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Technology Review

Collection Creator:
Brooks, Arthur Raymond, 1895-1991  Search this
Container:
Box 10, Folder 17
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
November 1961
1961-05
1930-07
Scope and Contents:
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, vol. 32, no. 8, July 1930; vol. 63, no. 7, May 1961; and vol. 64, no. 1, November 1961.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Arthur Raymond Brooks Collection, NASM.1989.0104, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Arthur Raymond Brooks Collection
Arthur Raymond Brooks Collection / Series 1: Professional Materials / 1.8: Magazines
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1989-0104-ref314
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Single filament rewind

Names:
E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company  Search this
Collection Creator:
DuPont (E. I.) de Nemours & Company  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (8.4" x 10.5".)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
May or June 1948
Scope and Contents:
"Photograph taken at Parkersburg [West Virginia plant]. Level filament, mostly whie sold to fishing industry. F.E." writen on the back of photograph.
Local Numbers:
AC0007-0000001.tif (AC Scan)
Restrictions:
Photographs must be handled with gloves unless protected by sleeves. Unrestricted research use on site by appointment.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Nylon  Search this
Synthetic fibers industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Collection Citation:
DuPont Nylon Collection, 1939-1977, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
DuPont Nylon Collection
DuPont Nylon Collection / Series 1: Nylon Production / 1.5: Photographs / Photographs of nylon plastics machinery and DuPont's Washington Works, ca. 1940. Included is letter from donor, Frank Edlin, dated Feb. 3, 1977, explaining the photos.
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0007-ref584

H. Irving Crane Papers

Creator:
Crane, H. Irving  Search this
Extent:
5.5 Cubic feet (12 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1927-1950
bulk 1935-1945
Summary:
H. Irving Crane worked as a chemist for Atlantic Research Associates, Inc. (a division of National Dairy Corporation) from 1933-1940s on the production of several products utilizing casein, a protein found in milk. These products include Aralac (a synthetic fiber), Aracide (a fungicide and moth repellent), spray-dried milk, casein paints, and synthetic rubbers. The H. Irving Crane papers document Crane's work as a chemist at Atlantic Research Associates, Inc. and the development of Aralac and Aracide.
Scope and Contents:
The H. Irving Crane papers illuminate the development of casein products in the 1930s-1940s, particularly a fiber and fungicide. The collection is divided into two series:

Series 1, Atlantic Research Associates, Inc., 1927-1950, consists of material relating to Crane's research and experiments while a chemist at ARA. This series is divided into eight subseries:

Subseries 1, Aralac, 1938-1945, illuminates the development, testing, production, and uses of the casein fiber Aralac. Correspondence, memoranda, notes, and reports document the challenges associated with the initial production, dyeing, and adding of chemical washes to Aralac and the use of Aralac in manufacturing of cloth goods. Correspondence between ARA and customers documents the use of Aralac in carpet, military socks, lace, knitting yarn, and hats. Associated fiber samples from the dyeing process and material relating to the treatment of Aralac with Aracide are also included.

Subseries 2, Aracide, 1935-1945, consists of correspondence, memoranda, notes, and reports relating to the anti-fungal agent. Another ARA employee, Laura Adams, produced several reports on Aracide. Correspondence reflects its testing for use in carpets and an attempt to obtain a patent for the fungicide.

Subseries 3, Other products, 1937-1945, contains materials relating to all the products that Crane worked on, including a spray drying process for milk dehydration and casein paints. There is a small amount of documentation of Aralac and Aracide within this subseries.

Subseries 4, Laboratory notebooks, 1937-1945, documents Crane's daily activities on the projects he worked on. Arranged chronologically, test results, notes, graphs, and experimental procedures are recorded within these notebooks. There are significant gaps in the date range listed above.

Subseries 5, Correspondence, memoranda, and reports, 1937-1948, records activities and communication within ARA. Documents written by Crane relate to his work, but many other reports document projects that Crane was not directly involved with. Two letters from F. C. Atwood, the president of ARA, illuminate occurrences within ARA: the potential drafting of Crane into military service for World War II and the reorganization of the company into NARC.

Subseries 6, Reference materials, 1936-1948, is comprised of scientific resources that Crane utilized and created. He reviewed scientific literature, indexed and summarized chemical abstracts, and compiled bibliographies related to the fields of fiber production, casein usage, and anti-fungal agents.

Subseries 7, Photographs, 1937-1941, illustrates ARA company gatherings, staff, and facilities.

Subseries 8, Printed material, 1927-1950, contains advertisements, catalogs, pamphlets, and brochures for assorted chemicals and laboratory equipment that were available to industrial chemists at the time. ARA-produced products represented include Aralac and the paints Aratone, Aralux, and Casein Deep Colors. Additional periodicals and newsletters received by Crane are also included.

Series 2, Biographical Material, 1936-1947, documents Crane's educational background, insurance needs, banking, and time spent at work.

Fiber samples and oversize material have been separated from the collection for preservation concerns. Items separated are identified by folder.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Atlantic Research Associates, Inc., 1927-1950, undated

Subseries 1, Aralac, 1938-1945, undated

Subseries 2, Aracide, 1935-1945, undated

Subseries 3, Other products, 1937-1945, undated

Subseries 4, Laboratory notebooks, 1937-1945, undated

Subseries 5, Correspondence, memoranda, and reports, 1937-1948, undated

Subseries 6, Reference materials, 1936-1948, undated

Subseries 7, Photographs, 1937-1941, undated

Subseries 8, Printed materials, 1927-1950, undated

Series 2: Biographical Material, 1936-1947, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Horace Irving Crane (1912-1984) was born on May 12, 1912. In 1929, he enrolled at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) where he earned an undergraduate degree in Chemistry in 1933 and a Ph.D. in Chemistry in 1936.

In 1933, Crane began working at Atlantic Research Associates, Inc. (ARA) in Newtonville, Massachusetts as a chemist. ARA was a division of National Dairy Products Corporation, which was later absorbed by Kraft Foods. ARA specialized in the development of products from casein, a protein found in milk. ARA had manufactured casein-based paints since 1927 and continued to produce other casein products such as glues, plastics, films, and paper coatings. Most of these products were given a name beginning with the prefix "Ara-" taken from the company's name.

Crane and other chemists at ARA began research into the production of a casein fiber in 1937. Aralac was first manufactured at a plant in Bristol, Rhode Island. Patents were granted to the president of ARA, Francis Clarke Atwood, for Aralac ("Method of Making Proteinaceous Fibers" US Patent #2,342,994 and "Method of Treating Fibrous Material and Product Resulting Therefrom" US Patent #2,342,634). In 1941, production moved to a larger plant in Taftville, Connecticut. The production of the fiber was as follows:

First the pH value of the milk was lowered using acid. The protein reached its minimum solubility, and with swelling was precipitated out of the milk as curd. This curd was the raw material for the production of Aralac. The casein (curd) was collected in small creameries as well as large ones. One hundred pounds of milk produced 3.7 pounds of casein, which in turn produced 3.7 pounds of fiber. After the casein arrived at the plant, it was carefully blended with casein from other producers and dissolved in water with proper solvents. Adjustments were made to the viscosity in order to produce a uniform base and ensure the complete removal of foreign materials. The solution became syrup-like and was forced through a spinnerette into a coagulating bath and was carried away. It remained in tow form through a succession of hardening and molecular modifying treatments interspersed at times with washing and drying.

Aralac is in the Azlon class of fibers. Fibers in this class are made from regenerated, naturally-occurring proteins such as milk, corn, soybeans, and peanuts. It was hoped that Aralac would be considered a luxury fiber in direct competition with the best grades of wool. It was introduced just as the United States entered World War II; during the war, Aralac was blended with rayon and acetate for use in civilian dress fabric and in felted hats. It was tested for use in carpet, military socks, lace, and knitting yarn, but was not satisfactory. Due to its low strength and the difficulty in dyeing it, Aralac had a short life. Production of the fiber ended in 1948.

Crane also worked on Aracide, a moth and mildew repellant. Aracide was initially developed as a fungicide for casein paints in 1937, but was also used to prevent moths from infesting Aralac. ARA attempted to obtain a patent for Aracide, but was rejected due to similarities with another patented fungicide.

In addition to Aralac and Aracide, Crane worked on a spray drier to evaporate milk and other assorted ARA projects. In 1945, ARA was reorganized and consolidated into a larger company, National Atlantic Research Corporation.

Following his departure from ARA, Crane worked at Sylvania Electric Products, Clevite Transistor, Computer Controls Corporation, and Honeywell. In 1957, Crane received a patent for methods of treating Germanium in relation to semiconductors (US Patent #2,793,146) while at Sylvania Electric Products.

Crane married his ARA lab technician, Laura Soule, and they raised their children in Massachusetts. He retired in 1977 and died in Vermont on April 7, 1984.
Related Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

The Division of Home and Community Life holds artifacts including a suit made from Aralac (Accession #2006.0096A).
Separated Materials:
Material separated for preservation reasons:

Box 9, Folder 1, Casein fiber --dyeing, undated

Box 9, Folder 2, Aratex, Inc. --Bristol, Rhode Island plant, 1940, undated

Box 9, Folder 3, Aratex, Inc. --Bristol, Rhode Island plant and Aralac --customer contacts, 1941, undated

Box 9, Folder 4, Crane --Memoranda, reports, etc. and Reports --from H. I. Crane & others, 1940, undated

Box 9, Folder 5-6, Reports --from H. I. Crane and others, 1940-1941

Box 10, Folder 1, Oversize papers, 1944

Box 10, Folder 2-4, Reports --from H. I. Crane and others, 1941 and undated

Box 10, Folder 5, [Dyed fiber samples], undated

Box 11, Folder 1-4 , [Dyed fiber samples], undated

Box 12, Folder 1, [Loose fibers that detached from dyed fiber samples], undated

Box 12, Folder 2, [Aralac/rayon blend fabric samples], undated

Box 12, Folder 3-5, [Dyed fiber samples], undated
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Irving Crane's son, Andrew Crane, in 2007.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Chemists  Search this
Chemistry  Search this
Chemical abstracts -- Outlines, syllabi, etc.  Search this
Casein  Search this
Wool, Artificial  Search this
Textile fibers, Synthetic  Search this
Textile fibers, Synthetic -- Equipment and supplies  Search this
Textile fibers, Synthetic -- Laboratory manuals  Search this
Textile fibers, Synthetic -- Testing  Search this
Fungicides -- Testing  Search this
Spray drying  Search this
Synthetic fabrics  Search this
Synthetic fibers industry  Search this
Textile fibers, Synthetic Dyeing  Search this
Citation:
H. Irving Crane Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1119
See more items in:
H. Irving Crane Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1119
Online Media:

Shingosen : past, present, and future : a critical appreciation of recent developments / by M. Okamoto and K. Kajiwara ; edited by P.W. Harrison

Author:
Okamoto, M  Search this
Physical description:
51 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1997
C1997
Topic:
Polyester fibers  Search this
Synthetic fibers industry  Search this
Call number:
TS1548.7.P58 O43 1997
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_588261

[Trade catalogs on synthetic fibers and yarns, synthetic resins, Vinyon]

Author:
Wellington Sears Company  Search this
Smithsonian Libraries American History Trade Literature Collection DSI  Search this
Physical description:
<3> v. : ill. (some col.)
Type:
Catalogs
Trade catalogs
Place:
New York (State)
New York
Date:
1940
1940-
Topic:
Synthetic fibers industry--Catalogs  Search this
Textile fibers, Synthetic  Search this
Fibers  Search this
Gums and resins, Synthetic  Search this
Synthetic gums and resins industry--Catalogs  Search this
Vinyon (Brand name)  Search this
Call number:
46362
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_430247

Skinner's record of the man-made fibres industry

Title:
Skinner's record
Physical description:
6 v. : ill. ; 29 cm
Type:
Periodicals
Date:
1962
1967
C1962-c1967
Topic:
Silk industry--Periodicals  Search this
Rayon industry and trade--Periodicals  Search this
Synthetic fibers industry--Periodicals  Search this
Synthetic fabrics--Periodicals  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_499493

Skinner's silk & rayon record

Title:
Skinner's silk and rayon record
Silk & rayon record
Skinner's record
Physical description:
13 v. : ill. ; 29 cm
Type:
Periodicals
Date:
1950
1962
1950-1962
Topic:
Silk industry--Periodicals  Search this
Rayon industry and trade--Periodicals  Search this
Synthetic fibers industry--Periodicals  Search this
Synthetic fabrics--Periodicals  Search this
Call number:
TS1640 .S75X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_499494

The nonwovens handbook / INDA, Association of the Nonwoven Fabrics Industry

Author:
Lichstein, Bernard M  Search this
Association of the Nonwoven Fabrics Industry  Search this
Physical description:
105 p. : ill. ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1988
Topic:
Nonwoven fabrics--Handbooks, manuals, etc  Search this
Nonwoven fabrics industry--Handbooks, manuals, etc  Search this
Synthetic fibers industry--Handbooks, manuals, etc  Search this
Call number:
TS1828 .N814 1988
TS1828.N814 1988
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_372763

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