date made:
1973-1987
Credit Line:
Gift of Celia Cruz
ID Number:
1997.0291.01
Accession number:
1997.0291
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Entertainment
Cultures & Communities
Music & Musical Instruments
Popular Entertainment
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a6-6eb0-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_834229

Stockings from a costume worn in the play The Corn is Green

Physical Description:
cotton (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 28 in x 10 in x 8 1/2 in; 71.12 cm x 25.4 cm x 21.59 cm
Object Name:
Stockings
Object Type:
stockings
Place made:
United Kingdom: Galles, Pontardawe
Place worn:
United States: New York, New York City
Date made:
1906
Subject:
Costume  Search this
Theater  Search this
Credit Line:
Margaret C. Brady
ID Number:
1980.0485.01
Accession number:
1980.0485
Catalog number:
1980.0485.01
1980.0485.01
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Entertainment
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a4-b68d-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_662490

Apron worn in the play The Corn is Green

User:
O'Hara, Maureen  Search this
Physical Description:
wool (overall material)
cloth (strings material)
Measurements:
overall: 25 in x 23 in; 63.5 cm x 58.42 cm
strings: 30 in; 76.2 cm
Object Name:
Apron
Place made:
United Kingdom: Galles, Pontardawe
Place worn:
United States: New York, New York City
Date made:
1906
Subject:
Costume  Search this
Theater  Search this
Credit Line:
Margaret C. Brady
ID Number:
1980.0485.03
Accession number:
1980.0485
Catalog number:
1980.0485.03
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Entertainment
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a4-b7b2-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_662491

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