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Meet Consuelo Jimenez Underwood

Creator:
Smithsonian American Art Museum  Search this
Type:
Interviews
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2012-12-05T14:06:36.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
See more by:
americanartmuseum
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
YouTube Channel:
americanartmuseum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_j25Z8jzqWo0

Emily Melville

Attribution:
Mathew Brady Studio, active 1844 - 1894  Search this
Sitter:
Emilie Melville, 1852? - 1932  Search this
Medium:
Glass plate collodion negative
Dimensions:
Plate: 9.4 × 5.9 × 0.2 cm (3 11/16 × 2 5/16 × 1/16")
Type:
Photographic Negative
Date:
c. 1860-70
Topic:
Costume\Jewelry  Search this
Costume\Jewelry\Earring  Search this
Interior  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Seating\Chair  Search this
Costume\Headgear\Hat  Search this
Home Furnishings\Clock  Search this
Fabric\Cloth  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Ribbon  Search this
Home Furnishings\Tablecloth  Search this
Emilie Melville: Female  Search this
Emilie Melville: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; Frederick Hill Meserve Collection
Object number:
NPG.81.M1142
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4c963fbdb-609d-4de7-ae97-18efb5a47c4f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.81.M1142

James W. Nesmith

Attribution:
Mathew Brady Studio, active 1844 - 1894  Search this
Sitter:
James Willis Nesmith, 23 Jul 1820 - 17 Jun 1885  Search this
Medium:
Glass plate collodion negative
Dimensions:
Plate: 11.2 × 8.3 × 0.3 cm (4 7/16 × 3 1/4 × 1/8")
Type:
Photographic Negative
Place:
United States\District of Columbia\Washington
Date:
c. 1860-70
Topic:
Costume\Jewelry  Search this
Interior  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Seating\Chair  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Table  Search this
Artist's Effects  Search this
Costume\Jewelry\Chain  Search this
Architecture\Column  Search this
Home Furnishings\Curtain  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Neckwear\Tie\Bowtie  Search this
Fabric\Cloth  Search this
Personal Attribute\Facial Hair\Muttonchops  Search this
Home Furnishings\Tablecloth  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Male  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist\Farmer  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Colonel  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Politics and Government\US Senator\Oregon  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist\Livestock  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Oregon  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; Frederick Hill Meserve Collection
Object number:
NPG.81.M1235
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4cb1fb537-5a63-4c20-8f56-65d250d1d5b9
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.81.M1235

James W. Nesmith

Attribution:
Mathew Brady Studio, active 1844 - 1894  Search this
Sitter:
James Willis Nesmith, 23 Jul 1820 - 17 Jun 1885  Search this
Medium:
Glass plate collodion negative
Dimensions:
Plate: 11.2 × 8.6 × 0.3 cm (4 7/16 × 3 3/8 × 1/8")
Type:
Photographic Negative
Place:
United States\District of Columbia\Washington
Date:
c. 1860-70
Topic:
Costume\Jewelry  Search this
Interior  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Seating\Chair  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Table  Search this
Artist's Effects  Search this
Costume\Jewelry\Chain  Search this
Architecture\Column  Search this
Home Furnishings\Curtain  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Neckwear\Tie\Bowtie  Search this
Fabric\Cloth  Search this
Personal Attribute\Facial Hair\Muttonchops  Search this
Home Furnishings\Tablecloth  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Male  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist\Farmer  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Colonel  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Politics and Government\US Senator\Oregon  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist\Livestock  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Oregon  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; Frederick Hill Meserve Collection
Object number:
NPG.81.M1236
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4f2e44a0e-4164-494c-937d-b1cea03d0b0d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.81.M1236

James W. Nesmith

Attribution:
Mathew Brady Studio, active 1844 - 1894  Search this
Sitter:
James Willis Nesmith, 23 Jul 1820 - 17 Jun 1885  Search this
Medium:
Glass plate collodion negative
Dimensions:
Plate: 11.2 × 8.6 × 0.3 cm (4 7/16 × 3 3/8 × 1/8")
Type:
Photographic Negative
Place:
United States\District of Columbia\Washington
Date:
c. 1860-70
Topic:
Costume\Jewelry  Search this
Interior  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Seating\Chair  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Table  Search this
Artist's Effects  Search this
Costume\Jewelry\Chain  Search this
Architecture\Column  Search this
Home Furnishings\Curtain  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Neckwear\Tie\Bowtie  Search this
Fabric\Cloth  Search this
Personal Attribute\Facial Hair\Muttonchops  Search this
Home Furnishings\Tablecloth  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Male  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist\Farmer  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Colonel  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Politics and Government\US Senator\Oregon  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist\Livestock  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Oregon  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; Frederick Hill Meserve Collection
Object number:
NPG.81.M1237
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4ef5248b9-7f0e-4dc7-8fb2-3fc543c45e39
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.81.M1237

Charles T. Parsloe, Jr.

Attribution:
Mathew Brady Studio, active 1844 - 1894  Search this
Sitter:
Charles T. Parsloe, Jr., active mid 19th century  Search this
Medium:
Glass plate collodion negative
Dimensions:
Plate: 8.1 × 6.6 × 0.3 cm (3 3/16 × 2 5/8 × 1/8")
Type:
Photographic Negative
Place:
United States\New York\Kings\New York
Date:
c. 1860-70
Topic:
Interior  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture  Search this
Costume\Headgear\Hat  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Table  Search this
Fabric\Cloth  Search this
Home Furnishings\Tablecloth  Search this
Charles T. Parsloe, Jr.: Male  Search this
Charles T. Parsloe, Jr.: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; Frederick Hill Meserve Collection
Object number:
NPG.81.M1279
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm421efdd46-7e87-4fbd-a0a1-5ae2320e5b8b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.81.M1279

Charles T. Parsloe, Jr.

Attribution:
Mathew Brady Studio, active 1844 - 1894  Search this
Sitter:
Charles T. Parsloe, Jr., active mid 19th century  Search this
Medium:
Glass plate collodion negative
Dimensions:
Plate: 8.2 × 6.7 × 0.3 cm (3 1/4 × 2 5/8 × 1/8")
Type:
Photographic Negative
Place:
United States\New York\Kings\New York
Date:
c. 1860-70
Topic:
Interior  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture  Search this
Costume\Headgear\Hat  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Table  Search this
Fabric\Cloth  Search this
Home Furnishings\Tablecloth  Search this
Charles T. Parsloe, Jr.: Male  Search this
Charles T. Parsloe, Jr.: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; Frederick Hill Meserve Collection
Object number:
NPG.81.M1281
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4083a23f6-6eae-4b30-9c38-d2eab81442fb
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.81.M1281

John Quincy Adams

Attribution:
Napoleon Sarony, 9 Mar 1821 - 9 Nov 1896  Search this
Copy after:
Arthur J. Stansbury  Search this
Lithographer:
Sarony & Major Lithography Company, active 1846 - 1857  Search this
Sitter:
John Quincy Adams, 11 Jul 1767 - 23 Feb 1848  Search this
Medium:
Stipple engraving on paper
Dimensions:
Image: 19.7 x 31.1 cm (7 3/4 x 12 1/4")
Type:
Print
Date:
1848
Topic:
Interior\Domestic\Bedroom  Search this
Home Furnishings\Blanket  Search this
Home Furnishings\Pillow  Search this
Personal Attribute\Facial Hair\Muttonchops  Search this
John Quincy Adams: Male  Search this
John Quincy Adams: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Massachusetts  Search this
John Quincy Adams: Politics and Government\Diplomat\Ambassador  Search this
John Quincy Adams: Politics and Government\President of US  Search this
John Quincy Adams: Politics and Government\Cabinet member\Secretary of State  Search this
John Quincy Adams: Politics and Government\US Senator\Massachusetts  Search this
John Quincy Adams: Politics and Government\Son of US President  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.77.66
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4f598773b-c26e-4179-ac36-6d838a188523
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.77.66

Joseph Cornell Study Center Collection

Artist:
Cornell, Joseph  Search this
Names:
Benton, Elizabeth Cornell  Search this
Cornell, Robert  Search this
Extent:
196.8 Linear feet
186 Nitrate negatives
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Nitrate negatives
Photographs
Place:
New York, New York
Date:
1750-1980, bulk 1930-1972
Summary:
The Joseph Cornell Study Center collection measures 196.8 linear feet and dates from 1750 to 1980, with the bulk of the material dating from 1930 to 1972. Documenting the artistic career and personal life of assemblage artist Joseph Cornell (1903-1972), the collection is primarily made up of two- and three-dimensional source material, the contents of the artists' studio, his record album collection, and his book collection and personal library. The collection also includes diaries and notes, financial and estate papers, exhibition materials, collected artifacts and ephemera, photographs, correspondence, and the papers of Robert Cornell (1910-1965) and Helen Storms Cornell (1882-1966), the artist's brother and mother.
Scope and Contents:
The Joseph Cornell Study Center collection measures 196.8 linear feet and dates from 1750 to 1980, with the bulk of the material dating from 1930 to 1972. Documenting the artistic career and personal life of assemblage artist Joseph Cornell (1903-1972), the collection is primarily made up of two- and three-dimensional source material, the contents of the artists' studio, his record album collection, and his book collection and personal library. The collection also includes diaries and notes, financial and estate papers, exhibition materials, collected artifacts and ephemera, photographs, correspondence, and the papers of Robert Cornell (1910-1965) and Helen Storms Cornell (1882-1966), the artist's brother and mother.

Correspondence is with collectors, museums, galleries, artists, friends, family, charity organizations, admirers and those admired by Cornell, and World War II European pen pals. Discussions about the appreciation, donation, sale, purchase, and exhibition of Cornell's works are frequent, with the inclusion of shipping and loan documentation or notices of payment installments. Galleries and museums frequently request that Cornell agree to an exhibition, which he often declines, and fans request free works be mailed or affordable works be sold to them. With friends, artists, and those he admired, Cornell discussed topics that fascinate him, included bits of poetry or philosophical musings, sent clippings or a collaged letter, and occasionally discussed a project or work in process. After World War II, when so many were displaced by the war in Europe, Cornell answered ads for pen pals in the "Christian Science Monitor," often responding to requests for clothing or other goods, and sometimes exchanging many letters over several years. Family correspondence is with his mother, sisters, brother, and others, and often notes activities of the day, foods eaten, and general musings, as well as occasionally mentioning a project or artwork. Correspondents of note include Stan Brakhage, Betty Freeman, Charles Henri Ford, Allegra Kent, Yayoi Kusama, Roberto Matta, Marianne Moore, Octavio Paz, Sonia Sekula, Pavel Tchelitchew, Parker Tyler, Dorothea Tanning, and Betsy von Furstenberg, among others.

Cornell was often preoccupied with his thoughts, feelings, memories, a project or thematic "exploration," and jotted notes on seemingly any surface available. Notes and musings are on napkins, the backs of envelopes, newspaper clippings, and paper bags from record and magazine stores. Frequently, an observation would trigger a lengthy nostalgic moment, or a "feé," fairy-like child or girl, would capture his imagination and lead him to thoughts of 18th-century ballerinas and silent film stars. Cornell wrote longer diary notes, sometimes expanding on an earlier notation or emotion, and often wrote when he experienced trouble sleeping or woke early. Drafted letters to imaginary muses or admired individuals are interspersed among diaries, often revealing Cornell's yearnings to find emotional intimacy and human connection. Over time, Cornell revisited his notes and occasionally made further notations about renewed thoughts on a topic, dating the note with "revisited" or "reviewed." Notes are often written in a stream-of-consciousness style, for example, jumping from the mention of a record album or composer, to a ballerina of the same period, a note about a French poet, the memory of childhood, or an observation made earlier in the day, all in the space of a few lines. Notes about artistic processes or meanings behind works or images do occasionally emerge from the tangled, poetic notations. Notes also often provide insights into Cornell's internal emotional state and give clues about his intentions behind an artwork or a particular thematic fixation.

Financial materials document Cornell's professional and personal business activities, including the sale of artworks, annual expenses for supplies and household incidentals, payments and schedules for personal assistants, receipts for donations to charities and nonprofits, and tax documents. There is also information about who worked as assistants, or "helpers," in his later years and where Cornell purchased art supplies. Additionally, specific details are documented through receipts and invoices, such as what kind of paint he purchased. Estate records include preparations made for Cornell's artworks after his death, and clippings about other deceased artist's estates show that he thought often about such arrangements in his later years.

Exhibition files highlight several select solo exhibitions for Cornell, as well as preparations and planning for the "Robert Cornell: Memorial Exhibition" in honor of his brother in 1966. Also included are several early exhibition catalogs and announcements, including "Surréalisme" (January 9-29, 1932) and "Exhibition of Objects (Bibloquet) by Joseph Cornell" (December 6-31, 1939) at the Julien Levy Gallery, and "Romantic Museum: Portraits of Women, Constructions and Arrangements by Joseph Cornell" (December 1946) at the Hugo Gallery.

Film projects and collected film materials consist of files related to Cornell's various experimental film projects: "Aviary," "Cappuccino," "Centuries of June," "Fable for Fountains," "Nymphlight," "Serafina's Garden," and unrealized film scenario "Monsieur Phot." Files include film-making notes, correspondence, and photographs. Cornell's interest in film also led him to collect film-related materials, such as film stills, film posters, and screening programs. Scattered correspondence documents the interest other institutions and individuals had in purchasing and viewing his collection. Though most of his collected film stills and movie posters were donated to the Anthology Film Archives, film stills from "Escape Me Never" (1935) and "The Passion of Joan of Arc" (1928) are still within the collection, as well as film-screening programs for Cornell's collection of films.

Writing and design projects document Cornell's work authoring articles and designing issues of specialty dance magazine "Dance Index," and his layouts for popular magazines like "Good Housekeeping," "House and Garden," and "Mademoiselle." Other writing projects include brochures dedicated to opera singers Maria Malibran and Giulia Grisi, "Maria" and "Bel Canto Pet." Materials used for these brochures, such as copper photo engraving plates, are also found. Design work includes a series of Christmas cards created with The Museum of Modern Art as well as traced patterns ("textile tracings") and design clippings from Cornell's time working as a "textile designer" for Traphagen Commercial Textile Studio.

Cornell acquired troves of source material from bookstalls, antique stores, sporting good and department stores, hardware stores, and magazine and record shops. He kept boxes and files of material on admired individuals, such as actresses, artists, dancers, and singers, as well as on art projects or thematic "explorations." Files are on general topics such as American history, scientific phenomena, animals, plants, and humankind, as well as on series of artworks, such as "Castles," "Homage to the Romantic Ballet," and "Medici Slot Machines." Focused "exploration" projects include "Celestial Theatre," "Colombier," "GC 44," and "Switzerland," among others. Materials include photographs, photostats, maps, book fragments, autographed letters, notes, collage clippings and cutouts, collected prints and engravings, box and collage fragments, and scattered artifacts.

Collected ephemera includes large amounts of blank postcards and greeting cards, stamps, collected bus and train tickets, food labels and packaging, decals, and other materials. Artifacts are three-dimensional collected objects and source objects, which include found objects from the streets, dried flowers, and pieces of nature gathered from walks around his neighborhood. Cornell may have gathered materials because they inspired a memory or nostalgic feeling, or because they fit with a bin of other similar objects to select from for an artwork in progress.

Photographs found within the collection are of Cornell at work and as a child with family. Also found are assorted personal and family photographs, photographs of Cornell's attic and garage storage, and photographs of his Utopia Parkway house. Photographs of artwork include few installation photographs, in addition to photographs of Cornell's boxes and collages. Collected photographic materials include vintage photographs, such as tintypes, a cyanotype, stereoscopic glass slides, albumen prints, cabinet cards, and cartes-de-visite. Cornell also collected cased photographs, such as daguerreotypes, ambrotypes, and one opalotype. Negatives and photostats were often produced from various prints and even other photographs and used in Cornell's boxes and collages. Images are of men and women, actors, authors, dancers, performers, well-known men and women, royalty, places, and artwork. Photographs of note include those by Hans Namuth of Willem and Lisa de Kooning and of Edward Hopper's bedroom; photographs by Henri Cartier-Bresson; a photograph by Julia Margaret Cameron; photographs by Brassai; and a photogravure by Alfred Stieglitz from "Camerawork."

Also found in the collection are works of art by others, including a sketch by Pavel Tchelitchew, as well as artwork by Cornell, such as unfinished collages, Rorschach drawings or ink blots, and childhood artwork. Printed material includes assorted bulletins, flyers, exhibition materials for other artists, journals, and sent printed membership and charity materials. Magazines, including "View," are also included, and often have annotations by Cornell or a note to "cut" or "review" with page numbers. A large amount of magazine and newspaper clippings are in the collection, sometimes collected with a group of like material by Cornell, and at other times simply gathered in heaps. Occasional annotations are also found on the clippings.

Cornell's personal library and book collection includes over 2500 titles, ranging from fiction, poetry, and cinema, to history, science, and travel. Notable among the titles are "Baedeker's" travel guides that Cornell often sourced for his "Hotel" box series, as well as an influential publication by Max Ernst, "La Femme 100 têtes," which includes a typed letter and exhibition flyer tucked within. Books often have annotations, some fairly extensive, by Cornell, and assorted collected items, notes, and correspondence tucked between pages. Pages were often cut by Cornell, either to make photostats and use in a box, or to file with other thematic "explorations." A wide range of authors and topics provide insight into Cornell's interests and to ideas behind artwork and diary notes. Cornell's collection of record albums includes over 145 records. These contain inserted notes and clippings and are often referenced in diary notes Cornell made, noting a recent album or song listened to while at work in his studio.

The papers of Cornell's mother, Helen Storms Cornell, and his brother, Robert Cornell, are also included in the collection. Both lived with Cornell his whole life, spending the most time with him at their home at 3708 Utopia Parkway. Financial materials document shared responsibilities for billing, utilities, household fixes and chores, and expenditures, and Helen kept detailed financial records in a series of ledgers. Robert notes when he borrowed money from Cornell, or when he means to pay Cornell back for the purchase of a typewriter. Activities documented in diaries also occasionally cross paths with Cornell, noting his visitors or an exchange of letters continued after introductions through Cornell. Personal activities, such as Robert's interest in his train collection and his drawing projects and cartoon series, are also documented.
Arrangement:
The Joseph Cornell Study Center Collection is arranged into 15 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1917-1972 (Boxes 1, 98, OV118; 0.9 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1813, 1934-circa 1973 (Boxes 1-8, 86; 6.5 linear feet)

Series 3: Diaries and Notes, 1940-1976 (Boxes 8-10, 98-99, 135, OV108, OV119; 3.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Personal Business and Estate Records, 1950-1978 (Boxes 10-14; 4.1 linear feet)

Series 5: Exhibition Files, 1932-1973 (Box 14; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 6: Film Projects and Collected Film Materials, circa 1924-1972 (Boxes 14-16, 100, 133; 1.6 linear feet)

Series 7: Writing and Design Projects, circa 1910s, 1936-1962 (Boxes 16-18, 86, 100, 131-132, OV109-OV111, OV120-OV122; 3.6 linear feet)

Series 8: Source Material, 1750-circa 1911, 1926-1972 (Boxes 19-49, 86-92, 96, 100-105, 126-130, 132-137, OV112-OV115, OV125; 42.2 linear feet)

Series 9: Artifacts and Ephemera, 1768, circa 1839-1972 (Boxes 49-52; 3.2 linear feet)

Series 10: Photographic Material, circa 1800s-1972 (Boxes 52-56, 80-86, 93, 106, 128, 133, OV116, OV123-OV124; 7.5 linear feet)

Series 11: Artwork, circa 1810-1972 (Boxes 56-57, 107, OV117; 1.2 linear feet)

Series 12: Printed Material, 1855-1972 (Boxes 57-76, 94-96, 107; 16 linear feet)

Series 13: Book Collection and Personal Library, 1722-1980 (99.8 linear feet)

Series 14: Record Album Collection, circa 1925-1974 (3.2 linear feet)

Series 15: Cornell Family Papers, 1910-1980 (Boxes 77-79, 97, 107; 3.2 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Joseph Cornell (1903-1972) was a self-taught assemblage and collage artist, and filmmaker, active in New York City. He was born in Nyack, New York on December 24, 1903, and died of heart failure at his home in Queens, New York on December 29, 1972. The oldest of four children, he was born Joseph I. Cornell to his mother, Helen Storms Cornell (1882-1966), and his father, Joseph I. Cornell (1875-1917). Cornell had two younger sisters, Elizabeth ("Betty") Cornell Benton (1905-2000) and Helen ("Sissy") Cornell Jagger (1906-2001), as well as one brother, Robert Cornell (1910-1965), who had cerebral palsy.

Cornell attended the Phillips Academy, a preparatory boarding school in Andover, Massachusetts, beginning shortly after his father's death in 1917. He attended for four years but did not receive a diploma, and soon began work as a textile salesman for the William Whitman Company in Manhattan. His work took him, by foot, through the city, visiting secondhand bookshops on Fourth Avenue, browsing music stores and magazine shops, and catching early shows at the Metropolitan Opera House. He would occasionally wait outside the stage doors for favorite singers and dancers to emerge, requesting signatures on photographs or bits of costumes.

Around 1926, Cornell joined the Christian Science Church, joined by his brother Robert shortly thereafter, and both continued to be lifelong members. Cornell kept a number of books in his personal library on Christian Science teachings and regularly subscribed to "The Christian Science Monitor."

After living in several rental houses in Bayside, New York, Cornell's mother purchased a house for the family in 1929 in Flushing, Queens. Cornell, along with his mother and brother, would live at 3708 Utopia Parkway, for the rest of their lives. His two sisters soon married and moved away, eventually settling in Westhampton, Long Island and in the poultry-farming business.

With no formal art training to speak of, Cornell's first work was a Max Ernst-inspired collage, "Untitled (Schooner)," created in 1931. He was especially inspired by Ernst's collage novel, "La Femme 100 têtes," published in 1929. French artist Odilon Redon was also among the few artists Cornell named as an influence on his art. His first sculptural works were small, cardboard pill boxes with bits of ephemera, costume adornments, and nature hidden inside. Cornell also created a series of glass bell jar works, placing small trinkets and Victorian-era-like compositions within. It was these early collages and bell jar works that were included in Cornell's debut exhibition, "Surréalisme" (January 9-29, 1932), a group show at the Julien Levy Gallery. Cornell designed the announcement for the show and exhibited alongside Max Ernst, Man Ray, Pierre Roy, Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, Eugène Atget, George Platt Lynes, Jean Cocteau, and Salvador Dalí. Months later, Cornell was invited to have his first solo show, "Objects by Joseph Cornell: Minutiae, Glass Bells, Shadow Boxes, Coups d'Oeil, Jouets Surréalistes" (November 26-December 30, 1932), also at the Julien Levy Gallery.

In 1932, after eleven years of work, Cornell was laid off from the William Whitman Company due to the Great Depression. Soon after, he took on more responsibility in the church, working part-time as an attendant in the Christian Science Reading Room in Great Neck, New York. Beginning in 1933, he taught Sunday school classes for three years and in 1935, became the Sunday school librarian. However, his religious activities and artistic ventures continued to remain separate.

In the early 1930s, Cornell progressed from movie lover to filmmaker. When Julien Levy began his New York Film Society in 1933, holding screenings of various experimental films in the gallery, Cornell began buying and collecting films and film stills in earnest. He set up a 16-millimeter projector in his home to screen favorites, such as those by Georges Méliès, D.W. Griffith, and Louis Feuillade. His collection quickly grew to over 2,500 film stills and several hundred films, and included silent era films, such as nature documentaries, goofy newsreels, travelogues, early cartoons, and slapstick comedies, as well as several feature films. In 1933, Cornell wrote a screenplay, or "scenario," entitled "Monsieur Phot." Between 1935 and 1937, Cornell also occasionally created publicity photomontages for Universal and Columbia studios. Of the nearly thirty films Cornell created, periods of activity can generally be separated into two areas: collage films of the late 1930s, consisting of combined elements from films in his own collection, and films he directed in the 1950s, which were collaborations with other filmmakers set in New York City. "Rose Hobart," Cornell's most celebrated collage film, was created and shown in the Julien Levy Gallery in 1936 and includes clipped footage from "East of Borneo." Later films were directed and filmed with cinematographers Stan Brakhage, Rudy Burckhardt, and Larry Jordan.

In 1934, Cornell began a job at the Traphagen Commercial Textile Studio as a "textile designer," a job he held for six years. Continuing to work at his kitchen table in the evenings, Cornell completed his first assemblage box construction, "Untitled (Soap Bubble Set)," in 1936. It was first exhibited at The Museum of Modern Art's show, "Fantastic Art, Dada and Surrealism" (December 9, 1936-January 17, 1937). This work was also the first to be acquired by a museum, purchased for $60.00 by the Wadsworth Atheneum in Massachusetts in 1938. Cornell's European debut was also in 1938, as one of three Americans represented in the "Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme" (January 17-Febuary 24, 1938) at the Galerie Beaux-Arts in Paris, alongside Man Ray and Anne Clark.

At the end of 1939, Cornell began corresponding with poet Charles Henri Ford, founder of avant-garde magazine "View," Pavel Tchelitchew, and Parker Tyler. After his "Soap Bubble Sets," this period saw the development of Cornell's homages to singers and actresses, including "Untitled (Fortune-Telling Parrot for Carmen Miranda)," the destroyed "Garbo (Greta Garbo in the Legendary Film 'The Crystal Mask,' c. 1845)," and "Dressing Room for Gilles." He also began using photostats of art reproduction prints, as with the print of Jean Antoine-Watteau's painting, "Pierrot" (circa 1719), used in his "Gilles" box.

In the 1940s, the Romantic ballet emerged as Cornell's new topic of interest. Through his friend Pavel Tchelitchew, Cornell was introduced to the School of American Ballet and New York City Ballet founders, Lincoln Kirstein and George Balanchine. Cornell collected dance memorabilia and had a great love of the Romantic ballet. His favorite dancers were primarily ballerinas of the nineteenth century, including Fanny Cerrito, Marie Taglioni, Fanny Elssler, Lucille Grahn, and Carlotta Grisi. Cornell's "Homage to the Romantic Ballet" works largely took the shape of jewel-box style wooden boxes with glass overlays and included bits of velvet, tulle, sequins, crystals, and chiffon, occasionally collected from dancers themselves. His most well-known work of this series is "Taglioni's Jewel Casket" (1940). Cornell also admired several living ballet dancers, including Tamara Toumanova, Zizi Jeanmaire, and Allegra Kent, who would all make their way into Cornell's box works and/or collages. Collecting for the "exploration," "Portrait of Ondine," Cornell's cased portfolio dedication to Fanny Cerrito and her role in the ballet "Ondine," began in the 1940s, though not completed until around 1960.

In late 1940, Cornell quit his job at Traphagen to concentrate on freelance commercial magazine design and editorial work during the day and his artwork at night. That same year, Charles Henri Ford started "View" magazine to promote Surrealists and Neo-Romantics in New York City and often asked Cornell to contribute. Published in the December 1941-January 1942 issue, one of his early contributions was a collage dedication to stage actress Hedy Lamarr: "Enchanted Wanderer: Excerpt from a Journey Album for Hedy Lamarr" (1941). Along with writing the accompanying text, he created a photomontage of Lamarr with her face overlaying the painted portrait of a Renaissance boy by Italian painter Giorgione. Peggy Guggenheim, at the advice of Marcel Duchamp, purchased multiple Cornell works prior to opening her new gallery, Art of This Century. Cornell also befriended Roberto Matta Echaurren, another Surrealist living in exile, who introduced him to Robert Motherwell.

After deciding to fully dedicate his time to his art in early 1940, he set up a studio in his basement. Complete with floor-to-ceiling wooden shelving, he kept his large collection of boxed source material stacked with handwritten labels in cardboard boxes. Themed folders of materials such as "Stamps" or "Maps" were kept in stacks and works in progress and finished works were stored in the basement, garage, and attic. Entering a renewed period of productivity, Cornell embarked on many new and important box projects in 1942. One of the first boxes created in his new basement studio, and the first of the "Penny Arcade" or "Medici Slot Machine" series, was "Medici Slot Machine" (1942), which includes a photostat of "Portrait of Marquess Massimiliano Stampa" (1557) by Sofonisba Anguissola. Another work from this time is the first of his "Castle" or "Palace" series, "Setting for a Fairy Tale" (1942), which uses a photostat of a French building from Jacques Androuet du Cerceau's book, "Les Plus excellents bastiments de France" (1576). "Untitled (Pharmacy)" (circa 1942) was the first of his "Pharmacy" series and included twenty-two apothecary jars. Cornell tended to work in series and created thirteen "Palace" boxes between 1942 and 1951, and ultimately created six "Pharmacy" works.

In 1943, Cornell began working at an electronics company, the Allied Control Company, Inc., to do his part to contribute to the defense effort during the war. He also sent correspondence and care packages to displaced Europeans, who listed their needs in "The Christian Science Monitor." Influenced by World War II, one of his strongest works to emerge in 1943 was "Habitat Group for a Shooting Gallery." Another notable work to come out of this period, "The Crystal Cage (Portrait of Berenice)," was an excerpt from one of his album "explorations" that was published in the January 1943 issue of "View."

Cornell left his job at Allied Control in 1944, but soon began working at the Garden Centre in Flushing, owned by a fellow Christian Scientist. Cornell was often nostalgic for this time in his life, devoting an entire "exploration" of material fondly remembered as "GC 44." He rode a bicycle to work and enjoyed collecting trips gathering dried grasses, driftwood, shells, and other relics of nature on the same bicycle as he rode through the streets of Queens. During this time, he continued to tend to his projects for "Dance Index," a magazine founded in 1942 by Lincoln Kirstein, but taken over by Donald Windham in 1944. Cornell designed several covers for the magazine and was given control of the entire summer 1944 issue, which he devoted to the Romantic ballet. He also devoted a special 1945 issue to Hans Christian Andersen, making great use of the New York Public Library Picture Collection.

Throughout the 1940s, Cornell continued to support himself with commercial design work for magazines like "Vogue," "Good Housekeeping," "Harper's Bazaar," "Town & Country," and "Mademoiselle." In 1946, after thirteen years at the Julien Levy Gallery, he joined the Hugo Gallery. In December 1946, Cornell's solo exhibition, "Romantic Museum at the Hugo Gallery: Portraits of Women by Joseph Cornell," celebrated his favorite movie stars, singers, and ballet dancers, and included his work created for the show, "Untitled (Penny Arcade Portrait of Lauren Bacall)." Cornell's "Greta Garbo" box, as well as "Souvenir for Singleton," an homage to Jennifer Jones and her role in the film "Love Letters," were also included in the show. In late 1948, his West Coast debut was in the exhibition, "Objects by Joseph Cornell," held at the Copley Gallery. The end of the 1940s saw the final issue of "View" magazine in 1947, the closure of the Julien Levy Gallery in April 1949, and Cornell's departure from the Hugo Gallery after his last show in November 1949.

In late 1949, Cornell joined the Charles Egan Gallery, known primarily for showing Abstract Expressionists. At this time, Cornell was working on a new series of boxes known as his "Aviary" works, most of which include a white-painted box with cutouts of birds mounted on wood. Though he had worked on bird-related boxes before, including an "Owl" series in the mid-1940s, his "Fortune Telling Parrot" (1939), and "Object 1941" (1941), these newer works were stripped of French elements and left "clean and abstract" by design. His first show at the Egan Gallery, "Aviary by Joseph Cornell" (December 7, 1949-January 7, 1950), included twenty-six "Aviary" works, nearly all created in 1949. Donald Windham agreed to write the foreword for the exhibition catalog, a single folded sheet, and Cornell gave him one of the boxes in the show, "Cockatoo: Keepsake Parakeet," in appreciation. Through the Egan Gallery, Cornell became friends with a new group of artists, including Franz Kline, Jack Tworkov, and Willem de Kooning. Cornell also held two screenings of a selection of his collected films at Subjects of the Artist, an art school founded by Robert Motherwell, Mark Rothko, David Hare, and William Baziotes.

In 1950, Cornell's second show at the Egan Gallery, "Night Songs and Other New Work" (December 1, 1950-January 13, 1951), introduced his new "Observatory" series. These works are largely defined by stark, whitewashed spaces with astronomical charts and constellations replacing colorful birds. The Museum of Modern Art purchased its first Cornell work from this show in early 1951, "Central Park Carrousel, in Memoriam" (1950).

For three months in 1951, Cornell was beset by various ailments and had trouble finding the energy to create new work. He worried more for his aging mother and the health of his brother. After a monthlong vacation with his sisters in Westhampton, he returned with renewed interest in Emily Dickinson's poetry. His whitewashed boxes took on a new form in his newest "Dovecote" series, using grids and circular cutouts. The works then transformed into homages to Dickinson, notably "Toward the Blue Peninsula: For Emily Dickinson" (circa 1953), and then to his "Hotel" series. Cornell's "Hotel" boxes include photostats of vintage European ads for hotels collected from vintage travel guides, especially "Baedeker's," adhered to the back walls of the boxes. Another new series of work, his "Juan Gris" series, was dedicated to Cubist artist Juan Gris. Between 1953 and the mid-1960s, Cornell created at least fifteen "Juan Gris" boxes, which often include a cutout of a white cockatoo in a Cubist-collage habitat. Cornell's third and last show at Egan Gallery, "Night Voyage" (February 10-March 28, 1953), included some of these newest works. After leaving Egan Gallery, his work was introduced to Chicago collectors in a solo show at the Frumkin Gallery, "Joseph Cornell: 10 Years of His Art" (April 10-May 7, 1953), which included nearly thirty pieces. Cornell's first museum retrospective was this same show held at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis (July 12-August 30, 1953).

As New York City continued to change, Cornell grew more nostalgic for the city he had explored since the 1920s. The impending closure of the Third Avenue El train prompted him to dream up a film project to capture its last days, resulting in "Gnir Rednow," a reworking of Stan Brakhage's 1955, "Wonder Ring." During this time, Cornell joined the Stable Gallery, run by Eleanor Ward, interacting often with Robert Rauschenberg, Cy Twombly, and Joan Mitchell, remaining there until the end of the 1950s. His astronomy-themed exhibition, "Winter Night Skies" (December 12, 1955-January 13, 1956), included his "Night Skies" series of work with celestial chart fragments, Greek mythological figures, and paint-splattered "windows" representative of star-filled night skies. In 1956, he became aware of ballerina Allegra Kent, and began a series of work devoted to her, the first of which was "Via Parmigianino (Villa Allegra)" (1956), which included a photostat of a painting by Parmigianino, "The Madonna of the Long Neck" (circa 1540). In late 1957, after two years, Cornell had his last show at Stable Gallery, "Joseph Cornell: Selected Works" (December 2-31, 1957), consisting of a series of "Sand Fountain" boxes and "Space Object" or "Celestial Navigation" works. The "Sand Fountain" boxes included different colors of sand meant to flow within, often from the tops into cordial glasses. His "Celestial Navigations" included galaxy-like compositions set within the boxes, with rolling, painted cork balls, metal rings, and constellation charts, sometimes hovering over cordial glasses or clay pipes. This last Stable Gallery show earned him his first published profile, written by Howard Griffin for the December 1957 issue of "Art News." Also in 1957, he won the Kohnstamm Prize for Construction at the Art Institute of Chicago's 62rd Annual Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture.

Towards the end of the 1950s, Cornell spent less time creating new bodies of work, and focused more on revisiting previous series and reviewing piles of collected source material. In 1959, Cornell returned to making collages, frequently sourcing popular magazines. In December 1959, Cornell was awarded $1,500 for his "Orion" collage, entered in the Art Institute of Chicago's "63rd American Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture." Also in December, he was offered a show at Bennington College in Vermont, which he titled, "Bonitas Solstitialis: Selected Works by Joseph Cornell and an exploration of the Colombier" (November 20-December 15, 1959). The show included one of his newest "explorations" of collected material related to "colombier," or pigeon houses.

By 1962, Cornell was working diligently on new collages, using Masonite boards and colorful magazine clippings. He also began creating collages using nude images interspersed with constellation clippings or hazy blue dyes. As in previous decades and art movements, Cornell became acquainted with new artists, spending less time in the city and more time hosting visitors at his Utopia Parkway home. Visitors included artists Walter De Maria, Robert Whitman, Andy Warhol, James Rosenquist, and Robert Indiana. Tony Curtis also became a frequent visitor and friend, introduced by Richard Feigen in 1964. The early 1960s was also the first time Cornell put out an advertisement for assistants in the "Long Island Star-Journal," employing a number of young men and women who helped organize clippings and run errands. Cornell also met Joyce Hunter, a young runaway waitress at a city coffee shop, who would occupy his thoughts and diary notes for the next several years. When she was murdered at the end of 1964, Cornell paid for her funeral. He went on to make several "Penny Arcade" collages in memoriam to her, including, "Penny Arcade (re-autumnal)" (1964).

In 1964, Cornell began friendships with several women including artist Carolee Schneeman, who was his first assistant in the early 1960s. He also met artist Yayoi Kusama through art dealer Gertrude Stein. After becoming friends, she visited him often and they exchanged letters and notes. As he did with other artist friends, Cornell supported her by purchasing several of her early watercolor paintings, and they stayed connected until his death in 1972.

Cornell's life greatly changed in 1965 with the death of his brother, Robert. By this time, his mother lived with his sister in Long Island, and Cornell was alone in the Utopia Parkway house for the first time. He exchanged frequent letters and phone calls with his mother and devoted much time to thinking about Robert and Joyce, often aligning them in his diary notations. Cornell also created a series of collages dedicated to his brother's memory, incorporating photostats of Robert's hundreds of drawings into Cornell's work, as with the later collage, "The Heart on the Sleeve" (1972). Cornell's "Time Transfixed" series of collages were also dedications to Robert's memory, referencing Magritte and Robert's love of trains. He mounted an exhibition, "Robert Cornell: Memorial Exhibition" (January 4-29, 1966), at the Robert Schoelkopf Gallery, where he showed Robert's artwork alongside his newly created collage dedications.

After Robert's death, Cornell relied more heavily on assistants, going through many part-time "helpers." In October 1966, Cornell's mother died, adding her to his constant thoughts and diaries. Though he was still grieving, he was given two major retrospectives in 1967. The first was at the Pasadena Art Museum, put on by James Demetrion and Walter Hopps, "An Exhibiton of Works by Joseph Cornell" (January 9-February 11, 1967). The second retrospective was at the Guggenheim Museum just three months later, "Joseph Cornell" (May 4-June 35, 1967), organized by Diane Waldman. After these shows, he was highlighted in the December 15, 1967 issue of "Life" in the article, "The Enigmatic Bachelor of Utopia Parkway."

In 1968, Cornell was given an "award of merit," which included a medal and $1,000, by the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters. He was also given a medal and $1,000 by the Brandeis University Creative Arts Awards in the painting category, along with an exhibition. Days later, "The New York Times" announced Cornell the winner, along with Donald Judd, of India's first Triennale of Contemporary World Art. The Brandeis exhibition, "Boxes and Collages by Joseph Cornell" (May 20-June 23, 1968), was organized by William Seitz and concentrated on Cornell's more recent 1960s collages. Cornell was also included in the Metropolitan Museum of Art's hundredth anniversary show, "New York Painting and Sculpture: 1940 to 1970" (October 18, 1969-February 1, 1970), where twenty-two of Cornell's boxes were shown in their own gallery. At the end of 1970, Cornell was given a solo show at the Metropolitan, "Collages by Joseph Cornell" (December 10, 1970-January 24, 1971), which included forty-five of his newest collages.

Now preferring to stay closer to his home in Flushing, Cornell was more interested in sharing his art with young adults and children, than an adult audience. He hosted a group of high school students, sponsored by the Metropolitan Museum of Art's education department, at his home in conjunction with his collage show (1970-1971). He also showed his work in the art department of Queens College of the City University of New York. Cornell still hosted visitors on occasion, having Yoko Ono and John Lennon at his home at least once. Leila Hadley, Betsy von Furstenberg, and Anne Jackson also made frequent visits. With his deteriorating health, Cornell worried about what would happen to his work after his death and hired lawyer Harry Torczyner to help him plan his estate and get his affairs in order.

In 1972, Cornell had a show at the Cooper Union, a college in New York, specifically for children. He displayed his boxes and collages at child-height and had cherry soda and brownies at the opening reception on February 10. He then held a show at the Albright-Knox Art Gallery in Buffalo, also for children: "Children's Preview of the Exhibition of Joseph Cornell – Collages and Boxes (April 18-June 17, 1972). In the winter of 1972, at the request of the Phoenix House drug treatment and prevention program, Cornell contributed to a charity project compiling limited-edition lithographic prints for a portfolio, which included artists like David Hockney, James Rosenquist, and Ellsworth Kelly.

On December 29, 1972, a week after turning sixty-nine, Cornell died of heart failure at his home. He was cremated and interred near the graves of his mother, father, and brother, overlooking the Hudson River in Nyack, New York.

Works Cited:

1. Hartigan, Lynda Roscoe. "Joseph Cornell: Navigating the Imagination." New Haven, Connecticut and London: Yale University Press, 2007. Exhibition Catalog.

2. McShine, Kynaston. "Joseph Cornell." New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1980.

3. San Francisco Cinematheque and The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. "Joseph Cornell: Films." 2007. Exhibition Program. (Presented in conjunction with SFMOMA's exhibition of "Joseph Cornell: Navigating the Imagination").

4. Schaffner, Ingrid and Lisa Jacobs. "Julien Levy: Portrait of an Art Gallery." Cambridge, Massachusetts and London: The MIT Press, 1998.

5. Solomon, Deborah. "Utopia Parkway: The Life and Work of Joseph Cornell." New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1997.
Separated Materials:
The Smithsonian Archives of American Art houses the Joseph Cornell papers, 1804-1986, bulk 1939-1972.
Provenance:
The Joseph Cornell Study Center collection was donated to the Smithsonian American Art Museum by Joseph Cornell's sister and brother-in-law, Elizabeth Cornell Benton and John A. Benton, in 1978, which prompted the creation of the Joseph Cornell Study Center. Additional materials were donated in installments by the artist's estate, the Joseph and Robert Cornell Memorial Foundation, from 1985 to 1997. Elizabeth and John A. Benton originally donated 66 linear feet of three-dimensional and non-textual source material and 50 linear feet of books to the Smithsonian Archives of American Art, which were subsequently transferred to the Smithsonian American Art Museum's Joseph Cornell Study Center in 1994 and 1995.
Restrictions:
Access to the collection requires an advanced appointment. Contact collection staff at least two weeks prior to preferred date, at AmericanArtCornellStudy@si.edu.

Series 9: Artifacts and Ephemera, Series 13: Personal Library and Book Collection, and Series 14: Record Album Collection, are still undergoing processing and preservation and may not be available for research use. Record albums are unavailable for playback. Contact collection staff for full lists of publications and record albums.
Rights:
Unpublished materials are protected by copyright. Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository and the copyright holder.
Occupation:
Collagists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Assemblage (Art)  Search this
Assemblage artists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Found objects (Art)  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Celebrities  Search this
Filmmakers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1950 -- Photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Photographs -- 1860-1870 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver albumen -- Cartes-de-visite
Photographs -- Daguerreotypes -- 1840-1860
Citation:
Joseph Cornell Study Center collection, 1750-1980, bulk 1930-1972. Joseph Cornell Study Center, Smithsonian American Art Museum.
Identifier:
SAAM.JCSC.1
See more items in:
Joseph Cornell Study Center Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Research and Scholars Center
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ih7d97fc249-474d-41bf-953d-5305df1e4c06
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-saam-jcsc-1

Martha Mood papers, 1972-1985

Creator:
Mood, Martha, 1908-1972  Search this
Subject:
Henderson, Lester Kierstead  Search this
Citation:
Martha Mood papers, 1972-1985. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Women artists  Search this
Women textile designers  Search this
Women ceramicists  Search this
Women sculptors  Search this
Theme:
Women  Search this
Lives of artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10089
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212970
AAA_collcode_moodmart
Theme:
Women
Lives of artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212970

Dorothy Liebes papers

Creator:
Liebes, Dorothy  Search this
Names:
Bigelow-Sanford Carpet Company  Search this
E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company. Textile Fibers Department  Search this
Golden Gate International Exposition (1939-1940 : San Francisco, Calif.)  Search this
Morin, Relman, 1907-1973  Search this
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 1867-1959  Search this
Extent:
24.7 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Drawings
Interviews
Date:
circa 1850-1973
bulk 1922-1970
Summary:
The papers of weaver, textile designer, and consultant Dorothy Liebes date from circa 1850-1973 (bulk 1922-1970) and comprise 24.7 linear feet. Through biographical material including a sound recording of an interview, family and general correspondence, writings including a draft of Liebes's autobiography, subject files providing detailed records of her influential consulting work, financial and legal files, printed material, scrapbooks, artwork, textile samples, and photographic material picturing a wide variety of career and personal activities, the collection provides rich and extensive documentation of Liebes's career and personal life.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of weaver, textile designer, and consultant Dorothy Liebes date from circa 1850-1973 (bulk 1922-1970) and comprise 24.7 linear feet. Through biographical material including a sound recording of an interview, family and general correspondence, writings including a draft of Liebes's autobiography, subject files providing detailed records of her influential consulting work, financial and legal files, printed material, scrapbooks, artwork, textile samples, and photographic material picturing a wide variety of career and personal activities, the collection provides rich and extensive documentation of Liebes's career and personal life.

Biographical material consists of awards, biographical notes, membership and identification cards, passports, a will, and a sound recording of a 1945 interview with Liebes.

Correspondence is personal with family and friends, and general with friends and colleagues including artists, and fellow weavers and designers. Notable correspondents include Dorr Bothwell, Daren Pierce, Beatrice Wood, and Frank and Olgivanna Lloyd Wright.

Diaries and calendars record Liebes's busy professional and personal life, with notations on daily activities and, beginning in 1952, detailed notes by staff recording activities at the studio on days when Liebes was absent.

Writings by Dorothy Liebes include notes, drafts, and manuscripts of published and unpublished writings, including an autobiography, speeches, and drafts for an unpublished book on weaving.

Subject files contain correspondence, printed material, photographs, and miscellaneous items in varying combinations, and focus heavily on Liebes's consulting work for businesses in the textile industry, including her work with DuPont, Bigelow-Sanford, Goodall, Dow, and others. The files document the importance of her work as a colorist and show how she successfully adapted craft weaving to machine methods. Furthermore, they record how Liebes used her marketing instincts and broad media appeal to rebrand the image of companies such as DuPont from one of chemistry and utility, to one that represented high style and glamor in durable and practical fabrics that were affordable and desirable in home furnishings. Other subject files document organizations, individuals, and topics of interest to Liebes, including files recording her involvement with arts and crafts organizations, her role as director for the Decorative Arts Display at the Golden Gate Exposition in 1939, her work as director of the Red Cross's Arts and Skills workshop, scattered exhibition records, and files on weavers and weaving. Files on Liebes's extensive promotional work for multiple clients are also included here, as are files documenting Liebes's relationship with Relman Morin, such as correspondence and scattered records of Morin's career as a Pullitzer Prize winning journalist.

Financial and legal records are comprised of accounting records from the 1930s-1940s, financial summaries, investment statements, personal and business inventories, personal and business tax returns, and some legal records.

Printed material includes advertisements, articles, and exhibition announcements and catalogs, recording Liebes's career. This material is supplemented by thirty-three bound scrapbooks of printed publicity material, photographs, and documents recording Liebes's career in substantial depth.

Artwork by Dorothy Liebes consists of designs, feather weavings, a small hooked composition, and tapestry samples. Artwork by others includes prints by Dorr Bothwell, designs by Lawrence J. Colwell, and painted sketches of clothing designs by Daren Pierce. Two linear feet of samples consist primarily of textile swatches primarily designed by Dorothy Liebes Studio, Inc.

Photographic material includes professional portraits of Liebes and others, photos of Liebes at events and parties, with staff and other weavers, at work in her studio, and traveling. Of note are a series of pictures taken at Taliesin West with Frank and Olgivanna Wright, Relman Morin, and others. Photographic material also provides examples of Liebes's design work in homes, hotels, offices, and elsewhere, and shows her work pictured in exhibitions and showrooms. Photographs of other subjects include portraits of unidentified women by Man Ray and Consuela Canaga.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 11 series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1934-circa 1970 (Box 1, OV 23; 0.28 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1922-1973 (Boxes 1-2; 1.5 linear feet)

Series 3: Diaries and Calendars, 1948-1971 (Boxes 2-4; 1.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Writings, 1920-circa 1971 (Boxes 4-5; 1.05 linear feet)

Series 5: Subject Files, circa 1933-1971 (Boxes 5-13, 20, OVs 23, 59; 8.43 linear feet)

Series 6: Financial and Legal Records, circa 1935-1972 (Box 13, 20; 0.6 linear feet)

Series 7: Printed Material, 1897-1971 (Boxes 14, 20-21, OV 38; 1.1 linear feet)

Series 8: Scrapbooks, 1933-1972 (Box 21-22, 24-36; 5 linear feet)

Series 9: Artwork, circa 1920s-circa 1960s (Boxes 14, 22, OVs 23, 39, 42, RD 37; 1.24 linear feet)

Series 10: Samples, circa 1850-1855, circa 1930s-circa 1970 (Boxes 15-16; 2.0 linear feet)

Series 11: Photographic Material, circa 1875, circa 1897-circa 1970 (Boxes 17-19, 36, OVs 38, 40-41; 2.0 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
California and New York weaver, textile designer, and consultant Dorothy Wright Liebes (1899-1972) was known for distinctive textiles featuring bold color combinations and unusual textures achieved through the use of materials such as glass rods, sequins, bamboo, grass, leather, ribbon, wire, and ticker tape. Her work with companies in the synthetic fiber industry to make craft weaving compatible with man-made fabrics and machine looms, produced an innovative and exciting new aesthetic in interior design that was both functional and affordable, and made Liebes a mid-century household name.

Born Dorothy Wright in Santa Rosa, California, Liebes was the daughter of chemistry professor Frederick L. Wright and teacher Bessie Calderwood Wright. She studied art, education, and anthropology at San Jose State Teachers College and the University of California, Berkeley. During her college years, a teacher encouraged her to experiment with weaving and textile design since many of her paintings resembled textiles.

Liebes was a teacher for several years before deciding to pursue a career in textile design. She then studied weaving at Hull House in Chicago and traveled to France, Italy, Guatemala, and Mexico to learn the traditional weaving forms of those cultures. Upon her return to the United States, Liebes opened her first professional studio for weaving and textile design on Powell Street in San Francisco; Dorothy Liebes Design, Inc. was established in 1934, and eventually employed a staff of weavers. Liebes moved her studio to 545 Sutter Street in 1942.

Her first client in the industry was Goodall-Sanford Mills, with whom Liebes worked as a consultant for more than a decade. As her client base expanded, she decided to open a New York studio and maintained both studios until 1948 when she closed her San Francisco operation and relocated to New York City.

Liebes became a color and design consultant to corporations such as DuPont, Dow, and Bigelow-Sanford and tested and promoted newly developed synthetic fibers. She advised textile chemists in the development of fibers that were versatile enough to produce many different textures and worked with engineers and technicians to develop new machines that could reproduce the irregularities of hand-loomed fabrics. Liebes became a sought-after speaker by textile industry and consumer groups, and sometimes taught workshops on color and design.

Liebes's commissions included the United Nations Delegates Dining Room, the Persian Room at the Plaza Hotel and the King of Saudi Arabia's traveling royal throne room. Between 1937 and 1970, Liebes participated in more than thirty solo and group exhibitions at the San Francisco Museum of Art, Museum of Modern Art, de Young Museum, Cranbrook Museum, Detroit Institute of Art, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Museum of Contemporary Crafts, and other venues. She received prizes and awards from institutions and corporations such as Lord and Taylor, Neiman-Marcus, the Paris Exposition, the American Institute of Decorators, the American Institute of Architects and the Architectural League. She was also awarded the Elsie de Wolfe Award and an honorary degree from Mills College in 1948.

Liebes's other notable activities included her work a director of the Decorative Arts Display for the 1939 San Francisco World's Fair, which she credited with establishing her as an authority in the field, and her work as organizer and director of "Arts and Skills," a Red Cross occupational therapy project that included training in weaving for soldiers injured in World War II. In the 1950s, she worked with the Bureau of Indian Affairs, journeying though the southwest to study Indian schools and weaving techniques.

Liebes was married to businessman Leon Liebes from 1928 until their divorce in 1940 and continued to use the name Liebes for the remainder of her life. In 1948, she married Pulitzer prize winning Associated Press special correspondent Relman "Pat" Morin.

During the last year of her life, Dorothy Liebes was semi-retired due to a heart ailment. She died in New York City on 10 September 1972.
Provenance:
Gift of the Estate of Dorothy Liebes through Relman Morin, 1972, and Ralph Higbee, 1973-1974.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.

Researchers interested in accessing audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Textile designers -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Textile designers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Weavers -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Weavers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art consultants -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Women artists  Search this
Women textile designers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Drawings
Interviews
Citation:
Dorothy Liebes papers, circa 1850-1973. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.liebdoro
See more items in:
Dorothy Liebes papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9512b8d71-3c95-4e72-96be-0af0437f2a5f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-liebdoro
Online Media:

Samuel Houston

Artist:
William Henry Huddle, 1847 - 1892  Search this
Sitter:
Samuel Houston, 2 Mar 1793 - 26 Jul 1863  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
168 x 136 cm (66 1/8 x 53 9/16" ), Estimate
Type:
Painting
Date:
1888-89
Topic:
Interior  Search this
Costume\Headgear\Hat  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Seating\Chair\Armchair  Search this
Equipment\Walking stick\Cane  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Neckwear\Tie\Bowtie  Search this
Home Furnishings\Blanket  Search this
Personal Attribute\Facial Hair\Muttonchops  Search this
Samuel Houston: Male  Search this
Samuel Houston: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Samuel Houston: Military and Intelligence\Soldier  Search this
Samuel Houston: Politics and Government\Governor\Tennessee  Search this
Samuel Houston: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Tennessee  Search this
Samuel Houston: Politics and Government\US Senator\Texas  Search this
Samuel Houston: Politics and Government\President of Republic of Texas  Search this
Samuel Houston: Politics and Government\Governor\Texas  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Texas State Library
Object number:
306-1649 TSL
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm42d615685-029b-45ad-8a01-3fc84249aafa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_306-1649_TSL

Henry S. Lane

Attribution:
Mathew Brady Studio, active 1844 - 1894  Search this
Sitter:
Henry Smith Lane, 24 Feb 1811 - 18 Jun 1881  Search this
Medium:
Glass plate collodion negative
Dimensions:
Plate: 8.9 × 5.9 × 0.2 cm (3 1/2 × 2 5/16 × 1/16")
Type:
Photographic Negative
Date:
c. 1860-70
Topic:
Interior  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture  Search this
Printed Material\Book  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Table  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Neckwear\Tie  Search this
Personal Attribute\Facial Hair\Beard  Search this
Fabric\Cloth  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Male  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Business and Finance\Banker  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Indiana  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Politics and Government\State Senator\Indiana  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Politics and Government\US Senator\Indiana  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Politics and Government\Governor\Indiana  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Indiana  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; Frederick Hill Meserve Collection
Object number:
NPG.81.M1030
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm45b75255e-94c9-4514-b802-23662b455c2f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.81.M1030

Henry S. Lane

Attribution:
Mathew Brady Studio, active 1844 - 1894  Search this
Sitter:
Henry Smith Lane, 24 Feb 1811 - 18 Jun 1881  Search this
Medium:
Glass plate collodion negative
Dimensions:
Plate: 8.9 × 5.8 × 0.2 cm (3 1/2 × 2 5/16 × 1/16")
Type:
Photographic Negative
Date:
c. 1860-70
Topic:
Interior  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture  Search this
Printed Material\Book  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Table  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Neckwear\Tie  Search this
Personal Attribute\Facial Hair\Beard  Search this
Fabric\Cloth  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Male  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Business and Finance\Banker  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Indiana  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Politics and Government\State Senator\Indiana  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Politics and Government\US Senator\Indiana  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Politics and Government\Governor\Indiana  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Indiana  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; Frederick Hill Meserve Collection
Object number:
NPG.81.M1031
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm45a13df3a-148f-4e5a-bf87-98bed048e7d3
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.81.M1031

Henry S. Lane

Attribution:
Mathew Brady Studio, active 1844 - 1894  Search this
Sitter:
Henry Smith Lane, 24 Feb 1811 - 18 Jun 1881  Search this
Medium:
Glass plate collodion negative
Dimensions:
Plate: 8.9 × 5.9 × 0.2 cm (3 1/2 × 2 5/16 × 1/16")
Type:
Photographic Negative
Date:
c. 1860-70
Topic:
Interior  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture  Search this
Printed Material\Book  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Table  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Neckwear\Tie  Search this
Personal Attribute\Facial Hair\Beard  Search this
Fabric\Cloth  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Male  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Business and Finance\Banker  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Indiana  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Politics and Government\State Senator\Indiana  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Politics and Government\US Senator\Indiana  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Politics and Government\Governor\Indiana  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Indiana  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; Frederick Hill Meserve Collection
Object number:
NPG.81.M1032
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4dff1f027-444f-4ebd-a253-389693a99f66
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.81.M1032

Henry S. Lane

Attribution:
Mathew Brady Studio, active 1844 - 1894  Search this
Sitter:
Henry Smith Lane, 24 Feb 1811 - 18 Jun 1881  Search this
Medium:
Glass plate collodion negative
Dimensions:
Plate: 8.9 × 5.8 × 0.2 cm (3 1/2 × 2 5/16 × 1/16")
Type:
Photographic Negative
Date:
c. 1860-70
Topic:
Interior  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture  Search this
Printed Material\Book  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Table  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Neckwear\Tie  Search this
Personal Attribute\Facial Hair\Beard  Search this
Fabric\Cloth  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Male  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Business and Finance\Banker  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Indiana  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Politics and Government\State Senator\Indiana  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Politics and Government\US Senator\Indiana  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Politics and Government\Governor\Indiana  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Indiana  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; Frederick Hill Meserve Collection
Object number:
NPG.81.M1033
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4a8842f66-f33d-4c11-ae42-c63a1c981c36
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.81.M1033

G. Noble Warren

Attribution:
Mathew Brady Studio, active 1844 - 1894  Search this
Sitter:
G. Noble Warren  Search this
Medium:
Glass plate collodion negative
Dimensions:
Plate: 9.2 × 6.2 × 0.3 cm (3 5/8 × 2 7/16 × 1/8")
Type:
Photographic Negative
Date:
c. 1860-70
Topic:
Interior  Search this
Architecture\Column  Search this
Home Furnishings\Curtain  Search this
Home Furnishings\Blanket  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Neckwear\Tie\Necktie  Search this
G. Noble Warren: Male  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; Frederick Hill Meserve Collection
Object number:
NPG.81.M1601
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm424d52734-cc8c-4d28-a0f8-d201a14bda05
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.81.M1601

G. Noble Warren

Attribution:
Mathew Brady Studio, active 1844 - 1894  Search this
Sitter:
G. Noble Warren  Search this
Medium:
Glass plate collodion negative
Dimensions:
Image: 9 × 6.2 cm (3 9/16 × 2 7/16")
Plate: 9.2 × 12.8 × 0.3 cm (3 5/8 × 5 1/16 × 1/8")
Type:
Photographic Negative
Date:
c. 1860-70
Topic:
Interior  Search this
Architecture\Column  Search this
Home Furnishings\Curtain  Search this
Home Furnishings\Blanket  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Neckwear\Tie\Necktie  Search this
G. Noble Warren: Male  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; Frederick Hill Meserve Collection
Object number:
NPG.81.M1602.1
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4b866c484-d88d-42ba-a934-2dd107af7fa3
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.81.M1602.1
Online Media:

G. Noble Warren

Attribution:
Mathew Brady Studio, active 1844 - 1894  Search this
Sitter:
G. Noble Warren  Search this
Medium:
Glass plate collodion negative
Dimensions:
Image: 9 × 6.5 cm (3 9/16 × 2 9/16")
Plate: 9.2 × 12.8 × 0.3 cm (3 5/8 × 5 1/16 × 1/8")
Type:
Photographic Negative
Date:
c. 1860-70
Topic:
Interior  Search this
Architecture\Column  Search this
Home Furnishings\Curtain  Search this
Home Furnishings\Blanket  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Neckwear\Tie\Necktie  Search this
G. Noble Warren: Male  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; Frederick Hill Meserve Collection
Object number:
NPG.81.M1602.2
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4de9a3d92-e624-4558-ad03-45d134b9d503
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.81.M1602.2
Online Media:

John Sefton

Attribution:
Mathew Brady Studio, active 1844 - 1894  Search this
Sitter:
John Sefton, 9 Mar 1806 - 1872  Search this
Medium:
Glass plate collodion negative
Dimensions:
Plate: 9.5 × 5.9 × 0.3 cm (3 3/4 × 2 5/16 × 1/8")
Type:
Photographic Negative
Place:
United States\New York\Kings\New York
Date:
c. 1860-70
Topic:
Interior  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Seating\Chair  Search this
Printed Material\Book  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Neckwear\Tie  Search this
Costume\Headgear\Hat\Top hat  Search this
Fabric\Cloth  Search this
John Sefton: Male  Search this
John Sefton: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Theater  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; Frederick Hill Meserve Collection
Object number:
NPG.81.M245
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm49ffd99d6-13a0-47d3-bd52-95a414b85f69
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.81.M245

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