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Philip G. Freelon Architectural Archive

Creator:
Freelon, Philip G., 1953-2019  Search this
Names:
American Institute of Architects  Search this
Freelon Adjaye Bond/SmithGroup  Search this
Freelon Bond Architects  Search this
Freelon Group  Search this
Hampton University (Va.)  Search this
Harvard University  Search this
Massachusetts Institute of Technology  Search this
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. School of Architecture  Search this
National Museum of African American History and Culture  Search this
National Organization of Minority Architects (U.S.)  Search this
North Carolina Board of Architecture  Search this
NorthStar Church of the Arts  Search this
PPG Industries, Inc.  Search this
Perkins & Will  Search this
Adjaye, David, 1966-  Search this
Bond, J. Max, Jr.  Search this
Freelon, Allan Randall, 1895-1960  Search this
Extent:
5.1 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Place:
North Carolina -- United States
United States of America -- North Carolina -- Durham County -- Durham
United States of America -- Massachusetts -- Suffolk County -- Boston
United States of America -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia County -- Philadelphia
United States of America -- New York -- New York
Date:
bulk 1939-2017
Scope and Contents:
The Philip G. Freelon Architectural Archival Collection documents the life and career of architect, educator, cultural heritage preservation advocate and artist Philip G. Freelon. The collection highlights his distinguished career from its inception to his role as the "architect of record" for the National Museum of African American History and Culture. Freelon was one of the leading African American architects of his generation and he created a focus designing and constructing buildings that paid reverence to African Americans and other underrepresented communities. This collection is comprised of business records, photographic materials, ephemera, correspondence, architectural drawings, and clippings.
Arrangement:
The materials in this collection have been separated into seven series. The materials have been ordered and organized based on the content and chronology. Within each series and sub-series, the folders are organized as close to the collection's original order as when it was acquired.
Biographical / Historical:
Philip Goodwin Freelon was born March 26, 1953, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Allan Freelon, Jr. and Elizabeth Neal Freelon. Freelon was greatly influenced by his grandfather, Allan Freelon Sr., a notable Harlem Renaissance visual artist, educator, and civil rights activist. His grandfather's values and artistry inspired him to create a career that focused on creating historical and cultural spaces in African American communities. Freelon attended high school at the former predominantly white elite all-boys school, Central High School located in upper North Philadelphia from 1967 to 1971. His attendance at this school during of the Civil Rights Movement afforded him the unique experience that inspired him to attend a historically Black college (HBCU). Freelon selected Hampton Institute (Hampton University) to develop his veneration of the composition and design of the buildings that held cultural and artistic treasures. Located in the Tidewater area of Virginia, Hampton was renowned among HBCUs for its architecture program. His professor and mentor at Hampton, John Spencer, pushed Freelon academically as he moved easily through the school's curriculum. After two years at Hampton, Spencer helped Freelon transition to a more challenging program at North Carolina State University (NCSU) in Raleigh, North Carolina. Freelon graduated in 1975 with a bachelor's in environmental design in architecture.

Later in the fall of 1975, Freelon enrolled at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to pursue a master's in architecture. During the summers, Freelon worked with one of former his NC State professors at the architectural firm of John D. Latimer and Associates. After graduating from MIT in 1977, Freelon returned to North Carolina to take his Architecture Registration Examination (ARE), becoming the firm's youngest person to receive licensure. He also began teaching classes at his alma mater, NC State. It was there that Freelon met his future wife, Nnenna Pierce. Pierce, a Massachusetts native was attending Simmons College in Boston at the time. The connection was immediate, and the pair was married in 1979 and welcomed their first son, Deen in 1980. After a brief employment for a large Texas firm 3/D International, Freelon returned to Durham to join O'Brien Atkins Associates. He was the firm's youngest partner, eventually serving as principal and vice president of architecture. Freelon worked on a wide variety of projects throughout the state including learning centers, university buildings, churches, and parking garages. Along with Freelon's budding career, his family was expanding as well. Phil and Nnenna welcomed their daughter Maya in 1982 and their son, Pierce in 1983. During this time, Freelon was being highly recognized for his work. The American of Institute of Architects (AIA) awarded him the Honor Award for his design of Terminal 2 of the Raleigh-Durham International Airport, which has since been rebuilt.

By the end of the decade, Freelon and his wife Nnenna needed a change of pace. Nnenna pursued a professional career in music while Phil took a break from his career to expand his skillset and reinforce his intellectual approach to design. In 1989, Freelon was granted the Loeb Fellowship for one year of independent study at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design. He also pursued a longtime hobby of furniture design, calling the practice "small architecture". He received industry awards like first prize in the PPG Industries, Inc. Furniture Design Competition as well as AIA Honor Award for conference table designs. With a year away from the field to clarify his vision, Freelon opened his own firm, simply titled, the Freelon Group in 1990. Beginning as a one-man operation, the Freelon Group grew to become one of the largest African American owned architectural firms in the country with over 50 employees, forty percent of which were women, and thirty percent were people of color. With freedom within his own firm, Freelon focused on designing learning centers, libraries and museums and vowed to never build anything that did not bring cultural and intellectual value to a community.

Over the next twenty years, Freelon would assert himself as a force in designing notable cultural institutions and community-driven projects in and around the country including the Sonja Haynes Stone Center at University of North Carolina Chapel Hill (Chapel Hill, NC), Reginald F. Lewis Museum of Maryland African American History & Culture (Baltimore, MD), Museum of African Diaspora (San Francisco, CA), Harvey B. Gantt for African American Arts and Culture (Charlotte, NC), the Anacostia and Tenley-Friendship branches of the District of Columbia Public Library , National Center for Civil Rights and Human Rights (Atlanta, GA), Mississippi Civil Rights Museum (Jackson, MS) and Emancipation Park (Houston, TX). Alongside his architectural career, Freelon served as a lecturer and adjunct professor at several colleges and universities including North Carolina State University, Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), University of Maryland College Park, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Syracuse University, and the Florence, Italy program at Kent State University. Freelon was awarded a full-time appointment as professor of Professional Practice at MIT in 2008. The Professional Practice (4.222) course was a requirement for the master's in architecture and he used examples from his extensive career and personal experience to illustrate legal, ethical, and management concepts. Nnenna's music career was also thriving. She would go on to record twelve albums and be nominated for six Grammys. This fusion of education, the arts, and music inspired another generation of Freelons: their son, Pierce Freelon is a hip-hop artist, educator, and political activist; daughter Maya Freelon is a visual artist; and son Deen Freelon is a professor.

In 2001, George W. Bush established a commission to create a new museum on the National Mall. Freelon wanted to enter his firm to participate in the international design competition. Freelon would partner with famed African American New York City architect, J. Max Bond, Jr. and by 2006 the two officially formed the Freelon Bond Architects.The Freelon Bond group submitted their proposal and soon after were elected to create programming and pre-design work for the museum. When the official design competition for the museum was announced in 2008, UK-based architect David Adjaye joined the team as the lead designer, and along with the partnering firm SmithGroup, the new architectural team became Freelon Adjaye Bond/SmithGroup. The three black architects combined a variety of distinctive elements from Africa and the Americas to create the building's unique, historically significant design. The Freelon Group served as the "architect of record" and were responsible for ensuring that key design ideas were upheld. Freelon and key firm members such as Zena Howard were active as on-site project managers during the museum's construction process to certify that the building would be developed according to plan. Freelon, Adjaye, and Bond were tasked with taking the collective history of the African American experience-- generations of pain, triumph, and perseverance-- and forming it into a structure. The team looked to African sources, such as Yoruban architecture, for inspiration. They sought to connect the building's design to the geographic and cultural roots of African Americans. Their design choices also reference the contributions of enslaved and free black metalworkers made to the landscape of the American South. Their goal was to make the museum an extension of its contents, and an expression of the stories told inside. By the groundbreaking for NMAAHC in 2012, Freelon had been appointed to the U.S. Commission of the Fine Arts by President Barack Obama. In an effort to broaden his resources and expand his firm, The Freelon Group merged with Perkins & Will, a firm originating in Chicago that grew to have offices across the United States. Freelon was appointed the managing director and later lead design director at the firm's North Carolina offices in Charlotte and Durham in 2014. By the next year, Freelon understood that his work in architecture and education was a necessary voice to preserve, which he did through donation of the bulk of his personal papers to his alma mater, NC State University. The year 2016 proved to be a year of triumph for Freelon as NMAAHC opened its doors on September 24th to much jubilation and celebration. That same year, Freelon's legacy was further cemented as the Phil Freelon Fellowship Fund was established at Harvard University Graduate School of Design, a fellowship designed to broaden opportunities for African Americans and other underrepresented communities in architecture and design.

Unfortunately, this triumphant year was met with difficulty as Freelon was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive disease that affects the nervous system. He would continue to work and lecture for the next two years until it became too challenging. One of those projects was the renovation and opening of The NorthStar Church of the Arts in early 2019. A passion project with his wife and son, Pierce, a former church was renovated and repurposed as an arts and cultural space for all. This space was created in an effort to support the Durham cultural community as it began to feel the effects of gentrification. When Freelon lost his battle with ALS on July 9, 2019, in his home in Durham, North Carolina, the family requested that in lieu of flowers that donations be sent to the NorthStar Church to continue the center's mission and Phil's dream to give back to the Durham community.

Historical Timeline

1953 -- Philip Goodwin Freelon was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Allan Freelon Jr. and Elizabeth Neal Freelon.

1971 -- Freelon graduated from Central High School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and entered School of Architecture, Hampton University in Hampton, Virginia as a design student.

1973 -- Freelon transferred to College of Design at the North Carolina State University in Raleigh.

1975 -- Graduated with a Bachelor's in Environmental Design in Architecture from NC State University. He received the American Institute of Architects (AIA) Book Award for Outstanding Work in Architectural Design. In the fall, he began his master's program in architecture at MIT.

1976 -- Began working as aide for architectural firm, John D. Latimer and Associates.

1977 -- Graduated with a Master's in Architecture and Design from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT.)

1978 -- Freelon became youngest architect to pass the North Carolina Architecture Registration Exam. Freelon started teaching at North Carolina State University.

1979 -- Married Chinyere "Nnenna" Pierce. Freelon began working for, 3/D International in Houston, Texas.

1980 -- Son Deen Freelon was born.

1981 -- Freelon returned to Durham, NC to join O'Brien Atkins Associates as the firm's youngest partner.

1982 -- Daughter Maya Freelon was born.

1983 -- Son Pierce Freelon was born.

1989-1990 -- Received Loeb Fellowship for independent study at Harvard University. Freelon received AIA Honor Award for American Airlines Terminal 2 at Raleigh-Durham Airport, NC (RDU).

1990 -- Freelon left O'Brien Atkins Associates to open his own firm The Freelon Group.

1991 -- Won first prize in the PPG Furniture Design Competition.

1992 -- Won the AIA Honor Award for Conference Table Designs.

2001 -- Won the AIA Firm Award for The Freelon Group and the AIA Design Award for Parking Structure, RDU Airport. Began attending meetings of President George W. Bush's commission on new National Mall museum dedicated to African American history and culture.

2003 -- Freelon merged his firm with New York architect Max Bond to create Freelon Bond Architects.

2004 -- Sonja Haynes Stone Center at University of North Carolina Chapel Hill (Chapel Hill, NC) was completed.

2005 -- Reginald F. Lewis Museum of Maryland African American History & Culture (Baltimore, MD) and Museum of African Diaspora (San Francisco, CA) were both completed.

2008 -- UK-based architect David Adjaye and Washington, DC based architecture firm, Smithgroup joined the team, creating the Freelon Adjaye Bond Group/SmithGroup Freelon began teaching at MIT's school of Architecture and Design.

2009 -- Freelon Adjaye Bond/Smithgroup won the official design for the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture (NMAAHC). Harvey B. Gantt for African American Arts and Culture (Charlotte, NC) was completed.

2010 -- Anacostia branch of the District of Columbia Public Library (Washington, DC) was completed.

2011 -- Tenley-Friendship branch of the District of Columbia Public Library (Washington, DC) was completed.

2012 -- Construction began on NMAAHC.

2014 -- The Freelon Group merged with Perkins & Will, a much larger architectural firm. Freelon became managing director and lead design director of the North Carolina branches in Durham and Charlotte. National Center for Civil Rights and Human Rights (Atlanta, GA) was completed.

2016 -- Freelon was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

2017 -- Mississippi Civil Rights Museum (Jackson, MS) and Emancipation Park (Houston, TX) were completed.

2019 -- Freelon died in his home in Durham, North Carolina at age 66 on July 9.
Related Materials:
Phil Freelon Papers, 1975-2019 at North Carolina State University Libraries.
Provenance:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Philip G. Freelon.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Access to collection materials requires an appointment.
Rights:
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.
Topic:
Architecture  Search this
Business  Search this
Construction  Search this
Entrepreneurship  Search this
Local and Regional  Search this
Design  Search this
Education  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Museums  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Citation:
Philip G. Freelon Archival Collection, 1939-2017. National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.A2017.51
See more items in:
Philip G. Freelon Architectural Archive
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/io3ba3ca2a2-5495-45cf-801c-f3d66a7002fd
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-a2017-51

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
Universal Network Television, American, founded 1950  Search this
Alex Haley, American, 1921 - 1992  Search this
Percy Ellis Sutton, American, 1920 - 2009  Search this
Columbia Records, American, founded 1888  Search this
Brown & Williamson, American, born 1894  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry  Search this
National Association of Market Developers, American, founded 1953  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Roy Wilkins, American, 1901 - 1981  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
National Association of Black Social Workers, American, founded 1968  Search this
National Pan-Hellenic Council, American, founded 1930  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
National Sorority of Phi Delta Kappa, Inc., American, founded 1923  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
National Dental Association, American, founded 1913  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Eta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1943  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, American, founded 1913  Search this
President Jimmy Carter, American, born 1924  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Daughters of Isis, American, founded 1910  Search this
Opportunities Industrialization Center of America, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
National Urban League Guild, American, founded 1946  Search this
Tuskegee Airmen, 1941 - 1946  Search this
Congressional Black Caucus, American, founded 1971  Search this
Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks of the World, American, founded 1898  Search this
National Council of Negro Women, founded 1935  Search this
Muhammad Ali, American, 1942 - 2016  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, American, founded 1957  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
Northside Center for Child Development, Inc., founded 1946  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 5/16 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 0.8 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Martha's Vineyard, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1977
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Black Press  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religion  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
Sports  Search this
Tennis  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's organizations  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.11
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5a191f832-64ab-4d62-81fe-a2bc53493bea
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.11
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View <I>Delegate</I> digital asset number 1

A. Henry Nordhausen papers

Creator:
Nordhausen, A. Henry, 1901-  Search this
Names:
Peter A. Juley & Son  Search this
Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Munich, Germany)  Search this
Salmagundi Club  Search this
Extent:
8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1919-1991
Scope and Contents:
Biographical material; correspondence with Harrison Cady, John Cosigan, the Columbus Museum, Georgia Institute of Technology, Grand Central Galleries, Musemont Fine Art Camp, the Salmagundi Club, the Art Students League, Laurence Schmeckebier (Nordhausen's biographer), Syracuse University, the United States Navy, and others, mostly concerning portraits by Nordhausen; bills and receipts; a diary, 1923-1924, concerning his studies at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Munich and his travels in Europe; day books and engagement calendars, ca. 1940-1985; address books; guest books; 9 scrapbooks, 1919-1991, containing photographs, clippings and letters; exhibition catalogs and announcements; photographs of works of art by Peter A. Juley; certificates of merit from the Salmagundi Club, 1950-1974; and photographs of Salmagundi Club dinners, 1938, 1940, 1942, 1947, 1949, 1961, and 1962.
Biographical / Historical:
Painter, portrait painter; Columbus, Ga. Died 1993.
Provenance:
Bequest of A. Henry Nordhausen, 1994.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Portrait painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- Georgia -- Columbus  Search this
Topic:
Portrait painting -- United States  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching -- United States  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching -- Germany -- Munich  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.norda
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw93d1c67e6-821a-4d63-b5ac-e58cc78b411a
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-norda

Laurence E. Schmeckebier papers, 1909-1988

Creator:
Schmeckebier, Laurence Eli, 1906-1984  Search this
Subject:
Grosz, George  Search this
Lebrun, Rico  Search this
Meštrović, Ivan  Search this
Nordhausen, A. Henry  Search this
Orozco, José Clemente  Search this
Refregier, Anton  Search this
Rood, John  Search this
Roysher, Hudson  Search this
Schreckengost, Viktor  Search this
Dehn, Adolf  Search this
Evergood, Philip  Search this
Gropius, Walter  Search this
Type:
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Laurence E. Schmeckebier papers, 1909-1988. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Art in universities and colleges -- New York (State) -- Syracuse  Search this
Mural painting and decoration, American -- New York (State) -- Syracuse  Search this
Mural painting and decoration, Mexican  Search this
Muralists  Search this
Greeting cards  Search this
Latino and Latin American artists  Search this
Theme:
Research and writing about art  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8724
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210905
AAA_collcode_schmlaur
Theme:
Research and writing about art
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210905

Heinz Warneke papers

Creator:
Warneke, Heinz (Heinrich), 1895-1983  Search this
Names:
Corcoran School of Art (Washington, D.C.) -- Faculty  Search this
United States. Work Projects Administration  Search this
Archer, Edmund, 1904-  Search this
Diederich, William Hunt, 1884-1953  Search this
Hancock, Walker Kirtland, 1901-1998  Search this
Hopper, Inslee  Search this
Zigrosser, Carl, 1891-  Search this
Extent:
6.25 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Sketchbooks
Date:
1928-1987
Scope and Contents:
Biographical material, financial material, correspondence, notes, writings, art work, photographs, printed material, and project files document the career of sculptor and educator, Heinz Warneke. Also included are some writings, art work, photographs, and printed material related to his wife, Jessie Warneke.
Biographical materials include autobiographical and biographical sketches about Warneke, and certificates, including his membership card to the Kunstler-Bund-Bremen, 1922-1923; personal financial materials, ca. 1931-1937, include household records for his East Haddam, Connecticut home, "The Mowings."
Correspondence, 1930-1987, with his wife, Jessie, friends, colleagues, clients, gallery owners, museum and art school administrators, various art guilds and societies, and foundries. Among the correspondents are Edmund (Ned) Archer, William Hunt Diederich, Walker Hancock, Dick and Julia Helms, Inslee A. Hopper, Rena T. Magee, Jessalee Sickman, Henry Vam Wolf, and Carl Zigrosser. The correspondence discusses exhibitions and sales of Warneke's sculptures, the Corcoran School of Art, and invitations to various White House and Embassy functions in Washington, D.C. Also included are illustrated letters from Henry Kriess and Jessie Warneke.
Notes are by Heinz Warneke, ca. 1928-1979, and others and include 5 address books, 2 notebooks, one regarding the Warneke School of Sculpture, ca. 1935-1937, scattered notes regarding Warneke's sculpture classes at the Corcoran School of Art, ca. 1950-1963, his formulas and processes for sculpting, and price lists for his art works. Notes by ohters include a guest book from the exhibition, "Heinz Warneke Looks Back," 1967 and research notes by Mary Mullen Cunningham, undated. Writings, ca. 1923-1977, by Heinz Warneke and others, include lectures, forewords to exhibition catalogs, and a statement of "Opinion regarding the Philosophy of the Corcoran School of Art and the Direction it should take."
Art works, ca. 1929-1932, include 2 sketchbooks, studies of figures, animals, and plant life, watercolors, several chalk sketches for a work possibly depiction life at "The Mowings," by Warneke, several sketches by Jessie Warneke, an etching, and three engravings by others. Photographs, ca. 1918-1983, are of Heinz, family and friends including Edmund Archer, Inslee Hopper, Roderick Seidenberg, Carl Zigrosser, his pet dogs, his homes and studios in Connecticut, New York, and Washington, D.C., students, travels, art works by Heinz and Jessie, exhibition installations, and source material.
Printed material include exhibition announcements and catalogs and clippings, and other materials for Heinz, Jessie, and others, ca. 1923-1981. There is a file regarding Warneke's participation on the jury for the Thomas Jefferson Memorial Committee, 1939-1940, and circa 136 project files for completed and proposed sculpture works for public and private commissions which include various works for the National Cathedral, Washington, D.C., an African cow elephant and calf for the Philadelphia Zoo, the Nittany Lion for Pennsylvania State University, and several Works Project Authority (WPA), and other federal projects, ca., 1911-1971.
Biographical / Historical:
Heinz Warneke (1895-1983) was a sculptor, animal sculptor and educator in East Haddam, Connecticut. Born and trained in Germany, Warneke worked on sculpture projects for WPA and was the head of the sculpture department at the Corcoran School of Art from the early 1940's to 1970.
Related Materials:
Heinz Warneke papers also at Syracuse University.
Provenance:
Donated 1977 by Warneke, and in 1983-1984, and 1994 by his stepdaughter and executrix of his estate, Priscilla Norton. The 1994 installment had been used by Micky Cunningham in her book, "Heinz Warneke, 1895-1983: A Sculptor First and Last" (University of Delaware Press, 1994). Additional photograph of Warneke by his stepson Edward Hall transferred 2013 from SAAM via George Gurney, Curator. Gurney received the photograph from Priscilla Norton.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Animal sculptors -- Connecticut -- East Haddam  Search this
Sculptors -- Connecticut -- East Haddam  Search this
Topic:
Sculpture -- Study and teaching  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Sketchbooks
Identifier:
AAA.warnhein
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw90536c46a-164a-4b1b-9986-1477624f9337
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-warnhein

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
Sigma Phi Rho Fraternity, American, founded 1978  Search this
National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education, American, founded 1969  Search this
Association of Black Women Attorneys, American, founded 1976  Search this
National Urban Affairs Council, American, founded 1971  Search this
Raymond A. Jordan Jr., American, born 1943  Search this
National Association of Market Developers, American, founded 1953  Search this
The Links, Incorporated, American, founded 1946  Search this
Northside Center for Child Development, Inc., founded 1946  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
Top Ladies of Distinction, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
Carats, Inc., American, founded 1959  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Iota Phi Lambda Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1929  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Dr. Leslie L. Alexander, Jamaican American, 1917 - 2002  Search this
Smithsonian Institution, American, founded 1846  Search this
National Sorority of Phi Delta Kappa, Inc., American, founded 1923  Search this
Morehouse College, American, founded 1867  Search this
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, American, founded 1913  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Dr. Benjamin Elijah Mays, American, 1894 - 1984  Search this
Count Basie, American, 1904 - 1984  Search this
National Coalition of 100 Black Women, American, founded 1981  Search this
National Bankers Association, American, founded 1927  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
One Hundred Black Men, Inc., American, founded 1963  Search this
Association for the Study of African American Life and History, American, founded 1915  Search this
Signed by:
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 9/16 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1.5 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Martha's Vineyard, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1985
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Black Enterprise  Search this
Black Press  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religion  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's organizations  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.19
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5ee110782-b949-43b4-bbec-56a00d4f086e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.19
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  • View <I>Delegate</I> digital asset number 1

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education, American, founded 1969  Search this
Howard University, American, founded 1867  Search this
Medgar Evers College, American, founded 1970  Search this
The Links, Incorporated, American, founded 1946  Search this
Morehouse College, American, founded 1867  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
National Association of Market Developers, American, founded 1953  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
Carats, Inc., American, founded 1959  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, American, founded 1920  Search this
Iota Phi Lambda Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1929  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc., founded 1922  Search this
National Bar Association, American, founded 1925  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Cora Walker, American, 1922 - 2006  Search this
Clara Hale, American, 1905 - 1992  Search this
Alice Kornegay, American, died 1996  Search this
One Hundred Black Men, Inc., American, founded 1963  Search this
Dorothy Pitman Hughes, American, born 1938  Search this
National Funeral Directors and Morticians Association, Inc., American, founded 1924  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 5/16 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 0.8 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Martha's Vineyard, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1986
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Black Press  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Funeral customs and rites  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religion  Search this
Sororities  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's organizations  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.20
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5847f7048-f171-4bf3-95e2-5945542a67c4
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.20
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  • View <I>Delegate</I> digital asset number 1

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Amos T. Hall, American, 1896 - 1971  Search this
Subject of:
New York Giants, American, founded 1925  Search this
National Pan-Hellenic Council, American, founded 1930  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
Dr. Ralph Bunche, American, 1903 - 1971  Search this
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, American, founded 1957  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Adam Clayton Powell Jr., American, 1908 - 1972  Search this
National Black Political Convention, 1971 - 1972  Search this
Logan H. Westbrook, American  Search this
Roy Wilkins, American, 1901 - 1981  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
Tufts University, American, founded 1852  Search this
Democratic Party, American, founded 1828  Search this
National Insurance Association, American, founded 1921  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
National Council of Negro Women, founded 1935  Search this
Republican Party, American, founded 1854  Search this
American Bridge Association, American, founded 1932  Search this
Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, American, founded 1920  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
The Drifters, Inc., American, founded 1957  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc., founded 1922  Search this
Patti Austin, American, born 1950  Search this
National Funeral Directors and Morticians Association, Inc., American, founded 1924  Search this
National Dental Association, American, founded 1913  Search this
George Leslie Brown, American, 1926 - 2006  Search this
Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated, founded 1908  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Otha N. Brown Jr., American, 1931 - 2009  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Gladys W. Dixon, American, born 1901  Search this
Daughters of Isis, American, founded 1910  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Shirley Anita Chisholm, American, 1924 - 2005  Search this
National Alliance of Postal and Federal Employees, American, founded 1913  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks of the World, American, founded 1898  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 11 × 8 7/16 × 3/8 in. (28 × 21.5 × 0.9 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Miami, Dade County, Florida, United States, North and Central America
Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, United States, North and Central America
California, United States, North and Central America
Colorado, United States, North and Central America
Connecticut, United States, North and Central America
Saint Louis, Missouri, United States, North and Central America
Atlanta, Fulton County, Georgia, United States, North and Central America
Martha's Vineyard, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1972
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Black Press  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Funeral customs and rites  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religion  Search this
Sororities  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's organizations  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.6
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd57be2842a-c611-469d-b78d-3ea1f77c7055
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.6
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  • View <I>Delegate</I> digital asset number 1

Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers

Creator:
Knight, Gwendolyn  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Names:
Bearden, Romare, 1911-1988  Search this
Bocour, Leonard, 1910-1993  Search this
Dintenfass, Terry, 1920-  Search this
Eichenberg, Fritz, 1901-1990  Search this
Evergood, Philip, 1901-1973  Search this
Halpert, Edith Gregor, 1900-1970  Search this
Extent:
25.35 Linear feet
0.001 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Photographs
Date:
1816
1914-2008
bulk 1973-2001
Summary:
The papers of African American painter and educator Jacob Lawrence and his wife, artist Gwendolyn Knight measure 25.35 linear feet and 0.001 GB date from 1914 to 2008, with one item from 1816 and the bulk of the material dating from 1973 to 2001. The collection includes biographical material; correspondence including condolence letters to Gwendolyn Knight after Jacob Lawrence's death; writings by Jacob Lawrence and others; printed and digital material; photographs; personal business records; artwork; records from the Jacob Lawrence Catalogue Raisonné Project; materials related to the Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation; professional files; and material related to awards and honors received by Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of African American painter and educator Jacob Lawrence and his wife, artist Gwendolyn Knight measure 25.35 linear feet and 0.001 GB and date from 1914 to 2008, with one item from 1816 and the bulk of the material dating from 1973 to 2001. The collection includes biographical material; correspondence including condolence letters to Gwendolyn Knight after Jacob Lawrence's death; writings by Jacob Lawrence and others; printed and digital material; photographs; personal business records; artwork; records from the Jacob Lawrence Catalogue Raisonné Project; materials related to the Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation; professional files; and material related to awards and honors received by Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight.

Biographical material includes appointment and address books; education and personal identification certificates and documents; awards, certificates, curriculum vitae, and chronologies; biographical material related to other individuals, including identification documents and memorial programs; and transcripts of interviews with Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight.

The correspondence series includes extensive personal and professional correspondence with family, friends, artists, admirers (including students in a number of elementary and middle schools), university students, government agencies, art schools, galleries, museums, publishing houses, and others. Included in this series are condolence letters received by Gwendolyn Knight after Jacob Lawrence's death in 2000.

Writings include published and unpublished writings by and about Jacob Lawrence, as well as writings by others. These writings include speeches, notes, essays, articles, lists, and short stories. Also included is a visitor comment book from the Los Angeles County Museum exhibition of Jacob Lawrence's Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass series.

Printed material includes books; brochures; business cards; clippings; exhibition and event announcements, invitations, catalogs, and programs; magazines; newsletters; posters; post cards; and press releases. Books in this collection may include illustrations by Jacob Lawrence or have personal inscriptions from the author to Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight.

Photographs include photographs of Jacob Lawrence artwork, photographs and reproductions of Gwendolyn Knight artwork, and photographs of Jacob Lawrence, Gwendolyn Knight, and other individuals. Also included in this series are photographs and reproductions of work by others.

Personal business records include a ledger; consignment, financial, and shipping records related to the Terry Dintenfass Gallery; contracts and agreements; and estate documents.

Artwork includes sketches by Jacob Lawrence, a blank sketchbook inscribed by Jacob Lawrence to Gwendolyn Knight, and artwork by other artists.

Jacob Lawrence Catalogue Raisonné Project Records include materials generated by the Jacob Lawrence Catalogue Raisonné Project, a non-profit created with the goal of producing a catalogue raisonné (and later, a digital archive) of Jacob Lawrence's work. These records include address books and phone logs; copies of Jacob Lawrence's CV; founding documents, bylaws, and meeting minutes; correspondence; writings, including draft pages of the catalogue raisonné; business records, including employment files, contracts, invoices, insurance, and tax information; printed and digital material; and photographs and artwork.

The Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation and Related Material series includes founding documents and foundation bylaws, correspondence, financial documents, reports, and proposals. Found within this series are materials related to the Lawrence Center for the Visual Arts, a subsidiary foundation of the Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation.

Professional files include material related to projects and exhibitions, teaching files and inclusion in curricula, files regarding possible fake Jacob Lawrence works, and gallery files.

The honors series is divided into two subseries: awards and certificates, and government honors. Awards and certificates includes honorary degrees, arts prizes, and any other honors awarded to Jacob Lawrence or Gwendolyn Knight. Government honors include resolutions, proclamations, and keys to cities. Also included in this series are correspondence related to awards and honorary degrees, commencement programs, plaques, and medals.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in 11 series.

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1914-2005 (Boxes 1, 11, 26, OV 10; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1943, 1952-2005 (Boxes 1-5, 12-14, 26; 7.7 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, 1954-1959, 1973-2005, undated (Boxes 5-6, 14-15; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Printed Material, 1816, 1926, 1937, 1945-2008 (Boxes 6-9, 15-17, 26, OV 30, OV 31; 6.8 linear feet)

Series 5: Photographs, circa 1970-1997, undated (Boxes 9, 17, OV 10; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 6: Personal Business Records, 1962-2005 (Boxes 9, 17; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 7: Artwork, 1984, 1990-1994, undated (Boxes 9, 18, 26; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 8: Jacob Lawrence Catalogue Raisonne Project Records, 1982-2002 (Boxes 18-23, Box 26; 5.1 linear feet, ER01; 0.001 GB)

Series 9: Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation and Related Material, 1997-2005 (Box 23; 0.6 linear feet)

Series 10: Professional Files, 1964-2004 (Boxes 23-24; 1.2 linear feet)

Series 11: Honors, 1948, 1966-2005 (Boxes 24-25, 27-29, OV 30; 2.3 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Modernist painter and educator Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000) was born in 1917 as Jacob Armstead Lawrence in Atlantic City, New Jersey. He began his art studies at the Utopia Children's Center in New York City's Harlem district where he studied under the painter Charles Alston. Lawrence dropped out of high school at the age of sixteen to continue his art instruction with Alston, this time at the Harlem Art Workshop, where he met several artists associated with the Harlem Renaissance including the sculptor Augusta Savage.

Gwendolyn Knight (1913-2005) was born in Barbados and moved to New York City with her adoptive parents when she was seven. She attended New York's Wadleigh High School and later Howard University in Washington, D.C. where she studied fine arts with Lois Mailou Jones and James Porter. Forced to leave her studies at Howard because of the Depression, Knight returned to Harlem and continued her artistic pursuits in Augusta Savage's workshop. In 1935, Knight joined the Harlem Mural Project of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) working under Selma Day and Charles Alston. Lawrence and Knight met in Savage's workshop and married in the summer of 1941.

During the Depression, Lawrence also joined the WPA Federal Arts Project in Harlem. Finding WPA murals overwhelming, Lawrence concentrated on traditional painting instead. He produced his first major works in the late 1930s, most notably the Toussaint L'Ouverture series, images that document the life of the revolutionary hero and Haiti's struggle for independence. Other significant works include visual narratives of the lives of abolitionists Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass. In 1940, Lawrence received the prestigious Julius Rosenwald Fellowship, which made it possible for him to purchase his first art studio on 125th Street in the heart of Harlem. He soon portrayed Harlem street life in paintings that became commentaries on the role of African Americans in United States society with highly developed themes of resistance and social opposition. That same year, Lawrence began his most celebrated series, The Migration of the American Negro, multiple tempera panels depicting the exodus of African American sharecroppers in the south to northern industrial cities in search of better employment and social opportunities. Edith Halpert exhibited the works in their entirety at her Downtown Gallery in 1941, establishing Lawrence as the first African American artist to exhibit in a top New York gallery. The following year, New York's Museum of Modern Art and the Phillips Collection in Washington, DC each bought half of the sixty panels in the series, helping to further Lawrence's career within the larger world of American art.

In the summer of 1946, the artist Joseph Albers invited Lawrence to teach at North Carolina's Black Mountain College. It was the first in a series of teaching positions in prestigious art schools including Pratt Institute (1956-1971), Brandeis University (1965), The New School (1966), the Art Students League (1967), and others. During the 1950s and 1960s, Lawrence's work continued to focus on racism and political activism but in the late 1960s shifted to themes of racial harmony.

Both Lawrence and Knight continued independent careers in art. Knight pursued her art studies at the New School in New York and the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture in Maine. In the mid-1960s, she collaborated with other female artists to form the Studio Gallery in New York City. Knight's main body of work consists of portraits and still-lifes that incorporate expressions of African sculpture, Impressionism, dance, and theater. Focusing on gesture, her art is described as light and airy with a minimum of lines allowing empty space to define the work. In 1970, Lawrence traveled to Seattle to teach as a visiting artist at the University of Washington. He was hired on a permanent basis the following year and remained on staff until his retirement in 1986.

Jacob Lawrence died June 9, 2000, in Seattle, Washington at the age of 83. Gwendolyn Knight continued to paint and exhibit her work around the country until her death on February 18, 2005 in Seattle, Washington at the age of 92.
Related Material:
Also found at the Archives of American Art are an oral history interview with Jacob Lawrence conducted by Carroll Greene (1968 October 26), interviews conducted by Avis Berman (1982 July 20-August 4), and an oral history interview with Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight conducted by Paul Karlstrom (1998 November 18). The Archives of American Art also holds a collection of Jacob Lawrence papers, available on microfilm only, reels D286 and 4571-4573. Originals reside at Syracuse University Library, Special Collections.
Provenance:
The Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers were donated to the Archives of American Art in five accretions between 1979 and 1997. Additional papers were donated in 2012 by the Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation via Barbara Earl Thomas, representative.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters -- Washington (State) -- Seattle  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Educators -- Washington (State) -- Seattle  Search this
Topic:
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
African American artists  Search this
Women artists  Search this
African American art -- African influences  Search this
African American educators  Search this
African American painters  Search this
Women painters  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers, 1816, 1914-2008, bulk 1973-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.lawrjaco
See more items in:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw97b5bfd17-13f8-4cb6-ab12-22124f7d1fee
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-lawrjaco
Online Media:

Benjamin, Tritobia Hayes, "What is More Far Reaching Than Beauty?: From Academic Representation to Poetic Abstraction in the Art of Alma Woodsey Thomas"

Collection Creator:
Thomas, Alma  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 34
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1998
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate copies requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Alma Thomas papers, circa 1894-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Alma Thomas papers
Alma Thomas papers / Series 3: Notes and Writings / 3.3: By Others
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw970259d33-d961-4051-a92e-46af8239db8b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-thomalma-ref790
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Fitzpatrick, Sandra, Thesis, "The Path to Creativity: The Life and Career of Alma W. Thomas in Washington, D.C."

Collection Creator:
Thomas, Alma  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 35
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1981-1983
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate copies requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Alma Thomas papers, circa 1894-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Alma Thomas papers
Alma Thomas papers / Series 3: Notes and Writings / 3.3: By Others
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9a7d7b114-9ac9-400a-ae97-de57b2f519c5
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-thomalma-ref791
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  • View Fitzpatrick, Sandra, Thesis,

The Historical Records of the Barnett-Aden Gallery

Creator:
Barnett-Aden Gallery  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Corcoran Gallery of Art  Search this
Howard University  Search this
Howard University. Gallery of Art  Search this
Aden, Alonzo J., 1906-1963  Search this
Asher, Lila Oliver  Search this
Driskell, David C.  Search this
Ealey, Adolphus  Search this
Greene, Carroll  Search this
Herring, James V. (James Vernon)  Search this
Johnson, Robert L., 1946 April 8-  Search this
Lazzari, Pietro, 1898-1979  Search this
Long, Richard, 1945-  Search this
Porter, James A. (James Amos), 1905-1970  Search this
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 1884-1962  Search this
Spellman, Gladys Noon  Search this
Thomas, Alma  Search this
Wells, James Lesesne, 1902-1993  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Ephemera
Catalogues
Business records
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
South Carolina
Date:
1954-1989
bulk 1961-1977
Summary:
The Historical Records of the Barnett-Aden Gallery showcases one of the first galleries owned and operated by African Americans. The work of the Gallery was invaluable as they opened the exhibition space to established and unknown artists regardless of race or gender.
Scope and Contents:
The Historical Records of Barnett-Aden Gallery collection includes historical background materials on the gallery, its founders James V. Herring and Alonzo Aden as well as Adolphus Ealey, its steward after its closure in 1969. The materials include correspondence, business records, photographs, exhibition catalogues, and clippings.
Arrangement:
The materials in this collection have been kept at the folder level and separated into four series. The materials have been ordered and organized based on the content. Within each series and subseries, the folders are organized as close to the collection's original order as when it was acquired.
Historical Sketch:
The Barnett-Aden Gallery, suggested to be the first African American privately-owned gallery in the U.S, open its doors on October 16, 1943. The gallery was founded by artist and scholar James V. Herring alongside his protegee, curator Alonzo Aden. The gallery was housed in a private home that they shared, located on 127 Randolph Street NW in Washington, DC. These men aimed to create an art gallery that provided a venue for underrepresented artists of all races and genres. It was this partnership that laid the foundation for the shift in African American representation in modern art. Aden stated that the gallery's aims were to help foster new talent while also bringing "art of superior quality" to the community. Throughout its history, the gallery held almost 200 exhibitions and showcased the work of over 400 artists.

James Vernon Herring was born on January 7, 1887 in Clio, South Carolina to an African American mother, Alice Herring (1860-1942), and white father, William Culbreth. As a young man, he moved to Washington, DC for better educational opportunities. Herring was educated at the Howard Academy, a preparatory high school located at nearby Howard University campus. Herring received his undergraduate degree from Syracuse University and completed graduate studies at Columbia and Harvard Universities. Trained in art and classical studies with a focus on French impressionism, Herring was initially brought on Howard University's faculty as architecture instructor in 1920. This experience inspired Herring to create the Department of Art at the university where he convinced former home economics student and future prominent visual artist, Alma Thomas to be the art school's first graduate in 1924. Herring continued to mentor and discover young artists as was the case with Alonzo Aden.

Alonzo Aden was born on May 6, 1906 in Spartanburg, South Carolina to Naomi Barnett (1883-1956) and Ephraim Aden (1859-1917). His working-class parents wanting more for their eldest son, decided to send him to live with relatives in Washington, DC for greater educational opportunities. Aden did well academically and completed some studies at Hampton Institute (now Hampton University) before finally entering Howard University in 1927. The following year, Herring opened the Howard University Gallery of Art and installed Aden as its first curator. Aden initially pursued a career as an educator but became more interested in art history and after his graduation from Howard in 1933, he pursued studies in museum and curatorial work.

Recent scholarship has suggested that Herring and Aden were in a romantic as well as working relationship. Working together in the Howard Gallery of Art, they sought to provide a space for art students, local artists and other relatively unknown artists from around the world. Living together since 1929, Herring supported Aden's post-graduate pursuits including his studies of African arts and crafts in galleries across Europe as well as his curatorial work at the American Negro Exposition in Chicago in 1940. Aden returned to Washington to great acclaim and continued his work with Herring at the Howard Gallery of Art.

The Gallery was housed in a Victorian townhouse located in the then middle-class African American neighborhoods of LeDroit Park and Logan Circle (present-day Bloomingdale). Research notes that the house was purchased during the late 1920s by Herring with some assistance of artist Alma Thomas (or vice versa). Both were listed as owners of the property until 1933 when Aden was listed as the co-owner. In 1943, Aden resigned as head of the Howard Gallery for unknown reasons which led Herring and Aden to open a gallery in their home. The gallery was named after Aden's mother Naomi, who also served as an early benefactor of the gallery giving $1,000 in support. It was the support of various benefactors alongside Herring's salary as a Howard professor and Aden's several "government jobs" that kept the gallery afloat during its time in the home. The first floor of the gallery consisted entirely of exhibition space with the second-floor space interchanged between exhibition, study, and living spaces over the years. Herring's library, also located on the upper floors, was used for research by students and local scholars. Herring and Aden never saw the gallery as a truly profitable venture but instead wanted to offer avenues for the artists to showcase their work. As policy, each artist retained all money earned from sales but were required to donate at least one work of art to the Barnett-Aden collection.

The gallery, the first of its kind in Washington at the time, exhibited works of artists regardless of race; African American artists displayed alongside their more notable white peers. Notable artists featured in the gallery include Henri Matisse, Paul Cezanne, Pablo Picasso, Marc Chagall, and M.C. Escher were exhibited alongside notable African American artists Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Elizabeth Catlett, Charles White, Selma Burke as well as many others. Several Howard professors who went on to have notable art careers also exhibited their work at the gallery including James Porter, Lois Mailou Jones, and James Lesesne Wells. Many of the artists featured in the gallery were also greatly involved in the operations. Alma Thomas served gallery's vice president before she began exhibiting her work there in 1950s. Artist and scholar, David Driskell served as the associate director of the gallery after Aden's death.

The gallery held five to eight exhibitions every year including a special annual anniversary exhibition. In 1944, the gallery opened a show featuring Brazilian modern artist, Candido Portinari, who had previously completed a mural at the Library of Congress, that sparked great interest at the gallery. The exhibition opening brought in visitors from all over Washington including members of the president's cabinet, foreign ambassadors and First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt. This renewed interest created a somewhat hectic pace in keeping up with the work of the gallery. This pace coupled with the full-time jobs and other ventures including a gift shop enabled the gallery to act as a luminary of the African American and local arts community in Washington.

In 1961, while preparing for the annual anniversary exhibition, Alonzo Aden died suddenly. Herring with aid of his friends and students took on the management of the gallery after his partner's death but was unable to keep the pace of Aden's work and the attendance declined. In 1969, Herring died in the home leaving behind a formidable legacy. The home and its contents including the gallery's art collection was sold in order to settle the debts of Herring's estate. The collection was divided amongst three individuals. Artist and former Herring student, Adolphus Ealey inherited the bulk of the collection that featured 250 significant works. Herring's books, graphic drawings, and prints were given to Herring associate and friend, Dr. Felton J. Earls, while the sculptures went to art collectors and friends Dr. and Mrs. Cecil Marquez.

The portion of the collection owned by Ealey was described as the preeminent selection from the gallery's collection. The size and ongoing upkeep of the collection was significant which caused the collection to be moved several times over the years. The collection which out of necessity was originally stored in Ealey's Southwest Washington apartment then moved a to a house in LeDroit Park and then to another space in the Washington neighborhood of Fort Lincoln. Ealey collaborated with colleagues and institutions to have it exhibited in various locations but also bid to find the collection a permanent home. During the 1970s, the collection was featured at the Museum of Afro-American Culture and History in Philadelphia, the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum (now the Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum) and the Corcoran Gallery of Art.

Unable to find an institutional home for the collection, Ealey was forced to sell the collection in 1989 to the Florida Endowment Fund for Higher Education. Ealey stipulated that collection must remain intact but also that the new owners had to develop educational and outreach programs focused on African Americans in the arts. Failing to find consistent opportunities to exhibit the collection, the owners were forced to sell the collection. In 1998, Robert L. Johnson, then chairman and founder of the television channel, Black Entertainment Television (BET), purchased the collection. The collection went on a national tour then was displayed for some time at the BET headquarters in Washington. In 2015, Johnson donated selections from the gallery collection to the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture in an effort to preserve the legacy of the Barnett-Aden Gallery and the tireless work of James V. Herring and Alonzo Aden for generations to come.

Historical Timeline

1897 -- James Vernon Herring was born January 7 in Clio, South Carolina.

1906 -- Alonzo James Aden was born May 6 in Spartanburg, South Carolina.

1914-1916 -- While attending Syracuse University, Herring taught summer classes at Wilberforce University in Ohio for two summers.

1917 -- Herring graduated from Syracuse University with a Bachelors of Pedagogy in Art degree.

1917-1920 -- Herring served as YMCA secretary for the YMCA in Muscle Shoals, Alabama, and then Camp Lee, Virginia. Herring also held teaching positions at Straight College in New Orleans and Bennett College in North Carolina

1920 -- Alonzo was sent to Washington, D.C. to live with his uncle, James Aden, and his wife Laura.

1921 -- Herring was initially hired as architectural drawing instructor at Howard University and after negotiations established Department of Art later that same year.

1927 -- Herring organized an exhibition of Howard U. students' artwork that toured the Deep South U.S. Aden enrolled in Howard University in pursuit of an education degree.

1930 -- The Howard University Gallery of Art formally opened on April 7. Aden was hired as gallery assistant.

1933 -- Aden received his Bachelor of Arts in Education; Herring added Aden's name as co-owner of the 127 Randolph Place home.

1934-1939 -- Aden engaged in post-graduate study and museum curatorial work around the U.S. and Europe.

1940 -- Aden served as art curator for the American Negro Exposition (the "Negro's World Fair") in Chicago

1943 -- Aden resigned his position at the Howard University Gallery of Art for undisclosed reasons. The Barnett-Aden Gallery was founded by James V. Herring and Alonzo Aden. The first exhibition, "American Paintings for the Home" featured Elizabeth Catlett, Lois Mailou Jones, Malvin Gray Johnson, James Lesesne Wells, Jacob Lawrence, and many others.

1944 -- First anniversary exhibition featuring artist Candido Portinari, Brazilian artist who was already known in Washington from his mural for the Library of Congress. It was attended by the First Lady, Eleanor Roosevelt. Exhibition, "The Negro in Art" and "American Paintings for the Home" featuring Catlett, James A. Porter, Wells, Jones, Richmond Barthé, Hale Woodruff, Betsy Graves Reyneau and others.

1946 -- Exhibition, "Paintings by Lois Mailou Jones" and featured paintings of Jacob Lawrence for Third Anniversary exhibition.

1947 -- Fourth Anniversary Exhibition, "Recent Paintings by Charles White". Exhibition of Elizabeth Catlett, "Paintings, Sculpture, and Prints of The Negro Woman".

1948 -- Exhibition, "Paintings and Drawings by James A. Porter".

1949 -- Exhibition, "Sylvia Carewe".

1950 -- "Exhibition of Six Washington Artists" featuring Romare Bearden, Samuel Bookatz, Bernice Cross, Robert Gates, Norma Mazo, and James A. Porter. "Exhibition "Paintings and Prints by James Lesesne Wells."

1951 -- Exhibition, "Three Washington Artists" featuring Richard Dempsey, Sam Herman, and Jack Perlmutter Exhibition, "Herman Maril: Paintings in Retrospect, 1931-1951"

1953 -- Tenth Anniversary Exhibition, "Eighteen Washington Artists" featuring Sarah Baker, Samuel Bookatz, William Calfee, Bernice Cross, Robert Franklin Gates, Jacob Kainen, Marjorie Phillips, James Porter, and James Lesesne Wells.

1954 -- Exhibition "Six Washington Painters" featuring Theresa Abbott, Gabriel Cherin, Gloria Besser Green, Alma W. Thomas, and Anita Wertheim.

1955 -- Twelfth anniversary exhibition focused on "Jack Perlmutter".

1957 -- Exhibition, "David C. Driskell: Exhibition of Paintings"

1958 -- Exhibition "Norman Lewis: Paintings"

1959 -- Sixteenth Anniversary Exhibition of "Paintings by Pietro Lazzari, Helen Rennie, Alma Thomas, Andrea De Zerega". Exhibition of "Religious Paintings and Prints by James L. Wells and Sculpture by Selma Burke"

1962 -- Alonzo Aden died suddenly at the age of 56 on October 13 in Washington D.C. Herring solely inherits the Gallery collection.

1969 -- Herring dies at age 84 in Washington, DC. on May 29. Artist Adolphus Ealey inherits the bulk of the gallery collection along with Dr. Felton J. Earls and Dr. and Mrs. Cecil Marquez.

1974 -- Two exhibitions of the collection at the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum and the Corcoran Gallery of Art.

1989 -- Collection sold to Florida Endowment Fund for Higher Education.

1998 -- Robert Johnson, founder and former CEO of Black Entertainment Television (BET) purchased the entire collection and serves as administrators over the collection.
Provenance:
Acquired through a purchase by the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Access to collection materials requires an appointment.
Rights:
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.
Topic:
Photographs  Search this
Art  Search this
Business  Search this
LGBTQ+  Search this
Museums  Search this
African American artists  Search this
Painting, American  Search this
Galleries  Search this
Education  Search this
finance  Search this
Local and Regional  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Ephemera
Catalogues
Business records
Citation:
Historical Records of the Barnett-Aden Gallery, Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.A2014.63.32
See more items in:
The Historical Records of the Barnett-Aden Gallery
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/io3ab33c70c-0c97-4ae6-b532-0055f1a78617
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-a2014-63-32

Charles W. White papers

Creator:
White, Charles, 1918-1979  Search this
Names:
Belafonte Enterprises  Search this
Heritage Gallery  Search this
Otis Art Institute  Search this
Barthé, Richmond, 1901-1989  Search this
Catlett, Elizabeth, 1915-2012  Search this
White, Frances Barrett  Search this
Extent:
12.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks
Date:
1933-1987
bulk 1960s-1970s
Summary:
The papers of Los Angeles painter, printmaker, and educator, Charles W. White, measure 12.9 linear feet and date from 1933 to 1987, with the bulk of the material dating from the 1960s to the 1970s. The collection contains biographical material, including a sound recording of an interview with White; personal and professional correspondence; writings by White and others about his philosophy of art, his life, and career; professional files documenting White's participation in a variety of boards, committees, juries, symposiums, professional projects, and commissions; teaching files documenting White's tenure at Otis Art Institute; extensive printed material charting White's career from the 1930s until his death; scrapbooks primarily documenting his early career; and a small series of photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Los Angeles painter, printmaker, and educator, Charles W. White, measure 12.9 linear feet and date from 1933 to 1987, with the bulk of the material dating from the 1960s to the 1970s. The collection contains biographical material including a sound recording of an interview with White; personal and professional correspondence; writings by White and others about his philosophy of art, his life, and career; professional files documenting White's participation in a variety of boards, committees, juries, symposiums, professional projects, and commissions; teaching files documenting White's tenure at Otis Art Institute; extensive printed material charting White's career from the 1930s until his death; scrapbooks primarily documenting his early career; and a small series of photographs.

Biographical material includes documentation of awards received by White, biographical notes, resumes, White's high school report cards, interview transcripts and a sound recording of an interview, and records related to Elizabeth Catlett from the 1940s.

Correspondence includes scattered letters from family and friends but is primarily professional. White's correspondence was often conducted by Benjamin Horowitz and, occasionally, by Frances White, although some scattered original drafts of letters by White can also be found in this series. The series documents many aspects of White's career including: his relationship with Horowitz and Heritage Gallery as his representative; sales, loans, and exhibitions of White's artwork at many museums, galleries, and art institutions; the publication of his work in journals, magazines, and books, and it's use in the film and music industries; and his relationships with others in the arts and the entertainment industry including Richmond Barthé, Margaret Burroughs, Bing Davis, David Driskell, Lorraine Hansberry, and Harry Belafonte's company, Belafonte Enterprises.

Writings by White include two addresses made to the Annual Conference of Negro Artists, statements on his philosophy of art, and an autobiographical essay. Writings by others include drafts of Benjamin Horowitz's book Images of Dignity:The Drawings of Charles White.

White's professional activities are further documented through records related to the many boards, committees, and exhibition and art contest juries he served on, as well as lectures he delivered, and panels and symposiums he participated in. White's professional files also contain records relating to fellowships he received and document projects such as designs for books, films, and magazines.

White's teaching files primarily relate to Otis Art Institute and contain some records related directly to his work there as well as general faculty and board material. The records document, to some extent, White's role as spokesperson for the faculty and students during the transfer of the Otis charter to Parsons School of Design in 1979. Documentation of White's association with Howard University is minimal and includes letters related to his appointment and resignation in 1978-1979.

Gallery and exhibition files document specific solo and group exhibitions and include records on two visits White made to Germany in 1974 and 1978.

Printed material includes announcements, exhibition catalogs, articles in journals, magazines, and news clippings, and publications with artwork by White that provide extensive coverage of White's career from the 1930s to his death. Also found is printed material collected by White on other artists, and on subjects of interest to him.

Three disbound scrapbooks provide compilations of printed material and occasional letters further documenting White's career. A small series of photographs includes holiday card photos of White, Frances White, and their two children, and photos of White and others taken at a workshop in 1969.

Throughout the collection there are folders containing notes written by Frances White, circa 1980-1981, which provide important contextual information about people, organizations and subjects in the collection, and sometimes highlight the racism White encountered, particularly during his early career. The dates of these notes are not included in folder dates.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as nine series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1934-1979 (Box 1; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1937-1984 (Boxes 1-4, 13; 3.64 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, 1936-circa 1981 (Boxes 4-5; 0.45 linear feet)

Series 4: Professional Activities, circa 1942-1982 (Boxes 5-6, 13, OV 15; 1.81 linear feet)

Series 5: Teaching Files, 1950-1979 (Boxes 6, 13; 0.72 linear feet)

Series 6: Gallery and Exhibition Files, 1946-1980 (Box 7, Box 14; 0.98 linear feet)

Series 7: Printed Material, 1933-1987 (Boxes 8-14, OVs 15-17; 4.8 linear feet)

Series 8: Scrapbooks, 1936-1970s (Box 12; 0.15 linear feet)

Series 9: Photographic Material, 1940-1976 (Box 12; 0.15 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Painter, printmaker, and educator, Charles W. White (1918-1979), was a prominent figure in the Chicago Black Renaissance and became one of the most celebrated and influential African American artists of the twentieth century. Born and raised in Chicago, Illinois, White lived and worked in California beginning in 1956, and taught at the Otis Art Institute from 1965 until his death.

White began painting at a young age, earning first prize in a nationwide high school art contest. He studied at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, where he was awarded a full scholarship, from 1937-1938. After graduating from the school, White worked as a muralist for the Illinois Federal Arts Project sponsored by the Works Progress Administration from 1939 to 1940. He then received two fellowships from the Julius Rosenwald Foundation in 1942 and 1943 and created the mural The Contribution of the Negro to American Democracy at the Hampton Institute. From 1943-1945 he taught at the George Washington Carver School in New York City, and was artist-in-residence at Howard University in Washington, D.C., in 1945.

White's first marriage to Elizabeth Catlett ended in divorce and he married Frances Barrett in 1950. The couple relocated to Los Angeles where White was represented by Benjamin Horowitz's Heritage Gallery. White was widely exhibited in Los Angeles, and at the Art Institute of Chicago, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Newark Museum, the Santa Barbara Museum of Art, and elsewhere. Working primarily in black and white or sepia and white drawings, paintings, and lithographs, White's artwork was primarily figurative and depicted African American history, socio-economic struggles, and human relationships.

Charles White received a number of awards and honors and in 1972 he was the third African American artist to be elected a full member of the National Academy of Design.
Related Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds the Charles W. and Frances White letters and photographs to Melvin and Lorraine Williamson, the Lucinda H. Gedeon research material on Charles W. White, and an oral history interview with Charles W. White conducted by Betty Hoag, March 9, 1965.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds microfilm of loaned materials (reels LA7 and 3099). Reel LA7 includes photographs of White, his work, and a career resume. Reel 3099 contains 31 items consisting of three travel diaries kept by Frances White, photographs and a recording of their trip to Russia in 1950, and 11 record album covers designed by Charles White. Loaned materials were returned to the lenders after microfilming and are not described in the collection container inventory.

Charles White's "Black Experience Archive," originally received with the papers, was donated to Howard University's Moorland-Springarn Research Center in 1985 at the request of Frances White.
Provenance:
Photographs on reel LA7 and material on reel 3099 were lent to the Archives of American Art for microfilming in 1965 and 1982, by Benjamin Horowitz, White's dealer, and by Frances White. Material on reel 2041 was donated by the George Arents Research Library, Syracuse University, 1976, who had originally received it from Horowitz. The remainder of the papers were donated by Charles White, 1975-1978, and after his death by Frances White and Benjamin Horowitz, 1981-1989.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Researchers interested in accessing audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Printmakers -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Educators -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Topic:
African American artists  Search this
African American educators  Search this
African American painters  Search this
African American printmakers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Charles W. White papers, 1933-1987. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.whitchar
See more items in:
Charles W. White papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9280ca62a-d068-4695-872f-041df8333648
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-whitchar
Online Media:

Jacob Lawrence papers [microfilm]

Creator:
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Extent:
4 Microfilm reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Microfilm reels
Date:
1937-1992
Scope and Contents:
This microfilm collection documents the artistic and teaching career of African American painter Jacob Lawrence.

Included are biographical materials and awards; correspondence; writings and speeches by Lawrence, 1947-1962, and writings about Lawrence; photographs; scattered financial material, 1941-1957; and printed materials.

Correspondence dates from 1937-1971. Among the correspondents are: Ralph Abernathy, Charles Alston, Benny Andrews, Romare Bearden, Claude Clark, Hy Cohen, Mildred Cummings, Terry Dintenfass, Inc., David Driskell, Fritz Eichenberg, Philip Evergood, Creighton Gilbert, Edith Gregor Halpert (Downtown Gallery), Langston Hughes, Raymond Patterson, Pratt Institute, Margaret Rigg, Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, Moses and Raphael Soyer, and the United States Committee for the First World Festival of Negro Arts, Inc. Photographs include personal photographs, 1939-1966, and photographs of art work, 1941-1949. Printed material consists of reproductions of work, brochures and course catalogs, programs and calendars, exhibition announcements and catalogs, posters, articles, and clippings.
Biographical / Historical:
Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000) was an African American painter and educator in New York, New York and Seattle, Washington. Lawrence worked for the WPA's Federal Art Project and taught at Black Mountain College in North Carolina, Pratt Institute (1956-1971), Brandeis University (1965), The New School (1966), the Art Students League (1967), the University of Washington, and others. One of his most well-known works of art is the The Migration of the Negro (now known as The Migration Series), a 60-panel epic Lawrence created when he received a Rosenwald Fellowship in 1940.
Provenance:
Lent for microfilming by Syracuse University Library, Special Collections, 1992. Among the three reels are papers that Lawrence lent to the Archives of American Art for microfilming in 1966 which he subsequently donated to Syracuse.
Restrictions:
The Archives of American art does not own the original papers. Use is limited to the microfilm copy.
Rights:
Authorization to publish, quote or reproduce requires written permission from Curator, Syracuse University Library, Special Collections. Contact Reference Services for more information.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters -- Washington (State) -- Seattle  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Educators -- Washington (State) -- Seattle  Search this
Topic:
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
African American artists  Search this
African American educators  Search this
African American painters  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.lawrjaco2
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw990a2887b-999f-4460-b515-217f7377ae2c
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-lawrjaco2

Betty Blayton-Taylor papers

Creator:
Taylor, Betty Blayton, 1937-2016  Search this
Names:
Children's Art Carnival (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Harlem Textile Works (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Printmaking Workshop  Search this
Extent:
7.1 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Date:
1929-2016
bulk 1970s-2000s
Summary:
The papers of African American painter and art administrator Betty Blayton-Taylor measure 7.1 linear feet and date from 1929 to 2016, with the bulk of the material dating from the 1970s to the 2000s. The collection contains biographical material including resumes, awards, family papers, autograph books from her time in school, and mix tapes; correspondence with colleagues, friends, and other artists including Frank Wimberley, Howardina Pindell, and Eugene Grigsby; and writings including artist statements and notes. Also included are files related to the Children's Art Carnival, an arts education organization co-founded by Blayton-Taylor, for which she served as executive director for many years. These files include board and committee files, budget and financial documents, correspondence, and reports. Files related to the Harlem Textile Works, another organization co-founded by Blayton-Taylor, include board and committee files, correspondence, business plans, and reports. The collection also includes material related to professional activities including exhibition files, committee files, consignment and sale agreements, financial documents, and property files; printed material including exhibition announcements, catalogs and programs, newspaper clippings, published books, and recorded conference proceedings; a scrapbook containing primarily clippings, as well as some correspondence and other printed material; and photographic material including photographs, negatives, slides, and digital images.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of African American painter and art administrator Betty Blayton-Taylor measure 7.1 linear feet and date from 1929 to 2016, with the bulk of the material dating from the 1970s to the 2000s. The collection contains biographical material including resumes, awards, family papers, autograph books from her time in school, and mix tapes; correspondence with colleagues, friends, and other artists including Frank Wimberley, Howardina Pindell, and Eugene Grigsby; and writings including artist statements and notes. Also included are files related to the Children's Art Carnival, an arts education organization co-founded by Blayton-Taylor, for which she served as executive director for many years. These files include board and committee files, budget and financial documents, correspondence, and reports. Files related to the Harlem Textile Works, another organization co-founded by Blayton-Taylor, include board and committee files, correspondence, business plans, and reports. The collection also includes material related to professional activities including exhibition files, committee files, consignment and sale agreements, financial documents, and property files; printed material including exhibition announcements, catalogs and programs, newspaper clippings, published books, and recorded conference proceedings; a scrapbook containing primarily clippings, as well as some correspondence and other printed material; and photographic material including photographs, negatives, slides, and digital images.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as nine series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1929, 1937-1938, 1951-2014 (Box 1, OV 8; 0.6 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1952, 1968-2016 (Boxes 1-2, 0.7 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, 1978, circa 1990s-2000s (Box 2, 0.2 linear feet)

Series 4: Children's Art Carnival, 1968-2011 (Boxes 2-3, 1.1 linear feet)

Series 5: Harlem Textile Works, 1983-2012 (Box 3, 0.3 linear feet)

Series 6: Professional Activities, 1967-2013 (Boxes 3-4, 0.4 linear feet)

Series 7: Printed Material, 1967-2015 (Boxes 4-5, OV 8; 1.3 linear feet)

Series 8: Scrapbook, 1965-2009 (Box 5, 1 folder)

Series 9: Photographic Material, 1954-2000s (Boxes 5-7, OV 8; 2.5 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Betty Blayton-Taylor (1937-2016) was an African American artist and art administrator in New York, New York.

Born and raised in Virginia, Blayton-Taylor attended Palmer Memorial Institute, a private boarding school in North Carolina. She earned a bachelor's degree in fine art from Syracuse University and continued her studies at the Art Students League of New York and the Brooklyn Museum School.

Betty Blayton-Taylor was a founding member of the Studio Museum in Harlem and served on the board from 1965 to 1977. She co-founded the Children's Art Carnival, an organization designed to engage disadvantaged youth in the arts, and served as executive director from 1969 until 1998. Blayton-Taylor also co-founded and served on the board of Harlem Textile Works, which grew out of the Children's Art Carnival and offered fabric design workshops and other arts education. She also served on boards of other organizations, including the Robert Blackburn Printmaking Workshop and the Arts and Business Council in New York City, and worked as an arts education consultant.

In addition to her dedication to arts education organizations, Blayton-Taylor exhibited in both solo and group shows across the country. Her work is included in collections of institutions such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Museum of Modern Art, and the Studio Museum in Harlem. She died in 2016 in the Bronx, New York.
Related Materials:
The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York Public Library also holds the Children's Art Carnival Records, 1971-1995.
Provenance:
The Betty Blayton-Taylor papers were donated in 2018 by Oscar Blayton, Betty Blayton-Taylor's brother and executor.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.

Researchers interested in accessing born-digital records or audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Arts administrators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
African American artists  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Citation:
Betty Blayton-Taylor papers, 1929-2016. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.blaybett
See more items in:
Betty Blayton-Taylor papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9282dd626-e847-40e1-860c-9931bcfe6320
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-blaybett

Peggy Bacon papers, 1893-1973, bulk 1900-1936

Creator:
Bacon, Peggy, 1895-1987  Search this
Subject:
Lay, Charles Downing  Search this
Remsen, Ira  Search this
Schmidt, Katherine  Search this
Varian, Dorothy  Search this
Alder, Jules  Search this
Bacon, Charles Roswell  Search this
Brook, Alexander  Search this
Bunner, Rudolph Francis  Search this
Art Students League (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Kraushaar Galleries  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Drawings
Citation:
Peggy Bacon papers, 1893-1973, bulk 1900-1936. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women authors  Search this
Women printmakers  Search this
Theme:
Women  Search this
Lives of artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)5832
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)208672
AAA_collcode_bacopegg
Theme:
Women
Lives of artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_208672
Online Media:

Heinz Warneke papers, 1928-1987

Creator:
Warneke, Heinz (Heinrich), 1895-1983  Search this
Subject:
Archer, Edmund  Search this
Diederich, William Hunt  Search this
Hancock, Walker Kirtland  Search this
Hopper, Inslee  Search this
Zigrosser, Carl  Search this
Corcoran School of Art (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
United States. Work Projects Administration  Search this
Type:
Drawings
Sketchbooks
Citation:
Heinz Warneke papers, 1928-1987. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Sculpture -- Study and teaching  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Theme:
Sketches & Sketchbooks  Search this
Lives of artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6951
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209080
AAA_collcode_warnhein
Theme:
Sketches & Sketchbooks
Lives of artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209080

Victor Candell papers, 1903-1977

Creator:
Candell, Victor, 1903-1977  Search this
Subject:
Bunker, George  Search this
Cowles, Russell  Search this
Fried, Robert  Search this
Meredith, Helen  Search this
Osver, Arthur  Search this
Betsberg, Ernestine  Search this
Edward MacDowell Association  Search this
Provincetown Art Association  Search this
Provincetown Workshop  Search this
Citation:
Victor Candell papers, 1903-1977. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Theme:
Lives of artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7317
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209470
AAA_collcode_candvict
Theme:
Lives of artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209470

Andrew Dasburg and Grace Mott Johnson papers, 1833-1980, bulk 1900-1980

Creator:
Dasburg, Andrew Michael, 1887-1979  Search this
Johnson, Grace Mott, 1882-1967  Search this
Subject:
Cramer, Florence Ballin  Search this
Carlson, John F.  Search this
Hartley, Marsden  Search this
Frankl, Walter  Search this
Davidson, Jo  Search this
Davidson, Florence Lucius  Search this
Sterling, Lindsey  Search this
Wright, Alice Morgan  Search this
Kuhn, Vera  Search this
Lockwood, Ward  Search this
Howard, Lila  Search this
Johnson, Grace Mott  Search this
Riley, Mary G.  Search this
Simonson, Lee  Search this
Luhan, Mabel Dodge  Search this
McFee, Henry Lee  Search this
Type:
Poetry
Diaries
Sketchbooks
Photographs
Citation:
Andrew Dasburg and Grace Mott Johnson papers, 1833-1980, bulk 1900-1980. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Works of art  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State)  Search this
Theme:
Diaries  Search this
Sketches & Sketchbooks  Search this
Lives of artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7320
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209473
AAA_collcode_dasbandr
Theme:
Diaries
Sketches & Sketchbooks
Lives of artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209473
Online Media:

Henry Botkin papers, 1917-1979

Creator:
Botkin, Henry, 1896-1983  Search this
Subject:
Arlen, Harold  Search this
Botkin, Benjamin Albert  Search this
Brice, Fanny  Search this
Brice, William  Search this
Gershwin, George  Search this
Gershwin, Ira  Search this
Godowsky, Frances  Search this
Gross, Chaim  Search this
Hasegawa, Saburō  Search this
Hofmann, Hans  Search this
Knaths, Karl  Search this
Laurent, Toinette Botkin  Search this
Mocsanyi, Paul  Search this
Motherwell, Robert  Search this
Nevelson, Louise  Search this
Newman, Barnett  Search this
Picasso, Pablo  Search this
Putnam, Wallace  Search this
Schoenberg, Arnold  Search this
Siqueiros, David Alfaro  Search this
Shadbolt, Jack  Search this
Von Wicht, John  Search this
Rattner, Abraham  Search this
Robus, Hugo  Search this
American Abstract Artists  Search this
Artists Equity Association  Search this
Federation of Modern Painters and Sculptors  Search this
Gallery 256 (Provincetown, Mass.)  Search this
Type:
Drawings
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Henry Botkin papers, 1917-1979. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Art, Abstract  Search this
Theme:
Lives of artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7456
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209614
AAA_collcode_botkhenr
Theme:
Lives of artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209614

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