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Portrait in a Minute: Samuel Morse

Creator:
National Portrait Gallery  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2012-11-21T16:23:25.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Portraits  Search this
See more by:
NatlPortraitGallery
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
YouTube Channel:
NatlPortraitGallery
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_h2IAh3uIGcc

"No Lives Lost" 🛳️ How the Titanic Sinking Became Fake News | Smithsonian Channel

Creator:
Smithsonian Channel  Search this
Type:
Interviews
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2020-09-19T15:30:01.000Z
YouTube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianchannel
Data Source:
Smithsonian Channel
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianchannel
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_71urymTyUsg

Joseph Henry: Champion of American Science

Creator:
National Museum of American History  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2013-12-02T20:55:53.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
American History  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianAmHistory
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianAmHistory
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_1t0nTCBG7jY

Joseph Henry

Creator:
National Museum of American History  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2016-12-12T19:54:12.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
American History  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianAmHistory
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianAmHistory
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_6CVY22Wq654

Telegraphs and Telephones - How They Work

Creator:
National Museum of American History  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2010-12-14T18:38:50.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
American History  Search this
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SmithsonianAmHistory
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianAmHistory
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_7e522NK7gcM

Peter Cooper

Creator:
National Museum of American History  Search this
Type:
Lectures
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2016-12-12T19:54:12.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
American History  Search this
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SmithsonianAmHistory
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianAmHistory
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_ClfM_q8OyJU

Samuel Finley Breese Morse

Creator:
National Museum of American History  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2016-01-21T16:13:20.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
American History  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianAmHistory
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianAmHistory
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_OUsUUZ6rfjU

Morse Code Demo: Try This At Home

Creator:
National Air and Space Museum  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2021-10-22T13:31:06.000Z
YouTube Category:
Science & Technology  Search this
Topic:
Aeronautics;Flight;Space Sciences  Search this
See more by:
airandspace
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
YouTube Channel:
airandspace
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_OSNzJTpsFUw

American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T)

Collection Collector:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Collection Donor:
Becker, John M.  Search this
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Heritage of Pride (HOP)  Search this
Rohrbaugh, Richard  Search this
Atlantic States Gay Rodeo Association (ASGRA)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Hirsch, Leonard  Search this
Guest, Barbara  Search this
Barna, Joseph T.  Search this
Guest, Michael E.  Search this
Cruse, Howard, 1944-2019  Search this
Container:
Box 85, Folder 15
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
2014
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection / Series 4: Advertising, Business, and Publications / 4.2: Business
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d902b2d4-29e0-4720-a64b-d89b25ddaf3c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1146-ref984

Western Union Telegraph Company Records

Creator:
United Telegraph Workers.  Search this
Western Union Telegraph Company  Search this
Extent:
452 Cubic feet (871 boxes and 23 map folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Administrative records
Articles
Books
Clippings
Contracts
Drawings
Photographs
Patents
Newsletters
Photograph albums
Scrapbooks
Specifications
Technical documents
Date:
circa 1820-1995
Summary:
The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is divided into twenty-six (26) series and consists of approximately 400 cubic feet. The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into twenty-seven series.

Series 1: Historical and Background Information, 1851-1994

Series 2: Subsidiaries of Western Union, 1844-1986

Series 3: Executive Records, 1848-1987

Series 4: Presidential Letterbooks and Writings, 1865-1911

Series 5: Correspondence, 1837-1985

Series 6: Cyrus W. Field Papers, 1840-1892

Series 7: Secretary's Files, 1844-1987

Series 8: Financial Records, 1859-1995

Series 9: Legal Records, 1867-1968

Series 10: Railroad Records, 1854-1945

Series 11: Law Department Records, 1868-1979

Series 12: Patent Materials, 1840-1970

Series 13: Operating Records, 1868-1970s

Series 14: Westar VI-S, 1974, 1983-1986

Series 15: Engineering Department Records, 1874-1970

Series 16: Plant Department Records, 1867-1937, 1963

Series 17: Superintendent of Supplies Records, 1888-1948

Series 18: Employee/Personnel Records 1852-1985

Series 19: Public Relations Department Records, 1858-1980

Series 20: Western Union Museum, 1913-1971

Series 21: Maps, 1820-1964

Series 22: Telegrams, 1852-1960s

Series 23: Photographs, circa 1870-1980

Series 24: Scrapbooks, 1835-1956

Series 25: Notebooks, 1880-1942

Series 26: Audio Visual Materials, 1925-1994

Series 27: Addenda
Biographical / Historical:
In 1832 Samuel F. B. Morse, assisted by Alfred Vail, conceived of the idea for an electromechanical telegraph, which he called the "Recording Telegraph." This commercial application of electricity was made tangible by their construction of a crude working model in 1835-36. This instrument probably was never used outside of Professor Morse's rooms where it was, however, operated in a number of demonstrations. This original telegraph instrument was in the hands of the Western Union Telegraph Company and had been kept carefully over the years in a glass case. It was moved several times in New York as the Western Union headquarters building changed location over the years. The company presented it to the Smithsonian Institution in 1950.

The telegraph was further refined by Morse, Vail, and a colleague, Leonard Gale, into working mechanical form in 1837. In this year Morse filed a caveat for it at the U.S. Patent Office. Electricity, provided by Joseph Henry's 1836 "intensity batteries", was sent over a wire. The flow of electricity through the wire was interrupted for shorter or longer periods by holding down the key of the device. The resulting dots or dashes were recorded on a printer or could be interpreted orally. In 1838 Morse perfected his sending and receiving code and organized a corporation, making Vail and Gale his partners.

In 1843 Morse received funds from Congress to set-up a demonstration line between Washington and Baltimore. Unfortunately, Morse was not an astute businessman and had no practical plan for constructing a line. After an unsuccessful attempt at laying underground cables with Ezra Cornell, the inventor of a trench digger, Morse switched to the erection of telegraph poles and was more successful. On May 24, 1844, Morse, in the U.S. Supreme Court Chambers in Washington, sent by telegraph the oft-quoted message to his colleague Vail in Baltimore, "What hath God wrought!"

In 1845 Morse hired Andrew Jackson's former postmaster general, Amos Kendall, as his agent in locating potential buyers of the telegraph. Kendall realized the value of the device, and had little trouble convincing others of its potential for profit. By the spring he had attracted a small group of investors. They subscribed $15,000 and formed the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Many new telegraph companies were formed as Morse sold licenses wherever he could.

The first commercial telegraph line was completed between Washington, D.C., and New York City in the spring of 1846 by the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Shortly thereafter, F. O. J. Smith, one of the patent owners, built a line between New York City and Boston. Most of these early companies were licensed by owners of Samuel Morse patents. The Morse messages were sent and received in a code of dots and dashes.

At this time other telegraph systems based on rival technologies were being built. Some companies used the printing telegraph, a device invented by a Vermonter, Royal E. House, whose messages were printed on paper or tape in Roman letters. In 1848 a Scotch scientist, Alexander Bain, received his patents on a telegraph. These were but two of many competing and incompatible technologies that had developed. The result was confusion, inefficiency, and a rash of suits and counter suits.

By 1851 there were over fifty separate telegraph companies operating in the United States. This corporate cornucopia developed because the owners of the telegraph patents had been unsuccessful in convincing the United States and other governments of the invention's potential usefulness. In the private sector, the owners had difficulty convincing capitalists of the commercial value of the invention. This led to the owners' willingness to sell licenses to many purchasers who organized separate companies and then built independent telegraph lines in various sections of the country.

Hiram Sibley moved to Rochester, New York, in 1838 to pursue banking and real estate. Later he was elected sheriff of Monroe County. In Rochester he was introduced to Judge Samuel L. Selden who held the House Telegraph patent rights. In 1849 Selden and Sibley organized the New York State Printing Telegraph Company, but they found it hard to compete with the existing New York, Albany, and Buffalo Telegraph Company.

After this experience Selden suggested that instead of creating a new line, the two should try to acquire all the companies west of Buffalo and unite them into a single unified system. Selden secured an agency for the extension throughout the United States of the House system. In an effort to expand this line west, Judge Selden called on friends and the people in Rochester. This led, in April 1851, to the organization of a company and the filing in Albany of the Articles of Association for the "New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company" (NYMVPTC), a company which later evolved into the Western Union Telegraph Company.

In 1854 there were two rival systems of the NYMVPTC in the West. These two systems consisted of thirteen separate companies. All the companies were using Morse patents in the five states north of the Ohio River. This created a struggle between three separate entities, leading to an unreliable and inefficient telegraph service. The owners of these rival companies eventually decided to invest their money elsewhere and arrangements were made for the NYMVPTC to purchase their interests.

Hiram Sibley recapitalized the company in 1854 under the same name and began a program of construction and acquisition. The most important takeover was carried out by Sibley when he negotiated the purchase of the Morse patent rights for the Midwest for $50,000 from Jeptha H. Wade and John J. Speed, without the knowledge of Ezra Cornell, their partner in the Erie and Michigan Telegraph Company (EMTC). With this acquisition Sibley proceeded to switch to the superior Morse system. He also hired Wade, a very capable manager, who became his protege and later his successor. After a bitter struggle Morse and Wade obtained the EMTC from Cornell in 1855, thus assuring dominance by the NYMVPTC in the Midwest. In 1856 the company name was changed to the "Western Union Telegraph Company," indicating the union of the Western lines into one compact system. In December, 1857, the Company paid stockholders their first dividend.

Between 1857 and 1861 similar consolidations of telegraph companies took place in other areas of the country so that most of the telegraph interests of the United States had merged into six systems. These were the American Telegraph Company (covering the Atlantic and some Gulf states), The Western Union Telegraph Company (covering states North of the Ohio River and parts of Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Minnesota), the New York Albany and Buffalo Electro-Magnetic Telegraph Company (covering New York State), the Atlantic and Ohio Telegraph Company (covering Pennsylvania), the Illinois & Mississippi Telegraph Company (covering sections of Missouri, Iowa, and Illinois), and the New Orleans & Ohio Telegraph Company (covering the southern Mississippi Valley and the Southwest). All these companies worked together in a mutually friendly alliance, and other small companies cooperated with the six systems, particularly some on the West Coast.

By the time of the Civil War, there was a strong commercial incentive to construct a telegraph line across the western plains to link the two coasts of America. Many companies, however, believed the line would be impossible to build and maintain.

In 1860 Congress passed, and President James Buchanan signed, the Pacific Telegraph Act, which authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to seek bids for a project to construct a transcontinental line. When two bidders dropped out, Hiram Sibley, representing Western Union, was the only bidder left. By default Sibley won the contract. The Pacific Telegraph Company was organized for the purpose of building the eastern section of the line. Sibley sent Wade to California, where he consolidated the small local companies into the California State Telegraph Company. This entity then organized the Overland Telegraph Company, which handled construction eastward from Carson City, Nevada, joining the existing California lines, to Salt Lake City, Utah. Sibley's Pacific Telegraph Company built westward from Omaha, Nebraska. Sibley put most of his resources into the venture. The line was completed in October, 1861. Both companies were soon merged into Western Union. This accomplishment made Hiram Sibley leader of the telegraph industry.

Further consolidations took place over the next several years. Many companies merged into the American Telegraph Company. With the expiration of the Morse patents, several organizations were combined in 1864 under the name of "The U.S. Telegraph Company." In 1866 the final consolidation took place, with Western Union exchanging stock for the stock of the other two organizations. The general office of Western Union moved at this time from Rochester to 145 Broadway, New York City. In 1875 the main office moved to 195 Broadway, where it remained until 1930 when it relocated to 60 Hudson Street.

In 1873 Western Union purchased a majority of shares in the International Ocean Telegraph Company. This was an important move because it marked Western Union's entry into the foreign telegraph market. Having previously worked with foreign companies, Western Union now began competing for overseas business.

In the late 1870s Western Union, led by William H. Vanderbilt, attempted to wrest control of the major telephone patents, and the new telephone industry, away from the Bell Telephone Company. But due to new Bell leadership and a subsequent hostile takeover attempt of Western Union by Jay Gould, Western Union discontinued its fight and Bell Telephone prevailed.

Despite these corporate calisthenics, Western Union remained in the public eye. The sight of a uniformed Western Union messenger boy was familiar in small towns and big cities all over the country for many years. Some of Western Union's top officials in fact began their careers as messenger boys.

Throughout the remainder of the nineteenth century the telegraph became one of the most important factors in the development of social and commercial life of America. In spite of improvements to the telegraph, however, two new inventions--the telephone (nineteenth century) and the radio (twentieth century)--eventually replaced the telegraph as the leaders of the communication revolution for most Americans.

At the turn of the century, Bell abandoned its struggles to maintain a monopoly through patent suits, and entered into direct competition with the many independent telephone companies. Around this time, the company adopted its new name, the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T).

In 1908 AT&T gained control of Western Union. This proved beneficial to Western Union, because the companies were able to share lines when needed, and it became possible to order telegrams by telephone. However, it was only possible to order Western Union telegrams, and this hurt the business of Western Union's main competitor, the Postal Telegraph Company. In 1913, however, as part of a move to prevent the government from invoking antitrust laws, AT&T completely separated itself from Western Union.

Western Union continued to prosper and it received commendations from the U.S. armed forces for service during both world wars. In 1945 Western Union finally merged with its longtime rival, the Postal Telegraph Company. As part of that merger, Western Union agreed to separate domestic and foreign business. In 1963 Western Union International Incorporated, a private company completely separate from the Western Union Telegraph Company, was formed and an agreement with the Postal Telegraph Company was completed. In 1994, Western Union Financial Services, Inc. was acquired by First Financial Management Corporation. In 1995, First Financial Management Corporation merged with First Data Corporation making Western Union a First Data subsidiary.

Many technological advancements followed the telegraph's development. The following are among the more important:

The first advancement of the telegraph occurred around 1850 when operators realized that the clicks of the recording instrument portrayed a sound pattern, understandable by the operators as dots and dashes. This allowed the operator to hear the message by ear and simultaneously write it down. This ability transformed the telegraph into a versatile and speedy system.

Duplex Telegraphy, 1871-72, was invented by the president of the Franklin Telegraph Company. Unable to sell his invention to his own company, he found a willing buyer in Western Union. Utilizing this invention, two messages were sent over the wire simultaneously, one in each direction.

As business blossomed and demand surged, new devices appeared. Thomas Edison's Quadruplex allowed four messages to be sent over the same wire simultaneously, two in one direction and two in the other.

An English automatic signaling arrangement, Wheatstone's Automatic Telegraph, 1883, allowed larger numbers of words to be transmitted over a wire at once. It could only be used advantageously, however, on circuits where there was a heavy volume of business.

Buckingham's Machine Telegraph was an improvement on the House system. It printed received messages in plain Roman letters quickly and legibly on a message blank, ready for delivery.

Vibroplex, c. 1890, a semi-automatic key sometimes called a "bug key," made the dots automatically. This relieved the operator of much physical strain.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Additional moving image about Western Union Telegraph Company can be found in the Industry on Parade Collection (AC0507). This includes Cable to Cuba! by Bell Laboratory, AT & T, featuring the cable ship, the C.S. Lord Kelvin, and Communications Centennial! by the Western Union Company.

Materials at Other Organizations

Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, Delaware.

Western Union records (Western Union Right of Way and Other Agreements, 1848-1990, bulk: 1910-1989 and the Western Union Locality Files, 1892-1995, bulk: 1910-1989) form part of the MCI Communications Corporation Records, 1849-1999. See accession 2225.

First Data Corporation, Greenwood Village, Colorado.

Records of First Data Corporation and its predecessors, including Western Union, First Financial Management Corporation (Atlanta) and First Data Resources (Omaha). Western Union collection supports research of telegraphy and related technologies, and includes company records, annual reports, photographs, print and broadcast advertising, telegraph equipment, and messenger uniforms.

Smithsonian Institution Archives

Western Union Telegraph Expedition, 1865-1867

This collection includes correspondence, mostly to Spencer F. Baird, from members of the Scientific Corps of the Western Union Telegraph Expedition, including Kennicott, Dall, Bannister, and Elliott; copies of reports submitted to divisional chiefs from expedition staff members; newspaper clippings concerning the expedition; copies of notes on natural history taken by Robert Kennicott; and a journal containing meteorological data recorded by Henry M. Bannister from March to August, 1866.
Separated Materials:
Artifacts (apparatus and equipment) were donated to the Division of Information Technology and Society, now known as the Division of Work & Industry, National Museum of American History.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Western Union in September of 1971.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but Series 11 and films are stored off-site. Special arrangements must be made to view some of the audiovisual materials. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Communications equipment  Search this
Communication -- International cooperation  Search this
Electric engineering  Search this
Electric engineers  Search this
Electrical equipment  Search this
Electrical science and technology  Search this
Telegraphers  Search this
Telegraph  Search this
Genre/Form:
Administrative records
Articles
Books
Clippings
Contracts
Drawings
Photographs -- 19th century
Patents
Photographs -- 20th century
Newsletters
Photograph albums
Scrapbooks -- 19th century
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Specifications
Technical documents
Citation:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0205
See more items in:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8b72e8493-288c-4bd0-84d5-011155da30a7
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0205
Online Media:

Telegraph Paper Tape Perforator

Measurements:
overall: 6 1/2 in x 6 3/8 in x 6 3/4 in; 16.51 cm x 16.1925 cm x 17.145 cm
Object Name:
Telegraph Perforator
Date made:
steel
plastic
copper
rubber
solder
ca 1930
Credit Line:
from ITT World Communications, Inc., thru John Van Ingen
ID Number:
EM.330291
Accession number:
288763
Catalog number:
330291
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Electricity
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746aa-5860-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1193158

Western Union type 2-A telegraph tape automatic control

Measurements:
overall - with rod: 5 in x 7 1/4 in x 12 1/2 in; 12.7 cm x 18.415 cm x 31.75 cm
Object Name:
Automatic Multplex Control
Other Terms:
Automatic Multplex Control; Telegraphy
Date made:
ca 1920
Credit Line:
from Western Union International
ID Number:
EM.330026
Catalog number:
330026
Accession number:
283729
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Electricity
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a5-20f3-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_702166

Telegraph Cable Code Transmitter

Measurements:
overall: 4 3/4 in x 8 3/4 in x 5 1/2 in; 12.065 cm x 22.225 cm x 13.97 cm
Object Name:
Transmitter, Cable
telegraph transmitter
Other Terms:
Transmitter, Cable; Telegraphy; Transmitter
Date made:
ca 1925
Credit Line:
from ITT World Communications, Inc., thru John Van Ingen
ID Number:
EM.330293
Catalog number:
330293
Accession number:
288763
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Electricity
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746aa-5cbd-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_702176

All America Cable 101C step by step cable transmitter

Measurements:
overall: 6 3/4 in x 5 in x 4 in; 17.145 cm x 12.7 cm x 10.16 cm
Object Name:
Transmitter, Cable
cable transmitter
Other Terms:
Transmitter, Cable; Telegraphy; Transmitter
Date made:
1933
Credit Line:
from ITT World Communications, Inc., thru John Van Ingen
ID Number:
EM.330234
Catalog number:
330234
Accession number:
288763
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Electricity
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a5-2524-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_702181

Bunnell type-P submarine telegraph relay

Maker:
J. H. Bunnell & Co.  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 5 1/2 in x 8 in x 6 1/8 in; 13.97 cm x 20.32 cm x 15.5575 cm
Object Name:
submarine telegraph relay
telegraph relay
Other Terms:
telegraph relay; Telegraphy; Transmitter
Date made:
ca 1900
Credit Line:
from ITT World Communications, Inc., thru John Van Ingen
ID Number:
EM.330290
Catalog number:
330290
Accession number:
288763
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Electricity
Communications
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a5-1780-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_702188

Bunnell submarine telegraph relay

Maker:
J. H. Bunnell & Co.  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 5 1/2 in x 8 3/4 in x 7 5/8 in; 13.97 cm x 22.225 cm x 19.3675 cm
Object Name:
submarine telegraph relay
telegraph relay
Other Terms:
telegraph relay; Telegraphy; Transmitter
Date made:
ca 1900
Credit Line:
from ITT World Communications, Inc., thru John Van Ingen
ID Number:
EM.330289
Catalog number:
330289
Accession number:
288763
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Electricity
Communications
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a5-1788-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_702189

Telegraph tape transmitter

Measurements:
transmitter unit: 7 in x 6 7/8 in x 5 in; 17.78 cm x 17.4625 cm x 12.7 cm
hand perforator unit: 2 in x 2 1/4 in x 1 in; 5.08 cm x 5.715 cm x 2.54 cm
Object Name:
Perforator, Telegraph
telegraph transmitter
Date made:
ca 1920
Credit Line:
from the Estate of Major General George O. Squier, thru Jason A. Purcell
ID Number:
EM.311204
Catalog number:
311204
Accession number:
143739
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Electricity
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b4-77b8-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_705900

Saul Nesbitt Papers

Creator:
Nesbitt, Saul, 1920-1993  Search this
Names:
Archway Cookies, Inc.  Search this
Borden's Farm Products Co. of Illinois  Search this
Campbell Soup Company  Search this
Cooper-Hewitt Design Archive  Search this
Eastman Kodak Company  Search this
Florists' Telegraph Delivery Association  Search this
Franco American Food Co.  Search this
Lever Brothers and Unilever, ltd.  Search this
National Distillers and Chemical Corporation  Search this
Nesbitt Associates, Ltd.  Search this
P. Ballantine & Sons  Search this
Philip Morris Incorporated  Search this
Revlon, Inc.  Search this
Schick (Firm)  Search this
Scott Paper Company  Search this
Seagram Company  Search this
Collector:
Cooper-Hewitt Design Archive  Search this
Extent:
4.5 Cubic feet (12 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Blueprints
Client lists
Clippings
Correspondence
Drawings
Media lists
Photographs
Press releases
Samples
Slides
Sketches
Transparencies
Date:
1951-1984, undated
Summary:
Collection primarily consists of photographic materials, original artwork, press releases, articles, correspondence, client lists, and surveys documenting the work of packaging, industrial, and graphic designer Saul Nesbitt.
Scope and Contents:
Collection primarily documents the design work of Nesbitt and his company, Nesbitt Associates, Ltd., for consumer and a small number of commercial products representing major American companies from 1951-1984. There are materials containing biographical and background information relating to both Nesbitt and Nesbitt Associates, Ltd. A substantial amount of the material was created by Nesbitt Associates, Ltd.'s office of public relations documenting its research and communications to the press. General office correspondence can also be found among the materials. In addition, photographic materials including prints, negatives, and transparencies of design work is included. Three dimensional objects consisting of sample presentation boxes and a prototype for a design award can be found among the paper materials. The collection is arranged in six series including: series 1, biographical and background information, 1951-1984; series 2, design files; series 3, correspondence, 1954-1963; series 4, records of the public relations office, 1955-1963; series 5, photographic materials, 1951-1981, undated; and series 6, samples, undated.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in six series:

Series 1: Biographical and Background Information, 1951-1961, undated

Series 2: Design Files, 1948-1976, undated

Series 3: Correspondence, 1954-1963

Series 4: Records of the Public Relations Office, 1955-1963, undated

Series 5: Photographic Materials, 1951-1981, undated

Series 6: Samples, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Saul Murry [Nussbaum] Nesbitt (August 10, 1920 - August 11, 1993) a packaging, industrial, and graphic designer, was born to Max Nussbaum (May 24, 1895-August 3, 1941) and Gussie Moskowitz (May 1, 1897-January 1970) in New York City. He was a student of sculptor Chaim Gross and studied art at many New York institutions including Art Students League, New York University (NYU), Columbia University, Pratt Institute of Art, and the New School.

Nesbitt served in the United States Army from 1942 to 1945 where he worked as a cartographer and as the head of the visual aid section in a military intelligence training center. In 1945, he joined the staff of Harper's Bazaar magazine where he was an illustrator assisting art director Alexey Brodovich. In 1946, Nesbitt was hired by the industrial design studio of Raymond Loewy as a hand letterer and packaging designer. Also, that year he married Esta Feuerman (November 18, 1918-November 26, 1975) and to the union three children were born.

Saul Nesbitt worked with Lippincott Industrial Design from 1948 to 1951. He opened his own design studio, Nesbitt Associates, Ltd. in 1951. The firm specialized in package design, trademarks, and corporate identities. Some of his most recognizable designs were for the label for Campbell's Soup and the Florists' Telegraph Delivery (F. T. D.) Winged Mercury 'Interflora' figure, still used today. Nesbitt's other clients included: Franco American; Revlon; Ballantine Beer; Borden; Champion spark plugs; Kodak; Phillip Morris cigarettes; Schick razors; and Archway cookies. In addition, Nesbitt developed the "Karry Kit" for Ballantine Beer which came to be widely used and known as the six pack.

Nesbitt was known for his revealing studies and surveys of the buying needs and preferences of the "average American housewife" and consumers in general. His opinions on what he referred to as "underpackaging" were widely publicized in professional magazines and journals. In 1984, Nesbitt retired from the design field and went to California to resume his career as a sculptor until his death in 1993 at the age of seventy-three.
Related Materials:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History

NW Ayer Advertising Agency Records, NMAH.AC.0059

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, NMAH.AC.0060

Marlboro Oral History and Documentation Project, NMAH.AC.0198

Alan and Elaine Levitt Advertisement Collection, 1920-early 1960s, NMAH.AC.0303

Campbell Soup Advertising Oral History and Documentation Project, NMAH.AC.0367

Cover Girl Advertising Oral History and Documentation Project, NMAH.AC.0374

Landor Design Collection, NMAH.AC.0500

Francis Mair Papers, NMAH.AC.0548

Albert W. Hampson Commercial Artwork, NMAH.AC.0561

Revlon, Incorporated Advertising Collection, 1936-1986, NMAH.AC.0939

Christian Heurich Brewing Company Records, NMAH.AC.1104

Walter H. Voigt Brewing Industry Collection, 1891-1979, 1195NMAH.AC.1195

Dan Friedman Papers, 1967-1995, NMAH.AC1277

Archives Center Brewing History Collection, NMAH.AC.1419

Mahler Product Packaging and Advertising Collection, NMAH.AC.1482

Saul Nesbitt's sculpture are in the collections of:

Smithsonian Institution

Western Washington University Bellingham, Washington

City Hall Outdoor Scilpture Garden Vacaville, California

Private clients
Provenance:
Collection donated by the designer's wife, Mrs. Saul Nesbitt, in 1994.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Graphic designers  Search this
Industrial designers  Search this
Packaging designers  Search this
Topic:
Consumers' preferences -- United States  Search this
Consumers -- Research  Search this
Corporate image -- Design  Search this
Design, Industrial -- United States  Search this
Graphic arts -- United States  Search this
Housewives as consumers  Search this
Labels -- Design  Search this
Logos (Symbols) -- Design  Search this
Packaging -- Design  Search this
Genre/Form:
Blueprints
Client lists
Clippings
Correspondence
Drawings
Media lists
Photographs -- 20th century
Press releases
Samples -- 1920-2000
Slides
Sketches
Transparencies
Citation:
Saul Nesbitt Papers, 1951-1984, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1275
See more items in:
Saul Nesbitt Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep857e2f039-d3d5-4307-a474-a5e5072e4e74
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1275

Juncus anthelatus (Wiegand) R.E. Brooks f. anthelatus

Biogeographical Region:
78 - Southeastern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Bill Harms  Search this
Place:
Patuxent Road, 800 feet east of Telegraph Road; Roadside Ditch., Anne Arundel, Maryland, United States, North America
Collection Date:
5 Jul 2013
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Juncaceae
Published Name:
Juncus anthelatus (Wiegand) R.E. Brooks f. anthelatus
Barcode:
03472832
USNM Number:
3730681
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/35a7f27ab-e3e4-4ae3-a637-c621ae3e43a0
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_14596640
Online Media:

Carex crinita Lam. var. crinita

Biogeographical Region:
78 - Southeastern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Bill Harms  Search this
Place:
Patuxent Road, 800 feet east of Telegraph Road; Roadside Ditch., Anne Arundel, Maryland, United States, North America
Collection Date:
5 Jul 2013
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Cyperaceae Cyperoideae
Published Name:
Carex crinita Lam. var. crinita
Barcode:
03472833
USNM Number:
3730682
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/31ca80467-5f16-4877-b5ea-8a28cb82ae11
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_14596642

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