300 Prints (circa, albumen and silver gelatin (some copy prints))
1 Drawings (visual works)
Drawings (visual works)
Marco Island (Fla. : Island)
Tarpon Springs (Fla.)
Florida -- Antiquities
Scope and Contents note:
The collection consists of photographs collected by Frank Hamilton Cushing that document archeological sites at Key Marco and Tarpon Springs, Florida. Photographs include views of scenery, sites, excavations, a few objects in situ, and other objects after excavation and cleaning. The photographs may have been made by Wells Moses Sawyer, photographer and artist for Cushing's expeditions in Florida.
Frank Hamilton Cushing (1857-1900) was curator of the ethnological department of the United States National Museum and an ethnologist for the Bureau of American Ethnology (1876-circa 1886), best known for his work with at Zuni. In 1895 and 1896, he went to Florida due to ailing health and undertook archeological work on Florida's western coast with the joint sponsorship of the Bureau of American Ethnology and Dr. William Pepper of the University of Pennsylvania. He embarked on reconnaissance in May-June 1895 and conducted large-scale explorations in December 1895-April 1896.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 2
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The original negatives for the prints and some additional negatives not printed are in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 14 subject and geographic file of negatives.
The artifacts depicted in these photographs were probably divided between the Department of Anthropology collections at the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Pennsylvania's museum.
The National Anthropological Archives also holds Cushing's papers (MS 2009-06, MS 4780, and MS 1847), photographs (MS 1839), and manuscripts relating to Cushing's work in Florida (MS 2527, MS 2526, MS 1849-b, MS 1849-a, MS 1848, MS 1846, MS 1844-b, MS 1844-a, MS 1842, MS 1841, and MS 1840)
The Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University also holds some of the Frank Hamilton Cushing papers, 1876-1892.
Paleoindian Tradition (archaeological culture) Search this
Works of art
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of twenty-one (21) watercolor paintings of wooden masks and other objects excavated at Key Marco and Tarpon Springs, Florida. The paintings are signed with the monogram W. M. S. Two of the paintings have pencil drawings of abstract and geometric designs on the reverse.
Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
The paintings are arranged by the original USNM Catalog number.
Wells Moses Sawyer (1863-1960) was an American painter, illustrator, and photographer. Sawyer received a law degree in 1882, but pursued a career in art after studying at the Art Institute of Chicago. He was an illustrator for the Chicago Daily News and the Chicago Tribune before becoming a draftsman for the U.S. Geological Survey in Washington D.C. He served as the artist for the Pepper-Hearst Expedition to Key Marco, Florida, 1895-1897. The expedition, led by Frank Hamilton Cushing (1857-1900), uncovered over 1000 wooden artifacts created by Southwest Florida's early Calusa people or their Muspa ancestors. As artist, Sawyer documented these findings in drawings, paintings, photographs, and maps. He resigned from his position with the USGS in 1898 to oversee the design and inspection of furnishings for government buildings. Sawyer's artistic works were well exhibited during his lifetime, first showing in the early 1890s.
NAA MS 241,241-241,260
USNM Accession 48,531
The National Anthropological Archives holds additional material created by Sawyer for the Pepper-Hearst/Key Marco expedition in MS 1844-b List of manuscript material left by Frank Hamilton Cushing; MS 1849-b Maps of F. H. Cushingʹs excavation at Florida sites; MS 3381 Drawings of crania from Cushingʹs Florida Collection; Frank Hamilton Cushing photograph collection relating to excavations on the west coast of Florida, 1895-1896 (Photo Lot 2).
The Archives of American Art holds the Wells Sawyer papers.
The University of Florida holds the Wells M. Sawyer Collection.
Transferred to the United States National Museum collection from the Bureau of American Ethnology through W. H. Holmes, Washington, D.C., April 1, 1908.
Transferred to Smithsonian Office of Anthropology (SOA) Archives (now the National Anthropological Archives) from the North American Division, SOA, April 19, 1967.