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John Clifford Shaw Papers

Topic:
JOHNNIAC computer
JOSS (Electronic computer system)
Creator:
Shaw, J. Clifford (John Clifford), 1922-1991  Search this
Names:
ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency)  Search this
Association for Computing Machinery.  Search this
Dartmouth College  Search this
Digital Equipment Corporation  Search this
IBM (International Business Machines)  Search this
Massachusetts General Hospital  Search this
UCRL (University of California Radiation Lab)  Search this
Extent:
20.5 Cubic feet (59 boxes, 4 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Technical reports
Diagrams
Notes
Memorandums
Place:
Palo Alto (Calif.)
Pittsburgh (Pa.)
Santa Monica (Calif.) -- 1950-1980
Cambridge (Mass.)
Date:
1933-1993
bulk 1950-1971
Summary:
The John Clifford Shaw papers contain reports, research notes, correspondence, memorandum, and diagrams documenting Shaw's development of one of the earliest list processing languages (IPL) and an early interactive, time sharing program, the JOHNNIAC Open Shop System (JOSS). The collection also contains printed material on the RAND Corporation and the evolution of the artificial intelligence and electronic computer industry in the 1950s and 1960s. In addition there is biographical material documenting Shaw's personal interests, family, and academic career.
Scope and Contents:
The John Clifford Shaw Papers contain reports, research notes, correspondence, memoranda, and diagrams documenting Shaw's development of one of the earliest list processing languages (IPL) and an early interactive, time sharing program, the JOHNNIAC Open Shop System (JOSS). The collection also contains printed material on the RAND Corporation and the evolution of the artificial intelligence and electronic computer industry in the 1950s and 1960s. In addition, there is biographical material documenting Shaw's personal interests, family, and academic career.

Series 1: Shaw's Career at Rand, 1950-1971, documents Shaw's most significant work. The subseries are arranged by specific projects and illustrate his pioneering work on programming languages, interactive time-sharing systems, heuristic problem solving, logic programming, stored programs, and artificial intelligence. This work included his role in the development of the JOHNNIAC computer and programs such as the Logic Theorist (LT), General Problem Solver (GPS), and the JOHNNIAC Open-Shop System (JOSS).

The materials include technical reports, research notes, correspondence, memorandum, coding sequences, and system tests. In addition, there are reports documenting the collaborative nature of the NSS team's work on human problem solving, computer simulation of human thinking, and complex information processing. The subject files in Series 1 document the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) role in the JOSS research and other work done by Shaw.

Series 2: Rand Environment, 1951-1986, is arranged into three subseries containing technical reports that document other computer related research being conducted at RAND during Shaw's tenure. These materials are not directly related to his work, including reports documenting defense related research. The series contains memoranda and correspondence illustrating the internal workings and daily operations at RAND from 1950 to 1971 and various sets of annual reports, progress reports, and newsletters from 1960 to 1971. In addition, there are historical materials commemorating RAND anniversaries, profiles of the company, and indexes to RAND publications and abstracts.

Series 3: Computer Industry, 1947-1973, consists of printed matter that documents developments at other institutions and companies engaged in artificial intelligence and programming research. The printed matter includes reports, manuals, brochures, and reprints of articles about research by other institutions, companies, and individuals. Also, there are materials from trips, conferences and seminars attended by Shaw.

Series 4: Consulting Work, 1972-1990, comprises Shaw's work after he left RAND in 1971. It consists of reports and reprints from companies and institutions for which Shaw worked or from those he saw as potential clients. Of particular interest are the research notes, on note cards and 8.5" x 11" paper that illuminate Shaw's ideas and thoughts regarding artificial intelligence and programming languages during this period.

Series 5: Biographical Information, 1933-1993, consists of printed matter regarding Shaw's life and accomplishments. It contains resumes, list of publications and lectures, salary history, and the outline for a book on JOSS. Material on Shaw's personal life includes information about his family, personal correspondence with Herbert Simon, Allen Newell and his wife, Marian, Chuck Baker, Edward Feigenbaum, and correspondence from authors requesting information or comment on future publications. Additionally, there are reprints and clippings that reveal Shaw's personal interests in political issues such as the Pentagon Papers, Watergate, the making of the hydrogen bomb, and Star Wars Defense Technology.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into five series.

Series 1: Shaw's Career at Rand, 1950-1971

Subseries 1.1: JOHNNIAC, 1950-1968

Subseries 1.2: Logic Therorist [See also Complex Information Processing], 1956-1963

Subseries 1.3: General Problem Solver (G.P.S.) and Heuristic Problem Solving, 1955-1967

Subseries 1.4: Chess Program, 1954-1973

Subseries 1.5: Complex Information Processing (C.I.P.), 1953-1972

Subseries 1.6: Information Processing Languages (IPL), 1956-1977

Subseries 1.7: JOHNNIAC Open Shop System (JOSS), 1959-1977

Subseries 1.8: Subject Files, 1954-1971

Series 2: Rand Environment, 1951-1986

Subseries 2.1: Related Papers and Reports (RM-Series), 1951-1972

Subseries 2.2: Reports and Papers—General, 1949-1971

Subseries 2.3: RAND Material, 1948-1988

Series 3: Computer Industry, 1947-1973

Series 4: Consulting Work, 1972-1990

Series 5: Biographical Information, 1933-1993
Biographical / Historical:
John Clifford Shaw (1922-1991) was born in Southern California. Shaw went to Fullerton High School, the same high school as Richard Nixon. Shaw's English teacher was Nixon's high school debate team coach. Shaw attended Fullerton Junior College from 1939 until February 1943. At the same time, he worked as a timekeeper at the Douglas Aircraft Company, where he was responsible for time-card calculations and reports. He served in the Army Air Force for three years during World War II as a navigation instructor and then aircraft navigator in the 4th Emergency Rescue Squadron in Iwo Jima, Japan. Shaw returned to California in 1947 and began working for the Beneficial Standard Life Insurance Company as an assistant to the actuary, compiling actuarial calculations of premium rates, reserve liabilities, and annual reports. Shaw and his wife Marian had four children: Doug (b. 1948), David (b. 1950), Donna (b. 1952), and John (b. 1962). By 1948, Shaw received his Bachelor's degree in Mathematics from UCLA and in 1950 joined the newly formed RAND Corporation as a mathematician.

The RAND Corporation evolved during the years after World War II amidst the escalating Cold War. Project RAND was originally carried out under a contract with the Douglas Aircraft Company. RAND was incorporated in May 1948. RAND, a California nonprofit corporation, was one of the earliest Cold War "think tanks" that functioned as an interdisciplinary research and development facility; it received large sums of money from the Air Force and Atomic Energy Commission. Throughout the 1950s, other agencies such as the Department of Defense, the Atomic Energy Commission, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) solicited scientific and foreign policy research from RAND. During Shaw's tenure (1950-1971), money flowed into RAND and enabled many scientists and researchers, including Shaw and his colleagues in the Math and Numerical Analysis Department, to explore new avenues of discovery.

Shaw's early work at RAND involved administrative matters, such as improving the processes of company management through automation of the computation and calculation techniques. This work included collaboration with Allen Newell on a radar simulator. In the mid-1950s, Newell and Shaw, and later Dr. Herbert Simon of the Carnegie Institute of Technology, formed the team known by the mid-1950s in the artificial intelligence field as NSS (Newell, Shaw, and Simon). The NSS team broke much ground in the field of artificial intelligence, programming languages, computer simulation of human problem solving, and man-machine communication. The radar simulator project involved studying how humans made decisions and whether one could design a program that could simulate human decision-making. While Newell and Simon concentrated on the human behavior aspect, Shaw focused on creating a programming language that would implement Simon and Newell's concepts.

When Shaw began working in 1950, RAND was using six IBM 604 calculators to satisfy its scientific computing needs. In the early 1950s, RAND decided that it needed more computational power to accomplish projects for the Air Force and decided to build a Princeton-type computer named JOHNNIAC, after computer designer John von Neumann. The Princeton Class computer was considered state-of-the-art and was running at RAND by the first half of 1953. William Gunning was the project leader and Shaw worked on the selection of the instruction set and the design of the operator's console. The JOHNNIAC became the basis for Shaw's work on conversational time-sharing in the 1960s.

During the early 1950s, the dynamic of the innovative process was at work as Shaw and Newell in California, and Simon in Pittsburgh, were theorizing about human decision making, programming languages, and how computers could be manipulated to process information more productively. Air Force funding enabled Shaw and his colleague's considerable intellectual and academic freedom to explore various hypotheses. In the mid-1950s, NSS began forming the theoretical basis for what they called Complex Information Processing (C.I.P.). C.I.P was the basis for the three main computer programs developed by NSS: the Chess Program, Logic Theorist (LT), and the General Problem Solver (GPS). By 1954, Shaw's focus was on utilizing the power of the JOHNNIAC to develop a viable language that could simulate human behavior.

In early 1954, Newell left RAND for Pittsburgh to work with Simon; Shaw remained at RAND. The NSS team focused on creating programs that would enable a machine to exhibit intelligent behavior and "think" like a human. Chess and the Logic Theorist (LT) were the first programs that evolved from their work. Shaw dealt with the programming aspects, as Simon devoted his time to human thinking processes for chess, logic, and problem solving. Newell, who was still employed by RAND, was the middle man who worked both in programming and human behavior. He flew back to California every couple of months in 1954 and 1955 to confer with Shaw. Because of language limitations, the chess program was temporarily put aside as NSS decided to finish the LT. Known as IPL (Information Processing Language), the language developed by Shaw was one of the first list processing languages. Through experimentation with assemblers, compilers, and interpreters, Shaw developed list processing sequences that allowed the computer to arrange and store data more effectively. The effectiveness stemmed from links that formed the lists. From a storage point of view, lists were inefficient. Shaw translated Simon and Newell's ideas into IPL. The IPL interpreter was able to compile and translate higher level language statements into machine language. The interpreters process the statements and carry out the indicated operations without generating machine code which must then be executed. Although not specifically programmed so, one of LT's innovative characteristics was that it proved mathematical theorems from Whitehead and Russell's Principia Mathematica, including a proof from Theorem 2.85 that the authors had missed. This was the most fascinating aspect of the program because LT was not programmed to find alternative proofs.

The NSS team's work on the LT was completed by the end of 1955, and it perfected the program language in the winter and spring of 1956. LT was one of the earliest programs to investigate the use of heuristics in problem solving. It was capable of discovering and working out proofs for theorems in symbolic logic. In the summer of 1956, NSS presented the LT program to the artificial intelligence community at the Dartmouth Artificial Intelligence Conference. Relatively unknown at the time, NSS excited the conference with the LT and the possibilities it opened in the study of programming languages and artificial intelligence.

The NSS team continued to focus on developing artificial intelligence. By 1957, NSS had constructed the General Problem Solver (GPS) program that attempted to demonstrate various human thinking processes in a variety of environments. At RAND and Carnegie Tech, studies were conducted that had human subjects think aloud in hopes of identifying human problem solving techniques and simulating them in GPS. NSS codified some human problem solving techniques such as means-end analysis, planning, and trial and error. Through the end of the 1950s, NSS produced improved versions of the IPL language and studied heuristic methods of decision making.

By 1960, when the JOHNNIAC was of insufficient computing power to support the level of computation needed, and IPL had been reprogrammed for the IBM 7090, List Processing (LISP), a high-level programming language had overtaken IPL as the language of choice for Artificial Intelligence research. Shaw's interests had shifted towards attempting to simplify the use of computers for all types of computer users. Simon and Newell continued to study how they could simulate human cognitive processes on a computer. Until this point, a user would have to be adequately trained in programming or need assistance from a programmer to use a computer like JOHNNIAC. Shaw was interested in programming the JOHNNIAC so RAND staff could utilize the computer for small as well as large scientific computations. The JOHNNIAC was available for experimental research projects because RAND owned a newer IBM 7090 (acquired in 1960) which handled the bulk of RAND's production computing load. Although JOHNNIAC was no longer state-of-the-art by this time, its major appeal was its reliability and capability for experimentation.

These factors were the impetus for the initiation of the JOHNNIAC Open-Shop System (JOSS) project in November 1960. JOSS was intended to be an easy to use, on-line, time sharing system. The JOSS research, conducted under the Information Processor Project, was formalized in 1959 as part of the RAND Computer Science Department and was heavily funded by the Air Force. The innovative character of JOSS was in the ease of use for the non-programmer, its remote access capabilities, the establishment of an interactive environment between user and computer, and the capability for RAND scientists and engineers to use the computer without an intermediary programmer. It was hoped that the JOSS project would bridge the communication gap between man and machine. JOSS's user language achieved this goal. It featured a small set of English verbs and algebraic symbols which did not need a programmer as intermediary between user and computer. During 1961-1962, Shaw selected the character set that would be used to write JOSS programs, its syntax, and grammar. The conversational environment included a Model B IBM Electric Typewriter. Tom Ellis and Mal Davis directed the hardware configurations and Ike Hehama, Allen Newell, and Keith Uncapher participated in the project discussions with Shaw.

The very limited JOSS experiments on the JOHNNIAC began in May 1963, with five consoles, one connected to the JOHNNIAC and four others located in the offices of various RAND staff. By June, a schedule of operations was in place and by January 1964, JOSS was fully implemented. The use of JOSS by RAND staff was higher than expected as users taught other users how to run the system. However, Shaw and the other designers worried that JOHNNIAC's hardware placed limitations on speed and storage which might taint the evaluation of JOSS. In July 1964, a second version of JOSS was proposed on a more powerful computer. C.L. Baker was named project head, and Shaw focused on developing the programming language for JOSS II.

After accepting numerous bids to replace JOHNNIAC, a contract was signed with Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) promising the installation of a PDP-6 computer and thirty consoles at RAND. The installation was completed by October 31, 1965. At the Fall Joint Computer Conference in Las Vegas in December 1965, the first demonstration of remote use of JOSS II was given. JOHNNIAC was retired on February 18, 1966, with Willis Ware delivering a eulogy and Shaw loading a final JOSS I program. By the end of 1966, JOSS II was available to users 24 hours a day, seven days a week on the new PDP-6/JOSS computer, which had thirty times the speed and five times the storage capacity as the JOHNNIAC version. In April 1967, the maintenance and improvement of JOSS II was transferred from the development group to a small staff under G.W. Armending. In 1971, at age 49, Shaw left the RAND Corporation.

In 1971, Shaw took a one-year appointment as a Research Associate in the Information Science Department at the California Institute of Technology. In 1972, he began working as a consultant which he continued for the rest of his professional career. Much of his work in the 1970s and 1980s consisted of formulating new ideas on operations research, video games, man-machine interfaces, interactive computer systems, time-sharing, information architecture design, and artificial intelligence. During the 1980s, Shaw also became more involved in church-related activities.

Shaw's work on creating the Information Processing Language in the 1950s and the JOSS program in the 1960s were the two major contributions he made to the fields of programming and artificial intelligence. His IPL-I programming language is one of the earliest examples of list processing languages now in widespread use. The JOSS program was one of the first easy-to use, remotely accessible, interactive programs that allowed non-programmers to utilize the power of a computer.
Related Materials:
Material in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Computer Oral History Collection, AC0196

Material in Other Institutions

Charles Babbage Institute

L.A. County Museum

For RAND reports see www.RAND.org
Provenance:
The collection was donated by John Clifford Shaw's eldest son, Doug Shaw, March 1997.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Computer programmers  Search this
Topic:
Mathematicians  Search this
Computers -- military applications  Search this
Decision making -- Mathematical models  Search this
System analysts  Search this
Online data processing  Search this
Computer industry -- 1950-1980 -- United States  Search this
Computational linguistics  Search this
Computer industry -- 1950-1980 -- Soviet Union  Search this
Mathematical models  Search this
Programming languages (electronic computers) -- 1950-70  Search this
Iph (Computer Program Language)  Search this
List processing (Electronic computers)  Search this
Job Control Language (Computer program language)  Search this
GPS (General Problem Solver)  Search this
Problem solving -- Data processing  Search this
Logic machines  Search this
Time-sharing computer systems  Search this
Heuristic programming  Search this
Logic programming  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Technical reports -- 1950-1980
Diagrams
Notes -- 1950-1980
Memorandums -- 1950-1980
Citation:
John Clifford Shaw papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0580
See more items in:
John Clifford Shaw Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8616f61b8-12a5-4770-872a-4cc2f003669a
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0580
Online Media:

Project Horizon Reports

Creator:
United States. Army Ballistic Missile Agency  Search this
Extent:
0.2 Cubic feet (One slim letter box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Technical reports
Date:
1958-1962
Summary:
This collection consists of the following four reports relating to Project Horizon, 1958 - 1962.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the following four reports relating to Project Horizon, 1958 - 1962: Project Horizon, Volume SummaryProject Horizon, Volume 1 Summary and Supporting Considerations; Project Horizon, Volume 2 Technical Considerations and Plans; and Interim Report to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics: A National Integrated Missile and Space Vehicle Development Program.
Arrangement:
Arrangement by report.
Biographical / Historical:
Project Horizon was an ambitious 1959 study by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency for the US Army to determine the feasibility of establishing a scientific and military base on the Moon. According to the report, the lunar outpost was to protect potential US interests on the Moon and it considered such topics as lunar base design and construction, the scientific programs that could be performed on the Moon, and the factors involved in traveling to and from the Moon. Project Horizon was cancelled when the responsibility for the American Space Program was transferred to NASA.
Provenance:
Francis and Joel Williams, Gift, 2020, NASM.2020.0031
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Astronautics, Military  Search this
Moon  Search this
Lunar bases  Search this
Project Horizon  Search this
Genre/Form:
Technical reports -- 1950-1980
Citation:
Project Horizon Reports, NASM.2020.0031 , National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2020.0031
See more items in:
Project Horizon Reports
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2b98054d4-059c-4dc4-9033-e66dc5c73b0b
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2020-0031

[Trade catalogs from Bell System]

Variant company name:
Bell Telephone Laboratories; Bell Laboratories; Bell Telephone Company of Pennsylvania; Bell Telephone Company of Philadelphia; New Jersey Bell Telephone Company;American Telephone and Telegraph Co. and Associated Companies; Western Electric Co. ; Bell Telephone Co. of Canada  Search this
Company Name:
Bell System  Search this
Notes content:
Technical reports and other documents dating from 1920s; manuals dating from approx. 1970s.
Includes:
Trade catalog and manual
Black and white images
Color images
Physical description:
68 pieces; 4 boxes
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
New Jersey, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Telephone; telegraph and telecommunications equipment and supplies  Search this
Topic:
Telecommunication systems  Search this
Telephone  Search this
Telephone supplies industry  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_7166
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_7166

[Trade catalogs from Blue Seal Asbestos Corp.]

Company Name:
Blue Seal Asbestos Corp.  Search this
Notes content:
Technical report: "A report of performance of a Johns-Mansville asbestos wainscoting and transite distributor."
Includes:
Trade catalog
Physical description:
1 piece; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Brooklyn, New York, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Architectural designs and building materials  Search this
Topic:
"Decoration and ornament, Architectural"  Search this
Architectural design  Search this
Building materials  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_8090
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_8090

[Trade catalogs from Boeing Aircraft Co.]

Company Name:
Boeing Aircraft Co.  Search this
Related companies:
Boeing Co.  Search this
Notes content:
4-engine planes; Edmund T. Allen Memorial Aeronautical Labs; press releases; 25th Anniv. catalog. Technical reports: "Noise survey of Boeing-Witchita"; "Industrial Hazards Control" ; Hard Mobile Launcher (HML) ; Rail Garrison
Includes:
Trade catalog, photographs and histories
Black and white images
Color images
Physical description:
19 pieces; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Seattle, Washington, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Aviation (aircraft; balloons; etc.)  Search this
Military equipment and supplies (including uniforms)  Search this
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Airships  Search this
Armed Forces -- Equipment  Search this
Balloons  Search this
Military supplies  Search this
Military uniforms  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_8248
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_8248

[Trade catalogs from Ampex Corp.]

Company Name:
Ampex Corp.  Search this
Related companies:
Mandrel Industries ; Electric Sorting Machine Co.  Search this
Notes content:
Magnetic tape recorders, amplifiers, loudspeakers, memory systems, continuous tape reproducers. Fixed head disks ; recording media archival attributes (magnetic) ; technical report ; studies...this comprises the uncataloged portion.
Includes:
Trade catalog and manual
Black and white images
Physical description:
12 pieces; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
El Segundo, California, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Computers and computer equipment  Search this
Sound recording and playback equipment (including phonographs; microphones; and phonograph records)  Search this
Topic:
Audio equipment industry  Search this
Computers  Search this
Optical equipment  Search this
Phonograph  Search this
Sound -- Recording and reproducing  Search this
Sound recording industry  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_36969
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_36969

[Trade catalogs from Chas. Pfizer & Co. Inc.]

Variant company name:
Founded in 1849 in Brooklyn, NY. http://www.pfizer.com/about/timeline.jsp  Search this
Company Name:
Chas. Pfizer & Co. Inc.  Search this
Related companies:
Pfizer Inc. ; Warner-Lambert ; Parke-Davis ; J.B. Roerig and Co. ; SmithKline Beecham ; Agouron Pharmaceuticals ; Searle ; Monsanto ; Upjohn Co. ; Pharmacia ; Pharmacia & Upjohn ; SUGEN ; Pfizer Laboratories ; Roerig  Search this
Notes content:
Trade lit related to Pfizer, the world's largest research-based biomedical and pharmaceutical company. File includes Pfizer's 100th Anniversary book, published in 1949. Booklet Pfizer Science for Brewery Progress." A technical report of stainless steel clad aluminum for cookware, utensils and appliances. Booklet about the non-caloric synthetic food sweeteners calcium and sodium cyclamaes and calcium and sodium saccharin. A marketing kit to industrial clinics and dispenseries that contained order forms for antibiotic Candettes, Toclase expectorant compound and Tyzine nasal solution, plus information about those products as well as topical antibiotic ointments for skin and eyes and Bonamine for motion sickness. Tecnical reports from Pfizer's agricultural division, issues 1-6, 100-100B, 104, 107-114 (dated May 1965 through May 1967) regarding antibiotics for chickens, dairy cows, calves, mink, turkeys, swine, beef cattle and bees, plus vitamins and minerals for horses, livestock and poultry. A 1983 pamphlet on "Pfizer and Third World Health Issues". The 1956 Annual Shareholder's Report. A 1982 speach by Pfizer Inc. president Gerald D. Laubach entitled "The Chemical Basis for Modern Therapeutics." The story of Pfizer's research reprinted from "Inight" July 1989 Issue 14. A review of current (as of Winter 1959-1960) developments in vitamins, antibiotics and pharmaceuticals in the company's sales division publication "In Brief". A flyer advertising a 1989 cruise sweepstakes for Bonine anti-motion-sickness pills. Pamphlets from the 1930s: "Quality Chemicals", "Fourteenth Exposition Chemical Industries 1933", "Chemicals December 1933" ; intravenous "Terramycin" an antibiotic. "Spectrum" issues (Spring 1964 ; Fall 1965) ; Navane
Includes:
Trade catalog, manual and histories
Black and white images
Color images
Physical description:
47 pieces; 2 boxes
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
New York, New York, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Biotechnology and biochemical equipment and supplies  Search this
Chemicals and chemical products  Search this
Drugs; pharmaceuticals and patent medicines  Search this
Foods and beverage products and processing equipment (including brewing; distilleries; beer; wine; etc.)  Search this
Livestock and fisheries  Search this
Printing; publishing; paper and bookselling (including type specimens)  Search this
Veterinary and pet supplies  Search this
Topic:
Animal industry  Search this
Beverage industry  Search this
Biochemical engineering  Search this
Biotechnology  Search this
Book industries and trade  Search this
Chemicals  Search this
Distilleries  Search this
Drugs  Search this
Fisheries  Search this
Food industry and trade  Search this
Livestock  Search this
Patent medicines  Search this
Pet supplies  Search this
Pharmacy  Search this
Printing machinery and supplies  Search this
Publishers and publishing  Search this
Veterinary instruments and apparatus  Search this
Veterinary medicine  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_31594
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_31594

[Trade catalogs from Food Management, Inc.]

Company Name:
Food Management, Inc.  Search this
Related companies:
Formax, Inc. (Chicago, IL) ;  Search this
Notes content:
Consultants to food industry. Technical report: "Cashin automatic weighing and conveying unit for sliced bacon." Blueprint for hog processing plant.
Includes:
Trade catalog
Black and white images
Physical description:
2 pieces; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Engineering consultants and contractors  Search this
Foods and beverage products and processing equipment (including brewing; distilleries; beer; wine; etc.)  Search this
Butchers’ supplies (including meat processing industry)  Search this
Topic:
Beverage industry  Search this
Butchers  Search this
Consulting engineers  Search this
Distilleries  Search this
Engineers  Search this
Food industry and trade  Search this
Meat industry and trade  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_16231
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_16231

Shriners Hospital Patient Isolation Unit Records

Donor:
Shriners Hospital for Children (Cincinnati, Ohio)  Search this
Hitzler, Ron  Search this
Creator:
Maley, Matthew  Search this
Extent:
0.75 Cubic feet (2 boxes )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Specifications
Reports
Reprints
Trade literature
Design drawings
Photographs
Articles
Technical drawings
Technical reports
Laboratory notes
Correspondence
Date:
1956-1981
bulk 1969-1972
Summary:
Collection documents the development, study, and evaluation of gnotobiotic or germ-free patient isolation. During the 1960s, Shriners Burn Unit in Cincinnati, Ohio modified a previously existing unit, the Life Island (Mark V) and subsequently developed their own germ free unit, the Snyder Unit. One of the main developers of the Snyder Unit was Dr. Matthew Maley of Shriners Hospital. Collection includes correspondence, notes, reports, drawings, photographs, journal articles and trade literature.
Scope and Contents:
The Shriners Hospital Patient Isolation Unit Records consist of approximately .75 cubic feet and document the development and testing of the Synder Unit.

While the majority of the documentation is for the Synder Unit, there are articles and speeches from symposia held on gnotobiotics or the study of germ free living. These articles and speeches range from dealing with burn victims and cancer patients to the toxicity of certain germs to the sustainability of germ free animals.
Arrangement:
The records are arranged into two series.

Series 1, Patient Isolation Unit Materials, 1966-1972

Series 2, Gnotobiotics Research, 1956-1981
Biographical / Historical:
In 1966, Shriners Burns Institute of Cincinnati, Ohio, (now known as the Shriners Hospital for Children) purchased a Life Island (Mark V) patient isolation system or germ free unit and made modifications to it. In 1967, the Shriners Burns Institute began working with the Snyder Manufacturing Company to create their own germ free unit, named the Snyder Unit. This project had several collaborators including Dr. Matthew Maley, Dr. P.C. Trexler, and Dr. Bruce MacMillan. The Snyder Unit was tested from 1967 to 1972. It was used for about a year before the doctors working on the project realized that a smaller and simpler unit named with the acronym, CRS, was more efficient economically and health-wise. While the CRS was not a "bubble" isolation unit like the Life Island or the Synder Unit, it was still considered an isolation unit and soon replaced both the modified Life Island and the Synder Unit which was retired in 1980.

The Synder Unit was also studied to determine if it could be used for cancer patients or patients taking immunosuppressant drugs. Tests proved that while the Synder Unit did help a few cancer patients, the results were not significant enough for its use for patients with weakened immune systems.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Medicine and Science holds a Snyder Isolator (prototype) and Life Island Isolator Mark V unit (Accession #: 1980.0187).
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Ron Hitzler, 2008.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply.
Topic:
Isolation (Hospital care)  Search this
Burn care units  Search this
Hospitals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Specifications
Reports -- 1950-1980
Reprints
Trade literature
Design drawings
Photographs -- 20th century
Articles -- 20th century
Technical drawings
Technical reports
Laboratory notes
Correspondence -- 20th century
Citation:
Shriners Hospital Patient Isolation Records, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1142
See more items in:
Shriners Hospital Patient Isolation Unit Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8e4cd3c56-74cb-45da-b655-e8abf60629df
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1142
Online Media:

Contract, Grant, and Procurement Records, 1956-1996

Creator:
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Contracts and Procurement Office  Search this
Physical description:
63.5 cu. ft. processed holdings
33.5 cu. ft. unprocessed holdings
Type:
Manuscripts
Electronic records
Date:
1956
1956-1996
Topic:
Astrophysical observatories  Search this
Research grants  Search this
Contracts  Search this
Local number:
SIA RS01476
Restrictions & Rights:
Materials less than 15 years old Restricted. Contact reference staff for details
See more items in:
Contract, Grant, and Procurement Records 1956-1996 [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Contracts and Procurement Office]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_287131

Special scientific report--wildlife / U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service

Title:
Special scientific report wildlife
Speical scientific report : wildlife
Author:
United States Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife  Search this
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service  Search this
Physical description:
254 v. : ill. ; 27 cm
Type:
Periodicals
Place:
United States
Date:
1949
1983
1949-1983
Topic:
Wildlife management  Search this
Wildlife conservation  Search this
Game and game-birds  Search this
Fishes  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_187258

Index of Air Force Technical reports

Title:
Index to Reports of Matériel Division, U.S. Army Air Corps
Annual index of Army Air Forces Technical reports
Annual index of U.S. Air Force Technical reports
Author:
United States Air Force Air Matériel Command  Search this
United States Army Air Corps  Search this
United States Army Air Forces  Search this
Former owner:
Air Force Museum (U.S.) DSI  Search this
Physical description:
v. ; 23-28 cm
Type:
Periodicals
Indexes
Place:
United States
Date:
1927
19uu
1927-
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Call number:
TL501 .U518 1927
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_630698

European Southern Observatory scientific preprint

Title:
Scientific preprint
Author:
European Southern Observatory  Search this
Physical description:
v. : ill. ; 30 cm
Type:
Observations
Date:
19uu
Topic:
Astronomy  Search this
Call number:
QB82.G32 G217
QB82.G32G217
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_420909

European Southern Observatory technical preprint

Title:
Technical preprint
Author:
European Southern Observatory  Search this
Physical description:
v. : ill. ; 30 cm
Type:
Observations
Date:
19uu
Topic:
Astronomy  Search this
Call number:
QB82.G32 G216
QB82.G32G216
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_420910

[Technical reports on] radio broadcast and communications equipment

Author:
Gates Radio Company (Quincy, Ill.)  Search this
Physical description:
<1> v. : ill
Type:
Books
Date:
1900
1995
[19--]-
Topic:
Radio--Equipment and supplies  Search this
Call number:
TL507 .G259
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_472434

[Technical reports on an Eimac pulsed klystron amplifier]

Author:
Eitel-McCullough, inc  Search this
Physical description:
<1> v. : ill
Type:
Books
Date:
1900
1995
[19--]-
Topic:
Klystrons  Search this
Call number:
TL507 .E36
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_472442

[Technical reports on] the automatic electronic direction finder

Author:
Directional Instruments Corporation  Search this
Physical description:
<1> v. : ill
Type:
Books
Date:
1900
1995
[19--]-
Topic:
Navigation (Aeronautics)  Search this
Airplanes--Electronic equipment  Search this
Call number:
TL507 .D597
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_472447

[Technical reports on a pilot's course and distance computer]

Author:
W. L. Maxson Corporation  Search this
Physical description:
<1> v. : ill
Type:
Books
Date:
1900
1995
[19--]-
Topic:
Distance measuring equipment (Aircraft to ground station)  Search this
Call number:
TL507 .W836
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_472816

[Technical reports on] design considerations for microwave tunnel diode amplifiers

Author:
Micro State Electronics Corporation  Search this
Physical description:
<1> v. : ill
Type:
Books
Date:
1900
1995
[19--]-
Topic:
Tunnel diodes  Search this
Microwave communication systems  Search this
Call number:
TL507 .M626
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_472820

[Technical reports on fog on runways and an interservice data exchange program to ASTIA report number cross-reference index]

Author:
Sylvania Electric Products, Inc  Search this
Subject:
Defense Documentation Center (U.S.) Indexes  Search this
Physical description:
<2> v. : ill
Type:
Books
Date:
1900
1995
[19--]-
Topic:
Fog  Search this
Runways (Aeronautics)  Search this
Call number:
TL507 .S98
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_473265

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