Most of the collection concerns Sister Inez's study of child life of the Chippewa, Arapaho, Araucanian, Ainu, miscellaneous papers about other tribes of the Plains, Southwest, Southeast, and Latin America. Part of the material is based on readings, the remainder on her own field work. Most of this material is in the form of note slips, the original notes from which they were made having presumably been destroyed. There are also materials that reflect her interest in social problems, particularly among the Chippewa. Some recordings reflect an interest in early days in Montana. There are also some of the so-called grandmother stories. The material concerning the Ainu includes material of Chiye Sano and Midori Yamaha, Sister Inez's assistants in Japan. The papers also include a very small amount of correspondence of Margaret Mead and Rhoda Metraux. Most of Sister Inez's correspondence has been retained by the College of St. Benedict.
Scope and Contents:
These papers reflect the professional life of anthropologist Sister Inez Hilger. The collection includes correspondence; Latin American diaries and notebooks (arranged chronologically); noteslips (arranged by tribe and/or subject); reading notes; notes on museum specimens; outlines and draft publications; survey materials; black and white photographs (both prints and negatives, arranged by subject and geographical area); color slides; sound recordings; some outline tracings of artifacts; plant specimens; newspaper clippings (primarily concerning Indians and Sister Inez); published maps; and several original illustrations. There is also a large amount of printed material, primarily reprints of Hilger's articles.
Of special interest are psychological tests (temporarily restricted) which Hilger and associates administered to Ainu and Japanese school children in 1965. Also of note are Margaret Mead's and Father John M. Cooper's materials relating to the study of child life. In addition, Mary Zirbes, Hilger's niece, conducted a tape-recorded interview with Hilger, concerning her early life and entrance into the Catholic University of America.
Correspondents include Margaret Mead and Rhoda Metraux. The collection occupies 18.5 linear feet of shelf space.
Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Series 1. Diaries and Notebooks. 1946-47; 1966-68.
Series 2. Material Relating to the Field Guide to the Ethnological Study Of Child Life. 1932-1966. 5 In.
Series 3. Noteslips Regarding the Chippewa, 1932-1942. ca 14 in.
Series 4. Chippewa Photographs. 1932-1940. 8 1/4 In.
Series 5. Noteslips, Photographs and Other Material Concerning the Arapahos. 1935-1942. 16 In.
Series 6. Miscellaneous Field and Reading Notes. 1936-1943. 22 In.
Series 7. Noteslips From Secondary Sources. N.D. 36 In.
Series 8." Notes On Crow Culture." Ca. 1970. 1/2 In.
Series 9. Noteslips Concerning the Araucanians. 1946-1947; 1951-1952. 12 In.
Series 10. Araucanian Photographs. 1946-52 28 In.
Series 11. Miscellaneous Araucanian Material. 1916-65 (Much Undated). 7 In.
Series 12. Material Regarding Huenun Namku: An Araucanian Indian Of the Andes Remembers the Past. 1952-62. 10 In.
Series 13. Material Regarding the Ainu and together With the Ainu. Ca. 1965-71. 16 In.
Series 14. Material Relating to Psychological Test Administered to Ainu and Japanese School Children. 1964-69. 10 In.
Series 15. Ainu Photographs. 1957-65. 7 In.
Series 16. Material Regarding the Television Course "Anthropology Of the Americas." 1957-58 13 In.
Series 17. Writings. 1931-64. 10 In.
Series 18. Printed Material. Most 1930s-70s. 3 Ft.
Series 19. Miscellany. 1938-70 2 In.
Series 20. Sound Recordings
Series 21. Maps. 1929-58 (Several Undated). 47 Items
Series 22. Miscellaneous Photographs. 1932-46. 8 In.
Marie Inez Hilger was born to a family of German immigrants October 16, 1891 in Roscoe, Minnesota. She joined the order of the Sisters of St. Benedict in 1914. Throughout her life, Sister Inez's primary institutional affiliation was the College of St. Benedict in St. Joseph, Minnesota. She joined its staff when it still operated as a high school. A plan to convert the school into a college was the impetus for Sister Inez to pursue further studies in history, literature, sociology, and anthropology at the University of Minnesota and The Catholic University of America. She was the first woman fully admitted to The Catholic University of America and matriculated with an anthropology Ph.D. in 1939. In 1955, she became a research associate of the Bureau of American Ethnology.
Sister Inez's field work began during the 1930s with concern for the social problems of Chippewa Indians of Minnesota. However, with the influence of Rhoda Metraux and Margaret Mead, she eventually developed a special interest in the life of children. She pursued studies in this field among the Chippewa (1932-1966); Arapaho (1935-1942), Araucanian (1946-1947; 1951-1952), and Ainu and Japanese (1962-1963). In addition, she carried out miscellaneous ethnological studies among several Plains, southwestern, southeastern, and Latin American tribes. At the end of her life, Sister Inez was working among the Blackfeet collecting what she called "grandmother tales." Her work was basically descriptive.
In addition to her classroom teaching and field work, Sister Inez prepared a field guide on the study of child life for the Human Relations Area File. Sister Inez died May 18, 1977 in St. Joseph, Minnesota.
Most of the papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Sister Inez in 1974. An increment was sent by Sister Inez's niece Mary K. Zirbes in 1977. Another increment was received from St. Benedict's Convent in St. Joseph, Minnesota, 1979.
The Sister Marie Inez Hilger papers are open for research. The following series is restricted: Series 14. Material Relating to Psychological Test Administered to Ainu And Japanese School Children.
Access to the Sister Marie Inez Hilger papers requires an appointment.
The collection documents, through printed materials, photographs, audio and moving image, Don Herbert's career as a science educator under the persona of "Mr. Wizard" from 1951 until the 1990s.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the career of science educator Don Herbert, who created and hosted child-oriented television programs on science subjects in which he assumed the persona of Mr. Wizard. In addition to a documentation about his early personal life, the collection also documents his Watch Mr. Wizard television show as well as his other television, radio, and educational activities.
The collection includes correspondence, contracts, writings, publications, newspaper clippings, speeches; awards, photographs; episode files relating to Watch Mr. Wizard and other educational programming, moving image, and audio recordings.
The collection is arranged into eight series.
Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1906-2007
Series 2: Awards, 1948-2000
Series 3: Speeches, 1966-1994
Series 4: Publications/Writings, 1966-2004
Series 5: Newspaper Articles, 1944-2007
Series 6: Educational Programs/Projects, 1951-2008
Subseries 6.1: It's a Curious Thing, 1951, 1954
Subseries 6.2: Watch Mr. Wizard, 1954-1989
Subseries 6.3: General Electric Theater, 1956-1958
Subseries 6.4: Instructor Magazine, 1964-1965
Subseries 6.5: Experiment, 1963-2003
Subseries 6.6: Silence of Science, 1966
Subseries 6.7: CBS National Science Test, 1967
Subseries 6.8: General Electric, 1974-1976
Subseries 6.9: Mr. Wizard Collection...Fun Things, circa 1975
Subseries 6.10: Mr. Wizard Close-up, 1968, 1975
Subseries 6.11: Challenge with Mr. Wizard, 1976
Subseries 6.12: Science Twenty with Mr. Wizard, 1969-1974
Subseries 6.13: How About..., 1977-1989
Subseries 6.14: Mr. Wizard's Whadda Ya Know Show, circa 1981
Subseries 6.15: Correspondent Science News, circa 1987
Donald Herbert Kemske (1917-2007) was the creator and host of Watch Mr. Wizard (1951–1965), Mr. Wizard (1971–1972), Mr. Wizard's World (1983–1990), and other educational television programs for children devoted to science and technology. He also produced many short video programs about science and authored several popular books about science for children. So important was Mr. Wizard to scientific education on television that author Marcel LaFollette featured his photo on the cover of her book, Science on American Television: A History, University of Chicago Press, 2013.
Don Herbert was born Donald Herbert Kemske in Waconia, Minnesota on July 10, 1917. He was one of three children (sisters Betty and Dorothy) born to Herbert Kemske and Lydia Kemske (nee Poeppel). He officially changed his name in 1940 to Donald Jeffry Herbert. Herbert graduated from LaCrosse State Normal College in 1940 with a Bachelor of Science degree. In 1942, Herbert volunteered for the U.S. Army Air Corps and in 1943 began training as an aviation cadet and then pilot. During World War II, Herbert served in the 461 Bomb Group and 767 Bomb Squadron in Europe. He was discharged from the military service on July 29, 1945 as a captain and had earned the Distinguished Flying Cross and the Air Medal. After the war, Herbert worked at a radio station in Chicago and acted in children's programs, including It's Your Life (1949). During this time Herbert developed the idea of Mr. Wizard. In 1939, Herbert married Maraleita Dutton (1923-1995) and the couple adopted three children: Jeffrey (1954); Jay (1955); and Jill (1960). He later divorced Maraleita Dutton and married Norma Nix Kasell (1918-2010) in 1972.
Premiering on March 3, 1951 on WNBQ, a 14-station network in Chicago, Herbert's Watch Mr. Wizard differed considerably from earlier attempts at scientific education on television. Those shows were either very technical, like the Johns Hopkins Science Review, or used magic tricks and comedy to hold viewers' attention, like ABC's Science Circus and CBS' Mr. I. Magination. From the beginning, Herbert planned a serious, informative show for children, rather than their parents. Even though he had only minimal scientific training in college—he had been an English major at La Crosse State Normal College in Wisconsin—in his persona as Mr. Wizard, Herbert conveyed a sense of authority and expertise.
The show, broadcast live, was carefully scripted, meticulously researched, and smooth-flowing. Each week, Mr. Wizard—described by LaFollette as a "nonthreatening, easygoing, intelligent man with a smiling face" in shirtsleeves and tie (and the occasional lab coat)—carefully guided his youthful assistants through simple experiments. Using ordinary household items such as eggs, balloons, milk bottles, coffee cans, and knitting needles, Herbert explained larger scientific principles like gravity, magnetism, and oxidation. Although seemingly complex, the experiments actually were simple enough to be re-created by his young viewers in the classroom or at home.
Herbert's winning combination of personality, grasp of science, and use of ordinary objects made Mr. Wizard a hit with viewers and made a lasting impression on science education in America. As LaFollette writes, the program "enjoyed consistent praise, awards, and high ratings throughout its history. At its peak, Watch Mr. Wizard drew audiences in the millions, but its impact was far wider. By 1956, it had prompted the establishment of more than five thousand Mr. Wizard science clubs, with an estimated membership greater than one hundred thousand." After over 500 shows over fourteen and a half years, NBC abruptly canceled Watch Mr. Wizard in 1965. The last program under contract with NBC aired on June 27, 1965.
From 1954 to 1962, Herbert, appearing as Mr. Wizard, delivered "Progress Reports" during commercial breaks of the General Electric Theater. As with most commercially-sponsored shows, the progress being reported on was almost exclusively made by General Electric. Following the cancellation of Watch Mr. Wizard, he continued to use his Mr. Wizard persona in science education. In 1965-1966, he produced an eight-film-series, Experiment: The Story of a Scientific Search, which was broadcast on public television, and a series of twenty-minute films, Science Twenty, designed to complement the current science curriculum in the classroom (circa 1970).
Herbert's television show was briefly revived in 1971-1972 as Mr. Wizard, in response to protests over the cartoons and commercials that flooded children's Saturday morning prime viewing time, but it did not receive enough network support. Herbert appeared in commercials for several companies during the 1970s and briefly lobbied Congress on behalf of General Electric in 1975. In the early 1970s, Herbert also produced Mr. Wizard Close-Ups, thirty second spots that aired on NBC in the Saturday morning slot. In the late 1970s, he began collaborating with the National Science Foundation to create a series of short news briefs for television called How About…How About was an adult-oriented series of 80-second reports highlighting advances in science and technology. The reports were designed for insertion into existing commercial television programs.
In the early 1980s, Herbert returned to television in Mr. Wizard's World, a faster-paced version of the original show that ran on the Nickelodeon network from 1983-1990. After its cancellation, reruns ran until at least 2000. During this time Herbert made numerous appearances on television news and talk shows, particularly the Tonight Show starring Johnny Carson, where he was a popular guest. In the 1990s, Herbert produced Teacher to Teacher with Mr. Wizard, a video series that debuted on September 27, 1994 on the Nickelodeon cable channel. The innovative educational series provided a candid, close-up and in-depth visit to classrooms of outstanding teachers using hands-on, inquiry-based techniques.
Herbert also published several books, including Mr. Wizard's Science Secrets (1952); Mr. Wizard's Experiments for Young Scientists (1959); Mr. Wizard's 400 Experiments in Science (1968); and Mr. Wizard's Supermarket Science (1980). Additionally, he designed science kits involving chemistry, crystal growing, ecology, and electronics, which were marketed by Owens-Illinois in the 1960s.
Herbert's hands-on techniques in demonstrating scientific concepts to children were the inspiration for numerous educators who followed his lead. As popular TV science educator Bill Nye wrote in a special to the Los Angeles Times, his "techniques and performances helped create the United States' first generation of homegrown rocket scientists just in time to respond to Sputnik. He sent us to the moon. He changed the world."
Don Herbert died in 2007, shortly before his 90th birthday. Soon after, the U.S. House of Representatives marked his passing: "Resolved, that the House of Representatives (1) expresses its appreciation for the profound public service and educational contributions of Don Jeffry Herbert, (2) recognizes the profound public impact of higher educational institutions that train teachers, (3) encourages students to honor the heritage of Don Herbert by exploring our world through science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields; and, (4) extends its condolences to the family of Don Herbert and thanks them for their strong familial support of him."
LaFollette, Marcel. Science on American Television: A History, University of Chicago Press, 2013.
Nye, Bill. "Teaching Science with a Big `Poof!' Los Angeles Times, June 15, 2007.
Materials at Other Organizations
UCLA Film and Television Archives
The collection consists of 770 moving image items in several formats: 16mm kinescopes; 1" videotapes; 2" videotapes; ¾" videotapes; and DVDs. The collection documents Don Herbert's career as Mr. Wizard, from the early 1950's to the mid 1990's and includes such programs as Watch Mr. Wizard, Mr. Wizard's World, and How About...
Materials at the National Museum of American History
Related materials were donated to the Division of Medicine and Science. See accession 2014.0141.
2014.0141.01, Mr. Wizard's Experiments in Ecology, Series One: Microbes (science kit)
2014.0141.02, Mr. Wizard's Experiments in Crystal Growing (science kit)
2014.0141.03, Mr. Wizard's Experiments in Chemistry (science kit)
2014.0141.04, Fun with the Mr. Wizard Science Set (science kit)
2014.0141.05, Mr. Wizard's Science Secrets (science kit)
2014.0141.06, Mr. Wizard's Experiments for Young Scientists (book)
2014.0141.07, Mr. Wizard's Supermarket Science (book)
The collection was donated by Mr. Wizard Studios, through Thomas E. Nikosey, President, and Kristen K. Nikosey, Vice President, in 2014.
Collection is open for research. Reference copies for audio and moving images materials do not exist. Use of these materials requires special arrangement. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives.
Social Security numbers are present and have been rendered unreadable and redacted. Researchers may use the photocopies in the collection. The remainder of the collection has no restrictions.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
The collection documents Bill Nye's early life, his Science Guy persona and its development for his television program Bill Nye the Science Guy.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents Bill Nye's early life, his Science Guy persona and its development for his television program Bill Nye the Science Guy. Included in the collection are patents, awards, speeches, subject files, correspondence, email, fan mail, photographs, scripts and promotional materials for television shows, and video recordings.
The collection is arranged into eight series.
Series 1: Personal Materials, 1964-2014
Series 2: Subject Files, 1971-2009
Series 3: Scrapbooks, 1981, 1987-2003
Series 4: Bill Nye the Science Guy, 1989-1998
Series 5: The Eyes of Nye, 1998-2003
Series 6: Fan Mail, 1995-2001
Series 7: Photographs, 1969-2000
Series 8: Press Clippings, 1973, 1988-2004
Biographical / Historical:
William Sanford "Bill" Nye, (November 27, 1955-), was born in Bethesda, Maryland to Edwin D. Nye and Jacqueline B. Jenkins. Nye graduated from Cornell University (1977) with a degree in mechanical engineering and moved to Seattle to work for Boeing as a mechanical engineer (1977-1985). Nye also worked stand-up comedy and in 1985 joined Seattle's local comedy show Almost Live! During a 1987 episode of Almost Live! Nye wore a science lab coat and conducted an experiment launching the "Bill Nye the Science Guy" persona. From 1993-1998 Nye hosted Bill Nye the Science Guy. The show aired on PBS and was later syndicated to local television stations.
Materials in the Archives Center
Mr. Wizard Papers (AC1326)
Artifacts related to Bill Nye are located in the following curatorial divisions: Division of Home and Community Life; Division of Work and Industry; Division of Culture and the Arts (now Division of Cultural and Community Life) and the Division of Medicine and Science.
Collection donated by Bill Nye, April 28, 2016.
Collection is open for research.
Reference copies for audio and moving images materials do not exist. Use of these materials requires special arrangement. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives.
Social Security numbers and other personally identifiable information has been rendered unreadable and redacted. Researchers may use the photocopies in the collection. The remainder of the collection has no restrictions.
Reproduction restricted due to copyright or trademark. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.