Skip to main content Smithsonian Institution

Search Results

Collections Search Center
120 documents - page 1 of 6

C. Earle Smith Jr. papers

Creator:
Smith, C. Earle (Claude Earle), 1922-1987  Search this
Names:
University of Alabama  Search this
Extent:
7.72 Linear feet (20 document boxes and 1 restricted box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Guilá Naquitz Cave (Mexico)
Oaxaca (Mexico : State)
Tehuacán (Mexico)
Peru
Date:
1942-1998
bulk 1960-1987
Summary:
C. Earle Smith Jr. (1922-1987) was one of the founders of the modern field of paleobotany. This collection documents his research and professional activities through correspondence, research notes, data, manuscripts, publications, and photographs. Represented in the collection is his fieldwork in Mexico, Peru, Venezuela, and Costa Rica.
Scope and Contents:
This collection documents the research and professional activities of C. Earle Smith Jr. through correspondence, research notes, data, manuscripts, publications, and photographs. Represented in the collection is his fieldwork in Mexico, Peru, Venezuela, and Costa Rica. The only materials pertaining to his early work in Bat Cave are a few pages of notes and articles about his discovery of early corn remains. Most of the collection dates from the 1960s up to his death in 1987. There is, however, some correspondence dated after his death regarding the return of specimens that he had been analyzing for others. The collection also contains his files as a professor at the University of Alabama; papers he presented; talks that he gave; and photographs of plant remains. His correspondence makes up the bulk of collection and can be found throughout the series. He corresponded with eminent figures in the fields of anthropology and botany, including Kent V. Flannery, Richard MacNeish, Paul Mangelsdorf, and other colleagues.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 8 series: (1) Correspondence, 1962-1998; (2) Research, 1942-1991; (3) Writings, 1956-1987; (4) Professional Activities, 1971-1987; (5) University of Alabama, 1964-1987; (6) Writings by Others, 1960-1984; (7) Personal Files, 1950-1953, 1964-1987; (8) Photographs, circa 1960s-1982
Biographical Note:
Claude Earle Smith Jr. was one of the founders of the modern field of archaeobotany. Known as "Smitty" to his friends, he was born on March 8, 1922, in Boston, Massachusetts, and raised in Orlando, Florida. He was trained as an economic botanist at Harvard University, where he earned his bachelor's (1949), master's (1951), and doctorate (1953) in botany.

As an undergraduate student at Harvard in 1941, Smith assisted Richard Evans Schultes in collecting plants in the Colombian Amazon. While in the field, news reached Smith of the bombing of Pearl Harbor and he decided to return home to enlist in the Navy. After the war, he continued his studies at Harvard and, in 1948, he was sent by Paul C. Manglesdorf to excavate Bat Cave, New Mexico, where he and Herbert Dick, another Harvard student, discovered the earliest remains of corn. Smith coauthored with Mangelsdorf "A Discovery of Remains of Prehistoric Maize in New Mexico" (1949). Throughout his career, Smith continued to study the early domestication and distribution of corn and other plants including cotton, avocado, and beans.

With his research focused on archaeologically-recovered plant remains and their usage by humans, Smith served as botanist at various archaeological sites in Latin America, working with Richard MacNeish in Tehuacán Valley; Kent Flannery in Oaxaca Valley; Paul Tolstoy in the Basin of Mexico; Ronald Spores in Nochixtlan; Terence Grieder in La Galgada, Peru; Thomas Lynch in Callejón de Huaylas, Peru; Joyce Marcus in Cañeta Valley, Peru; Anna Roosevelt in the Middle Orinoco area of Venezuela; and Michael J. Snarkis in Costa Rica. He also conducted ethnobotanical fieldwork in the Yucatán, Panama, the United States, Europe, Southeast Asia, Africa, the Pacific, and Australia.

From 1953 to 1958, Smith served as assistant curator of botany at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and as acting director of the Taylor Memorial Arboretum. He was also a curator of botany at the Field Museum of Natural History (1959-1961) and Senior Research Botanist for the Agricultural Research Service at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (1962-1969). In 1970, Smith took a faculty position in the anthropology and biology departments at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa and was acting chair of the anthropology department between 1981 and 1986. He served as president of the Society for Economic Botany in 1979.

At the age of 65, Smith was killed in an automobile accident on October 19, 1987.

Sources Consulted

Lentz, David L. "C. Earle Smith, Jr. 1922-1987." Economic Botany 42, no. 2 (1988): 284-285.

Schultes, Richard Evans. "How I Met C. Earle Smith." Journal of Ethnobiology 10, no. 2 (1990): 119-121.

Chronology

1922 -- Born on March 8 in Boston, Massachusetts

1940-1941 -- Studies at Harvard University

1941 -- Assists Richard Evans Schultes in ethnobotanical collection in Colombian Amazons

1942-1946 -- Serves in Navy

1946 -- Returns to Harvard to continue his studies

1948 -- Excavates Bat Cave in New Mexico and discovers earliest remains of corn

1949 -- Earns A.B. cum laude at Harvard

1951 -- Earns A.M. at Harvard

1953 -- Earns Ph.D. at Harvard University

1953-1958 -- Consultant for Smith, Kline and French Acting Director at Taylor Memorial Arboretum Assistant Curator in the Department of Botany at Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia

1959-1961 -- Associate Curator in Department of Botany at Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago

1962-1969 -- Senior Research Botanist at Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

1970-1987 -- Professor of Anthropology and Botany, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

1979-1980 -- President of Society for Economic Botany

1987 -- Killed in automobile accident on October 19
Related Materials:
Photographs from C. Earle Smith Jr.'s excavation of Bat Cave can be found in Photo Lot R86-67 Copies of Herbert W. Dick photographs of excavations at Bat Cave, 1948-1950, https://sova.si.edu/record/NAA.PhotoLot.R86-67.
Provenance:
At his death, C. Earle Smith Jr.'s papers were left with the Department of Anthropology at the University of Alabama. They were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Smith's widow, Roberta Smith Largin.
Restrictions:
Grant proposal reviews in Series 4: Professional Activities and materials with student grades in Series 5: University of Alabama have been restricted.

Access to the C. Earle Smith Jr. papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Botany  Search this
Plant remains (Archaeology)  Search this
Botany, Economic  Search this
Citation:
C. Earle Smith Jr. papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2006-24
See more items in:
C. Earle Smith Jr. papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2006-24

Bouteloua triaena (Trin. ex Spreng.) Scribn.

Collector:
Frederik M. Liebmann  Search this
Place:
S. Lorenzo pr. Tehuacan, Mexico, North America - Neotropics
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Poaceae Chloridoideae
Published Name:
Bouteloua triaena (Trin. ex Spreng.) Scribn.
Barcode:
00484052
USNM Number:
883956
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
RapidMap
Mexican grasses
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3a70aaa18-ecd3-4fea-99ca-5d8dd92b2755
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2736017

Aristida purpurea Nutt. var. purpurea

Collector:
Hermann Ross  Search this
Max. Elevation:
1600  Search this
Min. Elevation:
1600  Search this
Place:
Zapotitlan bei Tehuacan, Mexico, North America - Neotropics
Collection Date:
Oct 1906
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Poaceae Aristidoideae
Published Name:
Aristida purpurea Nutt. var. purpurea
Aristida roemeriana Scheele
Barcode:
00481809
USNM Number:
991821
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
RapidMap
Mexican grasses
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/319d9cdac-c5b9-4360-b2b4-1d0718a06ec6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2684075

Sporobolus pyramidatus (Lam.) Hitchc.

Collector:
-- Leibmann  Search this
Place:
Tehuacan, Mexico, North America - Neotropics
Collection Date:
Dec 1841
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Poaceae Chloridoideae
Published Name:
Sporobolus pyramidatus (Lam.) Hitchc.
Barcode:
00470253
USNM Number:
998378
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
RapidMap
Mexican grasses
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/37aa8759e-425b-454d-8bfe-048697069af6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2678993

Panicum virgatum L.

Collector:
Stephan F. L. Endlicher  Search this
Place:
Near Tehuacan, Mexico, North America - Neotropics
Collection Date:
1938
Common name:
switch grass
switchgrass
wand panic grass
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Poaceae Panicoideae
Published Name:
Panicum virgatum L.
Barcode:
00496911
USNM Number:
973519
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
RapidMap
Mexican grasses
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3bf5269fb-507b-4a47-aa4f-5a5dd34a4c4b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2674322

Setaria grisebachii E. Fourn.

Collector:
Frederik M. Liebmann  Search this
Place:
Tehuacan, Mexico, North America - Neotropics
Collection Date:
May 1842
Common name:
Grisebach's bristle grass
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Poaceae Panicoideae
Published Name:
Setaria grisebachii E. Fourn.
Setaria grisebachii E. Fourn.
Barcode:
00490953
USNM Number:
90929
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
RapidMap
Mexican grasses
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/34eaeeb06-825e-42d2-802f-a0c13f47fc3f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2673474

Tillandsia recurvata L.

Biogeographical Region:
79 - Mexico  Search this
Collector:
Ex herb. Carlos Sarton  Search this
Place:
Tehuacan., Mexico, North America
Collection Date:
1857
Common name:
Barba de Viejo
small ballmoss
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Bromeliaceae Tillandsioideae
Published Name:
Tillandsia recurvata L.
Barcode:
03971806
USNM Number:
784502
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3d5227e7c-1230-40b0-acf1-e259c6386c7a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_15735253

Tillandsia plumosa Baker

Biogeographical Region:
79 - Mexico  Search this
Collector:
Liebmann, --  Search this
Place:
Tehuacan., Mexico, North America
Collection Date:
Dec 1842
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Bromeliaceae Tillandsioideae
Published Name:
Tillandsia plumosa Baker
Barcode:
03970167
USNM Number:
1596843
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3ec292166-a5be-435d-a48d-2bbb071bf5b7
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_15733207

Villadia sp.

Biogeographical Region:
79 - Mexico  Search this
Collector:
Carl A. Purpus  Search this
Place:
Tehuacan., Mexico, North America
Collection Date:
1895 to 1896
Taxonomy:
Plantae Dicotyledonae Rosales Crassulaceae
Published Name:
Villadia sp.
Barcode:
03775858
USNM Number:
1431018
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3cba2463c-9f2d-4707-8a89-ac6194e07e5e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_15217139

Tillandsia schatzlii Rauh

Biogeographical Region:
79 - Mexico  Search this
Collector:
-- Schatzl  Search this
Type Citation:
Rauh, W. 1979. Akad. Wiss. Mainz Abh. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 27: 426.
Type Status:
Isotype
Place:
Road between Oaxaca and Tehuacan., Mexico, North America - Neotropics
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Bromeliaceae Tillandsioideae
Published Name:
Tillandsia schatzlii Rauh
Barcode:
00091100
Other Numbers:
fiche number : 0116/D04
USNM Number:
2848087
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Type Register
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/33e0f8c25-72bc-435d-b0fa-361ceb2baf59
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2139346

Castilleja tenuiflora Benth.

Biogeographical Region:
79 - Mexico  Search this
Collector:
Blas P. Reko  Search this
Place:
Hills behind El Riego, Tehuacan., Mexico, North America
Collection Date:
7 Sep 1919
Taxonomy:
Plantae Dicotyledonae Scrophulariales Scrophulariaceae
Published Name:
Castilleja tenuiflora Benth.
Barcode:
03915715
USNM Number:
988731
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/38b5839ca-c7ad-4705-be8b-bddd48e95603
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_15649745

Castilleja tenuiflora Benth.

Biogeographical Region:
79 - Mexico  Search this
Collector:
Liebmann, --  Search this
Place:
Tehuacan., Mexico, North America
Collection Date:
Dec 1841
Taxonomy:
Plantae Dicotyledonae Scrophulariales Scrophulariaceae
Published Name:
Castilleja tenuiflora Benth.
Barcode:
03915780
USNM Number:
1110342
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/38d109f84-72b3-40ac-aa34-1e2fe25c31e5
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_15603429

Hemichaena levigata (B.L. Rob. & Greenm.) Thieret

Biogeographical Region:
79 - Mexico  Search this
Collector:
Liebmann, --  Search this
Place:
S. Lorenzo pr. Tehuacan., Mexico, North America
Collection Date:
Dec 1841
Taxonomy:
Plantae Dicotyledonae Scrophulariales Scrophulariaceae (phrymaceae)
Published Name:
Hemichaena levigata (B.L. Rob. & Greenm.) Thieret
Barcode:
03880193
USNM Number:
1110367
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/316b75130-b410-4194-953a-e92197a21de6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_15643444

Hemichaena levigata (B.L. Rob. & Greenm.) Thieret

Biogeographical Region:
79 - Mexico  Search this
Collector:
Blas P. Reko  Search this
Place:
Hills behind El Riego, Tehuacan., Mexico, North America
Collection Date:
7 Sep 1919
Taxonomy:
Plantae Dicotyledonae Scrophulariales Scrophulariaceae (phrymaceae)
Published Name:
Hemichaena levigata (B.L. Rob. & Greenm.) Thieret
Barcode:
03880195
USNM Number:
988734
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/382085484-35b7-42a1-992e-362709147694
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_15644208

Agave stricta Salm-Dyck

Biogeographical Region:
79 - Mexico  Search this
Collector:
Carl A. Purpus  Search this
Place:
Tehuacan, Mexico, North America - Neotropics
Collection Date:
1907
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Asparagales Asparagaceae Agavoideae
Published Name:
Agave stricta Salm-Dyck
Barcode:
00163599
USNM Number:
1023734
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/397780f22-9765-4397-b2a0-05b8488ae121
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2544832
Online Media:

Zephyranthes sp.

Biogeographical Region:
79 - Mexico  Search this
Collector:
Collector illegible  Search this
Microhabitat Description:
Dry pastures  Search this
Place:
Tehuacan, Mexico, North America - Neotropics
Collection Date:
May 1853
Common name:
fairy lily
mañanita
rain lily
zephyrlily
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Asparagales Amaryllidaceae Amaryllidoideae
Published Name:
Zephyranthes sp.
Barcode:
00040794
USNM Number:
784940
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3b05d720c-829b-43fd-bc67-a985ce20360a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2490953

Agave karwinskii Zucc.

Biogeographical Region:
79 - Mexico  Search this
Collector:
ex herb. A. Berger  Search this
Place:
Tehuacan, Mexico, North America - Neotropics
Collection Date:
1907
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Asparagales Asparagaceae Agavoideae
Published Name:
Agave karwinskii Zucc.
Barcode:
00044204
USNM Number:
1023711
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3bed17b25-55f0-4f6f-b9f8-0dd99f4f84cc
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2484363
Online Media:

Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck

Biogeographical Region:
79 - Mexico  Search this
Collector:
ex herb. A. Berger  Search this
Place:
Tehuacan, Mexico, North America - Neotropics
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Asparagales Asparagaceae Agavoideae
Published Name:
Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck
Barcode:
00163604
USNM Number:
1023742
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3765e4f11-60b9-4893-9610-612ba18937ee
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2478902
Online Media:

Callisia monandra (Sw.) Schult. & Schult. f.

Biogeographical Region:
79 - Mexico  Search this
Collector:
D. C. Sartorius  Search this
Place:
Tehuacan, Mexico, North America - Neotropics
Collection Date:
1856
Common name:
cojite morado
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Commelinales Commelinaceae
Published Name:
Callisia monandra (Sw.) Schult. & Schult. f.
Barcode:
00046403
USNM Number:
784463
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3b5fdc605-ad9b-41a1-bcbb-3f432df7a1fd
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2503796

Euzophera immorella

Preparation:
Pinned
Sex:
Female
Stage:
Adult
Place:
Tehuacan, [Not Stated], Mexico
Collection Date:
Jul 1912
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Arthropoda, Insecta, Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Phycitinae
Published Name:
Euzophera immorella Dyar, 1913
Other Numbers:
USNM Type No. : 15237
USNM Slide No. : 102762
Alternate Slide No. : 2145
See more items in:
Entomology Types
Data Source:
NMNH - Entomology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/30f326fcc-71cc-4eb6-9981-01ee50da7b36
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhentomology_15022757

Modify Your Search







or


Narrow By